Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 434
434 Optimal Supplementary Damping Controller Design for TCSC Employing RCGA

Authors: S. Panda, S. C. Swain, A. K. Baliarsingh, C. Ardil

Abstract:

Optimal supplementary damping controller design for Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC) is presented in this paper. For the proposed controller design, a multi-objective fitness function consisting of both damping factors and real part of system electromachanical eigenvalue is used and Real- Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA) is employed for the optimal supplementary controller parameters. The performance of the designed supplementary TCSC-based damping controller is tested on a weakly connected power system with different disturbances and loading conditions with parameter variations. Simulation results are presented and compared with a conventional power system stabilizer and also with the TCSC-based supplementary controller when the controller parameters are not optimized to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach over a wide range of loading conditions and disturbances.

Keywords: Power System Oscillations, Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA), Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC), Damping Controller, Power System Stabilizer.

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433 Multiple-Points Fault Signature's Dynamics Modeling for Bearing Defect Frequencies

Authors: Muhammad F. Yaqub, Iqbal Gondal, Joarder Kamruzzaman

Abstract:

Occurrence of a multiple-points fault in machine operations could result in exhibiting complex fault signatures, which could result in lowering fault diagnosis accuracy. In this study, a multiple-points defect model (MPDM) is proposed which can simulate fault signature-s dynamics for n-points bearing faults. Furthermore, this study identifies that in case of multiple-points fault in the rotary machine, the location of the dominant component of defect frequency shifts depending upon the relative location of the fault points which could mislead the fault diagnostic model to inaccurate detections. Analytical and experimental results are presented to characterize and validate the variation in the dominant component of defect frequency. Based on envelop detection analysis, a modification is recommended in the existing fault diagnostic models to consider the multiples of defect frequency rather than only considering the frequency spectrum at the defect frequency in order to incorporate the impact of multiple points fault.

Keywords: Envelop detection, machine defect frequency, multiple faults, machine health monitoring.

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432 Effect of Inlet Valve Variable Timing in the Spark Ignition Engine on Achieving Greener Transport

Authors: Osama H. Ghazal, Yousef S. Najjar, Kutaeba J. AL-Khishali

Abstract:

The current emission legislations and the large concern about the environment produced very numerous constraints on both governments and car manufacturers. Also the cost of energy increase means a reduction in fuel consumption must be met, without largely affecting the current engine production and performance. It is the intension to contribute towards the development and pursuing, among others on variable valve timing (VVT), for improving the engine performance. The investigation of the effect of (IVO) and (IVC) to optimize engine torque and volumetric efficiency for different engine speeds was considered. Power, BMEP and BSFC were calculated and presented to show the effect of varying inlet valve timing on them for all cases. A special program used to carry out the calculations. The analysis of the results shows that the reduction of 10% of (IVO) angle gave an improvement of around 1.3% in torque, BSFC, and volumetric efficiency, while a 10% decrease in (IVC) caused a 0.1% reduction in power, torque, and volumetric efficiency.

 

Keywords: Green transportation, inlet valve variable timing, performance, spark ignition engines.

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431 An Effective Traffic Control for both Real-time Bursts and Reliable Bursts in OBS Networks

Authors: Yuki Kondo, Takanori Nagano, Yuki Takeda, Young-Bok Choi, Hiromi Okada

Abstract:

Optical burst switching(OBS) is considered as one of preferable network technologies for the next generation Internet. The Internet has two traffic classes, i.e. real-time bursts and reliable bursts. It is an important subject for OBS to achieve cooperated operation of real-time bursts and reliable bursts. In this paper, we proposes a new effective traffic control method named Separate TB+LB (Token Bucket + Leaky Bucket : TB+LB) method. The proposed method presents a new Token Bucket scheme for real-time bursts called as RBO-TB (Real-time Bursts Oriented Token Bucket). The method also applies the LB method to reliable bursts for obtaining better performance. This paper verifies the effectiveness of the Separate TB+LB method through the performance evaluation.

Keywords: leaky bucket, OBS, traffic control, token bucket.

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430 CNet Module Design of IMCS

Authors: Youkyung Park, SeungYup Kang, SungHo Kim, SimKyun Yook

Abstract:

IMCS is Integrated Monitoring and Control System for thermal power plant. This system consists of mainly two parts; controllers and OIS (Operator Interface System). These two parts are connected by Ethernet-based communication. The controller side of communication is managed by CNet module and OIS side is managed by data server of OIS. CNet module sends the data of controller to data server and receives commend data from data server. To minimizes or balance the load of data server, this module buffers data created by controller at every cycle and send buffered data to data server on request of data server. For multiple data server, this module manages the connection line with each data server and response for each request from multiple data server. CNet module is included in each controller of redundant system. When controller fail-over happens on redundant system, this module can provide data of controller to data sever without loss. This paper presents three main features – separation of get task, usage of ring buffer and monitoring communication status –of CNet module to carry out these functions.

Keywords: Ethernet communication, DCS, power plant, ring buffer, data integrity

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429 High Precision Draw Bending of Asymmetric Channel Section with Restriction Dies and Axial Tension

Authors: Y. Okude, S. Sakaki, S. Yoshihara, B. J. MacDonald

Abstract:

In recent years asymmetric cross section aluminum alloy stock has been finding increasing use in various industrial manufacturing areas such as general structures and automotive components. In these areas, components are generally required to have complex curved configuration and, as such, a bending process is required during manufacture. Undesirable deformation in bending processes such as flattening or wrinkling can easily occur when thin-walled sections are bent. Hence, a thorough understanding of the bending behavior of such sections is needed to prevent these undesirable deformations. In this study, the bending behavior of asymmetric channel section was examined using finite element analysis (FEA). Typical methods of preventing undesirable deformation, such as asymmetric laminated elastic mandrels were included in FEA model of draw bending. Additionally, axial tension was applied to prevent wrinkling. By utilizing the FE simulations effect of restriction dies and axial tension on undesirable deformation during the process was clarified.

Keywords: bending, draw bending, asymmetric channel section, restriction dies, axial tension, FEA

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428 Precipitation Change and its Implication in the Change of Winter Wheat drought and Production in North China Region from 2000 to 2010

Authors: Y. Huang, Q. J. Tian, L. T. Du, J. Liu, S. S. Li

Abstract:

Understanding how precipitation inter-annually changes and its implication in agricultural drought and production change in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth season is critical for crop production in China. MODIS Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) and daily mean precipitation time series for the main growth season(Feb. to May) of winter wheat from 2000 to 2010 were used to analyze the distribution of trends of precipitation, agricultural drought and winter wheat yield change respectively, and relationships between them in North China region(Huang-huai-hai region, HHH region), China. The results indicated that the trend of precipitation in HHH region past 11 years was increasing, which had induced generally corresponding decreasing trend of agricultural drought and increasing trend of wheat yield, while the trend of drought was spatially diverse. The study could provide a basis for agricultural drought research during winter wheat season in HHH region under the ground of climate change.

Keywords: drought, MODIS, precipitation change, TVDI, winter wheat production

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427 Simulation Study on the Thin-walled Tube Structure of a Vehicle Simulator Crash Testing Equipment

Authors: Xu Zhang, Qi Jiang, Liwei Li, Weiwei Cui, Jijun Cui, Yang Cao, Hairong Zhao

Abstract:

A kind of crash energy absorption structure adopted by vehicle simulator crash testing equipment based on mechanical energy storage was studied. Dynamic explicit finite element simulation was achieved for thin-walled tube structure under different conditions of section shape, thickness and inducement groove style. Crash energy absorption property of the structure was obtained. After optimization, a reasonable structure was given which can meet current vehicle crash regulation. And the optimized structure can be adopted in vehicle simulator, which can increase the practicability of the testing equipment.

Keywords: thin-walled tube structure, crash energy absorption, deceleration, finite element simulation

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426 Hybrid Feature and Adaptive Particle Filter for Robust Object Tracking

Authors: Xinyue Zhao, Yutaka Satoh, Hidenori Takauji, Shun'ichi Kaneko

Abstract:

A hybrid feature based adaptive particle filter algorithm is presented for object tracking in real scenarios with static camera. The hybrid feature is combined by two effective features: the Grayscale Arranging Pairs (GAP) feature and the color histogram feature. The GAP feature has high discriminative ability even under conditions of severe illumination variation and dynamic background elements, while the color histogram feature has high reliability to identify the detected objects. The combination of two features covers the shortage of single feature. Furthermore, we adopt an updating target model so that some external problems such as visual angles can be overcame well. An automatic initialization algorithm is introduced which provides precise initial positions of objects. The experimental results show the good performance of the proposed method.

Keywords: Hybrid feature, adaptive Particle Filter, robust Object Tracking, Grayscale Arranging Pairs (GAP) feature.

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425 The Relationship between Manufacturing System Performance and Green Practices in Supply Chain Management

Authors: Wan Hasrulnizzam Wan Mahmood, Mohd Nizam Ab Rahman, Baba Md Deros

Abstract:

Green supply chain management is an increasingly recognized practice among companies that are seeking to improve environmental performance. Of particular concern is how to arouse organizational awareness and put green activities into practice in order to enhance manufacturing performances. This paper investigates the correlation of green supply chain practices and manufacturing performances in Malaysian certified MS ISO 14000 manufacturing firms. The findings shows that green supply chain practices which that can be denominated product recycling, environmental compliance and optimization have significant influence to some of the manufacturing performances.

Keywords: Green supply chain practice, Manufacturing system performance, Malaysia

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424 An Approach to Improvement of Information Integrity in Key Areas of Portfolio Management

Authors: Victoria A. Bakhtina

Abstract:

At a time of growing market turbulence and a strong shifts towards increasingly complex risk models and more stringent audit requirements, it is more critical than ever to maintain the highest quality of financial and credit information. IFC implemented an approach that helps increase data integrity and quality significantly. This approach is called “Screening". Screening is based on linking information from different sources to identify potential inconsistencies in key financial and credit data. That, in turn, can help to ease the trials of portfolio supervision, and improve overall company global reporting and assessment systems. IFC experience showed that when used regularly, Screening led to improved information.

Keywords: Information Integrity, Information Quality, Business Rules, Portfolio Management

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423 Nanosize Structure Phase States in the Titanium Surface Layers after Electroexplosive Carburizing and Subsequent Electron Beam Treatment

Authors: Victor E. Gromov, Evgenii A. Budovskikh, Ludmila P. Bashchenko, Yurii F. Ivanov, Anna V. Ionina, Nina A. Soskova, Guoyi Tang

Abstract:

The peculiarities of the nanoscale structure-phase states formed after electroexplosive carburizing and subsequent electron-beam treatment of technically pure titanium surface in different regimes are established by methods of transmission electron diffraction microscopy and physical mechanisms are discussed. Electroexplosive carburizing leads to surface layer formation (40 m thickness) with increased (in 3.5 times) microhardness. It consists of β-titanium, graphite (monocrystals 100-150 nm, polycrystals 5-10 nm, amorphous particles 3-5nm), TiC (5-10 nm), β-Ti02 (2-20nm). After electron-beam treatment additionally increasing the microhardness the surface layer consists of TiC.

Keywords: nanoscale, phase, structure, titanium

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422 Comparison of Alternative Models to Predict Lean Meat Percentage of Lamb Carcasses

Authors: Vasco A. P. Cadavez, Fernando C. Monteiro

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to develop and compare alternative prediction equations of lean meat proportion (LMP) of lamb carcasses. Forty (40) male lambs, 22 of Churra Galega Bragançana Portuguese local breed and 18 of Suffolk breed were used. Lambs were slaughtered, and carcasses weighed approximately 30 min later in order to obtain hot carcass weight (HCW). After cooling at 4º C for 24-h a set of seventeen carcass measurements was recorded. The left side of carcasses was dissected into muscle, subcutaneous fat, inter-muscular fat, bone, and remainder (major blood vessels, ligaments, tendons, and thick connective tissue sheets associated with muscles), and the LMP was evaluated as the dissected muscle percentage. Prediction equations of LMP were developed, and fitting quality was evaluated through the coefficient of determination of estimation (R2 e) and standard error of estimate (SEE). Models validation was performed by k-fold crossvalidation and the coefficient of determination of prediction (R2 p) and standard error of prediction (SEP) were computed. The BT2 measurement was the best single predictor and accounted for 37.8% of the LMP variation with a SEP of 2.30%. The prediction of LMP of lamb carcasses can be based simple models, using as predictors the HCW and one fat thickness measurement.

Keywords: Bootstrap, Carcass, Lambs, Lean meat

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421 The Reconstruction New Agegraphic and Gauss- Bonnet Dark Energy Models with a Special Power Law Expasion

Authors: V. Fayaz , F. Felegary

Abstract:

Here, in this work we study correspondence the energy density New agegraphic and the energy density Gauss- Bonnet models in flat universe. We reconstruct Λ  and Λ ω for them with 0 ( ) 0 h a t = a t .

Keywords: dark energy, new age graphic, gauss- bonnet, late time universe

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420 Differentiation of Cancerous Prostate tissue from Non-Cancerous Prostate tissue by using Elastic Light Single-Scattering Spectroscopy: A Feasibility Study

Authors: T. Denkçeken, M. Canpolat, Đ. Bassorgun, S. Yücel, M.A. Çiftçioğlu, M. Baykara Murat Canpolat , Tuba Denkçeken , Đbrahim Bassorgun , Selçuk Yücel , M. Akif Çiftçioğlu , Mehmet Baykara

Abstract:

Elastic light single-scattering spectroscopy system with a single optical fiber probe was employed to differentiate cancerous prostate tissue from non-cancerous prostate tissue ex-vivo just after radical prostatectomy. First, ELSSS spectra were acquired from cancerous prostate tissue to define its spectral features. Then, spectra were acquired from normal prostate tissue to define difference in spectral features between the cancerous and normal prostate tissues. Of the total 66 tissue samples were evaluated from nine patients by ELSSS system. Comparing of histopathology results and ELSSS measurements revealed that sign of the spectral slopes of cancerous prostate tissue is negative and non-cancerous tissue is positive in the wavelength range from 450 to 750 nm. Based on the correlation between histopathology results and sign of the spectral slopes, ELSSS system differentiates cancerous prostate tissue from non- cancerous with a sensitivity of 0.95 and a specificity of 0.94.

Keywords: Diagnosis, prostatic neoplasm, prostatectomy, spectrum analysis

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419 Ovshinsky Effect by Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Thomas V. Prevenslik

Abstract:

Ovshinsky initiated scientific research in the field of amorphous and disordered materials that continues to this day. The Ovshinsky Effect where the resistance of thin GST films is significantly reduced upon the application of low voltage is of fundamental importance in phase-change - random access memory (PC-RAM) devices.GST stands for GdSbTe chalcogenide type glasses.However, the Ovshinsky Effect is not without controversy. Ovshinsky thought the resistance of GST films is reduced by the redistribution of charge carriers; whereas, others at that time including many PC-RAM researchers today argue that the GST resistance changes because the GST amorphous state is transformed to the crystalline state by melting, the heat supplied by external heaters. In this controversy, quantum mechanics (QM) asserts the heat capacity of GST films vanishes, and therefore melting cannot occur as the heat supplied cannot be conserved by an increase in GST film temperature.By precluding melting, QM re-opens the controversy between the melting and charge carrier mechanisms. Supporting analysis is presented to show that instead of increasing GST film temperature, conservation proceeds by the QED induced creation of photons within the GST film, the QED photons confined by TIR. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics and TIR for total internal reflection. The TIR confinement of QED photons is enhanced by the fact the absorbedheat energy absorbed in the GST film is concentrated in the TIR mode because of their high surface to volume ratio. The QED photons having Planck energy beyond the ultraviolet produce excitons by the photoelectric effect, the electrons and holes of which reduce the GST film resistance.

Keywords: Ovshinsky, phase change memory, PC-RAM, chalcogenide, quantummechanics, quantum electrodynamics.

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418 Springback Property and Texture Distribution of Grained Pure Copper

Authors: Takashi Sakai, Hitoshi Omata, Jun-Ichi Koyama

Abstract:

To improve the material characteristics of single- and poly-crystals of pure copper, the respective relationships between crystallographic orientations and microstructures, and the bending and mechanical properties were examined. And texture distribution is also analyzed. A grain refinement procedure was performed to obtain a grained structure. Furthermore, some analytical results related to crystal direction maps, inverse pole figures, and textures were obtained from SEM-EBSD analyses. Results showed that these grained metallic materials have peculiar springback characteristics with various bending angles.

Keywords: Pure Copper, Grain Refinement, Environmental Materials, SEM-EBSD Analysis, Texture, Microstructure

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417 Laser Beam Forming of 3 mm Steel Plate and the Evolving Properties

Authors: Stephen Akinlabi, Mukul Shukla, Esther Akinlabi, Marwala Tshilidzi

Abstract:

This paper reports the evolving properties of a 3 mm low carbon steel plate after Laser Beam Forming achieve this objective, the chemical analyse material and the formed components were carried thereafter both were characterized through microhardness profiling microstructural evaluation and tensile testing. showed an increase in the elemental concentration of the component when compared to the as received attributed to the enhancement property of the LBF process Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) and the Vickers the formed component shows an increase when compared to the as received material, this was attributed to strain hardening and grain refinement brought about by the LBF process. The microstructure of the as received steel consists of equiaxed ferrit that of the formed component exhibits elongated orming process (LBF). To es of the as received out and compared; profiling, The chemical analyses formed material; this can be process. The microhardness of ferrite and pearlite while grains.

Keywords: Laser beam forming, deformation , deformation, elongated grains

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416 Into the Bank Lending Channel of SEE: Greek Banks- Buffering Effects

Authors: Stefanos V. Fotopoulos, Harry V. Papapanagos, Fotios M. Siokis

Abstract:

This paper tries to shed light on the existence of a bank lending channel (BLC) in South Eastern European countries (SEE). Based on a VAR framework we test the responsiveness of credit supply to monetary policy shocks. By compiling a new data set and using the reserve requirement ratio, among others, as the policy instrument we measure the effectiveness of the BLC and the buffering effect of the banks in the SEE countries. The results indicate that loan supply is significantly affected by shifts in monetary policy, when demand factors are controlled. Furthermore, by analyzing the effect of the Greek banks in the region we conclude that Greek banks do buffer the negative effects of monetary policy transmission. By having a significant market share of the SEE-s banking markets we argue that Greek banks influence positively the economic growth of SEE countries.

Keywords: Bank Lending Channel, Monetary Policy Transmission, Policy Buffering, South Eastern Europe

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415 Two Different Solutions for Gigabit Ethernet Transmission over POF

Authors: Stefano Straullu, Silvio Abrate, Antonino Nespola, Paolo Savio, Roberto Gaudino

Abstract:

Two completely different approaches for a Gigabit Ethernet compliant stream transmission over 50m of 1mm PMMA SI-POF have been experimentally demonstrated and are compared in this paper. The first solution is based on a commercial RC-LED transmission and a careful optimization of the physical layer architecture, realized during the POF-PLUS EU Project. The second solution exploits the performance of an edge-emitting laser at the transmitter side in order to avoid any sort of electrical equalization at the receiver side.

Keywords: Gigabit Ethernet, Home Networking, Step-Index Polymer Optical Fiber (SI-POF)

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414 Technical Trading Rules in Emerging Stock Markets

Authors: Stefaan Pauwels, Koen Inghelbrecht, Dries Heyman, Pieter Marius

Abstract:

Literature reveals that many investors rely on technical trading rules when making investment decisions. If stock markets are efficient, one cannot achieve superior results by using these trading rules. However, if market inefficiencies are present, profitable opportunities may arise. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of technical trading rules in 34 emerging stock markets. The performance of the rules is evaluated by utilizing White-s Reality Check and the Superior Predictive Ability test of Hansen, along with an adjustment for transaction costs. These tests are able to evaluate whether the best model performs better than a buy-and-hold benchmark. Further, they provide an answer to data snooping problems, which is essential to obtain unbiased outcomes. Based on our results we conclude that technical trading rules are not able to outperform a naïve buy-and-hold benchmark on a consistent basis. However, we do find significant trading rule profits in 4 of the 34 investigated markets. We also present evidence that technical analysis is more profitable in crisis situations. Nevertheless, this result is relatively weak.

Keywords: technical trading rules, Reality Check, Superior Predictive Ability, emerging stock markets, data snooping

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413 The Response Relation between Climate Change and NDVI over the Qinghai-Tibet plateau

Authors: Shen Weishou, Ji Di, Zhang Hui, Yan Shouguang, Li Haidong, Lin Naifeng

Abstract:

Based on a long-term vegetation index dataset of NDVI and meteorological data from 68 meteorological stations in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau and their relations with major climate factors were analyzed. The results show the following: 1) The linear trends of temperature in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau indicate that the temperature in the plateau generally increased, but it rose faster in the last 20 years. 2) The most significant NDVI increase occurred in the eastern and southern plateau. However, the western and northern plateau demonstrate a decreasing trend. 3) There is a significant positive linear correlation between NDVI and temperature and a negative correlation between NDVI and mean wind speed. However, no significant statistical relationship was found between NDVI and relative humidity, precipitation or sunshine duration.4) The changes in NDVI for the plateau are driven by temperature-precipitation, but for the desert and forest areas, the relation changes to precipitation-temperature-wind velocity and wind velocity-temperature-precipitation.

Keywords: Qinghai-Tibet plateau, NDVI, climate warming.

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412 Effect of Pre-drying Treatments on Quality Characteristics of Dehydrated Tomato Slices

Authors: Sharareh Mohseni, Reihaneh Ahmadzadeh Ghavidel

Abstract:

Tomato powder has good potential as substitute of tomato paste and other tomato products. In order to protect physicochemical properties and nutritional quality of tomato during dehydration process, investigation was carried out using different drying methods and pretreatments. Solar drier and continuous conveyor (tunnel) drier were used for dehydration where as calcium chloride (CaCl2), potassium metabisulphite (KMS), calcium chloride and potassium metabisulphite (CaCl2 +KMS), and sodium chloride (NaCl) selected for treatment.. lycopene content, dehydration ratio, rehydration ratio and non-enzymatic browning in addition to moisture, sugar and titrable acidity were studied. Results show that pre-treatment with CaCl2 and NaCl increased water removal and moisture mobility in tomato slices during drying of tomatoes. Where CaCl2 used along with KMS the NEB was recorded the least compared to other treatments and the best results were obtained while using the two chemicals in combination form. Storage studies in LDPE polymeric and metalized polyesters films showed less changes in the products packed in metallized polyester pouches and even after 6 months lycopene content did not decrease more than 20% as compared to the control sample and provide extension of shelf life in acceptable condition for 6 months. In most of the quality characteristics tunnel drier samples presented better values in comparison to solar drier.

Keywords: Dehydration, Tomato powder, Lycopene, Browning

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411 Challenges of Sustainable Construction in Kuwait: Investigating level of Awareness of Kuwait Stakeholders

Authors: Shaikha AlSanad , Andrew Gale, Rodger Edwards

Abstract:

Buildings and associated construction methods have a significant impact on the environment. As construction activity increases in Kuwait, there is a need to create design and construction strategies which will minimize the environmental impact of new buildings. Green construction is a design philosophy intended to improve the sustainability of construction by the minimization of resource depletion and CO2 emissions throughout the life cycle of buildings. This paper presents and discusses the results of a survey that was conducted in Kuwait, with the objective of investigating the awareness of developers and other stakeholders regarding their understanding and use of green construction strategies. The results of the survey demonstrate that whilst there seems to be a reasonable level of awareness amongst the stakeholders, this awareness is not currently well reflected in the design and construction practices actually being applied. It is therefore concluded is there is a pressing need for intervention from Government in order that the use of sustainable green design and construction strategies becomes the norm in Kuwait.

Keywords: Sustainability, Sustainable construction, Green Building, Environmental assessment

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410 Mycorrhizal Fungi Influence on Physiological Growth Indices in Basil Induced by Phosphorus Fertilizer under Irrigation Deficit Conditions

Authors: Seyed Alireza Valadabadi, Hossein Aliabadi Farahani

Abstract:

This experiment was carried out to study the effect of AMF, drought stress and phosphorus on physiological growth indices of basil at Iran using by a split-plot design with three replications. The main-plot factor included: two levels of irrigation regimes (control=no drought stress and irrigation after 80 evaporation= drought stress condition) while the sub-plot factors included phosphorus (0, 35 and 70 kg/ha) and application and non-application of Glomus fasciculatum. The results showed that total dry matter (TDM), life area index (LAI), relative growth rate (RGR) and crop growth rate (CGR) were all highly significantly different among the phosphorus, whereas drought stress had effect of practical significance on TDM, LAI, RGR and CGR. The results also showed that the highest TDM, LAI, RGR and CGR were obtained from application of Glomus fasciculatum under no-drought condition.

Keywords: Drought stress, Glomus fasciculatum, physiological growth indices

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409 Estimating the Absorbed Dose to THYROID during Chest wall Radiotherapy

Authors: Seid Ali Asghar Terohid, Vahid Fayaz

Abstract:

Thyroid cancer-s overall contribution to the worldwide cancer burden is relatively small, but incidence rates have increased over the last three decades throughout the world. This trend has been hypothesised to reflect a combination of technological advances enabling increased detection, but also changes in environmental factors, including population exposure to ionising radiation from fallout, diagnostic tests and treatment for benign and malignant conditions. The Thyroid dose received apparently shielded by cerrobend blocks was about 8cGy in 100cGy Expose

Keywords: Absorbed Dose, Thyroid, Radiotherapy

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408 Investigations Into the Turning Parameters Effect on the Surface Roughness of Flame Hardened Medium Carbon Steel with TiN-Al2O3-TiCN Coated Inserts based on Taguchi Techniques

Authors: Samir Khrais, Adel Mahammod Hassan , Amro Gazawi

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to evaluate surface roughness and develop a multiple regression model for surface roughness as a function of cutting parameters during the turning of flame hardened medium carbon steel with TiN-Al2O3-TiCN coated inserts. An experimental plan of work and signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) were used to relate the influence of turning parameters to the workpiece surface finish utilizing Taguchi methodology. The effects of turning parameters were studied by using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method. Evaluated parameters were feed, cutting speed, and depth of cut. It was found that the most significant interaction among the considered turning parameters was between depth of cut and feed. The average surface roughness (Ra) resulted by TiN-Al2O3- TiCN coated inserts was about 2.44 μm and minimum value was 0.74 μm. In addition, the regression model was able to predict values for surface roughness in comparison with experimental values within reasonable limit.

Keywords: Medium carbon steel, Prediction, Surface roughness, Taguchi method

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407 Uniformity of Dose Distribution in Radiation Fields Surrounding the Spine using Film Dosimetry and Comparison with 3D Treatment Planning Software

Authors: Sadegh Masoudi , Vahid Fayaz , Hassan Zandi, Asieh Tavakol

Abstract:

The overall penumbra is usually defined as the distance, p20–80, separating the 20% and 80% of the dose on the beam axis at the depth of interest. This overall penumbra accounts also for the fact that some photons emitted by the distal parts of the source are only partially attenuated by the collimator. Medulloblastoma is the most common type of childhood brain tumor and often spreads to the spine. Current guidelines call for surgery to remove as much of the tumor as possible, followed by radiation of the brain and spinal cord, and finally treatment with chemotherapy. The purpose of this paper was to present results on an Uniformity of dose distribution in radiation fields surrounding the spine using film dosimetry and comparison with 3D treatment planning software.

Keywords: Absorbed Dose , Spine , Radiotherapy, 3D treatment planning software

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406 Classification of Buckling Behavior on Uniaxial Compression using A5052-O Sheets

Authors: S. Onoda, S. Yoshihara, B. J. MacDonald, Y. Okude

Abstract:

Aluminum alloy sheets have several advantages such as the lightweight, high-specific strength and recycling efficiency. Therefore, aluminum alloy sheets in sheet forming have been used in various areas as automotive components and so forth. During the process of sheet forming, wrinkling which is caused by compression stress might occur and the formability of sheets was affected by occurrence of wrinkling. A few studies of uniaxial compressive test by using square tubes, pipes and sheets were carried out to clarify the each wrinkling behavior. However, on uniaxial compressive test, deformation behavior of the sheets hasn-t be cleared. Then, it is necessary to clarify the relationship between the buckling behavior and the forming conditions. In this study, the effect of dimension of the sheet in the buckling behavior on compression test of aluminum alloy sheet was cleared by experiment and FEA. As the results, the buckling deformation was classified by three modes in terms of the distribution of equivalent plastic strain.

Keywords: Sheet forming, Compression test, Aluminum alloy sheet, Buckling behavior

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405 Investigation of Gas Phase Composition During Carbon Nanotube Production

Authors: S. Yaglikci, B. Salgara, F. Soysal, B. Cicek

Abstract:

Chemical vapor deposition method was used to produce carbon nanotubes on an iron based catalyst from acetylene. Gas-phase samples collected from the different positions of the tubular reactor were analyzed by GC/MS. A variety of species ranging from hydrogen to naphthalene were observed and changes in their concentrations were plotted against the reactor position. Briefly benzene, toluene, styrene, indene and naphthalene were the main higher molecular weight species and vinylacetylene and diacetylene were the important intermediates. Nanotube characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, chemical vapor deposition, GC/MS, species profile

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404 Effects of Li2O Thickness and Moisture Content on LiH Hydrolysis Kinetics in Slightly Humidified Argon

Authors: S. Xiao, M. B. Shuai, M. F. Chu

Abstract:

The hydrolysis kinetics of polycrystalline lithium hydride (LiH) in argon at various low humidities was measured by gravimetry and Raman spectroscopy with ambient water concentration ranging from 200 to 1200 ppm. The results showed that LiH hydrolysis curve revealed a paralinear shape, which was attributed to two different reaction stages that forming different products as explained by the 'Layer Diffusion Control' model. Based on the model, a novel two-stage rate equation for LiH hydrolysis reactions was developed and used to fit the experimental data for determination of Li2O steady thickness Hs and the ultimate hydrolysis rate vs. The fitted data presented a rise of Hs as ambient water concentration cw increased. However, in spite of the negative effect imposed by Hs increasing, the upward trend of vs remained, which implied that water concentration, rather than Li2O thickness, played a predominant role in LiH hydrolysis kinetics. In addition, the proportional relationship between vsHs and cw predicted by rate equation and confirmed by gravimetric data validated the model in such conditions.

Keywords: Hydrolysis kinetics, ‘Layer Diffusion Control’ model, Lithium hydride

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403 Local Perspectives on Climate Change Mitigation and Sustainability of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Project: A Case Study in Thailand

Authors: S. Kittipongvises, T. Mino, C. Polprasert

Abstract:

Global climate change has become the preeminent threat to human security in the 21st century. From mitigation perspective, this study aims to evaluate the performance of biogas renewable project under clean development mechanism activities (namely Korat-Waste-to-Energy) in Thailand and to assess local perceptions towards the significance of climate change mitigation and sustainability of such project in their community. Questionnaire was developed based on the national sustainable development criteria and was distributed among systematically selected households within project boundaries (n=260). Majority of the respondents strongly agreed with the reduction of odor problems (81%) and air pollution (76%). However, they were unsure about greenhouse gas reduction from such project and ignorant about the key issues of climate change. A lesson learned suggested that there is a need to further investigate the possible socio-psychological barriers may significantly shape public perception and understandings of climate change in the local context.

Keywords: Climate Change Mitigation, Local Perspective, Sustainability, Thailand

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402 Design of a Fuzzy Feed-forward Controller for Monitor HAGC System of Cold Rolling Mill

Authors: S. Khosravi, A. Afshar, F. Barazandeh

Abstract:

In this study we propose a novel monitor hydraulic automatic gauge control (HAGC) system based on fuzzy feedforward controller. This is used in the development of cold rolling mill automation system to improve the quality of cold strip. According to features/ properties of entry steel strip like its average yield stress, width of strip, and desired exit thickness, this controller realizes the compensation for the exit thickness error. The traditional methods of adjusting the roller position, can-t tolerate the variance in the entry steel strip. The proposed method uses a mathematical model of the system together with the expert knowledge to perform this adjustment while minimizing the effect of the stated problem. In order to improve the speed of the controller in rejecting disturbances introduced by entry strip thickness variations, expert knowledge is added as a feed-forward term to the HAGC system. Simulation results for the application of the proposed controller to a real cold mill show that the exit strip quality is highly improved.

Keywords: Fuzzy feed-forward controller, monitor HAGC system, dynamic mathematical model, entry strip thickness deviation compensation

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401 Coherent PON for NG-PON2: 40Gbps Downstream Transmission with 40dB Power Margin using Commercial DFB Lasers and no Optical Amplification

Authors: Roberto Gaudino, Antonino Nespola, Dario Zeolla, Stefano Straullu, Vittorio Curri, Gabriella Bosco, Roberto Cigliutti, Stefano Capriata, Paolo Solina.

Abstract:

We demonstrate a 40Gbps downstream PON transmission based on PM-QPSK modulation using commercial DFB lasers without optical amplifier in the ODN, obtaining 40dB power budget. We discuss this solution within NG-PON2 architectures.

Keywords: DFB lasers, Optical Coherent Receiver, Passive Optical Networks.

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400 Impacts of Biofuels on Air Quality: Northern Portugal Case Study

Authors: Ribeiro I., Tavares A.M., Sá E., Lopes M.

Abstract:

The increased use of biodiesel implies variations on both greenhouse gases and air pollutant emissions. Some studies point out that the use of biodiesel blends on diesel can help in controlling air pollution and promote a reduction of CO2 emissions. Reductions on PM, SO2, VOC and CO emissions are also expected, however NOx emissions may increase, which may potentiate O3 formation. This work aims to assess the impact of the biodiesel use on air quality, through a numerical modeling study, taking the Northern region of Portugal as a case study. The emission scenarios are focused on 2008 (baseline year) and 2020 (target year of Renewable Energy Directive-RED) and on three biodiesel blends (B0, B10 and B20). In a general way the use of biodiesel by 2020 will reduce the CO2 and air pollutants emissions in the Northern Portugal, improving air quality. However it will be in a very small extension.

Keywords: air quality, biodiesel, emission scenarios, RED.

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399 Numerical Simulation of Deoilin Hydrocyclones

Authors: Reza Maddahian, Bijan Farhanieh, Simin Dokht Saemi

Abstract:

In this research the separation efficiency of deoiling hydrocyclone is evaluated using three-dimensional simulation of multiphase flow based on Eulerian-Eulerian finite volume method. The mixture approach of Reynolds Stress Model is also employed to capture the features of turbulent multiphase swirling flow. The obtained separation efficiency of Colman's design is compared with available experimental data and showed that the separation curve of deoiling hydrocyclones can be predicted using numerical simulation.

Keywords: Deoiling hydrocyclone, Eulerian-Eulerian Model, Numerical simulation, Separation efficiency, Reynolds Stress Model

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398 Urban Flood Control and Management - An Integrated Approach

Authors: Ranjan Sarukkalige, Joseph Sanjaya Ma

Abstract:

Flood management is one of the important fields in urban storm water management. Floods are influenced by the increase of huge storm event, or improper planning of the area. This study mainly provides the flood protection in four stages; planning, flood event, responses and evaluation. However it is most effective then flood protection is considered in planning/design and evaluation stages since both stages represent the land development of the area. Structural adjustments are often more reliable than nonstructural adjustments in providing flood protection, however structural adjustments are constrained by numerous factors such as political constraints and cost. Therefore it is important to balance both adjustments with the situation. The technical decisions provided will have to be approved by the higher-ups who have the power to decide on the final solution. Costs however, are the biggest factor in determining the final decision. Therefore this study recommends flood protection system should have been integrated and enforces more in the early stages (planning and design) as part of the storm water management plan. Factors influencing the technical decisions provided should be reduced as low as possible to avoid a reduction in the expected performance of the proposed adjustments.

Keywords: Urban Flood, flood protection, water management, storm water, cost,

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397 Development of Storm Water Quality Improvement Strategy Plan for Local City Councils in Western Australia

Authors: Ranjan Sarukkalige, Dinushi Gamage

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to develop a storm water quality improvement strategy plan (WQISP) which assists managers and decision makers of local city councils in enhancing their activities to improve regional water quality. City of Gosnells in Western Australia has been considered as a case study. The procedure on developing the WQISP consists of reviewing existing water quality data, identifying water quality issues in the study areas and developing a decision making tool for the officers, managers and decision makers. It was found that land use type is the main factor affecting the water quality. Therefore, activities, sources and pollutants related to different land use types including residential, industrial, agricultural and commercial are given high importance during the study. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with coordinators of different management sections of the regional councils in order to understand the associated management framework and issues. The issues identified from these interviews were used in preparing the decision making tool. Variables associated with the defined “value versus threat" decision making tool are obtained from the intensive literature review. The main recommendations provided for improvement of water quality in local city councils, include non-structural, structural and management controls and potential impacts of climate change.

Keywords: Storm water quality, Storm water Management, Land use, Strategy plan

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396 The Role of Ga to Improve AlN-Nucleation Layer for Al0.1Ga0.9N/Si(111)

Authors: AlNPhannee Saengkaew, Armin Dadgar, Juergen Blaesing, Thomas Hempel, Sakuntam Sanorpim, Chanchana Thanachayanont, Visittapong Yordsri, Watcharee Rattanasakulthong, Alois Krost

Abstract:

Group-III nitride material as particularly AlxGa1-xN is one of promising optoelectronic materials to require for shortwavelength devices. To achieve the high-quality AlxGa1-xN films for a high performance of such devices, AlN-nucleation layers are the important factor. To improve the AlN-nucleation layers with a variation of Ga-addition, XRD measurements were conducted to analyze the crystalline quality of the subsequent Al0.1Ga0.9N with the minimum ω-FWHMs of (0002) and (10-10) reflections of 425 arcsec and 750 arcsec, respectively. SEM and AFM measurements were performed to observe the surface morphology and TEM measurements to identify the microstructures and orientations. Results showed that the optimized Ga-atoms in the Al(Ga)Nnucleation layers improved the surface diffusion to form moreuniform crystallites in structure and size, better alignment of each crystallite, and better homogeneity of island distribution. This, hence, improves the orientation of epilayers on the Si-surface and finally improves the crystalline quality and reduces the residual strain of subsequent Al0.1Ga0.9N layers.

Keywords: AlGaN, UV-LEDs, seed layers, AFM, TEM

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395 A Preliminary X-Ray Study on Human-Hair Microstructures for a Health-State Indicator

Authors: Phannee Saengkaew, Weerasak Ussawawongaraya, Sasiphan Khaweerat, Supagorn Rugmai, Sirisart Ouajai, Jiraporn Luengviriya, Sakuntam Sanorpim, Manop Tirarattanasompot, Somboon Rhianphumikarakit

Abstract:

We present a preliminary x-ray study on human-hair microstructures for a health-state indicator, in particular a cancer case. As an uncomplicated and low-cost method of x-ray technique, the human-hair microstructure was analyzed by wide-angle x-ray diffractions (XRD) and small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The XRD measurements exhibited the simply reflections at the d-spacing of 28 Å, 9.4 Å and 4.4 Å representing to the periodic distance of the protein matrix of the human-hair macrofibrous and the diameter and the repeated spacing of the polypeptide alpha helixes of the photofibrils of the human-hair microfibrous, respectively. When compared to the normal cases, the unhealthy cases including to the breast- and ovarian-cancer cases obtained higher normalized ratios of the x-ray diffracting peaks of 9.4 Å and 4.4 Å. This likely resulted from the varied distributions of microstructures by a molecular alteration. As an elemental analysis by x-ray fluorescence (XRF), the normalized quantitative ratios of zinc(Zn)/calcium(Ca) and iron(Fe)/calcium(Ca) were determined. Analogously, both Zn/Ca and Fe/Ca ratios of the unhealthy cases were obtained higher than both of the normal cases were. Combining the structural analysis by XRD measurements and the elemental analysis by XRF measurements exhibited that the modified fibrous microstructures of hair samples were in relation to their altered elemental compositions. Therefore, these microstructural and elemental analyses of hair samples will be benefit to associate with a diagnosis of cancer and genetic diseases. This functional method would lower a risk of such diseases by the early diagnosis. However, the high-intensity x-ray source, the highresolution x-ray detector, and more hair samples are necessarily desired to develop this x-ray technique and the efficiency would be enhanced by including the skin and fingernail samples with the human-hair analysis.

Keywords: Human-hair analysis, XRD, SAXS, breast cancer, health-state indicator

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394 Modeling of PZ in Haunch Connections Systems

Authors: Peyman Shadman Heidari, Roohollah Ahmady Jazany, Mahmood Reza Mehran, Pouya Shadman Heidari, Mohammad khorasani

Abstract:

Modeling of Panel Zone (PZ) seismic behavior, because of its role in overall ductility and lateral stiffness of steel moment frames, has been considered a challenge for years. There are some studies regarding the effects of different doubler plates thicknesses and geometric properties of PZ on its seismic behavior. However, there is not much investigation on the effects of number of provided continuity plates in case of presence of one triangular haunch, two triangular haunches and rectangular haunch (T shape haunches) for exterior columns. In this research first detailed finite element models of 12tested connection of SAC joint venture were created and analyzed then obtained cyclic behavior backbone curves of these models besides other FE models for similar tests were used for neural network training. Then seismic behavior of these data is categorized according to continuity plate-s arrangements and differences in type of haunches. PZ with one-sided haunches have little plastic rotation. As the number of continuity plates increases due to presence of two triangular haunches (four continuity plate), there will be no plastic rotation, in other words PZ behaves in its elastic range. In the case of rectangular haunch, PZ show more plastic rotation in comparison with one-sided triangular haunch and especially double-sided triangular haunches. Moreover, the models that will be presented in case of triangular one-sided and double- sided haunches and rectangular haunches as a result of this study seem to have a proper estimation of PZ seismic behavior.

Keywords: Continuity plate, FE models, Neural network, Panel zone, Plastic rotation, Rectangular haunch, Seismic behavior

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393 Are Asia-Pacific Stock Markets Predictable? Evidence from Wavelet-based Fractional Integration Estimator

Authors: Pei. P. Tan, Don. U.A. Galagedera, Elizabeth A.Maharaj

Abstract:

This paper examines predictability in stock return in developed and emergingmarkets by testing long memory in stock returns using wavelet approach. Wavelet-based maximum likelihood estimator of the fractional integration estimator is superior to the conventional Hurst exponent and Geweke and Porter-Hudak estimator in terms of asymptotic properties and mean squared error. We use 4-year moving windows to estimate the fractional integration parameter. Evidence suggests that stock return may not be predictable indeveloped countries of the Asia-Pacificregion. However, predictability of stock return insome developing countries in this region such as Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines may not be ruled out. Stock return in the Thailand stock market appears to be not predictable after the political crisis in 2008.

Keywords: Asia-Pacific stock market, long-memory, return predictability, wavelet

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392 Dissertation by Portfolio - A Break from Traditional Approaches

Authors: Paul Crowther, Richard Hill

Abstract:

Much has been written about the difficulties students have with producing traditional dissertations. This includes both native English speakers (L1) and students with English as a second language (L2). The main emphasis of these papers has been on the structure of the dissertation, but in all cases, even when electronic versions are discussed, the dissertation is still in what most would regard as a traditional written form. Master of Science Degrees in computing disciplines require students to gain technical proficiency and apply their knowledge to a range of scenarios. The basis of this paper is that if a dissertation is a means of showing that such a student has met the criteria for a pass, which should be based on the learning outcomes of the dissertation module, does meeting those outcomes require a student to demonstrate their skills in a solely text based form, particularly in a highly technical research project? Could it be possible for a student to produce a series of related artifacts which form a cohesive package that meets the learning out comes of the dissertation?

Keywords: Computing, Masters dissertation, thesis, portfolio

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391 Evaluation of the Effects of Climate Change in Destruction Procedure on Iran-s Historic Buildings

Authors: Firouz Parvizian Ganje, Emad Hezbkhah, Behbood Maashkar

Abstract:

Climate change could lead to changes in cultural environments and landscapes as we know them.Climate change presents an immediate and significant threat to our natural and built environments and to the ways of life which co-exist with these environments. In most traditional buildings, the harmony of texture with nature and environment has been ever considered; so houses and cities have been mixed with their natural environment so astonishingly and the selection and usage of materials have been in such a way that they have provided the utmost conformity with the environment, as the result the created areas have a unique beauty and attraction.The extent to which climate change contributes to destruction procedure on Iran-s historic buildings.is a subject of current discussion. Cities, towns and built-up areas also have their own characteristics that might make them particularly vulnerable to climate change.

Keywords: Climate Change, historic buildings, Iran

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390 Internal Structure Formation in High Strength Fiber Concrete during Casting

Authors: Olga Kononova, Andrejs Krasnikovs , Videvuds Lapsa, Jurijs Kalinka, Angelina Galushchak

Abstract:

Post cracking behavior and load –bearing capacity of the steel fiber reinforced high-strength concrete (SFRHSC) are dependent on the number of fibers are crossing the weakest crack (bridged the crack) and their orientation to the crack surface. Filling the mould by SFRHSC, fibers are moving and rotating with the concrete matrix flow till the motion stops in each internal point of the concrete body. Filling the same mould from the different ends SFRHSC samples with the different internal structures (and different strength) can be obtained. Numerical flow simulations (using Newton and Bingham flow models) were realized, as well as single fiber planar motion and rotation numerical and experimental investigation (in viscous flow) was performed. X-ray pictures for prismatic samples were obtained and internal fiber positions and orientations were analyzed. Similarly fiber positions and orientations in cracked cross-section were recognized and were compared with numerically simulated. Structural SFRHSC fracture model was created based on single fiber pull-out laws, which were determined experimentally. Model predictions were validated by 15x15x60cm prisms 4 point bending tests.

Keywords: fibers, orientation, high strength concrete, flow

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389 Knowledge Management Applied to Forensic Sciences

Authors: Norma Rodrigues Gomes

Abstract:

This paper presents initiatives of Knowledge Management (KM) applied to Forensic Sciences field, especially developed at the Forensic Science Institute of the Brazilian Federal Police. Successful projects, related to knowledge sharing, drugs analysis and environmental crimes, are reported in the KM perspective. The described results are related to: a) the importance of having an information repository, like a digital library, in such a multidisciplinary organization; b) the fight against drug dealing and environmental crimes, enabling the possibility to map the evolution of crimes, drug trafficking flows, and the advance of deforestation in Amazon rain forest. Perspectives of new KM projects under development and studies are also presented, tracing an evolution line of the KM view at the Forensic Science Institute.

Keywords: Business Intelligence, Digital Library, Forensic Science, Knowledge Management

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388 The Effect of Ambient Occlusion Shading on Perception of Sign Language Animations

Authors: Nicoletta Adamo-Villani, Joe Kasenga, Tiffany Jen, Bryan Colbourn

Abstract:

The goal of the study reported in the paper was to determine whether Ambient Occlusion Shading (AOS) has a significant effect on users' perception of American Sign Language (ASL) finger spelling animations. Seventy-one (71) subjects participated in the study; all subjects were fluent in ASL. The participants were asked to watch forty (40) sign language animation clips representing twenty (20) finger spelled words. Twenty (20) clips did not show ambient occlusion, whereas the other twenty (20) were rendered using ambient occlusion shading. After viewing each animation, subjects were asked to type the word being finger-spelled and rate its legibility. Findings show that the presence of AOS had a significant effect on the subjects perception of the signed words. Subjects were able to recognize the animated words rendered with AOS with higher level of accuracy, and the legibility ratings of the animations showing AOS were consistently higher across subjects.

Keywords: Sign Language, Animation, Ambient Occlusion Shading, Deaf Education

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387 Study of Currents and Temperature of Induced Spur Gear using 2d Simulation

Authors: N. Barka, P. Bocher, A. Chebak, J. Brousseau, D. S. Ramdenee

Abstract:

This paper presents the study of induced currents and temperature distribution in gear heated by induction process using 2D finite element (FE) model. The model is developed by coupling Maxwell and heat transfer equations into a multi-physics model. The obtained results allow comparing the medium frequency (MF) and high frequency (HF) cases and the effect of machine parameters on the evolution of induced currents and temperature during heating. The sensitivity study of the temperature profile is conducted and the case hardness is predicted using the final temperature profile. These results are validated using tests and give a good understanding of phenomena during heating process.

Keywords: 2D model, induction heating, spur gear, induced currents, experimental validation

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386 Effect of Body Size and Condition Factor on Whole Body Composition of Hybrid (Catla catla ♂x Labeo rohita ♀) from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdus Salam, Muhammad Asghar Bashir, Abir Ishtiaq, Qurat-ul-Ane Gillani and Asma Salam

Abstract:

In the present study, 49 Hybrid (Catla catla ♂ x Labeo rohita ♀) were sampled from Al-Raheem Fish Hatchery, Village Ali Pure Shamali, Jhang Road, 18 Km from Muzaffar Garh using a cast net and Live fishes were transported to research laboratory. Mean percentage for water found 79.13 %, ash 6.58 %, fat 2.22 % and protein content 12.06 % in whole wet body weight. It was observed that body constituents were found increasing in the same proportion with an increase in body weight while significant proportional increase was observed with total length. However, condition factor remained insignificant (P>0.05) with body constituents.

Keywords: Hybrid fish, Body composition, Condition factor, Predictive equations

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385 Appreciating, Interpreting and Understanding Posters via Levels of Visual Literacy

Authors: Mona Masood, Zakiah Zain

Abstract:

This study was conducted in Malaysia to discover how meaning and appreciation were construed among 35 Form Five students. Panofsky-s theory was employed to discover the levels of reasoning among students when various types of posters were displayed. The independent variables used were posters that carried explicit and implicit meanings; the moderating variable was students- visual literacy levels while the dependent variable was the implicit interpretation level. One-way ANOVA was applied for the data analysis. The data showed that before students were exposed to Panofsky-s theory, there were differences in thinking between boys, who did not think abstractly or implicit in comparison to girls. The study showed that students- visual literacy in posters depended on the use of visual texts and illustration. This paper discuss further on posters with text only have a tendency to be too abstract as opposed to posters with visuals plus text.

Keywords: explicit visual, implicit visual, visual interpretation, visual literacy

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384 A Preliminary Technology Assessment Analysis for the use of High Pressure Treatment on Halloumi Cheese

Authors: Michalis Menicou, Stavros Christofi, Niki Chartosia, Vassos Vassiliou, Marios Charalambides

Abstract:

This paper presents preliminary results of a technology assessment analysis for the use of high pressure treatment (HPT) on Halloumi cheese. In particular, it presents the importance of this traditional Cyprus cheese to the island-s economy, explains its production process, and gives a brief introduction to HPT and its application on cheese. More importantly, it offers preliminary results of HPT of Halloumi samples and a preliminary economic feasibility study on the financial implications of the introduction of such technology.

Keywords: Economic feasibility analysis, high pressure treatment, Halloumi cheese, technology assessment

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383 Control of the Thermal Evaporation of Organic Semiconductors via Exact Linearization

Authors: Martin Steinberger, Martin Horn

Abstract:

In this article, a high vacuum system for the evaporation of organic semiconductors is introduced and a mathematical model is given. Based on the exact input output linearization a deposition rate controller is designed and tested with different evaporation materials.

Keywords: Effusion cell, organic semiconductors, deposition rate, exact linearization.

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382 A Robust Wheel Slip Controller for a Hybrid Braking System

Authors: Martin Ringdorfer, Martin Horn

Abstract:

A robust wheel slip controller for electric vehicles is introduced. The proposed wheel slip controller exploits the dynamics of electric traction drives and conventional hydraulic brakes for achieving maximum energy efficiency and driving safety. Due to the control of single wheel traction motors in combination with a hydraulic braking system, it can be shown, that energy recuperation and vehicle stability control can be realized simultaneously. The derivation of a sliding mode wheel slip controller accessing two drivetrain actuators is outlined and a comparison to a conventionally braked vehicle is shown by means of simulation.

Keywords: Wheel slip control, sliding mode control, vehicle dynamics.

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381 Noninvasive Assessment of Low Power Laser Radiation Effect on Skin Wound Healing Using Infrared Thermography

Authors: M.A. Calin, S.V. Parasca, M.R. Calin, D. Savastru, D. Manea

Abstract:

The goal of this paper is to examine the effects of laser radiation on the skin wound healing using infrared thermography as non-invasive method for the monitoring of the skin temperature changes during laser treatment. Thirty Wistar rats were used in this study. A skin lesion was performed at the leg on all rats. The animals were exposed to laser radiation (λ = 670 nm, P = 15 mW, DP = 16.31 mW/cm2) for 600 s. Thermal images of wound were acquired before and after laser irradiation. The results have demonstrated that the tissue temperature decreases from 35.5±0.50°C in the first treatment day to 31.3±0.42°C after the third treatment day. This value is close to the normal value of the skin temperature and indicates the end of the skin repair process. In conclusion, the improvements in the wound healing following exposure to laser radiation have been revealed by infrared thermography.

Keywords: skin, wound, laser, thermal image

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380 Stability Verification for Bilateral Teleoperation System with Variable Time Delay

Authors: M. Sallam, A. Ramadan, M. Fanni, M. Abdellatif

Abstract:

Time delay in bilateral teleoperation system was introduced as a sufficient reason to make the system unstable or certainly degrade the system performance. In this paper, simulations and experimental results of implementing p-like control scheme, under different ranges of variable time delay, will be presented to verify a certain criteria, which guarantee the system stability and position tracking. The system consists of two Phantom premium 1.5A devices. One of them acts as a master and the other acts as a slave. The study includes deriving the Phantom kinematic and dynamic model, establishing the link between the two Phantoms over Simulink in Matlab, and verifying the stability criteria with simulations and real experiments.

Keywords: bilateral teleoperation, Phantom premium 1.5, varying time delay

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379 Envelope-Wavelet Packet Transform for Machine Condition Monitoring

Authors: M. F. Yaqub, I. Gondal, J. Kamruzzaman

Abstract:

Wavelet transform has been extensively used in machine fault diagnosis and prognosis owing to its strength to deal with non-stationary signals. The existing Wavelet transform based schemes for fault diagnosis employ wavelet decomposition of the entire vibration frequency which not only involve huge computational overhead in extracting the features but also increases the dimensionality of the feature vector. This increase in the dimensionality has the tendency to 'over-fit' the training data and could mislead the fault diagnostic model. In this paper a novel technique, envelope wavelet packet transform (EWPT) is proposed in which features are extracted based on wavelet packet transform of the filtered envelope signal rather than the overall vibration signal. It not only reduces the computational overhead in terms of reduced number of wavelet decomposition levels and features but also improves the fault detection accuracy. Analytical expressions are provided for the optimal frequency resolution and decomposition level selection in EWPT. Experimental results with both actual and simulated machine fault data demonstrate significant gain in fault detection ability by EWPT at reduced complexity compared to existing techniques.

Keywords: Envelope Detection, Wavelet Transform, Bearing Faults, Machine Health Monitoring.

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378 Calibration of Parallel Multi-View Cameras

Authors: M. Ali-Bey, N. Manamanni, S. Moughamir

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the calibration problem of a multi-view shooting system designed for the production of 3D content for auto-stereoscopic visualization. The considered multiview camera is characterized by coplanar and decentered image sensors regarding to the corresponding optical axis. Based on the Faugéras and Toscani-s calibration approach, a calibration method is herein proposed for the case of multi-view camera with parallel and decentered image sensors. At first, the geometrical model of the shooting system is recalled and some industrial prototypes with some shooting simulations are presented. Next, the development of the proposed calibration method is detailed. Finally, some simulation results are presented before ending with some conclusions about this work.

Keywords: Auto-stereoscopic display, camera calibration, multi-view cameras, visual servoing

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377 Satellite Thermal Control: Cooling by a Diphasic Loop

Authors: L. Boukhris, A. Boudjemai, A. Bellar, R. Roubache, M. Bensaada

Abstract:

In space during functioning, a satellite will be heated up due to the behavior of its components such as power electronics. In order to prevent problems in the satellite, this heat has to be released in space thanks to the cooling system. This system consists of a loop heat pipe (LHP), in which a fluid streams through an evaporator and a condenser. In the evaporator, the fluid captures the heat from the satellite and evaporates. Then it flows to the condenser where it releases the heat and it condenses. In this project, the two mains parts of a cooling system are studied: the evaporator and the condenser. The study of the diphasic loop was done starting from digital simulations carried out under Matlab and Femlab.

Keywords: capillarity, condenser, evaporator, phase change, transfer of heat.

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376 Fault Detection via Stability Analysis for the Hybrid Control Unit of HEVs

Authors: Kyogun Chang, Yoon Bok Lee

Abstract:

Fault detection determines faultexistence and detecting time. This paper discusses two layered fault detection methods to enhance the reliability and safety. Two layered fault detection methods consist of fault detection methods of component level controllers and system level controllers. Component level controllers detect faults by using limit checking, model-based detection, and data-driven detection and system level controllers execute detection by stability analysis which can detect unknown changes. System level controllers compare detection results via stability with fault signals from lower level controllers. This paper addresses fault detection methods via stability and suggests fault detection criteria in nonlinear systems. The fault detection method applies tothe hybrid control unit of a military hybrid electric vehicleso that the hybrid control unit can detect faults of the traction motor.

Keywords: Two Layered Fault Detection, Stability Analysis, Fault-Tolerant Control

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375 Instructional Design Practitioners in Malaysia: Skills and Issues

Authors: Irfan N. Umar, Yong Su-Lyn

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to determine the knowledge and skills possessed by instructional design (ID) practitioners in Malaysia. As ID is a relatively new field in the country and there seems to be an absence of any studies on its community of practice, the main objective of this research is to discover the tasks and activities performed by ID practitioners in educational and corporate organizations as suggested by the International Board of Standards for Training, Performance and Instruction. This includes finding out the ID models applied in the course of their work. This research also attempts to identify the barriers and issues as to why some ID tasks and activities are rarely or never conducted. The methodology employed in this descriptive study was a survey questionnaire sent to 30 instructional designers nationwide. The results showed that majority of the tasks and activities are carried out frequently enough but omissions do occur due to reasons such as it being out of job scope, the decision was already made at a higher level, and the lack of knowledge and skills. Further investigations of a qualitative manner should be conducted to achieve a more in-depth understanding of ID practices in Malaysia

Keywords: instructional design, ID competencies, ID models, IBSTPI

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374 Multi-Functional Insect Cuticles: Informative Designs for Man-Made Surfaces

Authors: Hsuan-Ming S Hu, Jolanta A Watson, Bronwen W Cribb, Gregory S Watson

Abstract:

Biomimicry has many potential benefits as many technologies found in nature are superior to their man-made counterparts. As technological device components approach the micro and nanoscale, surface properties such as surface adhesion and friction may need to be taken into account. Lowering surface adhesion by manipulating chemistry alone might no longer be sufficient for such components and thus physical manipulation may be required. Adhesion reduction is only one of the many surface functions displayed by micro/nano-structured cuticles of insects. Here, we present a mini review of our understanding of insect cuticle structures and the relationship between the structure dimensions and the corresponding functional mechanisms. It may be possible to introduce additional properties to material surfaces (indeed multi-functional properties) based on the design of natural surfaces.

Keywords: Biomimicry, micro/nanostructures, self-cleaning surfaces, superhydrophobicity

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373 Study on Cross-flow Heat Transfer in Fixed Bed

Authors: Hong-fang Ma, Hai-tao Zhang, Wei-yong Ying, Ding-ye Fang

Abstract:

Radial flow reactor was focused for large scale methanol synthesis and in which the heat transfer type was cross-flow. The effects of operating conditions including the reactor inlet air temperature, the heating pipe temperature and the air flow rate on the cross-flow heat transfer was investigated and the results showed that the temperature profile of the area in front of the heating pipe was slightly affected by all the operating conditions. The main area whose temperature profile was influenced was the area behind the heating pipe. The heat transfer direction according to the air flow directions. In order to provide the basis for radial flow reactor design calculation, the dimensionless number group method was used for data fitting of the bed effective thermal conductivity and the wall heat transfer coefficient which was calculated by the mathematical model with the product of Reynolds number and Prandtl number. The comparison of experimental data and calculated value showed that the calculated value fit the experimental data very well and the formulas could be used for reactor designing calculation.

Keywords: Cross-flow, Heat transfer, Fixed bed, Mathematical model

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372 Improving Water Productivity of Chickpea by the Use of Deficit Irrigation with Treated Domestic Wastewater

Authors: Hirich A., Choukr-allah R., Jacobsen S-E., Hamdy A., El youssfi L., El Omari H.

Abstract:

An experiment was performed in the south of Morocco in order to evaluate the effect of deficit irrigation by treated wastewater on chickpea production. We applied six irrigation treatments on a local variety of chickpea by supplying alternatively 50 or 100% of ETm in a completely randomized design. We found a highly significant difference between treatments in terms of biomass production. Drought stress during the vegetative period showed highest yield with 6.5 t/ha which was more than the yield obtained for the control (4.9 t/ha). The optimal crop stage in which deficit irrigation can be applied is the vegetative growth stage, as the crop has a chance to develop its root system, to be able to cover the plant needs for water and nutrient supply during the rest of cycle, and non stress conditions during the flowering and seed filling stages allow the plant to optimize its photosynthesis and carbon translocation, therefore increase its productivity.

Keywords: chickpea, crop stages, drought stress, water productivity

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371 Using the Combined Model of PROMETHEE and Fuzzy Analytic Network Process for Determining Question Weights in Scientific Exams through Data Mining Approach

Authors: Hassan Haleh, Amin Ghaffari, Parisa Farahpour

Abstract:

Need for an appropriate system of evaluating students- educational developments is a key problem to achieve the predefined educational goals. Intensity of the related papers in the last years; that tries to proof or disproof the necessity and adequacy of the students assessment; is the corroborator of this matter. Some of these studies tried to increase the precision of determining question weights in scientific examinations. But in all of them there has been an attempt to adjust the initial question weights while the accuracy and precision of those initial question weights are still under question. Thus In order to increase the precision of the assessment process of students- educational development, the present study tries to propose a new method for determining the initial question weights by considering the factors of questions like: difficulty, importance and complexity; and implementing a combined method of PROMETHEE and fuzzy analytic network process using a data mining approach to improve the model-s inputs. The result of the implemented case study proves the development of performance and precision of the proposed model.

Keywords: Assessing students, Analytic network process, Clustering, Data mining, Fuzzy sets, Multi-criteria decision making, and Preference function.

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370 Evaluation of Some Chemical Parameters as Potential Determinants of Fresh Water Snails with Special Reference to Medically Important Snails in Egypt

Authors: H.M. El-Khayat, N.M. Ismail, K.M. Mahmoud, F.M. Ragb, K.M. El-Said, B. B. Mostafa, F. A. El- Deeb, A.A. Tantawy

Abstract:

Seasonal survey of freshwater snails in different water courses in Egypt during two successive years included 13 snail species. They represented by Biomphalaria alexandrina, Bulinus truncatus, Physa acuta, Helisoma duryi, Lymnaea natalensis, Planorbis pantries, Cleopatra bulimoides, Lanistes carinatus, Bellamya unicolor, Melanoides tuberculata, Theodoxus niloticus, Succinia cleopatra and Valvata nilotica. B. alexandrina was most abundant during autumn and spring represented by 26and14 snails/site, respectively. B. truncatus was most abundant during winter (7.7and3.6snails/site) of the two years, respectively. L. natalensis was represented by 7snails/site in summer. The tolerance of different snail species to the chemical elements was determined seasonally and correlated to their abundance. In spring, autumn and winter, B. alexandrina was significantly found to live under the highest level of Pb, Cd,Cu, Na, K and Ca concentrations than the other species (p<0.01). Most snail species could be lived at approximately the same concentrations of Na, K and Ca during all seasons.

Keywords: chemical parameters, freshwater, snails, tolerance

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369 The Recession as an Opportunity for Curbing Transport Emissions

Authors: Gabor Szendro, Maria Csete

Abstract:

The effects of the transport sector on the environment are a well-recognized issue in the European Union and around the world. This area is a subject of much discussion as to how these negative effects could be minimized, especially with regards to impacts contributing to climate change. This paper aims to investigate the results of the economic crisis and how its consequences could be exploited to combat air pollution.

Keywords: Air pollution, climate change, recession, transport

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368 Effects of Material Properties of Warhead Casing on Natural Fragmentation Performance of High Explosive (HE) Warhead

Authors: G. Tanapornraweekit, W. Kulsirikasem

Abstract:

This research paper presents numerical studies of the characteristics of warhead fragmentation in terms of initial velocities, spray angles of fragments and fragment mass distribution of high explosive (HE) warhead. The behavior of warhead fragmentation depends on shape and size of warhead, thickness of casing, type of explosive, number and position of detonator, and etc. This paper focuses on the effects of material properties of warhead casing, i.e. failure strain, initial yield and ultimate strength on the characteristics of warhead fragmentation. It was found that initial yield and ultimate strength of casing has minimal effects on the initial velocities and spray angles of fragments. Moreover, a brittle warhead casing with low failure strain tends to produce higher number of fragments with less average fragment mass.

Keywords: Detonation, Material Properties, Natural Fragment, Warhead

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367 Analysis of Reflectance Photoplethysmograph Sensors

Authors: Fu-Hsuan Huang, Po-Jung Yuan, Kang-Ping Lin, Hen-Hong Chang, Cheng-Lun Tsai

Abstract:

Photoplethysmography is a simple measurement of the variation in blood volume in tissue. It detects the pulse signal of heart beat as well as the low frequency signal of vasoconstriction and vasodilation. The transmission type measurement is limited to only a few specific positions for example the index finger that have a short path length for light. The reflectance type measurement can be conveniently applied on most parts of the body surface. This study analyzed the factors that determine the quality of reflectance photoplethysmograph signal including the emitter-detector distance, wavelength, light intensity, and optical properties of skin tissue. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) with four different visible wavelengths were used as the light emitters. A phototransistor was used as the light detector. A micro translation stage adjusts the emitter-detector distance from 2 mm to 15 mm. The reflective photoplethysmograph signals were measured on different sites. The optimal emitter-detector distance was chosen to have a large dynamic range for low frequency drifting without signal saturation and a high perfusion index. Among these four wavelengths, a yellowish green (571nm) light with a proper emitter-detection distance of 2mm is the most suitable for obtaining a steady and reliable reflectance photoplethysmograph signal

Keywords: Reflectance photoplethysmograph, Perfusion index, Signal-to-noise ratio

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366 Optic Disc Detection by Earth Mover's Distance Template Matching

Authors: Fernando C. Monteiro, Vasco Cadavez

Abstract:

This paper presents a method for the detection of OD in the retina which takes advantage of the powerful preprocessing techniques such as the contrast enhancement, Gabor wavelet transform for vessel segmentation, mathematical morphology and Earth Mover-s distance (EMD) as the matching process. The OD detection algorithm is based on matching the expected directional pattern of the retinal blood vessels. Vessel segmentation method produces segmentations by classifying each image pixel as vessel or nonvessel, based on the pixel-s feature vector. Feature vectors are composed of the pixel-s intensity and 2D Gabor wavelet transform responses taken at multiple scales. A simple matched filter is proposed to roughly match the direction of the vessels at the OD vicinity using the EMD. The minimum distance provides an estimate of the OD center coordinates. The method-s performance is evaluated on publicly available DRIVE and STARE databases. On the DRIVE database the OD center was detected correctly in all of the 40 images (100%) and on the STARE database the OD was detected correctly in 76 out of the 81 images, even in rather difficult pathological situations.

Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, Earth Mover's distance, Gabor wavelets, optic disc detection, retinal images

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365 Dynamic Visualization on Student's Performance, Retention and Transfer of Procedural Learning

Authors: Fauzy M. Wan, Reem S.A. Baragash

Abstract:

This study examined the effects of two dynamic visualizations on 60 Malaysian primary school student-s performance (time on task), retention and transference. The independent variables in this study were the two dynamic visualizations, the video and the animated instructions. The dependent variables were the gain score of performance, retention and transference. The results showed that the students in the animation group significantly outperformed the students in the video group in retention. There were no significant differences in terms of gain scores in the performance and transference among the animation and the video groups, although the scores were slightly higher in the animation group compared to the video group. The conclusion of this study is that the animation visualization is superior compared to the video in the retention for a procedural task.

Keywords: Dynamic visualization, Procedural Task, Retention, Transference

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364 Assessment the Effect of Setback in Height of Frame on Reinforcement Structures

Authors: Farshad Mehrabi, Ali kheirodin, Mohsen Gerami

Abstract:

Ambiguities in effects of earthquake on various structures in all earthquake codes would necessitate more study and research concerning influential factors on dynamic behavior. Previous studies which were done on different features in different buildings play a major role in the type of response a structure makes to lateral vibrations. Diagnosing each of these irregularities can help structure designers in choosing appropriate setbacks for decreasing possible damages. Therefore vertical setback is one of the irregularity factors in the height of the building where can be seen in skyscrapers and hotels. Previous researches reveal notable changes in the place of these setbacks showing dynamic response of the structure. Consequently analyzing 48 models of concrete frames for 3, 6 and 9 stories heights with three different bays in general shape of a surface decline by height have been constructed in ETABS2000 software, and then the shape effect of each and every one of these frames in period scale has been discussed. The result of this study reveals that not only mass, stiffness and height but also shape of the frame is influential.

Keywords: period, concrete frame, irregularity in height, decrease in plan surface, dynamic behavior

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363 Fracture Location Characterizations of Dissimilar Friction Stir Welds

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi

Abstract:

This paper reports the tensile fracture location characterizations of dissimilar friction stir welds between 5754 aluminium alloy and C11000 copper. The welds were produced using three shoulder diameter tools; namely, 15, 18 and 25 mm by varying the process parameters. The rotational speeds considered were 600, 950 and 1200 rpm while the feed rates employed were 50, 150 and 300 mm/min to represent the low, medium and high settings respectively. The tensile fracture locations were evaluated using the optical microscope to identify the fracture locations and were characterized. It was observed that 70% of the tensile samples failed in the Thermo Mechanically Affected Zone (TMAZ) of copper at the weld joints. Further evaluation of the fracture surfaces of the pulled tensile samples revealed that welds with low Ultimate Tensile Strength either have defects or intermetallics present at their joint interfaces.

Keywords: fracture location, friction stir welding, intermetallics, metallography,

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362 Optimal use of Climate in the Construction of Traditional Housing as a Greenhouse in Iran

Authors: Emad Hezbkhah, Ebrahim Akhlaghi

Abstract:

From a long time age, human beings have chosen their place of residence and comfort so that those places would have relatively ideal natural and climatic conditions. For this reason, from the beginning, the civilizations have been formed in the susceptible natural regions such as Mesopotamia in Iran and Nile coasts in Egypt. Also, the core of human density has been made in the form of an oasis in the deserts. Regarding the formation and combination of the native architecture in different regions of Iran, we find that different properties of these climates have affected frequently the formation of cities and the architectural combinations of these regions. Thus, the precise determinations of climatic areas and attaining the climatic properties of different regions have a great deal of importance in presenting appropriate and compatible-with-climate designs.

Keywords: climate and architecture, energy Optimizing, Greenhouse

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361 Probabilistic Characteristics of older PR Frames in the Mid-America Earthquake Region

Authors: Do-Hwan Kim, Roberto Leon

Abstract:

Probabilistic characteristics of seismic responses of the Partially Restrained connection rotation (PRCR) and panel zone deformation (PZD) installed in older steel moment frames were investigated in accordance with statistical inference in decision-making process. The 4, 6 and 8 story older steel moment frames with clip angle and T-stub connections were designed and analyzed using 2%/50yrs ground motions in four cities of the Mid-America earthquake region. The probability density function and cumulative distribution function of PRCR and PZD were determined by the goodness-of-fit tests based on probabilistic parameters measured from the results of the nonlinear time-history analyses. The obtained probabilistic parameters and distributions can be used to find out what performance level mainly PR connections and panel zones satisfy and how many PR connections and panel zones experience a serious damage under the Mid-America ground motions.

Keywords: Mid-America earthquake, Panel zone, PR connection, Probabilistic characteristics, seismic performance

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360 Numerical Study on Parametrical Design of Long Shrouded Contra-Rotating Propulsion System in Hovering

Authors: Chao. Huo, Roger. Barènes, Jérémie. Gressier, Gilles.Grondin

Abstract:

The parametrical study of Shrouded Contra-rotating Rotor was done in this paper based on 2D axisymmetric simulations. The calculations were made with an actuator disk as double rotor model. It objects to explore and quantify the effects of different shroud geometry parameters mainly using the performance of power loading (PL), which could evaluate the whole propulsion system capability as 5 Newtontotal thrust generationfor hover demand. The numerical results show that:The increase of nozzle radius is desired but limited by the flow separation, its optimal design is around 1.15 times rotor radius, the viscosity effects greatly constraint the influence of nozzle shape, the divergent angle around 10.5° performs best for chosen nozzle length;The parameters of inlet such as leading edge curvature, radius and internal shape do not affect thrust great but play an important role in pressure distribution which could produce most part of shroud thrust, they should be chosen according to the reduction of adverse pressure gradients to reduce the risk of boundary separation.

Keywords: Axisymmetric simulation, parametrical design, power loading, Shrouded Contra-Rotating Rotor.

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359 Analytical Cutting Forces Model of Helical Milling Operations

Authors: Changyi Liu, Gui Wang, Matthew Dargusch

Abstract:

Helical milling operations are used to generate or enlarge boreholes by means of a milling tool. The bore diameter can be adjusted through the diameter of the helical path. The kinematics of helical milling on a three axis machine tool is analysed firstly. The relationships between processing parameters, cutting tool geometry characters with machined hole feature are formulated. The feed motion of the cutting tool has been decomposed to plane circular feed and axial linear motion. In this paper, the time varying cutting forces acted on the side cutting edges and end cutting edges of the flat end cylinder miller is analysed using a discrete method separately. These two components then are combined to produce the cutting force model considering the complicated interaction between the cutters and workpiece. The time varying cutting force model describes the instantaneous cutting force during processing. This model could be used to predict cutting force, calculate statics deflection of cutter and workpiece, and also could be the foundation of dynamics model and predicting chatter limitation of the helical milling operations.

Keywords: Helical milling, Hole machining, Cutting force, Analytical model, Time domain

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358 New Approach in Diagnostics Method for Milling Process using Envelope Analysis

Authors: C. Bisu, M. Zapciu, A. Gérard

Abstract:

This paper proposes a method to vibration analysis in order to on-line monitoring and predictive maintenance during the milling process. Adapting envelope method to diagnostics and the analysis for milling tool materials is an important contribution to the qualitative and quantitative characterization of milling capacity and a step by modeling the three-dimensional cutting process. An experimental protocol was designed and developed for the acquisition, processing and analyzing three-dimensional signal. The vibration envelope analysis is proposed to detect the cutting capacity of the tool with the optimization application of cutting parameters. The research is focused on Hilbert transform optimization to evaluate the dynamic behavior of the machine/ tool/workpiece.

Keywords: diagnostics, envelope, milling, vibration

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357 Distributor Plate Design and a System for Collection of Granules in a Device with a Vortex Fluidized Bed

Authors: Bogdan Il. Bogdanov, Dimitar R.Rusev, Yancho H. Hristov, Irena G. Markovska, Dimitar P.Georgiev

Abstract:

A newly designed gas-distributor for granulation of powdery materials in equilibrated fluidized bed and a system for collecting the granules prepared are suggested. The aim of these designs is to solve the problems arising by the granulation of powdery materials in fluidized bed devices. The gasdistributor and the collection system proved to be reliable at operation; they reduce the size of still zones, effectively disperse the binding solution in the bed and ensure the collection of granules of given diameter

Keywords: Distributor plate design, granulation, system design.

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356 An in Silico Approach for Prioritizing Drug Targets in Metabolic Pathway of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

Authors: Baharak Khoshkholgh-Sima, Soroush Sardari, Jalal Izadi Mobarakeh, Ramezan Ali Khavari-Nejad

Abstract:

There is an urgent need to develop novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) drugs that are active against drug resistant bacteria but, more importantly, kill persistent bacteria. Our study structured based on integrated analysis of metabolic pathways, small molecule screening and similarity Search in PubChem Database. Metabolic analysis approaches based on Unified weighted used for potent target selection. Our results suggest that pantothenate synthetase (panC) and and 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate hydroxymethyl transferase (panB) as a appropriate drug targets. In our study, we used pantothenate synthetase because of existence inhibitors. We have reported the discovery of new antitubercular compounds through ligand based approaches using computational tools.

Keywords: In Silico, Ligand-based Virtual Screening, Metabolic Pathways, Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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355 La promoted Ni/α-Al2O3 Catalysts for Syngas Methanation

Authors: Anmin Zhao, Weiyong Yingı , Haitao Zhang, Hongfang Ma, Dingye Fang

Abstract:

The Ni/α-Al2O3 catalysts with different amounts of La as promoter from 0 to 4 wt % were prepared, characterized and their catalytic activity was investigated in syngas methanation reaction. Effects of reaction temperature and lanthanum loading on carbon oxides conversion and methane selectivity were also studied. Adding certain amount of lanthanum to 10Ni /α-Al2O3 catalysts can decrease the average NiO crystallite diameter which leads to higher activity and stability while excessive addition would cause deactivation quickly. Stability on stream towards deactivation was observed up to 800 min at 500 °C, 0.1MPa and 600000 mL·g-1·h-1.

Keywords: Methanation; Nickel catalysts; Syngas methanation

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354 Image Indexing Using a Color Similarity Metric based on the Human Visual System

Authors: Angelo Nodari, Ignazio Gallo

Abstract:

The novelty proposed in this study is twofold and consists in the developing of a new color similarity metric based on the human visual system and a new color indexing based on a textual approach. The new color similarity metric proposed is based on the color perception of the human visual system. Consequently the results returned by the indexing system can fulfill as much as possibile the user expectations. We developed a web application to collect the users judgments about the similarities between colors, whose results are used to estimate the metric proposed in this study. In order to index the image's colors, we used a text indexing engine to facilitate the integration of visual features in a database of text documents. The textual signature is build by weighting the image's colors in according to their occurrence in the image. The use of a textual indexing engine, provide us a simple, fast and robust solution to index images. A typical usage of the system proposed in this study, is the development of applications whose data type is both visual and textual. In order to evaluate the proposed method we chose a price comparison engine as a case of study, collecting a series of commercial offers containing the textual description and the image representing a specific commercial offer.

Keywords: Color Extraction, Content-Based Image Retrieval, Indexing

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353 Lean Thinking Process in the Determination of Design Suggestions to Optimize Treatment of WEEE

Authors: Anastasia Katsamaki, Nikolaos Bilalis, Vassilis Dedoussis

Abstract:

This work proposes a set of actions to assist redesign procedure in existing products of Electric and Electronic Equipment (EEE). The aim is to improve their environmental behavior after their withdrawal in the End-of-Life (EOL) phase. In the beginning data collection takes place. Then follows selection and implementation of the optimal EOL Treatment Strategy (EOL_TS) and its results- evaluation concerning the environment. In parallel, product design characteristics that can be altered are selected based on their significance for the environment in the EOL stage. All results from the previous stages are combined and possible redesign actions are formulated for further examination and afterwards configuration in the design stage. The applied method to perform these tasks is Lean Thinking (LT). At the end, results concerning the application of the proposed method on a distribution transformer are presented.

Keywords: End-of-life treatment, Lean thinking, WEEE

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352 Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature Trends in Sefid-Roud Basin

Authors: Amir Gandomkar, Tahereh Soltani Gord faramarzi, Parisa Safaripour Chafi, Abdol-Reza Amani

Abstract:

Temperature, humidity and precipitation in an area, are parameters proved influential in the climate of that area, and one should recognize them so that he can determine the climate of that area. Climate changes are of primary importance in climatology, and in recent years, have been of great concern to researchers and even politicians and organizations, for they can play an important role in social, political and economic activities. Even though the real cause of climate changes or their stability is not yet fully recognized, they are a matter of concern to researchers and their importance for countries has prompted them to investigate climate changes in different levels, especially in regional, national and continental level. This issue has less been investigated in our country. However, in recent years, there have been some researches and conferences on climate changes. This study is also in line with such researches and tries to investigate and analyze the trends of climate changes (temperature and precipitation) in Sefid-roud (the name of a river) basin. Three parameters of mean annual precipitation, temperature, and maximum and minimum temperatures in 36 synoptic and climatology stations in a statistical period of 49 years (1956-2005) in the stations of Sefid-roud basin were analyzed by Mann-Kendall test. The results obtained by data analysis show that climate changes are short term and have a trend. The analysis of mean temperature revealed that changes have a significantly rising trend, besides the precipitation has a significantly falling trend.

Keywords: Trend, Climate changes, Sefid-roud, Mann-Kendall

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351 Effects of Electric Potential on Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Hollow Cylinder under Non-Axisymmetric Loads

Authors: Amir Atrian, Javad Jafari Fesharaki, Gh. Hossein Majzoobi, Mahsa Sheidaee

Abstract:

The analytical solution of functionally graded piezoelectric hollow cylinder which is under radial electric potential and non-axisymmetric thermo-mechanical loads, are presented in this paper. Using complex Fourier series and estimation of power law for variations of material characterizations through the thickness, the electro thermo mechanical behavior of the FGPM cylinder is obtained. The stress and displacement distributions and the effect of electric potential field on the cylinder behavior are also presented and some applicable results are offered at the end of the paper.

Keywords: Analytical, FGM, Fourier series, Non-axisymmetric, Piezoelectric, Thermo-elasticity

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350 An Exact MCNP Modeling of Pebble Bed Reactors

Authors: Amin Abedi, Naser Vosoughi, Mohammad Bagher Ghofrani

Abstract:

Double heterogeneity of randomly located pebbles in the core and Coated Fuel Particles (CFPs) in the pebbles are specific features in pebble bed reactors and usually, because of difficulty to model with MCNP code capabilities, are neglected. In this study, characteristics of HTR-10, Tsinghua University research reactor, are used and not only double heterogeneous but also truncated CFPs and Pebbles are considered.Firstly, 8335 CFPs are distributed randomly in a pebble and then the core of reactor is filled with those pebbles and graphite pebbles as moderator such that 57:43 ratio of fuel and moderator pebbles is established.Finally, four different core configurations are modeled. They are Simple Cubic (SC) structure with truncated pebbles,SC structure without truncated pebble, and Simple Hexagonal(SH) structure without truncated pebbles and SH structure with truncated pebbles. Results like effective multiplication factor (Keff), critical height,etc. are compared with available data.

Keywords: Double Heterogeneity, HTR-10, MCNP, Pebble Bed Reactor, Stochastic Geometry.

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349 The Effect of Glucogenic and Lipogenic Diets on Blood Metabolites of Baloochi Sheep

Authors: Alireza Vakili, Ali Mortezaee, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran

Abstract:

The aim of present study was to assess the effect of glucogenic (G) and lipogenic (L) diets on blood metabolites in Baloochi lambs. Three rumen cannulated Baloochi sheep were used as a 3×3 Latin square design with 3 periods (28 days). Experimental diets were a glucogenic, a lipogenic and a mixture of G and L diets (50:50). The animals were fed diets consisted of 50% chopped alfalfa hay and 50% concentrate. Diets were fed once daily ad libitum. Blood samples were taken from jugular vein before the feeding, 2, 4 and 6 hour post feeding at day 27. Results indicated that β- hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), glucose, insulin and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were not affected by treatments (P > 0.05). However, lipogenic diet increased significantly activity of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and concentration of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) in blood plasma (P < 0.05)

Keywords: glucogenic, lipogenic, blood metabolites

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348 One scheme of Transition Probability Evaluation

Authors: Alexander B. Bichkov, Alla A. Mityureva, Valery V. Smirnov

Abstract:

In present work are considered the scheme of evaluation the transition probability in quantum system. It is based on path integral representation of transition probability amplitude and its evaluation by means of a saddle point method, applied to the part of integration variables. The whole integration process is reduced to initial value problem solutions of Hamilton equations with a random initial phase point. The scheme is related to the semiclassical initial value representation approaches using great number of trajectories. In contrast to them from total set of generated phase paths only one path for each initial coordinate value is selected in Monte Karlo process.

Keywords: Path integral, saddle point method, semiclassical approximation, transition probability

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347 Optical Analysis of Variable Aperture Mechanism for a Solar Reactor

Authors: Akanksha Menon, Nesrin Ozalp

Abstract:

Solar energy is not only sustainable but also a clean alternative to be used as source of high temperature heat for many processes and power generation. However, the major drawback of solar energy is its transient nature. Especially in solar thermochemical processing, it is crucial to maintain constant or semiconstant temperatures inside the solar reactor. In our laboratory, we have developed a mechanism allowing us to achieve semi-constant temperature inside the solar reactor. In this paper, we introduce the concept along with some updated designs and provide the optical analysis of the concept under various incoming flux.

Keywords: Aperture, Solar reactor, Optical analysis, Solar thermal

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346 The effects of Garlic Oil (Allium sativa), Turmeric Powder (Curcuma longa Linn) and Monensin on Total Apparent Digestibility of Nutrients in Baloochi Lambs

Authors: Ahmad Khalesizadeh, Alireza Vakili, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran, Reza Valizadeh

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of garlic oil (Allium sativa), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa Linn) and Monensin on Total apparent digestibility of nutrients in Baloochi lambs. The experiment was designed as a 4 x 4 Latin square using 4 ruminally baloochi lambs with 4 treatments in four 28-d periods. Treatments were control (no additive), garlic oil (0. 4 g/d), monensin (0. 2 g/d) and turmeric powder (20 g/d). Total apparent digestibility's (% of intake) of organic matter (OM), dry matter (DM), crud protein (CP), ether extract(EE), non fiber carbohydrate (NFC), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in the total tract were not influenced by addition of either additives.

Keywords: apparent digestibility, essential oil, garlic oil, monensin, turmeric

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345 Investigating the Effect of Uncertainty on a LP Model of a Petrochemical Complex: Stability Analysis Approach

Authors: Abdallah Al-Shammari

Abstract:

This study discusses the effect of uncertainty on production levels of a petrochemical complex. Uncertainly or variations in some model parameters, such as prices, supply and demand of materials, can affect the optimality or the efficiency of any chemical process. For any petrochemical complex with many plants, there are many sources of uncertainty and frequent variations which require more attention. Many optimization approaches are proposed in the literature to incorporate uncertainty within the model in order to obtain a robust solution. In this work, a stability analysis approach is applied to a deterministic LP model of a petrochemical complex consists of ten plants to investigate the effect of such variations on the obtained optimal production levels. The proposed approach can determinate the allowable variation ranges of some parameters, mainly objective or RHS coefficients, before the system lose its optimality. Parameters with relatively narrow range of variations, i.e. stability limits, are classified as sensitive parameters or constraints that need accurate estimate or intensive monitoring. These stability limits offer easy-to-use information to the decision maker and help in understanding the interaction between some model parameters and deciding when the system need to be re-optimize. The study shows that maximum production of ethylene and the prices of intermediate products are the most sensitive factors that affect the stability of the optimum solution

Keywords: Linear programming, Petrochemicals, stability analysis, uncertainty

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344 Design of Medical Information Storage System – ECG Signal

Authors: A. Rubiano F, N. Olarte, D. Lara

Abstract:

This paper presents the design, implementation and results related to the storage system of medical information associated to the ECG (Electrocardiography) signal. The system includes the signal acquisition modules, the preprocessing and signal processing, followed by a module of transmission and reception of the signal, along with the storage and web display system of the medical platform. The tests were initially performed with this signal, with the purpose to include more biosignal under the same system in the future.

Keywords: Acquisition, ECG Signal, Storage, Web Platform

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343 Transformation Building of Micro- Entrepreneurs: A Conceptual Model

Authors: Abu Bakar Sedek Abdul Jamak, Saridan Abu Bakar, Zulkipli Ghazali, Roselind Wan

Abstract:

The majority of micro-entrepreneurs in Malaysia operate very small-scaled business activities such as food stalls, burger stalls, night market hawkers, grocery stores, constructions, rubber and oil palm small holders, and other agro-based services and activities. Why are they venturing into entrepreneurship - is it for survival, out of interest or due to encouragement and assistance from the local government? And why is it that some micro-entrepreneurs are lagging behind in entrepreneurship, and what do they need to rectify this situation so that they are able to progress further? Furthermore, what are the skills that the micro entrepreneurs should developed to transform them into successful micro-enterprises and become small and medium-sized enterprises (SME)? This paper proposes a 7-Step approach that can serve as a basis for identification of critical entrepreneurial success factors that enable policy makers, practitioners, consultants, training managers and other agencies in developing tools to assist micro business owners. This paper also highlights the experience of one of the successful companies in Malaysia that has transformed from micro-enterprise to become a large organization in less than 10 years.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Micro-entrepreneurs, Transformation, Customers

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342 Analysis of Driving Conditions and Preferred Media on Diversion

Authors: Yoon-Hyuk Choi

Abstract:

Studies on the distribution of traffic demands have been proceeding by providing traffic information for reducing greenhouse gases and reinforcing the road's competitiveness in the transport section, however, since it is preferentially required the extensive studies on the driver's behavior changing routes and its influence factors, this study has been developed a discriminant model for changing routes considering driving conditions including traffic conditions of roads and driver's preferences for information media. It is divided into three groups depending on driving conditions in group classification with the CART analysis, which is statistically meaningful. And the extent that driving conditions and preferred media affect a route change is examined through a discriminant analysis, and it is developed a discriminant model equation to predict a route change. As a result of building the discriminant model equation, it is shown that driving conditions affect a route change much more, the entire discriminant hit ratio is derived as 64.2%, and this discriminant equation shows high discriminant ability more than a certain degree.

Keywords: CART analysis, Diversion, Discriminant model, Driving conditions, and preferred media

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341 A High Order Theory for Functionally Graded Shell

Authors: V. V. Zozulya

Abstract:

New theory for functionally graded (FG) shell based on expansion of the equations of elasticity for functionally graded materials (GFMs) into Legendre polynomials series has been developed. Stress and strain tensors, vectors of displacements, traction and body forces have been expanded into Legendre polynomials series in a thickness coordinate. In the same way functions that describe functionally graded relations has been also expanded. Thereby all equations of elasticity including Hook-s law have been transformed to corresponding equations for Fourier coefficients. Then system of differential equations in term of displacements and boundary conditions for Fourier coefficients has been obtained. Cases of the first and second approximations have been considered in more details. For obtained boundary-value problems solution finite element (FE) has been used of Numerical calculations have been done with Comsol Multiphysics and Matlab.

Keywords: Shell, FEM, FGM, legendre polynomial.

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340 Chip Formation during Turning Multiphase Microalloyed Steel

Authors: V.Sivaraman, S. Sankaran, L. Vijayaraghavan

Abstract:

Machining through turning was carried out in a lathe to study the chip formation of Multiphase Ferrite (F-B-M) microalloyed steel. Taguchi orthogonal array was employed to perform the machining. Continuous and discontinuous chips were formed for different cutting parameters like speed, feed and depth of cut. Optical and scanning electron microscope was employed to identify the chip morphology.

Keywords: Multiphase microalloyed steel, chip formation, Taguchi technique, turning, cutting parameters

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339 Virtual Environment Design Guidelines for Elderly People in Early Detection of Dementia

Authors: Syadiah Nor Wan Shamsuddin, Valerie Lesk , Hassan Ugail

Abstract:

Early detection of dementia by testing the spatial memory can be applied using a virtual environment. This paper presents guidelines on how to design a virtual environment specifically for elderly in early detection of dementia. The specific design needs to be considered because the effectiveness of the technology relies on the ability of the end user to use it. The primary goal of these guidelines is to promote accessibility. Based on these guidelines, a virtual simulation was developed and evaluated. The results on usability of acceptance and satisfaction that are tested on young (control group) and elderly participants indicate that these guidelines are reliable and useful for use with elderly people.

Keywords: Virtual Environment, spatial memory, design, guidelines

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338 From F2F to Online Sessions: Changing Pattern of Instructions in Open and Distance Learning in India

Authors: Subramaniam Chandran

Abstract:

This paper presents an assessment study conducted among the distance learners in India. Open and distance learning systems have traveled a long way since its inception and its journey has witnessed the evolution and adoption of different generations of technology. This study focuses on the distant learners in India. Sampling for this study has been derived from the mass enrollment from Tamil Nadu area, a southern state of India. Learners were chosen from dual mode universities, private universities, Tamil Nadu Open University and IGNOU. The main focus of the study is to examine the coverage and appropriation of students support services and learning aids. It explores two aspects: the facilities available and the awareness and use of such services. It includes, self-learning materials, face-to-face counseling, multimedia learning materials, website, e-learning, radio and television services etc. While exploring the student-s perspective on these learning aspects, it is important to understand the perspectives of the teachers. Two different interests are visible among the teachers. Majority of the teachers support faceto- face counseling. However, the young teachers are in favour of online learning and multimedia supports in teaching. Through the awareness is somewhat high, the actual participation in online is very low. This is due to the inadequate infrastructure as well as the traditional attitudes of the teachers. Still the face-to-face sessions remain popular than online.

Keywords: Face-to-face session, online session, distance learning, multimedia

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337 Effective Security Method for Wireless LAN using Life-Cycle of Wireless Access Point

Authors: Soon-Tai Park, Haeryong Park, Myoung-sun Noh, Yoo-Jae Won

Abstract:

There are many expand of Wi-Fi zones provided mobile careers and usage of wireless access point at home as increase of usage of wireless internet caused by the use of smart phone. This paper shows wireless local area network status, security threats of WLAN and functionality of major wireless access point in Korea. We propose security countermeasures concerned with life cycle of access point from manufacturing to installation, using and finally disposal. There needed to releasing with configured secure at access point. Because, it is most cost effective resolution than stage of installation or other life cycle of access point.

Keywords: Wireless LAN Security, Wi-Fi Security, Wireless Access Point, Product Life-Cycle

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336 An Analysis of Users- Cognition Difference on Urban Design Elements in Waterfronts

Authors: Sook-Yeon Shim, Hwan-Su Seo, Tae-Hyun Kim, Hongkyu Kim

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to identify ideal urban design elements of waterfronts and to analyze the differences in users- cognition among these elements. This study follows three steps as following: first is identifying the urban design elements of waterfronts from literature review and second is evaluating intended users- cognition of urban design elements in urban waterfronts. Lastly, third is analyzing the users- cognition differences. As the result, evaluations of waterfront areas by users show similar features that non-waterfront urban design elements contain the highest degree of importance. This indicates the difference of users- cognition has dimensions of frequency and distance, and demonstrates differences in the aspect of importance than of satisfaction. Multi-Dimensional Scaling Method verifies differences among their cognition. This study provides elements to increase satisfaction of users from differences of their cognition on design elements for waterfronts. It also suggests implications on elements when waterfronts are built.

Keywords: Cognition Difference, , Multi-Dimensional Scaling , Urban Design Elements , Waterfront

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335 A New Precautionary Method for Measurement and Improvement the Data Quality

Authors: Seyed Mohammad Hossein Moossavizadeh, Mehran Mohsenzadeh, Nasrin Arshadi

Abstract:

the data quality is a kind of complex and unstructured concept, which is concerned by information systems managers. The reason of this attention is the high amount of Expenses for maintenance and cleaning of the inefficient data. Such a data more than its expenses of lack of quality, cause wrong statistics, analysis and decisions in organizations. Therefor the managers intend to improve the quality of their information systems' data. One of the basic subjects of quality improvement is the evaluation of the amount of it. In this paper, we present a precautionary method, which with its application the data of information systems would have a better quality. Our method would cover different dimensions of data quality; therefor it has necessary integrity. The presented method has tested on three dimensions of accuracy, value-added and believability and the results confirm the improvement and integrity of this method.

Keywords: Data quality, precaution, information system, measurement, improvement.

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334 Feasibility Analysis Studies on New National R&D Programs in Korea

Authors: Seongmin Yim, Hyun-Kyu Kang

Abstract:

As a part of evaluation system for R&D program, the Korean government has applied feasibility analysis since 2008. Various professionals put forth a great effort in order to catch up the high degree of freedom of R&D programs, and make contributions to evolving the feasibility analysis. We analyze diverse R&D programs from various viewpoints, such as technology, policy, and Economics, integrate the separate analysis, and finally arrive at a definite result; whether a program is feasible or unfeasible. This paper describes the concept and method of the feasibility analysis as a decision making tool. The analysis unit and content of each criterion, which are key elements in a comprehensive decision making structure, are examined

Keywords: Decision Making of New Government R&D Program, Feasibility Analysis Study

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333 The Effect of Relaxation Training on First Year Nursing Students Anxiety in Clinical Setting

Authors: S. Ahmadnejad, Z. Monjamed, M. Pakravannejad, A. Malekian

Abstract:

The investigating and assessing the effects of relaxation training on the levels of state anxiety concerning first year female nursing students at their initial experience in clinical setting. This research is a quasi experimental study that was carried out in nursing and midwifery faculty of Tehran university of medical sciences .The sample of research consists 60 first term female nursing students were selected through convenience and random sampling. 30 of them were the experimental group and 30 of them were in control group. The Instruments of data-collection has been a questionnaire which consists of 3 parts. The first part includes 10 questions about demographic characteristics .the second part includes 20 question about anxiety (test 'Spielberg' ). The 3rd part includes physiological indicators of anxiety (BP, P, R, body temperature). The statistical tests included t-test and  and fisher test, Data were analyzed by SPSS software.

Keywords: Anxiety, Nursing students, Relaxation

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332 A Systematic Approach for Design a Low-Cost Mobility Assistive Device for Elderly People

Authors: Omar Salah, Ahmed A. Ramadan, Salvatore Sessa, Ahmed A. Abo-Ismail

Abstract:

Walking and sit to stand are activities carried out by all the people many times during the day, but physical disabilities due to age and diseases create needs of assistive devices to help elderly people during their daily life. This study aims to study the different types and mechanisms of the assistive devices. We will analyze the limitations and the challenges faced by the researchers in this field. We will introduce the Assistive Device developed at the Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology, named E-JUST Assistive Device (EJAD). EJAD will be a low cost intelligent assistive device to help elders in walking and sit-to-stand activities.

Keywords: Active walker, Assistive robotics, Standing Assistance, Walking Assistance

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331 Ultrasonic Intensification of the Chemical Degradation of Methyl Violet: An Experimental Study

Authors: N. P. Dhanalakshmi, R. Nagarajan

Abstract:

The sonochemical decolorization and degradation of azo dye Methyl violet using Fenton-s reagent in the presence of a high-frequency acoustic field has been investigated. Dyeing and textile effluents are the major sources of azo dyes, and are most troublesome among industrial wastewaters, causing imbalance in the eco-system. The effect of various operating conditions (initial concentration of dye, liquid-phase temperature, ultrasonic power and frequency and process time) on sonochemical degradation was investigated. Conversion was found to increase with increase in initial concentration, temperature, power level and frequency. Both horntype and tank-type sonicators were used, at various power levels (250W, 400W and 500W) for frequencies ranging from 20 kHz - 1000 kHz. A 'Process Intensification' parameter PI, was defined to quantify the enhancement of the degradation reaction by ultrasound when compared to control (i.e., without ultrasound). The present work clearly demonstrates that a high-frequency ultrasonic bath can be used to achieve higher process throughput and energy efficiency at a larger scale of operation.

Keywords: Fenton oxidation, process intensification, sonochemical degradation of MV, ultrasonic frequency.

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330 Next Generation IP Address Transition Mechanism for Web Application System

Authors: Mohd. Khairil Sailan, Rosilah Hassan, Zuhaizal Zulkifli

Abstract:

Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) address is decreasing and a rapid transition method to the next generation IP address (IPv6) should be established. This study aims to evaluate and select the best performance of the IPv6 address network transitionmechanisms, such as IPv4/IPv6 dual stack, transport Relay Translation (TRT) and Reverse Proxy with additional features. It is also aim to prove that faster access can be done while ensuring optimal usage of available resources used during the test and actual implementation. This study used two test methods such asInternet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)ping and ApacheBenchmark (AB) methodsto evaluate the performance.Performance metrics for this study include aspects ofaverageaccessin one second,time takenfor singleaccess,thedata transfer speed and the costof additional requirements.Reverse Proxy with Caching featureis the most efficientmechanism because of it simpler configurationandthe best performerfrom the test conducted.

Keywords: IPv4, IPv6, network transition, apache benchmark andreverse proxy

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329 The Effect of High-speed Milling on Surface Roughness of Hardened Tool Steel

Authors: Manop Vorasri, Komson Jirapattarasilp, Sittichai Kaewkuekool

Abstract:

The objective of this research was to study factors, which were affected on surface roughness in high speed milling of hardened tool steel. Material used in the experiment was tool steel JIS SKD 61 that hardened on 60 ±2 HRC. Full factorial experimental design was conducted on 3 factors and 3 levels (3 3 designs) with 2 replications. Factors were consisted of cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut. The results showed that influenced factor affected to surface roughness was cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut which showed statistical significant. Higher cutting speed would cause on better surface quality. On the other hand, higher feed rate would cause on poorer surface quality. Interaction of factor was found that cutting speed and depth of cut were significantly to surface quality. The interaction of high cutting speed associated with low depth of cut affected to better surface quality than low cutting speed and high depth of cut.

Keywords: High-speed milling, Tool steel, SKD 61 Steel, Surface roughness, Cutting speed, Feed rate, Depth of cut

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328 Culturally Enhanced Collaborative Filtering

Authors: Mahboobe Zardosht, Nasser Ghasem-Aghaee

Abstract:

We propose an enhanced collaborative filtering method using Hofstede-s cultural dimensions, calculated for 111 countries. We employ 4 of these dimensions, which are correlated to the costumers- buying behavior, in order to detect users- preferences for items. In addition, several advantages of this method demonstrated for data sparseness and cold-start users, which are important challenges in collaborative filtering. We present experiments using a real dataset, Book Crossing Dataset. Experimental results shows that the proposed algorithm provide significant advantages in terms of improving recommendation quality.

Keywords: Collaborative filtering, Cross-cultural, E-commerce, Recommender systems

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327 Identification of Aquatic and Semi aquatic Birds of Sattarkhan Lake (East Azerbaijan- Iran)

Authors: Mahbobeh Hajirostamloo

Abstract:

Aquatic and semi aquatic birds as a group are suited to feed and breed in environments in which water forms a fundamental part. These birds are biological indicator in aquatic environment, because these birds belong to the top level of food chain in aquatic ecosystems. There are 61 species in 14 families of aquatic and semi aquatic birds in Iran. The birds of the Sattarkhan Lake belong to 16 species in 8 families which include 26.2 percent of total Aquatic and semi aquatic bird species and 57% of Aquatic and semi aquatic bird's family of Iran. Study was carried out monthly at Sattarkhan Lake show the existence of Phalacrocorax carbo, Ardea cinerea, Egretta alba, Egretta garzetta, Bubulcus ibis, Botaurus stellaris, Sterna hirundo, Chlidonias leucopterus, Larus minutus, Larus argentatus, Larus ridibunbus, Alcedo atthis, Ciconia ciconia, Plegadis falcinellus, Circus aeruginosus, Corvus frugilegus

Keywords: Aquatic bird, Sattarkhan Lake, Identification, Iran

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326 Promoting Complex Systems Learning through the use of Computer Modeling

Authors: Kamel Hashem, David Mioduser

Abstract:

This paper describes part of a project about Learningby- Modeling (LbM). Studying complex systems is increasingly important in teaching and learning many science domains. Many features of complex systems make it difficult for students to develop deep understanding. Previous research indicates that involvement with modeling scientific phenomena and complex systems can play a powerful role in science learning. Some researchers argue with this view indicating that models and modeling do not contribute to understanding complexity concepts, since these increases the cognitive load on students. This study will investigate the effect of different modes of involvement in exploring scientific phenomena using computer simulation tools, on students- mental model from the perspective of structure, behavior and function. Quantitative and qualitative methods are used to report about 121 freshmen students that engaged in participatory simulations about complex phenomena, showing emergent, self-organized and decentralized patterns. Results show that LbM plays a major role in students' concept formation about complexity concepts.

Keywords: Complexity, Educational technology, Learning by modeling, Mental models

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325 Natural Flickering of Methane Diffusion Flames

Authors: K. R. V. Manikantachari, Vasudevan Raghavan, K. Srinivasan

Abstract:

Present study focuses on studying the oscillatory behavior of jet diffusion flames. At a particular jet exit velocity, the flames are seen to exhibit natural flickering. Initially the flickering process is not continuous. In this transition region as well as in the continuous flickering regime, the flickering displays multiple frequency oscillations. The response of the flame to the exit velocity profile of the burner is also studied using three types of burners. The entire range of natural flickering is investigated by capturing high speed digital images and processing them using a MATLAB code.

Keywords: Diffusion flames, Natural flickering, flickering frequency, intermittent flickering

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324 Cardiac Function and Morphological Adaptations in Endurance and Resistance Athletes: Evaluation using a new Method

Authors: K. Hosseini, MD., R. Mazaheri, MD., H.R. Khoddami Vishteh, MD., M.A. Mansournia, MD., H. Angoorani, MD

Abstract:

Background: Tissue Doppler Echocardiography (TDE) assesses diastolic function more accurately than routine pulse Doppler echo. Assessment of the effects of dynamic and static exercises on the heart by using TDE can provides new information about the athlete-s heart syndrome. Methods: This study was conducted on 20 elite wrestlers, 14 endurance runners at national level and 21 non-athletes as the control group. Participants underwent two-dimensional echocardiography, standard Doppler and TDE. Results: Wrestlers had the highest left ventricular mass index, enddiastolic inter-ventricular septum thickness and left ventricular Posterior wall thickness. Runners had the highest Left ventricular end-diastolic volume, LV ejection fraction, stroke volume and cardiac output. In TDE, the early diastolic velocity of mitral annulus to the late diastolic velocity ratio in athletic groups was greater than the controls with no significant difference. Conclusion: In spite of cardiac morphological changes in athletes, TDE shows that cardiac diastolic function won-t be adversely affected.

Keywords: Tissue Doppler Echocardiography, Diastolic function, Athlete's heart syndrome, Static exercise, Dynamic exercise

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323 Towards an Integrated Proposal for Performance Measurement Indicators (Financial and Operational) in Advanced Production Practices

Authors: José A. D. Machuca, Bernabé Escobar-Pérez, Pedro Garrido Vega, Darkys E. Lujan García

Abstract:

Starting with an analysis of the financial and operational indicators that can be found in the specialised literature, this study aims to contribute to improvements in the performance measurement systems used when the unit of analysis is the manufacturing plant. For this a search was done in the highest impact Journals of Production and Operations Management and Management Accounting , with the aim of determining the financial and operational indicators used to evaluate performance when Advanced Production Practices have been implemented, more specifically when the practices implemented are Total Quality Management, JIT/Lean Manufacturing and Total Productive Maintenance. This has enabled us to obtain a classification of the two types of indicators based on how much each is used. For the financial indicators we have also prepared a proposal that can be adapted to manufacturing plants- accounting features. In the near future we will propose a model that links practices implementation with financial and operational indicators and these two last with each other. We aim to will test this model empirically with the data obtained in the High Performance Manufacturing Project.

Keywords: Advanced Production Practices, Financial Indicators, Non-Financial Indicators

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322 CACSC tool for Automatic Design of Robust Controllers for Hydropower Plants

Authors: Jose J.CarreñoZagarra, Rodolfo Villamizar Mejía

Abstract:

This work describes a CACSD tool for automatic design of robust controllers for hydraulic turbines. The tool calculates the optimal  controller using the MATLAB hinfopt function and it serves as a practical and effective solution for the laborious task of designing a different controller for each type of turbine and generator, and different parameters and conditions of the plant. Results of the simulation of a generating unit subject to parameters variation show the accuracy and efficiency of the obtained robust controllers.

Keywords: Robust Control, Hydroelectric System Turbine, Control H∞, CACSD

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321 A Model of a Heat Radiation on a Mould Surface in the Car Industry

Authors: J. Mlýnek, R. Srb

Abstract:

This article is focused on the calculation of heat radiation intensity and its optimization on an aluminum mould surface. The inside of the mould is sprinkled with a special powder and its outside is heated by infra heaters located above the mould surface, up to a temperature of 250°C. By this way artificial leathers in the car industry are produced (e. g. the artificial leather on a car dashboard). A mathematical model of heat radiation of infra heaters on a mould surface is described in this paper. This model allows us to calculate a heat-intensity radiation on the mould surface for the concrete location of infra heaters above the mould surface. It is necessary to ensure approximately the same heat intensity radiation on the mould surface by finding a suitable location for the infra heaters, and in this way the same material structure and color of artificial leather. In the model we have used a genetic algorithm to optimize the radiation intensity on the mould surface. Experimental measured values for the heat radiation intensity by a sensor in the surroundings of an infra heater are used for the calculation procedures. A computational procedure was programmed in language Matlab.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, mathematical model of heat radiation, optimization of radiation intensity, software implementation

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320 The Analysis of the Impact of Urbanization on Urban Meteorology from Urban Growth Management Perspective

Authors: Hansung Wan, Hyungkwan Cho, Kiho Sung, Hongkyu Kim

Abstract:

The amount of urban artificial heat which affects the urban temperature rise in urban meteorology was investigated in order to clarify the relationships between urbanization and urban meteorology in this study. The results of calculation to identify how urban temperate was increased through the establishment of a model for measuring the amount of urban artificial heat and theoretical testing revealed that the amount of urban artificial heat increased urban temperature by plus or minus 0.23 ˚ C in 2007 compared with 1996, statistical methods (correlation and regression analysis) to clarify the relationships between urbanization and urban weather were as follows. New design techniques and urban growth management are necessary from urban growth management point of view suggested from this research at city design phase to decrease urban temperature rise and urban torrential rain which can produce urban disaster in terms of urban meteorology by urbanization.

Keywords: The amount of urban artificial heat, Urban growth management, Urbanization, Urban meteorology

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319 Protein Production by Bacillus Subtilis Atcc 21332 in the Presence of Cymbopogon Essential Oils

Authors: Hanina M. N., Hairul Shahril M., Mohd Fazrullah Innsan M. F., Ismatul Nurul Asyikin I., Abdul Jalil A. K, Salina M. R., Ahmad I.B.

Abstract:

Proteins levels produced by bacteria may be increased in stressful surroundings, such as in the presence of antibiotics. It appears that many antimicrobial agents or antibiotics, when used at low concentrations, have in common the ability to activate or repress gene transcription, which is distinct from their inhibitory effect. There have been comparatively few studies on the potential of antibiotics or natural compounds in nature as a specific chemical signal that can trigger a variety of biological functions. Therefore, this study was focusing on the effect of essential oils from Cymbopogon flexuosus and C. nardus in regulating proteins production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 21332. The Minimum Inhibition Concentrations (MICs) of both essential oils on B. subtilis were determined by using microdilution assay, resulting 0.2% and 1.56% for each C. flexuosus and C. nardus subsequently. The bacteria were further exposed to each essential oils at concentration of 0.01XMIC for 2 days. The proteins were then isolated and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Protein profile showed that a band with approximate size of 250 kD was appeared for the treated bacteria with essential oils. Thus, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 21332 in stressful condition with the presence of essential oils at low concentration could induce the protein production.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis ATCC 21332, Cymbopogon essential oils, protein

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318 TSM: A Design Pattern to Make Ad-hoc BPMs Easy and Inexpensive in Workflow-aware MISs

Authors: Haitao Yang

Abstract:

Despite so many years- development, the mainstream of workflow solutions from IT industries has not made ad-hoc workflow-support easy or inexpensive in MIS. Moreover, most of academic approaches tend to make their resulted BPM (Business Process Management) more complex and clumsy since they used to necessitate modeling workflow. To cope well with various ad-hoc or casual requirements on workflows while still keeping things simple and inexpensive, the author puts forth first the TSM design pattern that can provide a flexible workflow control while minimizing demand of predefinitions and modeling workflow, which introduces a generic approach for building BPM in workflow-aware MISs (Management Information Systems) with low development and running expenses.

Keywords: Ad-hoc workflow, BPM, Design pattern, TSM

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317 An Effective Method for Audio Translation between IAX and RSW Protocols

Authors: Hadeel S. Haj Aliwi, Saleh A. Alomari, Putra Sumari

Abstract:

Nowadays, Multimedia Communication has been developed and improved rapidly in order to enable users to communicate between each other over the Internet. In general, the multimedia communication consists of audio and video communication. However, this paper focuses on audio streams. The audio translation between protocols is a very critical issue due to solving the communication problems between any two protocols, as well as it enables people around the world to talk with each other at anywhere and anytime even they use different protocols. In this paper, a proposed method for an audio translation module between two protocols has been presented. These two protocols are InterAsterisk eXchange Protocol (IAX) and Real Time Switching Control Protocol (RSW), which they are widely used to provide two ways audio transfer feature. The result of this work is to introduce possibility of interworking together.

Keywords: Multimedia, VoIP, Interworking, InterAsterisk eXchange Protocol (IAX), Real Time Switching Control Criteria (REW)

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316 An Improved Fast Video Clip Search Algorithm for Copy Detection using Histogram-based Features

Authors: Feifei Lee, Qiu Chen, Koji Kotani, Tadahiro Ohmi

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an improved fast and robust search algorithm for copy detection using histogram-based features for short MPEG video clips from large video database. There are two types of histogram features used to generate more robust features. The first one is based on the adjacent pixel intensity difference quantization (APIDQ) algorithm, which had been reliably applied to human face recognition previously. An APIDQ histogram is utilized as the feature vector of the frame image. Another one is ordinal histogram feature which is robust to color distortion. Furthermore, by Combining with a temporal division method, the spatial and temporal features of the video sequence are integrated to realize fast and robust video search for copy detection. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm can detect the similar video clip more accurately and robust than conventional fast video search algorithm.

Keywords: Fast search, Copy detection, Adjacent pixel intensity difference quantization (APIDQ), DC image, Histogram feature.

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315 The Effects on the People's Preference on the Cityscape by the Spatial Characteristics of the Streetscape-Centered on 'Design Seoul Street'-

Authors: Eun-JungKo, Bur-Deul Yoon, Sung-Won Choi, Hong-Kyu Kim

Abstract:

Jacobs, A.B. (1993) stated that "When I think of a city, the first thing that comes to mind is the street. If the street is interesting, the rest of the city is interesting. If the street is mundane, the city is also mundane." In this statement, he expresses the importance of the streetscape and the street environment. The objective of this paper is to analyze the spatial relationships of the streetscape that affect the general public's preference of the cityscape. Furthermore, this research focuses on the important role that streetscape plays in public perception of the city by the pedestrians who experience it daily. The subject of this paper is eight of the "Design Seoul Street."The analysis and survey results show the preference criteria that affect the streetscape and ultimately the cityscape. This research endeavor shows that differences in physical form, shape, size, color, locations, and context are important.

Keywords: Cityscape, Design Seoul Street, street, streetscape.

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314 A Proposed Managerial Framework for International Marketing Operations in the Fast Food Industry

Authors: Emmanuel Selase Asamoah, Miloslava Chovancová

Abstract:

When choosing marketing strategies for international markets, one of the factors that should be considered is the cultural differences that exist among consumers in different countries. If the branding strategy has to be contextual and in tune with the culture, then the brand positioning variables has to interact, adapt and respond to the cultural variables in which the brand is operating. This study provides an overview of the relevance of culture in the development of an effective branding strategy in the international business environment. Hence, the main objective of this study is to provide a managerial framework for developing strategies for cross cultural brand management. The framework is useful because it incorporates the variables that are important in the competitiveness of fast food enterprises irrespective of their size. It provides practical, proactive and result oriented analysis that will help fast food firms augment their strategies in the international fast food markets. The proposed framework will enable managers understand the intricacies involved in branding in the global fast food industry and decrease the use of 'trial and error' when entering into unfamiliar markets.

Keywords: culture, branding strategy, marketing mix, mass customization, standardization

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313 Data-driven ASIC for Multichannel Sensors

Authors: Eduard Atkin, Alexander Klyuev, Vitaly Shumikhin

Abstract:

An approach and its implementation in 0.18 m CMOS process of the multichannel ASIC for capacitive (up to 30 pF) sensors are described in the paper. The main design aim was to study an analog data-driven architecture. The design was done for an analog derandomizing function of the 128 to 16 structure. That means that the ASIC structure should provide a parallel front-end readout of 128 input analog sensor signals and after the corresponding fast commutation with appropriate arbitration logic their processing by means of 16 output chains, including analog-to-digital conversion. The principal feature of the ASIC is a low power consumption within 2 mW/channel (including a 9-bit 20Ms/s ADC) at a maximum average channel hit rate not less than 150 kHz.

Keywords: Data-driven architecture, derandomizer, multichannel sensor readout

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312 Development of Maximum Entropy Method for Prediction of Droplet-size Distribution in Primary Breakup Region of Spray

Authors: E. Movahednejad, F. Ommi

Abstract:

Droplet size distributions in the cold spray of a fuel are important in observed combustion behavior. Specification of droplet size and velocity distributions in the immediate downstream of injectors is also essential as boundary conditions for advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and two-phase spray transport calculations. This paper describes the development of a new model to be incorporated into maximum entropy principle (MEP) formalism for prediction of droplet size distribution in droplet formation region. The MEP approach can predict the most likely droplet size and velocity distributions under a set of constraints expressing the available information related to the distribution. In this article, by considering the mechanisms of turbulence generation inside the nozzle and wave growth on jet surface, it is attempted to provide a logical framework coupling the flow inside the nozzle to the resulting atomization process. The purpose of this paper is to describe the formulation of this new model and to incorporate it into the maximum entropy principle (MEP) by coupling sub-models together using source terms of momentum and energy. Comparison between the model prediction and experimental data for a gas turbine swirling nozzle and an annular spray indicate good agreement between model and experiment.

Keywords: Droplet, instability, Size Distribution, Turbulence, Maximum Entropy

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311 Conceptual Analysis of Correspondence between Plantar Pressure and Corrective Insoles

Authors: Diana Cotoros, Mihaela Baritz, Anca Stanciu

Abstract:

Some theoretical and experimental aspects related to the conceptual analyses concerning the direct correspondence identification between the shape, area and orientation of plantar pressure and obtaining adequate corrective insoles by rapid prototyping are presented in this paper. In the first part of the paper there is the theoretical-correlative concept, which is the fundament of correspondence deduction between plantar surface characteristics and respectively corrective insoles. In the second part of the paper the experimental equipment used to analyze and perform the correspondence stages and then the integral ones between the analyzed foot shapes and the ones with corrective insoles is presented. In the final parte the results used to adapt the insoles obtained by rapid prototyping but also some specific aspects and conclusions of the conceptual analysis of direct and rapid correspondence are shown.

Keywords: Insoles, plantar surface, rapid prototyping, correspondence concept

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310 EU Socioeconomic Indicators and Car Market

Authors: Christina Babatsou, Efthimios Zervas

Abstract:

Since 2008 a new economic crisis is present is the entire planet. This crisis affects several domains of the economic but also of the social life. Consumption decreases due to the lack of necessary resources of households to increase their expenditures. The car manufacturing is one of the main industrial activities in European Union (EU) and the present crisis particularly affects it. The present study examines the correlations between several socio-economic indicators and car market in European Union. The target is to find out the impact of the present economic crisis on the car market in EU.

Keywords: European Union, Passenger cars, Social indicators, Correlations

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309 Identification of Arousal and Relaxation by using SVM-Based Fusion of PPG Features

Authors: Chi Jung Kim, Mincheol Whang, Eui Chul Lee

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new method to distinguish between arousal and relaxation states by using multiple features acquired from a photoplethysmogram (PPG) and support vector machine (SVM). To induce arousal and relaxation states in subjects, 2 kinds of sound stimuli are used, and their corresponding biosignals are obtained using the PPG sensor. Two features–pulse to pulse interval (PPI) and pulse amplitude (PA)–are extracted from acquired PPG data, and a nonlinear classification between arousal and relaxation is performed using SVM. This methodology has several advantages when compared with previous similar studies. Firstly, we extracted 2 separate features from PPG, i.e., PPI and PA. Secondly, in order to improve the classification accuracy, SVM-based nonlinear classification was performed. Thirdly, to solve classification problems caused by generalized features of whole subjects, we defined each threshold according to individual features. Experimental results showed that the average classification accuracy was 74.67%. Also, the proposed method showed the better identification performance than the single feature based methods. From this result, we confirmed that arousal and relaxation can be classified using SVM and PPG features.

Keywords: Support Vector Machine, PPG, Emotion Recognition, Arousal, Relaxation

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308 The Internet, its Social and Ethical Problem to the Young and How Curriculum Can Address the Issue

Authors: R. Ramli

Abstract:

The impact of the information revolution is double edged. While it is applauded for its versatility and performance robustness and acclaimed for making life smooth and easy, on the other hand people are concerned about its dark side especially to younger generations. The education system should extend its educating role beyond the school to home. Parents should be included in forming the policies of Internet use as well as in the curriculum delivery. This paper discusses how curriculum can be instrumental in addressing social and ethical issues resulted from the Internet.

Keywords: Curriculum, Ethics, Internet Addiction, Social Issues

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307 Evolutionary Design of Polynomial Controller

Authors: R. Matousek, S. Lang, P. Minar, P. Pivonka

Abstract:

In the control theory one attempts to find a controller that provides the best possible performance with respect to some given measures of performance. There are many sorts of controllers e.g. a typical PID controller, LQR controller, Fuzzy controller etc. In the paper will be introduced polynomial controller with novel tuning method which is based on the special pole placement encoding scheme and optimization by Genetic Algorithms (GA). The examples will show the performance of the novel designed polynomial controller with comparison to common PID controller.

Keywords: Evolutionary design, Genetic algorithms, PID controller, Pole placement, Polynomial controller

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306 Hybrid Artificial Immune System for Job Shop Scheduling Problem

Authors: Bin Cai, Shilong Wang, Haibo Hu

Abstract:

The job shop scheduling problem (JSSP) is a notoriously difficult problem in combinatorial optimization. This paper presents a hybrid artificial immune system for the JSSP with the objective of minimizing makespan. The proposed approach combines the artificial immune system, which has a powerful global exploration capability, with the local search method, which can exploit the optimal antibody. The antibody coding scheme is based on the operation based representation. The decoding procedure limits the search space to the set of full active schedules. In each generation, a local search heuristic based on the neighborhood structure proposed by Nowicki and Smutnicki is applied to improve the solutions. The approach is tested on 43 benchmark problems taken from the literature and compared with other approaches. The computation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Artificial immune system, Job shop scheduling problem, Local search, Metaheuristic algorithm

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305 Analytical and Numerical Approaches in Coagulation of Particles

Authors: Bilal Barakeh

Abstract:

In this paper we discuss the effect of unbounded particle interaction operator on particle growth and we study how this can address the choice of appropriate time steps of the numerical simulation. We provide also rigorous mathematical proofs showing that large particles become dominating with increasing time while small particles contribute negligibly. Second, we discuss the efficiency of the algorithm by performing numerical simulations tests and by comparing the simulated solutions with some known analytic solutions to the Smoluchowski equation.

Keywords: Stochastic processes, coagulation of particles, numerical scheme.

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304 Municipal Solid Waste: Pre-Treatment Options and Benefits on Landfill Emissions

Authors: Bakare Babatunde Femi

Abstract:

Municipal solid waste (MSW) comprises of a wide range of heterogeneous materials generated by individual, household or organization and may include food waste, garden wastes, papers, textiles, rubbers, plastics, glass, ceramics, metals, wood wastes, construction wastes but it is not limited to the above mentioned fractions. The most common Municipal Solid Waste pretreatment method in use is thermal pretreatment (incineration) and Mechanical Biological pretreatment. This paper presents an overview of these two pretreatment methods describing their benefits and laboratory scale reactors that simulate landfill conditions were constructed in order to compare emissions in terms of biogas production and leachate contamination between untreated Municipal Solid Waste and Mechanical Biological Pretreated waste. The findings of this study showed that Mechanical Biological pretreatment of waste reduces the emission level of waste and the benefit over the landfilling of untreated waste is significant.

Keywords: emissions, mechanical biological pretreatment, MSW, thermal pretreatment

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303 Simulation Model for Predicting Dengue Fever Outbreak

Authors: Azmi Ibrahim, Nor Azan Mat Zin, Noraidah Sahari Ashaari

Abstract:

Dengue fever is prevalent in Malaysia with numerous cases including mortality recorded over the years. Public education on the prevention of the desease through various means has been carried out besides the enforcement of legal means to eradicate Aedes mosquitoes, the dengue vector breeding ground. Hence, other means need to be explored, such as predicting the seasonal peak period of the dengue outbreak and identifying related climate factors contributing to the increase in the number of mosquitoes. Simulation model can be employed for this purpose. In this study, we created a simulation of system dynamic to predict the spread of dengue outbreak in Hulu Langat, Selangor Malaysia. The prototype was developed using STELLA 9.1.2 software. The main data input are rainfall, temperature and denggue cases. Data analysis from the graph showed that denggue cases can be predicted accurately using these two main variables- rainfall and temperature. However, the model will be further tested over a longer time period to ensure its accuracy, reliability and efficiency as a prediction tool for dengue outbreak.

Keywords: dengue fever, prediction, system dynamic, simulation

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302 Characteristics of Intronic and Intergenic Human miRNAs and Features of their Interaction with mRNA

Authors: Assel S. Issabekova, Olga A. Berillo, Vladimir A. Khailenko, Shara A. Atambayeva, Mireille Regnier, Anatoly T. Ivachshenko

Abstract:

Regulatory relationships of 686 intronic miRNA and 784 intergenic miRNAs with mRNAs of 51 intronic miRNA coding genes were established. Interaction features of studied miRNAs with 5'UTR, CDS and 3'UTR of mRNA of each gene were revealed. Functional regions of mRNA were shown to be significantly heterogenous according to the number of binding sites of miRNA and to the location density of these sites.

Keywords: 5'UTR, 3'UTR, CDS, miRNA, target mRNA

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301 Experimentation on Piercing with Abrasive Waterjet

Authors: Johan Fredin, Anders Jönsson

Abstract:

Abrasive waterjet cutting (AWJ) is a highly efficient method for cutting almost any type of material. When holes shall be cut the waterjet first needs to pierce the material.This paper presents a vast experimental analysis of piercing parameters effect on piercing time. Results from experimentation on feed rates, work piece thicknesses, abrasive flow rates, standoff distances and water pressure are also presented as well as studies on three methods for dynamic piercing. It is shown that a large amount of time and resources can be saved by choosing the piercing parameters in a correct way. The large number of experiments puts demands on the experimental setup. An automated experimental setup including piercing detection is presented to enable large series of experiments to be carried out efficiently.

Keywords: Waterjet cutting, Piercing, Experimentation

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300 A Kinetic Study on the Adsorption of Cd(II) and Zn(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions on Zeolite NaA

Authors: Dimitar Georgiev, Bogdan Bogdanov, Irena Markovska, Yancho Hristov, Dencho Stanev

Abstract:

The present paper reports the removal of Cd(II) and Zn(II) ions using synthetic Zeolit NaA. The adsorption capacity of the sorbent (Zeolite NaA) strongly depends on simultaneous or not simultaneous (concurrent) presence of Cd(II) and Zn(II) in the sorbate. When Cd(II) and Zn(II) are present simultaneously (concurrently) in the sorbate, Zn(II) ions were sorbed at higher rate. Equilibrium data fitted Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isotherms well. The applicability of the isotherm equation to describe the adsorption process was judged by the correlation coefficients R2. The Langmuir model yielded the best fit with R2 values equal to or higher than 0.970, as compared to the Freundlich and Tempkin models. The fact that 1/n values range from 0.322 to 0.755 indicates that the adsorption of Cd(II) and Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions also favored by the Freundlich model.

Keywords: Adsorption, adsorption capacity, kinetic sorption, Zeolite NaA

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299 Simulation of Increased Ambient Ozone to Estimate Nutrient Content and Genetic Change in Two Thai Soybean Cultivars

Authors: Orose Rugchati, Kanita Thanacharoenchanaphas

Abstract:

This research studied the simulation of increased ambient ozone to estimate nutrient content and genetic changes in two Thai soybean cultivars (Chiang Mai 60 and Srisumrong 1). Ozone stress conditions affected proteins and lipids. It was found that proteins decreased, but lipids increased. Srisumrong 1 cultivars were more sensitive to ozone stress than Chiang Mai 60 cultivars. The effect of ozone stress conditions on plant phenotype and genotype was analyzed using the AFLP technique for the 2 Thai soybean cultivars (Chiang Mai 60 and Srisumrong 1).

Keywords: simulation, ambient ozone estimate, nutrient content, genetic changes , Thai soybean

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298 A Multi-Objective Model for Supply Chain Network Design under Stochastic Demand

Authors: F. Alborzi, H. Vafaei, M.H. Gholami, M.M. S. Esfahani

Abstract:

In this article, the design of a Supply Chain Network (SCN) consisting of several suppliers, production plants, distribution centers and retailers, is considered. Demands of retailers are considered stochastic parameters, so we generate amounts of data via simulation to extract a few demand scenarios. Then a mixed integer two-stage programming model is developed to optimize simultaneously two objectives: (1) minimization the fixed and variable cost, (2) maximization the service level. A weighting method is utilized to solve this two objective problem and a numerical example is made to show the performance of the model.

Keywords: Mixed Integer Programming, Multi-objective Optimization, Stochastic Demand, Supply Chain Design, Two Stage Programming

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297 Assessing Relationship between Type of Financial Market and Market Indices in Tehran Stock Exchange

Authors: Zahra Amirhosseini, Alireza Bashiri

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine and identify the type of Iranian financial market in terms of being symmetrical or asymmetrical and to measure relationship between type of market and the market's indices. In this study, daily information on the market-s Share Price Index, Industrial Index and Top Fifty Most Active Companies during the years 1999-2010 has been used. In addition, to determine type of the financial market, rate of return on Security is taken into account. In this research, by using logistic regression analysis methods, relationship of the market type with the above mentioned indices have been examined. The results showed that the type of the financial market has a positive significant association with market share price index and Industrial Index. Index of Top Fifty Most Active Companies is significantly associated with type of financial market, however this relationship is inverse.

Keywords: All Share Price Index, Asymmetrical Market, Industrial Index, Symmetrical Market, Top Fifty Most Active Companies Index

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296 Assessing drought Vulnerability of Bulgarian Agriculture through Model Simulations

Authors: Z. Popova, L. S. Pereira, М. Ivanova, P. Alexandrova, K. Doneva, V. Alexandrov, M. Kercheva

Abstract:

This study assesses the vulnerability of Bulgarian agriculture to drought using the WINISAREG model and seasonal standard precipitation index SPI(2) for the period 1951-2004. This model was previously validated for maize on soils of different water holding capacity (TAW) in various locations. Simulations are performed for Plovdiv, Stara Zagora and Sofia. Results relative to Plovdiv show that in soils of large TAW (180 mm m-1) net irrigation requirements (NIRs) range 0-40 mm in wet years and 350-380 mm in dry years. In soils of small TAW (116 mm m-1), NIRs reach 440 mm in the very dry year. NIRs in Sofia are about 80 mm smaller. Rainfed maize is associated with great yield variability (29%91%) were found for seasonal agricultural drought relating the SPI (2) for “July-Aug" with the simulated RYD of rainfed maize while in Stara Zagora and Sofia the relationships are less accurate (R2>71%). When rainfed maize is grown on soils of large TAW economical losses are produced when high peak season SPI (2) < -0.50 in Plovdiv/Stara Zagora and SPI (2) < -0.90 in Sofia. The corresponding NIR thresholds were identified.

Keywords: Drought vulnerability, ISAREG simulation model, South Bulgaria, SPI-index

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295 Economical Analysis of Thermal Energy Storage by Partially Operation

Authors: Z. Noranai, M.Z. Md Yusof

Abstract:

Building Sector is the major electricity consumer and it is costly to building owners. Therefore the application of thermal energy storage (TES) has gained attractive to reduce energy cost. Many attractive tariff packages are being offered by the electricity provider to promote TES. The tariff packages offered higher cost of electricity during peak period and lower cost of electricity during off peak period. This paper presented the return of initial investment by implementing a centralized air-conditioning plant integrated with thermal energy storage with partially operation strategies. Building load profile will be calculated hourly according to building specification and building usage trend. TES operation conditions will be designed according to building load demand profile, storage capacity, tariff packages and peak/off peak period. The Payback Period analysis method was used to evaluate economic analysis. The investment is considered a good investment where by the initial cost is recovered less than ten than seven years.

Keywords: building load profile, energy consumption, payback period, thermal energy storage

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294 Characteristics of Wall Thickness Increase in Pipe Reduction Process using Planetary Rolls

Authors: Yuji Kotani, Shunsuke Kanai, Hisaki Watari

Abstract:

In recent years, global warming has become a worldwide problem. The reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is a top priority for many companies in the manufacturing industry. In the automobile industry as well, the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is one of the most important issues. Technology to reduce the weight of automotive parts improves the fuel economy of automobiles, and is an important technology for reducing carbon dioxide. Also, even if this weight reduction technology is applied to electric automobiles rather than gasoline automobiles, reducing energy consumption remains an important issue. Plastic processing of hollow pipes is one important technology for realizing the weight reduction of automotive parts. Ohashi et al. [1],[2] present an example of research on pipe formation in which a process was carried out to enlarge a pipe diameter using a lost core, achieving the suppression of wall thickness reduction and greater pipe expansion than hydroforming. In this study, we investigated a method to increase the wall thickness of a pipe through pipe compression using planetary rolls. The establishment of a technology whereby the wall thickness of a pipe can be controlled without buckling the pipe is an important technology for the weight reduction of products. Using the finite element analysis method, we predicted that it would be possible to increase the compression of an aluminum pipe with a 3mm wall thickness by approximately 20%, and wall thickness by approximately 20% by pressing the hollow pipe with planetary rolls.

Keywords: Pipe-Forming, Wall Thickness, Finite-element-method

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293 Preparation of ATO Conductive Particles with Narrow Size Distribution

Authors: Yueying Wu, Fengzhu Lv, Yihe Zhang, Zixian Xu

Abstract:

Antimosy-doped tin oxide (ATO) particles were prepared via chemical coprecipitation and reverse emulsion. The size and size distribution of ATO particles were obviously decreased via reverse microemulsion method. At the relatively high yield the ATO particles were nearly spherical in shape, meanwhile the crystalline structure and excellent conductivity were reserved, which could satisfy the requirement as composite fillers, such as dielectric filler of polyimide film.

Keywords: ATO particle, Conductivity, Distribution, Reverse emulsion

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292 System-Level Energy Estimation for SoC based on the Dynamic Behavior of Embedded Software

Authors: Yoshifumi Sakamoto, Kouichi Ono, Takeo Nakada, Yousuke Kubo, Hiroto Yasuura

Abstract:

This paper describes a system-level SoC energy consumption estimation method based on a dynamic behavior of embedded software in the early stages of the SoC development. A major problem of SOC development is development rework caused by unreliable energy consumption estimation at the early stages. The energy consumption of an SoC used in embedded systems is strongly affected by the dynamic behavior of the software. At the early stages of SoC development, modeling with a high level of abstraction is required for both the dynamic behavior of the software, and the behavior of the SoC. We estimate the energy consumption by a UML model-based simulation. The proposed method is applied for an actual embedded system in an MFP. The energy consumption estimation of the SoC is more accurate than conventional methods and this proposed method is promising to reduce the chance of development rework in the SoC development. ∈

Keywords: SoC, Embedded Sytem, Energy Consumption, Dynamic behavior, UML, Modeling, Model-based simulation

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291 Providing On-Demand Path and Arrival Time Information Considering Realtime Delays of Buses

Authors: Yoshifumi Ishizaki, Naoki Kanatani, Masaki Ito, Toshihiko Sasama, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

This paper demonstrates the bus location system for the route bus through the experiment in the real environment. A bus location system is a system that provides information such as the bus delay and positions. This system uses actual services and positions data of buses, and those information should match data on the database. The system has two possible problems. One, the system could cost high in preparing devices to get bus positions. Two, it could be difficult to match services data of buses. To avoid these problems, we have developed this system at low cost and short time by using the smart phone with GPS and the bus route system. This system realizes the path planning considering bus delay and displaying position of buses on the map. The bus location system was demonstrated on route buses with smart phones for two months.

Keywords: Route Bus, Path Planning System, GPS, Smart Phone.

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290 Pilot-scale Study of Horizontal Anaerobic Digester for Biogas Production using Food Waste

Authors: Yongsei Lee, Hyunsu Park, Youngseob Yu, Heechan Yoo, Sungin Yoo

Abstract:

A horizontal anaerobic digester was developed and tested in pilot scale for Korean food waste with high water contents (>80%). The hydrogen sulfide in the biogas was removed by a biological desulfurization equipment integrated in the horizontal digester. A mixer of the horizontal digester was designed to easily remove the sediment in the bottom and scum layers on surface in the digester. Experimental result for 120 days of operation of the pilot plant showed a high removal efficiency of 81.2% for organic substance and high stability during the whole operation period were acquired. Also food waste was treated at high organic loading rates over 4 kg•VS/m3∙day and a methane gas production rate of 0.62 m3/kg•VSremoved was accomplished. The biological desulfurization equipment inside the horizontal digester was proven to be an economic and effective method to reduce the biogas desulfurization cost by removing hydrogen sulfide more than 90% without external desulfurization equipments.

Keywords: Biogas, Biological desulfurization, Horizontal anaerobic digester, Korean food waste

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289 Real-Time Image Analysis of Capsule Endoscopy for Bleeding Discrimination in Embedded System Platform

Authors: Yong-Gyu Lee, Gilwon Yoon

Abstract:

Image processing for capsule endoscopy requires large memory and it takes hours for diagnosis since operation time is normally more than 8 hours. A real-time analysis algorithm of capsule images can be clinically very useful. It can differentiate abnormal tissue from health structure and provide with correlation information among the images. Bleeding is our interest in this regard and we propose a method of detecting frames with potential bleeding in real-time. Our detection algorithm is based on statistical analysis and the shapes of bleeding spots. We tested our algorithm with 30 cases of capsule endoscopy in the digestive track. Results were excellent where a sensitivity of 99% and a specificity of 97% were achieved in detecting the image frames with bleeding spots.

Keywords: bleeding, capsule endoscopy, image processing, real time analysis

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288 Concurrent Testing of ADC for Embedded System

Authors: Y.B.Gandole

Abstract:

Compaction testing methods allow at-speed detecting of errors while possessing low cost of implementation. Owing to this distinctive feature, compaction methods have been widely used for built-in testing, as well as external testing. In the latter case, the bandwidth requirements to the automated test equipment employed are relaxed which reduces the overall cost of testing. Concurrent compaction testing methods use operational signals to detect misbehavior of the device under test and do not require input test stimuli. These methods have been employed for digital systems only. In the present work, we extend the use of compaction methods for concurrent testing of analog-to-digital converters. We estimate tolerance bounds for the result of compaction and evaluate the aliasing rate.

Keywords: Analog-to Digital Converter, Embedded system, Concurrent Testing

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287 A Previously Underappreciated Impact on Global Warming caused by the Geometrical and Physical Properties of desert sand

Authors: Y. F. Yang, B. T. Wang, J. J. Fan, J. Yin

Abstract:

The previous researches focused on the influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gases exerting global warming, but not consider whether desert sand may warm the planet, this could be improved by accounting for sand's physical and geometric properties. Here we show, sand particles (because of their geometry) at the desert surface form an extended surface of up to 1 + π/4 times the planar area of the desert that can contact sunlight, and at shallow depths of the desert form another extended surface of at least 1 + π times the planar area that can contact air. Based on this feature, an enhanced heat exchange system between sunlight, desert sand, and air in the spaces between sand particles could be built up automatically, which can increase capture of solar energy, leading to rapid heating of the sand particles, and then the heating of sand particles will dramatically heat the air between sand particles. The thermodynamics of deserts may thus have contributed to global warming, especially significant to future global warming if the current desertification continues to expand.

Keywords: global warming, desert sand, extended surface, heat exchange, thermodynamics

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286 Dynamic Instability in High-Rise SMRFs Subjected to Long-Period Ground Motions

Authors: Y. Araki, M. Kim, S. Okayama, K. Ikago, K. Uetani

Abstract:

We study dynamic instability in high-rise steel moment resisting frames (SMRFs) subjected to synthetic long-period ground motions caused by hypothetical huge subduction earthquakes. Since long duration as well as long dominant periods is a characteristic of long-period ground motions, interstory drifts may enter the negative postyield stiffness range many times when high-rise buildings are subjected to long-period ground motions. Through the case studies of 9 high-rise SMRFs designed in accordance with the Japanese design practice in 1980s, we demonstrate that drifting, or accumulation of interstory drifts in one direction, occurs at the lower stories of the SMRFs, if their natural periods are close to the dominant periods of the long-period ground motions. The drifting led to residual interstory drift ratio over 0.01, or to collapse if the design base shear was small.

Keywords: long-period ground motion, P-Delta effect, high-rise steel moment resisting frame (SMRF), subduction earthquake

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285 A Novel Transmission Scheme for Reliable Cooperative Communication

Authors: Won-Jun Choi, Seung-Jun Yu, Jung-In Baik, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

Cooperative communication scheme can be substituted for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique when it may not be able to support multiple antennas due to size, cost or hardware limitations. In other words, cooperative communication scheme is an efficient method to achieve spatial diversity without multiple antennas. For satisfaction of rising QoS, we propose a reliable cooperative communication scheme with M-QAM based Dual Carrier Modulation (M-DCM), which can increase diversity gain. Although our proposed scheme is very simple method, it gives us frequency and spatial diversity. Simulation result shows our proposed scheme obtains diversity gain more than the conventional cooperative communication scheme.

Keywords: cooperation, diversity, M-DCM, OFDM.

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284 Location of Vortex Formation Threshold at Suction Inlets near Ground Planes – Ascending and Descending Conditions

Authors: Wei Hua Ho

Abstract:

Vortices can develop in intakes of turbojet and turbo fan aero engines during high power operation in the vicinity of solid surfaces. These vortices can cause catastrophic damage to the engine. The factors determining the formation of the vortex include both geometric dimensions as well as flow parameters. It was shown that the threshold at which the vortex forms or disappears is also dependent on the initial flow condition (i.e. whether a vortex forms after stabilised non vortex flow or vice-versa). A computational fluid dynamics study was conducted to determine the difference in thresholds between the two conditions. This is the first reported numerical investigation of the “memory effect". The numerical results reproduce the phenomenon reported in previous experimental studies and additional factors, which had not been previously studied, were investigated. They are the rate at which ambient velocity changes and the initial value of ambient velocity. The former was found to cause a shift in the threshold but not the later. It was also found that the varying condition thresholds are not symmetrical about the neutral threshold. The vortex to no vortex threshold lie slightly further away from the neutral threshold compared to the no vortex to vortex threshold. The results suggests that experimental investigation of vortex formation threshold performed either in vortex to no vortex conditions, or vice versa, solely may introduce mis-predictions greater than 10%.

Keywords: Jet Engine Test Cell, Unsteady flow, Inlet Vortex

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283 Quantitative Precipitation Forecast using MM5 and WRF models for Kelantan River Basin

Authors: Wardah, T., Kamil, A.A., Sahol Hamid, A.B., Maisarah, W.W.I

Abstract:

Quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) from atmospheric model as input to hydrological model in an integrated hydro-meteorological flood forecasting system has been operational in many countries worldwide. High-resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) models with grid cell sizes between 2 and 14 km have great potential in contributing towards reasonably accurate QPF. In this study the potential of two NWP models to forecast precipitation for a flood-prone area in a tropical region is examined. The precipitation forecasts produced from the Fifth Generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale (MM5) and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) models are statistically verified with the observed rain in Kelantan River Basin, Malaysia. The statistical verification indicates that the models have performed quite satisfactorily for low and moderate rainfall but not very satisfactory for heavy rainfall.

Keywords: MM5, Numerical weather prediction (NWP), quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF), WRF

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282 Investigation of the Synthesis of Alcohols Byproducts in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis on Modified Fe-Cu Catalyst: Reactivity and Mechanism

Authors: Wanyu Mao, Qiwen Sun, Weiyong Ying, Dingye Fang

Abstract:

The influence of copper promoters and reaction conditions on the formation of alcohols byproducts of a common Fischer-Tropsch synthesis used iron-based catalysts were investigated. A good compromise of 28%Cu/FeKLaSiO2 can lead to the optimization of an improved Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. The product distribution shifts towards hydrocarbons with increasing the reaction temperature, while pressure promotes the formation of alcohols. It was found that the production of either alcohols or hydrocarbons followed A-S-F distributions, and their α parameters were essentially different which indicated a competition in the growing chain between the two species. TPD after acetaldehyde adsorption gave strong evidence of the insertion of a C1 oxygen-containing species into an alkyl chain.

Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, Fe-Cu catalyst, alcohols byproducts, reaction pathways

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281 Evaluating the Australian Defense Force Environmental Awareness Training at Shoalwater Bay Training Area, Queensland, Australia

Authors: W. Wu, X. H. Wang, D. Paull

Abstract:

This paper contributes to the field of Environmental Awareness Training (EAT) evaluation in terms of military activities. Environmental management of military activities is a growing concern for defence forces worldwide and the importance of EAT is becoming widely recognized. As one of Australia-s largest landowners, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) is extremely mindful of its duty as a joint environmental manager. It has an integrated Environmental Management System (EMS) to assist environmental management and EAT is an essential part of the ADF EMS model. This paper examines how EAT was conducted during the exercise Talisman Saber in 2009 (TS09) and evaluates its effectiveness, using Shoalwater Bay Training Area (SWBTA), one of the most significant military training areas and a significant protected area in Australia, as a case study. A questionnaire survey conducted showed, overall, that EAT was effective from the perspective of a sample of participants. Recommendations are made for the ADF to refine EAT for future exercises.

Keywords: Australian Defence Force, effectiveness evaluation, Environmental Awareness Training, Shoalwater Bay Training Area

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280 An Agri-food Supply Chain Model for Cultivating the Capabilities of Farmers Accessing Market Using Corporate Social Responsibility Program

Authors: W. Sutopo, M. Hisjam, Yuniaristanto

Abstract:

In general, small-scale vegetables farmers experience problems in improving the safety and quality of vegetables supplied to high-class consumers in modern retailers. They also lack of information to access market. The farmers group and/or cooperative (FGC) should be able to assist its members by providing training in handling and packing vegetables and enhancing marketing capabilities to sell commodities to the modern retailers. This study proposes an agri-food supply chain (ASC) model that involves the corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities to cultivate the capabilities of farmers to access market. Multi period ASC model is formulated as Weighted Goal Programming (WGP) to analyze the impacts of CSR programs to empower the FGCs in managing the small-scale vegetables farmers. The results show that the proposed model can be used to determine the priority of programs in order to maximize the four goals to be achieved in the CSR programs.

Keywords: agri-food supply chain, corporate social responsibility, small-scale vegetables farmers, weighted goal programming.

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279 Animal-Assisted Therapy for Persons with Disabilities Based on Canine Tail Language Interpretation via Gaussian-Trapezoidal Fuzzy Emotional Behavior Model

Authors: W. Phanwanich, O. Kumdee, P. Ritthipravat, Y. Wongsawat

Abstract:

In order to alleviate the mental and physical problems of persons with disabilities, animal-assisted therapy (AAT) is one of the possible modalities that employs the merit of the human-animal interaction. Nevertheless, to achieve the purpose of AAT for persons with severe disabilities (e.g. spinal cord injury, stroke, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), real-time animal language interpretation is desirable. Since canine behaviors can be visually notable from its tail, this paper proposes the automatic real-time interpretation of canine tail language for human-canine interaction in the case of persons with severe disabilities. Canine tail language is captured via two 3-axis accelerometers. Directions and frequencies are selected as our features of interests. The novel fuzzy rules based on Gaussian-Trapezoidal model and center of gravity (COG)-based defuzzification method are proposed in order to interpret the features into four canine emotional behaviors, i.e., agitate, happy, scare and neutral as well as its blended emotional behaviors. The emotional behavior model is performed in the simulated dog and has also been evaluated in the real dog with the perfect recognition rate.

Keywords: Animal-assisted therapy (AAT), Persons with disabilities, Canine tail language, Fuzzy emotional behavior model

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278 Holografic Interferometry used for Measurement of Temperature Field in Fluid

Authors: Vít Lédl, Tomáš Vít, Pavel Psota, Roman Doleček

Abstract:

The presented paper shows the possibility of using holographic interferometry for measurement of temperature field in moving fluids. There are a few methods for identification of velocity fields in fluids, such us LDA, PIV, hot wire anemometry. It is very difficult to measure the temperature field in moving fluids. One of the often used methods is Constant Current Anemometry (CCA), which is a point temperature measurement method. Data are possibly acquired at frequencies up to 1000Hz. This frequency should be limiting factor for using of CCA in fluid when fast change of temperature occurs. This shortcoming of CCA measurements should be overcome by using of optical methods such as holographic interferometry. It is necessary to employ a special holographic setup with double sensitivity instead of the commonly used Mach-Zehnder type of holographic interferometer in order to attain the parameters sufficient for the studied case. This setup is not light efficient like the Mach-Zehnder type but has double sensitivity. The special technique of acquiring and phase averaging of results from holographic interferometry is also presented. The results from the holographic interferometry experiments will be compared with the temperature field achieved by methods CCA method.

Keywords: Holographic interferometry, pulsatile flow, temperature measurement, hot-wire anemometry

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277 Incentive Pay System and Economy Condition

Authors: Viktorie Janečková, Petr Šnapka, Marie Mikušová

Abstract:

This paper aims to initiate an analytical account of the issues of compliance with economy condition for incentive pay system application in an enterprise. Economy is considered one of the conditions for effective incentive pay system application another condition being the achievement of desired efficiency level of the incentive pay system application. Bonus pay system is discussed as an example.

Keywords: Cost analysis, economy, incentive pay system.

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276 Catalytical Effect of Fluka 05120 on Methane Decomposition

Authors: Vidyasagar Shilapuram, Nesrin Ozalp, Anam Waheed

Abstract:

Carboneous catalytical methane decomposition is an attractive process because it produces two valuable products: hydrogen and carbon. Furthermore, this reaction does not emit any green house or hazardous gases. In the present study, experiments were conducted in a thermo gravimetric analyzer using Fluka 05120 as carboneous catalyst to analyze its effectiveness in methane decomposition. Various temperatures and methane partial pressures were chosen and carbon mass gain was observed as a function of time. Results are presented in terms of carbon formation rate, hydrogen production and catalytical activity. It is observed that there is linearity in carbon deposition amount by time at lower reaction temperature (780 °C). On the other hand, it is observed that carbon and hydrogen formation rates are increased with increasing temperature. Finally, we observed that the carbon formation rate is highest at 950 °C within the range of temperatures studied.

Keywords: Catalysis, Fluka 05120, Hydrogen production, Methane decomposition

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275 Formation of Nanosize Phases under Thermomechanical Strengthening of Low Carbon Steel

Authors: Victor E. Gromov, Yurii F. Ivanov, Vadim B. Kosterev, Sergey V. Konovalov, Veronica I. Myasnikova, Guoyi Tang

Abstract:

A study of the H-beam's nanosize structure phase states after thermomechanical strengthening was carried out by TEM. The following processes were analyzed. 1. The dispersing of the cementite plates by cutting them by moving dislocations. 2. The dissolution of cementite plates and repeated precipitation of the cementite particles on the dislocations, the boundaries, subgrains and grains. 3. The decay of solid solution of carbon in the α-iron after "self-tempering" of martensite. 4. The final transformation of the retained austenite in beinite with α-iron particles and cementite formation. 5. The implementation of the diffusion mechanism of γ ⇒ α transformation.

Keywords: nanosize, phase, steel, strengthening

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274 The Effectiveness of Mineral Fertilization of Winter Wheat by Nitrogen in the Soil and Climatic Conditions in the Cr

Authors: Václav Voltr, Jan Leština

Abstract:

The basis of examines is survey of 500 in the years 2002-2010, which was selected according to homogeneity of land cover and where 1090 revenues were evaluated. For achieved yields of winter wheat is obtained multicriterial regression function depending on the major factors influencing the consumption of nitrogen. The coefficient of discrimination of the established model is 0.722. The increase in efficiency of fertilization is involved in supply of organic nutrients, tillage, soil pH, past weather, the humus content in the subsoil and grain content to 0.001 mm. The decrease in efficiency was mainly influenced by the total dose of mineral nitrogen, although it was divided into multiple doses, the proportion loamy particles up to 0.01 mm, rainy, or conversely dry weather during the vegetation. The efficiency of nitrogen was found to be the smallest on undeveloped soils and the highest on chernozem and alluvial soils.

Keywords: Nitrogen efficiency, winter wheat, regression model

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273 Carbon Accumulation in Winter Wheat under Different Growing Intensity and Climate Change

Authors: V. Povilaitis, S. Lazauskas, Š. Antanaitis, S. Sakalauskien, J. Sakalauskait, G. Pšibišauskien, O. Auškalnien, S. Raudonius, P. Duchovskis

Abstract:

World population growth drives food demand, promotes intensification of agriculture, development of new production technologies and varieties more suitable for regional nature conditions. Climate change can affect the length of growing period, biomass and carbon accumulation in winter wheat. The increasing mean air temperature resulting from climate change can reduce the length of growth period of cereals, and without adequate adjustments in growing technologies or varieties, can reduce biomass and carbon accumulation. Deeper understanding and effective measures for monitoring and management of cereal growth process are needed for adaptation to changing climate and technological conditions.

Keywords: carbon, climate change, modeling, winter wheat

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272 Target Trajectory Design of Parametrically Excited Inverted Pendulum for Efficient Bipedal Walking

Authors: Toyoyuki Honjo, Takeshi Hayashi, Akinori Nagano, Zhi-Wei Luo

Abstract:

For stable bipedal gait generation on the level floor, efficient restoring of mechanical energy lost by heel collision at the ground is necessary. Parametric excitation principle is one of the solutions. We dealt with the robot-s total center of mass as an inverted pendulum to consider the total dynamics of the robot. Parametrically excited walking requires the use of continuous target trajectory that is close to discontinuous optimal trajectory. In this paper, we proposed the new target trajectory based on a position in the walking direction. We surveyed relations between walking performance and the parameters that form the target trajectory via numerical simulations. As a result, it was found that our target trajectory has the similar characteristics of a parametrically excited inverted pendulum.

Keywords: Dynamic Bipedal Walking, Parametric Excitation, Target Trajectory Design.

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271 A study on a Generic Development Process for the BPM+SOA Design and Implementation

Authors: Toshimi Munehira

Abstract:

In order to optimize annual IT spending and to reduce the complexity of an entire system architecture, SOA trials have been started. It is common knowledge that to design an SOA system we have to adopt the top-down approach, but in reality silo systems are being made, so these companies cannot reuse newly designed services, and cannot enjoy SOA-s economic benefits. To prevent this situation, we designed a generic SOA development process referred to as the architecture of “mass customization." To define the generic detail development processes, we did a case study on an imaginary company. Through the case study, we could define the practical development processes and found this could vastly reduce updating development costs.

Keywords: SOA, BPM, Generic Model, MassCustomization

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270 Multifunctional Electrical Outlet based on Mobile Ad Hoc Network

Authors: Toshihiko Sasama, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

Nowadays, new home appliances and office appliances have been developed that communicate with users through the Internet, for remote monitor and remote control. However, developments and sales of these new appliances are just started, then, many products in our houses and offices do not have these useful functions. In few years, we add these new functions to the outlet, it means multifunctional electrical power socket plug adapter. The outlet measure power consumption of connecting appliances, and it can switch power supply to connecting appliances, too. Using this outlet, power supply of old appliances can be control and monitor. And we developed the interface system using web browser to operate it from users[1]. But, this system need to set up LAN cables between outlets and so on. It is not convenience that cables around rooms. In this paper, we develop the system that use wireless mobile ad hoc network instead of wired LAN to communicate with the outlets.

Keywords: outlet, remote monitor, mobile ad hoc network, zigbee.

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269 Hybrid Control of Networked Multi-Vehicle System Considering Limitation of Communication Range

Authors: Toru Murayama, Akinori Nagano, Zhi-Wei Luo

Abstract:

In this research, we study a control method of a multivehicle system while considering the limitation of communication range for each vehicles. When we control networked vehicles with limitation of communication range, it is important to control the communication network structure of a multi-vehicle system in order to keep the network-s connectivity. From this, we especially aim to control the network structure to the target structure. We formulate the networked multi-vehicle system with some disturbance and the communication constraints as a hybrid dynamical system, and then we study the optimal control problems of the system. It is shown that the system converge to the objective network structure in finite time when the system is controlled by the receding horizon method. Additionally, the optimal control probrems are convertible into the mixed integer problems and these problems are solvable by some branch and bound algorithm.

Keywords: Hybrid system, multi-vehicle system, receding horizon control, topology control.

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268 Process Oriented Architecture for Emergency Scenarios in the Czech Republic

Authors: Tomáš Ludík, Josef Navrátil, Alena Langerová

Abstract:

Tackling emergency situations is performed based on emergency scenarios. These scenarios do not have a uniform form in the Czech Republic. They are unstructured and developed primarily in the text form. This does not allow solving emergency situations efficiently. For this reason, the paper aims at defining a Process Oriented Architecture to support and thus to improve tackling emergency situations in the Czech Republic. The innovative Process Oriented Architecture is based on the Workflow Reference Model while taking into account the options of Business Process Management Suites for the implementation of process oriented emergency scenarios. To verify the proposed architecture the Proof of Concept has been used which covers the reception of an emergency event at the district emergency operations centre. Within the particular implementation of the proposed architecture the Bonita Open Solution has been used. The architecture created in this way is suitable not only for emergency management, but also for educational purposes.

Keywords: Business Process Management Suite, Czech Republic, Emergency Scenarios, Process Execution, Process Oriented Architecture.

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267 Building Design to Save Lives when Earthquake May Strike the City

Authors: Tejinder Singh

Abstract:

When earthquakes strike the city it results in great loss of lives. The present paper talks about a new innovative design system (MegEifel) for buildings which has a mechanism to mitigate deaths in case any earthquake strikes the city. If buildings will be designed according to MegEifel design then the occupants of the building will be safe even when they are in sleep or are doing day wise activities during the time earthquake strikes. The core structure is suggested to be designed on the principle that more deep the foundations are, the harder it is to uproot the structure. The buildings will have an Eifel rod dug deep into earth which will help save lives in tall buildings when earthquake strikes. This design takes a leverage of protective shells to save lives.

Keywords: Structure, MegEifel, Save, Life, Earthquake, Design

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266 Physical Parameters for Reliability Evaluation

Authors: Tazibt W., Mialhe P.

Abstract:

This paper presents ageing experiments controlled by the evolution of junction parameters. The deterioration of the device is related to high injection effects which modified the transport mechanisms in the space charge region of the junction. Physical phenomena linked to the degradation of junction parameters that affect the devices reliability are reported and discussed. We have used the method based on numerical analysis of experimental current-voltage characteristic of the junction, in order to extract the electrical parameters. The simultaneous follow-up of the evolutions of the series resistance and of the transition voltage allow us to introduce a new parameter for reliability evaluation.

Keywords: High injection, junction, parameters, reliability

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265 Transient Thermal Stresses of Functionally Graded Thick Hollow Cylinder under the Green-Lindsay Model

Authors: Tariq T. Darabseh

Abstract:

The transient thermoelastic response of thick hollow cylinder made of functionally graded material under thermal loading is studied. The generalized coupled thermoelasticity based on the Green-Lindsay model is used. The thermal and mechanical properties of the functionally graded material are assumed to be varied in the radial direction according to a power law variation as a function of the volume fractions of the constituents. The thermal and elastic governing equations are solved by using Galerkin finite element method. All the finite element calculations were done by using commercial finite element program FlexPDE. The transient temperature, radial displacement, and thermal stresses distribution through the radial direction of the cylinder are plotted.

Keywords: Finite element method, thermal stresses, Green-Lindsay theory, functionally graded material.

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264 Effects of Global Warming on Climate Change in Udon Thani Province in the Period in 60 Surrounding Years (A.D.1951-2010)

Authors: T. Santiboon

Abstract:

This research were investigated, determined, and analyzed of the climate characteristically change in the provincial Udon Thani in the period of 60 surrounding years from 1951 to 2010 A.D. that it-s transferred to effects of climatologically data for determining global warming. Statistically significant were not found for the 60 years- data (R2<0.81). Statistically significant were found after adapted data followed as the Sun Spot cycle in 11 year periods, at the level 0.001 (R2= 1.00). These results indicate the Udon Thani-s weather are affected change; temperatures and evaporation were increased, but rainfall and number days of rainfall, cyclone storm, wind speed, and humidity, forest assessment were decreased. The effects of thermal energy from the sun radiation energy and human activities that they-re followed as the sunspot cycle are able to be predicted from the last to the future of the uniformitarian-s the climate change and global warming effect of the world.

Keywords: Climate Change, Global Warming, Udon Thani Province Weather

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263 A Petri Net Representation of a Web-Service- Based Emergency Management System in Railway Station

Authors: Suparna Karmakar, Ranjan Dasgupta

Abstract:

Railway Stations are prone to emergency due to various reasons and proper monitor of railway stations are of immense importance from various angles. A Petri-net representation of a web-service-based Emergency management system has been proposed in this paper which will help in monitoring situation of train, track, signal etc. and in case of any emergency, necessary resources can be dispatched.

Keywords: Business process, Petri net, Rail Station Emergency Management, Web service based system

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262 A Multimodal Approach for Biometric Authentication with Multiple Classifiers

Authors: Sorin Soviany, Cristina Soviany, Mariana Jurian

Abstract:

The paper presents a multimodal approach for biometric authentication, based on multiple classifiers. The proposed solution uses a post-classification biometric fusion method in which the biometric data classifiers outputs are combined in order to improve the overall biometric system performance by decreasing the classification error rates. The paper shows also the biometric recognition task improvement by means of a carefully feature selection, as much as not all of the feature vectors components support the accuracy improvement.

Keywords: biometric fusion, multiple classifiers

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261 A Collaborative Framework for Visual Modeling on Web 2.0

Authors: Song Meng, Dianfu Ma, Yongwang Zhao, Jianxin Li

Abstract:

Cooperative visual modeling is more and more necessary in our complicated world. A collaborative environment which supports interactive operation and communication is required to increase work efficiency. We present a collaborative visual modeling framework which collaborative platform could be built on. On this platform, cooperation and communication is available for designers from different regions. This framework, which is different from other collaborative frameworks, contains a uniform message format, a message handling mechanism and other functions such as message pretreatment and Role-Communication-Token Access Control (RCTAC). We also show our implementation of this framework called Orchestra Designer, which support BPLE workflow modeling cooperatively online.

Keywords: colllaborative framework; visual modeling; message handling mechanism

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260 CFD Simulations to Validate Two and Three Phase Up-flow in Bubble Columns

Authors: Shyam Kumar, Nannuri Srinivasulu, Ashok Khanna

Abstract:

Bubble columns have a variety of applications in absorption, bio-reactions, catalytic slurry reactions, and coal liquefaction; because they are simple to operate, provide good heat and mass transfer, having less operational cost. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for bubble column becomes important, since it can describe the fluid hydrodynamics on both local and global scale. Euler- Euler two-phase fluid model has been used to simulate two-phase (air and water) transient up-flow in bubble column (15cm diameter) using FLUENT6.3. These simulations and experiments were operated over a range of superficial gas velocities in the bubbly flow and churn turbulent regime (1 to16 cm/s) at ambient conditions. Liquid velocity was varied from 0 to 16cm/s. The turbulence in the liquid phase is described using the standard k-ε model. The interactions between the two phases are described through drag coefficient formulations (Schiller Neumann). The objectives are to validate CFD simulations with experimental data, and to obtain grid-independent numerical solutions. Quantitatively good agreements are obtained between experimental data for hold-up and simulation values. Axial liquid velocity profiles and gas holdup profiles were also obtained for the simulation.

Keywords: Bubble column, Computational fluid dynamics, Gas holdup profile, k-ε model.

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259 Identification of PIP Aquaporin Genes from Wheat

Authors: Sh. A. Yousif, M. Bhave

Abstract:

There is strong evidence that water channel proteins 'aquaporins (AQPs)' are central components in plant-water relations as well as a number of other physiological parameters. We had previously reported the isolation of 24 plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) type AQPs. However, the gene numbers in rice and the polyploid nature of bread wheat indicated a high probability of further genes in the latter. The present work focused on identification of further AQP isoforms in bread wheat. With the use of altered primer design, we identified five genes homologous, designated PIP1;5b, PIP2;9b, TaPIP2;2, TaPIP2;2a, TaPIP2;2b. Sequence alignments indicate PIP1;5b, PIP2;9b are likely to be homeologues of two previously reported genes while the other three are new genes and could be homeologs of each other. The results indicate further AQP diversity in wheat and the sequence data will enable physical mapping of these genes to identify their genomes as well as genetic to determine their association with any quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with plant-water relation such as salinity or drought tolerance.

Keywords: Aquaporins, homeologues, PIP, wheat

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258 Uniform Distribution of Ductility Demand in Irregular Bridges using Shape Memory Alloy

Authors: Seyed Mohyeddin Ghodratian, Mehdi Ghassemieh, Mohammad Khanmohammadi

Abstract:

Excessive ductility demand on shorter piers is a common problem for irregular bridges subjected to strong ground motion. Various techniques have been developed to reduce the likelihood of collapse of bridge due to failure of shorter piers. This paper presents the new approach to improve the seismic behavior of such bridges using Nitinol shape memory alloys (SMAs). Superelastic SMAs have the ability to remain elastic under very large deformation due to martensitic transformation. This unique property leads to enhanced performance of controlled bridge compared with the performance of the reference bridge. To evaluate the effectiveness of the devices, nonlinear time history analysis is performed on a RC single column bent highway bridge using a suite of representative ground motions. The results show that this method is very effective in limiting the ductility demand of shorter pier.

Keywords: bridge, ductility demand, irregularity, shape memory alloy

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257 Interaxial Distance and Convergence Control for Efficient Stereoscopic Shooting using Horizontal Moving 3D Camera Rig

Authors: Seong-Mo An, Rohit Ramesh, Young-Sook Lee, Wan-Young Chung

Abstract:

The proper assessment of interaxial distance and convergence control are important factors in stereoscopic imaging technology to make an efficient 3D image. To control interaxial distance and convergence for efficient 3D shooting, horizontal 3D camera rig is designed using some hardware components like 'LM Guide', 'Goniometer' and 'Rotation Stage'. The horizontal 3D camera rig system can be properly aligned by moving the two cameras horizontally in same or opposite directions, by adjusting the camera angle and finally considering horizontal swing as well as vertical swing. In this paper, the relationship between interaxial distance and convergence angle control are discussed and intensive experiments are performed in order to demonstrate an easy and effective 3D shooting.

Keywords: Interaxial, Convergence, Stereoscopic, Horizontal 3D Camera Rig

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256 E-Learning Methodology Development using Modeling

Authors: Sarma Cakula, Maija Sedleniece

Abstract:

Simulation and modeling computer programs are concerned with construction of models for analyzing different perspectives and possibilities in changing conditions environment. The paper presents theoretical justification and evaluation of qualitative e-learning development model in perspective of advancing modern technologies. There have been analyzed principles of qualitative e-learning in higher education, productivity of studying process using modern technologies, different kind of methods and future perspectives of e-learning in formal education. Theoretically grounded and practically tested model of developing e-learning methods using different technologies for different type of classroom, which can be used in professor-s decision making process to choose the most effective e-learning methods has been worked out.

Keywords: E-learning, modeling, E-learning methods development, personal knowledge management

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255 A Comprehensive and Integrated Framework for Formal Specification of Concurrent Systems

Authors: Sara Sharifi Rad, Hassan Haghighi

Abstract:

Due to important issues, such as deadlock, starvation, communication, non-deterministic behavior and synchronization, concurrent systems are very complex, sensitive, and error-prone. Thus ensuring reliability and accuracy of these systems is very essential. Therefore, there has been a big interest in the formal specification of concurrent programs in recent years. Nevertheless, some features of concurrent systems, such as dynamic process creation, scheduling and starvation have not been specified formally yet. Also, some other features have been specified partially and/or have been described using a combination of several different formalisms and methods whose integration needs too much effort. In other words, a comprehensive and integrated specification that could cover all aspects of concurrent systems has not been provided yet. Thus, this paper makes two major contributions: firstly, it provides a comprehensive formal framework to specify all well-known features of concurrent systems. Secondly, it provides an integrated specification of these features by using just a single formal notation, i.e., the Z language.

Keywords: Concurrent systems, Formal methods, Formal specification, Z language

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254 Dispersed Error Control based on Error Filter Design for Improving Halftone Image Quality

Authors: Sang-Chul Kim, Sung-Il Chien

Abstract:

The error diffusion method generates worm artifacts, and weakens the edge of the halftone image when the continuous gray scale image is reproduced by a binary image. First, to enhance the edges, we propose the edge-enhancing filter by considering the quantization error information and gradient of the neighboring pixels. Furthermore, to remove worm artifacts often appearing in a halftone image, we add adaptively random noise into the weights of an error filter.

Keywords: Artifact suppression, Edge enhancement, Error diffusion method, Halftone image

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253 A Novel Tracking Method Using Filtering and Geometry

Authors: Sang Hoon Lee, Jong Sue Bae, Taewan Kim, Jin Mo Song, Jong Ju Kim

Abstract:

Image target detection and tracking methods based on target information such as intensity, shape model, histogram and target dynamics have been proven to be robust to target model variations and background clutters as shown by recent researches. However, no definitive answer has been given to occluded target by counter measure or limited field of view(FOV). In this paper, we will present a novel tracking method using filtering and computational geometry. This paper has two central goals: 1) to deal with vulnerable target measurements; and 2) to maintain target tracking out of FOV using non-target-originated information. The experimental results, obtained with airborne images, show a robust tracking ability with respect to the existing approaches. In exploring the questions of target tracking, this paper will be limited to consideration of airborne image.

Keywords: Tracking, Computational geometry, Homography, Filter

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252 Stresses in Cast Metal Inlays Restored Molars

Authors: Sandu L., Topală F., Porojan S.

Abstract:

Cast metal inlays can be used on molars requiring a class II restoration instead amalgam and offer a durable alternative. Because it is known that class II inlays may increase the susceptibility to fracture, it is important to ensure optimal performance in selection of the adequate preparation design to reduce stresses in teeth structures and also in the restorations. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of preparation design on stress distribution in molars with different class II preparations and in cast metal inlays. The first step of the study was to achieve 3D models in order to analyze teeth and cast metal class II inlays. The geometry of the intact tooth was obtained by 3D scanning using a manufactured device. With a NURBS modeling program the preparations and the appropriately inlays were designed. 3D models of first upper molars of the same shape and size were created. Inlay cavities designs were created using literature data. The geometrical model was exported and the mesh structure of the solid 3D model was created for structural simulations. Stresses were located around the occlusal contact areas. For the studied cases, the stress values were not significant influenced by the taper of the preparation. it was demonstrated stresses are higher in the cast metal restorations and therefore the strength of the teeth is not affected.

Keywords: cast metal inlays, class II restoration, molars, 3D models, structural simulations.

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251 Measurement of Rainwater Chemical Composition in Malaysia based on Ion Chromatography Method

Authors: S.H. Khoon, G.I. Issabayeva, L.W. Lee

Abstract:

Air quality in Setapak district of Kuala Lumpur was studied by analysing the rainwater chemical composition using ion chromatography method. Twelve sampling sites were selected and 120 rainwater samples were collected in the period of 10 weeks. The results of this study were compared to the earlier published data and the evaluation showed that the NO3 - ion concentration increased from 0.41 to 3.32 ppm, while SO4 2- ion concentration increased from 0.39 to 3.26 ppm over the past two decades that is mostly due to rapid urban development of the city. However, it was found that the chemical composition for both residential and industrial areas does not have significant difference. Most of the rainwater samples showed alkaline pH (pH > 5.6). The possible factors for such alkaline pH in rainwater samples are assumed to be the marine sources, biomass burning and alkaline character of soil particles.

Keywords: acid deposition; atmospheric pollution; deposition fluxes; trajectories

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250 Electrical Properties of n-CdO/p-Si Heterojunction Diode Fabricated by Sol Gel

Authors: S.Aksoy, Y.Caglar

Abstract:

n-CdO/p-Si heterojunction diode was fabricated using sol-gel spin coating technique which is a low cost and easily scalable method for preparing of semiconductor films. The structural and morphological properties of CdO film were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra indicated that the film was of polycrystalline nature. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicate that the surface morphology CdO film consists of the clusters formed with the coming together of the nanoparticles. The electrical characterization of Au/n-CdO/p–Si/Al heterojunction diode was investigated by current-voltage. The ideality factor of the diode was found to be 3.02 for room temperature. The reverse current of the diode strongly increased with illumination intensity of 100 mWcm-2 and the diode gave a maximum open circuit voltage Voc of 0.04 V and short-circuits current Isc of 9.92×10-9 A.

Keywords: CdO, heterojunction semiconductor devices, ideality factor, current-voltage characteristics

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249 Automatic Recognition of an Unknown and Time-Varying Number of Simultaneous Environmental Sound Sources

Authors: S. Ntalampiras, I. Potamitis, N. Fakotakis, S. Kouzoupis

Abstract:

The present work faces the problem of automatic enumeration and recognition of an unknown and time-varying number of environmental sound sources while using a single microphone. The assumption that is made is that the sound recorded is a realization of sound sources belonging to a group of audio classes which is known a-priori. We describe two variations of the same principle which is to calculate the distance between the current unknown audio frame and all possible combinations of the classes that are assumed to span the soundscene. We concentrate on categorizing environmental sound sources, such as birds, insects etc. in the task of monitoring the biodiversity of a specific habitat.

Keywords: automatic recognition of multiple sound sources, enumeration of sound sources, computational ecology.

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248 The Impact of the Economic Crises over Management Marketing Strategies of Romanian B2B Companies

Authors: S. C. Căescu, I. Dumitru

Abstract:

The main objective of the paper has been represented by the identification of the changes that occurred in the competitive environment and their impact on the strategic marketing management of companies in B2B market. At Romania-s level there has not yet been done a similar research that studies change management in crises on business to business field. In order to answer to the paper-s objectives, a qualitative marketing research (in-depth structured interview) was conducted, within the top management of 27 companies in Romanian business to business field. The main results of the research highlight the necessity of a management of change, as a result of the crises, as follows: changes in the corporate objectives (from development objectives to maintaining objectives), changes market segmentation and in competitive advantages, changes at the level of market strategies and of the marketing mix.

Keywords: change management, competitive environment, marketing management strategies, strategic marketing.

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247 Experimental Study of Frequency Behavior for a Circular Cylinder behind an Airfoil

Authors: S. Bajalan, A. Shadaram, N. Hedayat, A. Shams Taleghani

Abstract:

The interaction between wakes of bluff body and airfoil have profound influences on system performance in many industrial applications, e.g., turbo-machinery and cooling fan. The present work investigates the effect of configuration include; airfoil-s angle of attack, transverse and inline spacing of the models, on frequency behavior of the cylinder-s near-wake. The experiments carried on under subcritical flow regime, using the hot-wire anemometry (HWA). The relationship between the Strouhal numbers and arrangements provide an insight into the global physical processes of wake interaction and vortex shedding.

Keywords: Airfoil, Cylinder, Strouhal, Wake interaction

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246 Evaluation of Horizontal Seismic Hazard of Naghan, Iran

Authors: S. A. Razavian Amrei, G.Ghodrati Amiri, D. Rezaei

Abstract:

This paper presents probabilistic horizontal seismic hazard assessment of Naghan, Iran. It displays the probabilistic estimate of Peak Ground Horizontal Acceleration (PGHA) for the return period of 475, 950 and 2475 years. The output of the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis is based on peak ground acceleration (PGA), which is the most common criterion in designing of buildings. A catalogue of seismic events that includes both historical and instrumental events was developed and covers the period from 840 to 2009. The seismic sources that affect the hazard in Naghan were identified within the radius of 200 km and the recurrence relationships of these sources were generated by Kijko and Sellevoll. Finally Peak Ground Horizontal Acceleration (PGHA) has been prepared to indicate the earthquake hazard of Naghan for different hazard levels by using SEISRISK III software.

Keywords: Seismic Hazard Assessment, Seismicity Parameters, PGA, Naghan, Iran

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245 Account Management Method with Blind Signature Scheme

Authors: Ryu Watanabe, Yutaka Miyake

Abstract:

Reducing the risk of information leaks is one of the most important functions of identity management systems. To achieve this purpose, Dey et al. have already proposed an account management method for a federated login system using a blind signature scheme. In order to ensure account anonymity for the authentication provider, referred to as an IDP (identity provider), a blind signature scheme is utilized to generate an authentication token on an authentication service and the token is sent to an IDP. However, there is a problem with the proposed system. Malicious users can establish multiple accounts on an IDP by requesting such accounts. As a measure to solve this problem, in this paper, the authors propose an account checking method that is performed before account generation.

Keywords: identity management, blind signature, privacy protection

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244 Processing and Assessment of Quality Characteristics of Composite Baby Foods

Authors: Reihaneh Ahmadzadeh Ghavidel, Mehdi Ghiafeh Davoodi

Abstract:

The usefulness of weaning foods to meet the nutrient needs of children is well recognized, and most of them are precooked roller dried mixtures of cereal and/or legume flours which posses a high viscosity and bulk when reconstituted. The objective of this study was to formulate composite weaning foods using cereals, malted legumes and vegetable powders and analyze them for nutrients, functional properties and sensory attributes. Selected legumes (green gram and lentil) were germinated, dried and dehulled. Roasted wheat, rice, carrot powder and skim milk powder also were used. All the ingredients were mixed in different proportions to get four formulations, made into 30% slurry and dried in roller drier. The products were analyzed for proximate principles, mineral content, functional and sensory qualities. The results of analysis showed following range of constituents per 100g of formulations on dry weight basis, protein, 18.1-18.9 g ; fat, 0.78-1.36 g ; iron, 5.09-6.53 mg; calcium, 265-310 mg. The lowest water absorption capacity was in case of wheat green gram based and the highest was in rice lentil based sample. Overall sensory qualities of all foods were graded as “good" and “very good" with no significant differences. The results confirm that formulated weaning foods were nutritionally superior, functionally appropriate and organoleptically acceptable.

Keywords: malted legumes, weaning foods, nutrition, functional properties

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243 Parameter Estimation using Maximum Likelihood Method from Flight Data at High Angles of Attack

Authors: Rakesh Kumar, A. K. Ghosh

Abstract:

The paper presents the modeling of nonlinear longitudinal aerodynamics using flight data of Hansa-3 aircraft at high angles of attack near stall. The Kirchhoff-s quasi-steady stall model has been used to incorporate nonlinear aerodynamic effects in the aerodynamic model used to estimate the parameters, thereby, making the aerodynamic model nonlinear. The Maximum Likelihood method has been applied to the flight data (at high angles of attack) for the estimation of parameters (aerodynamic and stall characteristics) using the nonlinear aerodynamic model. To improve the accuracy level of the estimates, an approach of fixing the strong parameters has also been presented.

Keywords: Maximum Likelihood, nonlinear, parameters, stall.

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242 Criteria of Selecting 3pl Provider: A Literature Review

Authors: Rajesh Gupta, Anish Sachdeva, Arvind Bhardwaj

Abstract:

Shippers are concentrating on the core competency to stay competitive and outsourcing the logistic activities to the third party who is expert in this field. This third party logistics (3PL) is drawing the due attention at government, industrial, academicians and practitioner-s levels. If the logistics cost in India can be brought down from the current level of 13% of GDP to 9% (level in the U.S.), the savings would be around Rs 3 lakh crore approximately per annum. But the problem with the shippers is to select the suitable 3PL provider. Various criteria for selection of 3PL have been listed in the literature which are discussed in the present literature review. Every shipper will select the criteria suitable to its own requirement which have to be dynamically reviewed time to time so as to fit in the ever changing environment.

Keywords: 3PL, criteria, shipper, outsourcing

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241 Effect of Mesh Size on the Viscous Flow Parameters of an Axisymmetric Nozzle

Authors: Rabah Haoui

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to analyze a viscous flow in the axisymmetric nozzle taken into account the mesh size both in the free stream and into the boundary layer. The resolution of the Navier- Stokes equations is realized by using the finite volume method to determine the supersonic flow parameters at the exit of convergingdiverging nozzle. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer. Here, adequate time stepping parameter, along with CFL coefficient and mesh size level is selected to ensure numerical convergence. The effect of the boundary layer thickness is significant at the exit of the nozzle. The best solution is obtained with using a very fine grid, especially near the wall, where we have a strong variation of velocity, temperature and shear stress. This study enabled us to confirm that the determination of boundary layer thickness can be obtained only if the size of the mesh is lower than a certain value limits given by our calculations.

Keywords: Supersonic flow, viscous flow, finite volume, nozzle

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240 Magnetohydrodynamic Mixed Convective Flow in a Cavity

Authors: R.YadollahiFarsani, B. Ghasemi

Abstract:

A magnetohydrodynamic mixed convective flow in a cavity was studied in this paper. The lower surface of cavity was heated from below whereas other walls of the cavity were thermally isolated. The governing two-dimensional flow equations have been solved by using finite volume code. The effects of magnetic field were studied on flow and temperature field and heat transfer performance at a wide range of parameters, Such as Hartmann (0≤Ha≤100) and Reynolds (1≤Re≤100) numbers. The results showed that as Hartman number increases the Nusselt number, representing heat transfer from the cavity decreases.

Keywords: Cavity, Magnetic Field, Mixed Convection, Magnetohydrodynamic

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239 Removal of a Reactive Dye by Adsorption Utilizing Waste Aluminium Hydroxide Sludge as an Adsorbent

Authors: R. Songur, E. Bayraktar, U. Mehmetoglu

Abstract:

Removal of a reactive dye (Reactive blue 4) by adsorption utilizing waste aluminium hydroxide sludge as an adsorbent was investigated. The removal of the dye was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). In the RSM experiments; initial dye concentration, adsorbent concentration and contact time were critical parameters. RSM experiments were performed at the range of initial dye concentration 31.82-368.18 mg/L, adsorbent concentration 3.18-36.82 g/L, contact time 15.82- 56.18 h. Optimum initial dye concentration, adsorbent concentration and contact time were obtained as 108.83 mg/L, 29.36 g/L and 33.57 h respectively. At these conditions, maximum removal of the dye was obtained as 95%. The experiments were performed at the optimum conditions to verify these results and the same results were obtained.

Keywords: Adsorption, Reactive blue 4, Response surface methodology (RSM), Waste aluminium hydroxide sludge

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238 Radar Hydrology: New Z/R Relationships for Klang River Basin Malaysia based on Rainfall Classification

Authors: R. Suzana, T. Wardah, A.B. Sahol Hamid

Abstract:

The use of radar in Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (QPE) for radar-rainfall measurement is significantly beneficial. Radar has advantages in terms of high spatial and temporal condition in rainfall measurement and also forecasting. In Malaysia, radar application in QPE is still new and needs to be explored. This paper focuses on the Z/R derivation works of radarrainfall estimation based on rainfall classification. The works developed new Z/R relationships for Klang River Basin in Selangor area for three different general classes of rain events, namely low (<10mm/hr), moderate (>10mm/hr, <30mm/hr) and heavy (>30mm/hr) and also on more specific rain types during monsoon seasons. Looking at the high potential of Doppler radar in QPE, the newly formulated Z/R equations will be useful in improving the measurement of rainfall for any hydrological application, especially for flood forecasting.

Keywords: Radar, Quantitative Precipitation Estimation, Z/R development, flood forecasting

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237 Rice cDNA Encoding PROLM is Capable of Rescuing Salt Sensitive Yeast Phenotypes G19 and Axt3K from Salt Stress

Authors: Prasad Senadheera, Younousse Saidi, Frans JM Maathuis

Abstract:

Rice seed expression (cDNA) library in the Lambda Zap 11® phage constructed from the developing grain 10-20 days after flowering was transformed into yeast for functional complementation assays in three salt sensitive yeast mutants S. cerevisiae strain CY162, G19 and Axt3K. Transformed cells of G19 and Axt3K with pYES vector with cDNA inserts showed enhance tolerance than those with empty pYes vector. Sequencing of the cDNA inserts revealed that they encode for the putative proteins with the sequence homologous to rice putative protein PROLM24 (Os06g31070), a prolamin precursor. Expression of this cDNA did not affect yeast growth in absence of salt. Axt3k and G19 strains expressing the PROLM24 were able to grow upto 400 mM and 600 mM of NaCl respectively. Similarly, Axt3k mutant with PROLM24 expression showed comparatively higher growth rate in the medium with excess LiCl (50 mM). The observation that expression of PROLM24 rescued the salt sensitive phenotypes of G19 and Axt3k indicates the existence of a regulatory system that ameliorates the effect of salt stress in the transformed yeast mutants. However, the exact function of the cDNA sequence, which shows partial sequence homology to yeast UTR1 is not clear. Although UTR1 involved in ferrous uptake and iron homeostasis in yeast cells, there is no evidence to prove its role in Na+ homeostasis in yeast cells. Absence of transmembrane regions in Os06g31070 protein indicates that salt tolerance is achieved not through the direct functional complementation of the mutant genes but through an alternative mechanism.

Keywords: Rice seed expression, salt stress, prolamin, salinitytolerance, Oryza sativa

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236 Supplementation of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae or Lactobacillus Acidophilus in Goats Diets

Authors: Pramote Paengkoum, Y. Han , S. Traiyakun, J. Khotsakdee, S. Paengkoum

Abstract:

This experiment was performed with the purpose of investigating effect of additional blend of probiotics Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus acidophilus on plasma fatty acid profiles particularly conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in growing goats fed corn silage, and selected the optimal levels of the probiotics for further study. Twenty-four growing crossbred (Thai native x Anglo-Nubian) goats that weighed (14.2 ± 2.3) kg, aged about 6 months, were purchased and allocated to 4 treatments according to Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 6 goats in each treatment. The blocks were made by weight into heavy, medium, and light goats and each of the treatments contained two goats from each of the blocks. In the mean time, ruminal average pH unaffected, but the NH3-N and also plasma urea nitrogen (p<0.05), total volatile fatty acid (p>0.05) were raised, but propionic proportion (p<0.05) and butyric proportion (p>0.05) were reduced in concurrent with raise of acetic proportion and resultantly C2:C3 ratio (p>0.05). On plasma fatty acid profiles, total saturated fatty acids (p>0.05) was increased, and contrasted with decrease of C15:0 (p<0.01), C16:0 (p>0.05), and C18-C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids (p<0.05 or p<0.01). In addition, the experiment proved that the supplemented probiotics was in force for heightening CLA (p<0.01); for raising desirable fatty acids (p<0.05); for reducing ratio of PUFA: SFA (p>0.05) and for raising ratio of n6:n3 (p<0.05).

Keywords: Probiotic, conjugated linoleic acid, plasma fattyacid, goats

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235 Laser Welded Ni-Cr Dental Alloys Inspection

Authors: Porojan S., Sandu L., Topală F.

Abstract:

Minor problems arising from optimizations by welding of fixed prostheses frameworks can be identified by macroscopic and microscopic visual inspection. The purpose of this study was to highlight the visible discontinuities present in the laser welds of dental Ni-Cr alloys. Ni-Cr base metal alloys designated for fixed prostheses manufacture were selected for the experiments. Using cast plates, preliminary tests were conducted by laser welding. Macroscopic visual inspection was done carefully to assess the defects of the welding rib. Electron microscopy images allowed visualization of small discontinuities, which escapes visual inspection. Making comparison to Ni-Cr alloys taken in the experiment and laser welded, after visual analysis, the best welds appear for Heraenium NA alloy.

Keywords: macroscopic visual inspection, electron microscopyimages, Ni-Cr dental alloys, laser welding.

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234 Using Exponential Lévy Models to Study Implied Volatility patterns for Electricity Options

Authors: Pinho C., Madaleno M.

Abstract:

German electricity European options on futures using Lévy processes for the underlying asset are examined. Implied volatility evolution, under each of the considered models, is discussed after calibrating for the Merton jump diffusion (MJD), variance gamma (VG), normal inverse Gaussian (NIG), Carr, Geman, Madan and Yor (CGMY) and the Black and Scholes (B&S) model. Implied volatility is examined for the entire sample period, revealing some curious features about market evolution, where data fitting performances of the five models are compared. It is shown that variance gamma processes provide relatively better results and that implied volatility shows significant differences through time, having increasingly evolved. Volatility changes for changed uncertainty, or else, increasing futures prices and there is evidence for the need to account for seasonality when modelling both electricity spot/futures prices and volatility.

Keywords: Calibration, Electricity Markets, Implied Volatility, Lévy Models, Options on Futures, Pricing

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233 Gesture Recognition by Data Fusion of Time-of-Flight and Color Cameras

Authors: Piercarlo Dondi, Luca Lombardi, Marco Porta

Abstract:

In the last years numerous applications of Human- Computer Interaction have exploited the capabilities of Time-of- Flight cameras for achieving more and more comfortable and precise interactions. In particular, gesture recognition is one of the most active fields. This work presents a new method for interacting with a virtual object in a 3D space. Our approach is based on the fusion of depth data, supplied by a ToF camera, with color information, supplied by a HD webcam. The hand detection procedure does not require any learning phase and is able to concurrently manage gestures of two hands. The system is robust to the presence in the scene of other objects or people, thanks to the use of the Kalman filter for maintaining the tracking of the hands.

Keywords: Gesture recognition, human-computer interaction, Time-of-Flight camera.

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232 Algorithmic Method for Efficient Cruise Program

Authors: Pelaez Verdet, Antonio, Loscertales Sanchez, Pilar

Abstract:

One of the mayor problems of programming a cruise circuit is to decide which destinations to include and which don-t. Thus a decision problem emerges, that might be solved using a linear and goal programming approach. The problem becomes more complex if several boats in the fleet must be programmed in a limited schedule, trying their capacity matches best a seasonal demand and also attempting to minimize the operation costs. Moreover, the programmer of the company should consider the time of the passenger as a limited asset, and would like to maximize its usage. The aim of this work is to design a method in which, using linear and goal programming techniques, a model to design circuits for the cruise company decision maker can achieve an optimal solution within the fleet schedule.

Keywords: Itinerary design, cruise programming, goalprogramming, linear programming

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231 Performance Verification of Seismic Design Codes for RC Frames

Authors: Payam Asadi, Ali Bakhshi

Abstract:

In this study, a frame work for verification of famous seismic codes is utilized. To verify the seismic codes performance, damage quantity of RC frames is compared with the target performance. Due to the randomness property of seismic design and earthquake loads excitation, in this paper, fragility curves are developed. These diagrams are utilized to evaluate performance level of structures which are designed by the seismic codes. These diagrams further illustrate the effect of load combination and reduction factors of codes on probability of damage exceedance. Two types of structures; very high important structures with high ductility and medium important structures with intermediate ductility are designed by different seismic codes. The Results reveal that usually lower damage ratio generate lower probability of exceedance. In addition, the findings indicate that there are buildings with higher quantity of bars which they have higher probability of damage exceedance. Life-cycle cost analysis utilized for comparison and final decision making process.

Keywords: RC frame, fragility curve, performance-base design, life-cycle cost analyses, seismic design codes.

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230 Productive Design and Calculation of Intermittent Mechanisms with Radial Parallel Cams

Authors: Pavel Dostrašil, Petr Jirásko

Abstract:

The paper deals with the kinematics and automated calculation of intermittent mechanisms with radial cams. Currently, electronic cams are increasingly applied in the drives of working link mechanisms. Despite a huge advantage of electronic cams in their reprogrammability or instantaneous change of displacement diagrams, conventional cam mechanisms have an irreplaceable role in production and handling machines. With high frequency of working cycle periods, the dynamic load of the proper servomotor rotor increases and efficiency of electronic cams strongly decreases. Though conventional intermittent mechanisms with radial cams are representatives of fixed automation, they have distinct advantages in their high speed (high dynamics), positional accuracy and relatively easy manufacture. We try to remove the disadvantage of firm displacement diagram by reducing costs for simple design and automated calculation that leads reliably to high-quality and inexpensive manufacture.

Keywords: Cam mechanism, displacement diagram, intermittentmechanism, radial parallel cam

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229 Spiral Cuff for Fiber-Diameter Selective VNS

Authors: P. Pečlin, J. Rozman

Abstract:

In this paper we present the modeling, design, and experimental testing of a nerve cuff multi-electrode system for diameter-selective vagus nerve stimulation. The multi-electrode system contained ninety-nine platinum electrodes embedded within a self-curling spiral silicone sheet. The electrodes were organized in a matrix having nine parallel groups, each containing eleven electrodes. Preliminary testing of the nerve cuff was performed in an isolated segment of a swinish left cervical vagus nerve. For selective vagus nerve stimulation, precisely defined current quasitrapezoidal, asymmetric and biphasic stimulating pulses were applied to preselected locations along the left vagus segment via appointed group of three electrodes within the cuff. Selective stimulation was obtained by anodal block. However, these pulses may not be safe for a long-term application because of a frequently used high imbalance between the cathodic and anodic part of the stimulating pulse. Preliminary results show that the cuff was capable of exciting A and B-fibres, and, that for a certain range of parameters used in stimulating pulses, the contribution of A-fibres to the CAP was slightly reduced and the contribution of B-fibres was slightly larger. Results also showed that measured CAPs are not greatly influenced by the imbalance between a charge Qc injected in cathodic and Qa in anodic phase of quasitrapezoidal, asymmetric and biphasic pulses.

Keywords: Vagus nerve stimulation, multi-electrode nerve cuff.

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228 Intelligent BRT in Tehran

Authors: P. Parvizi, S. Mohammadi

Abstract:

an intelligent BRT system is necessary when communities looking for new ways to use high capacity rapid transit at a reduced cost.This paper will describe the intelligent control system that works with Datacenter. With the help of GPS system, the data center can monitor the situation of each bus and bus station. Through RFID technology, bus station and traffic light can transfer data with bus and by Wimax communication technology all of parts can talk together; data center learns all information about the location of bus, the arrival of bus in each station and the number of passengers in station and bus.Finally, the paper presents the case study of those theories in Tehran BRT.

Keywords: TehranBRT, RFID, Intelligent Transportation

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227 Relation between Environmental Accounting and Pillars of Sustainability

Authors: P. Harazin, Gy. Horváth

Abstract:

There are four challenges of sustainable development and in corporate level sustainability management-s role is to answer for ecological sustainability challenge, social sustainability challenge, economic sustainability challenges to environment and social management and integration challenge of corporate sustainable challenges by the help of different concepts, methods, instruments, which are in the toolbox of sustainability management. These instruments, concepts have different relevance in these challenges, and according to different literatures environmental management is outside of social and integration challenge. Main aim of this paper is to represent the answer for the question that: is it true that social and integration point of view is outside of the concept environmental accounting? Using literature review and primer research at the end of the paper the answer will be confirmed.

Keywords: Corporate social responsibility, Environmentalaccounting, Integration, Sustainability management

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226 Fabrication of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds Using Rapid Prototyping Techniques

Authors: Osama A. Abdelaal, Saied M. Darwish

Abstract:

Rapid prototyping (RP) techniques are a group of advanced manufacturing processes that can produce custom made objects directly from computer data such as Computer Aided Design (CAD), Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data. Using RP fabrication techniques, constructs with controllable and complex internal architecture with appropriate mechanical properties can be achieved. One of the attractive and promising utilization of RP techniques is related to tissue engineering (TE) scaffold fabrication. Tissue engineering scaffold is a 3D construction that acts as a template for tissue regeneration. Although several conventional techniques such as solvent casting and gas forming are utilized in scaffold fabrication; these processes show poor interconnectivity and uncontrollable porosity of the produced scaffolds. So, RP techniques become the best alternative fabrication methods of TE scaffolds. This paper reviews the current state of the art in the area of tissue engineering scaffolds fabrication using advanced RP processes, as well as the current limitations and future trends in scaffold fabrication RP techniques.

Keywords: Biomanufacturing, Rapid prototyping, Solid FreeForm Fabrication, Scaffold Fabrication, Tissue Engineering

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225 Requirements Management as a Competitive Factor in the it Mid Tier Business Concerning the Implementation of Erp-Software

Authors: Oliver Grün

Abstract:

The success of IT-projects concerning the implementation of business application Software is strongly depending upon the application of an efficient requirements management, to understand the business requirements and to realize them in the IT. But in fact, the Potentials of the requirements management are not fully exhausted by small and medium sized enterprises (SME) of the IT sector. To work out recommendations for action and furthermore a possible solution, allowing a better exhaust of potentials, it shall be examined in a scientific research project, which problems occur out of which causes. In the same place, the storage of knowledge from the requirements management, and its later reuse are important, to achieve sustainable improvements of the competitive of the IT-SMEs. Requirements Engineering is one of the most important topics in Product Management for Software to achieve the goal of optimizing the success of the software product.

Keywords: ERP, Requirements Management

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224 SIFT Accordion: A Space-Time Descriptor Applied to Human Action Recognition

Authors: Olfa.Ben Ahmed, Mahmoud. Mejdoub, Chokri. Ben Amar

Abstract:

Recognizing human action from videos is an active field of research in computer vision and pattern recognition. Human activity recognition has many potential applications such as video surveillance, human machine interaction, sport videos retrieval and robot navigation. Actually, local descriptors and bag of visuals words models achieve state-of-the-art performance for human action recognition. The main challenge in features description is how to represent efficiently the local motion information. Most of the previous works focus on the extension of 2D local descriptors on 3D ones to describe local information around every interest point. In this paper, we propose a new spatio-temporal descriptor based on a spacetime description of moving points. Our description is focused on an Accordion representation of video which is well-suited to recognize human action from 2D local descriptors without the need to 3D extensions. We use the bag of words approach to represent videos. We quantify 2D local descriptor describing both temporal and spatial features with a good compromise between computational complexity and action recognition rates. We have reached impressive results on publicly available action data set

Keywords: Accordion, Bag of Features, Human action, Motion, Moving point, Space-Time Descriptor, SIFT, Video.

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223 Improved Posterized Color Images based on Color Quantization and Contrast Enhancement

Authors: Oh-Yeol Kwon, Sung-Il Chien

Abstract:

A conventional image posterization method occasionally fails to preserve the shape and color of objects due to the uneffective color reduction. This paper proposes a new image posterizartion method by using modified color quantization for preserving the shape and color of objects and color contrast enhancement for improving lightness contrast and saturation. Experiment results show that our proposed method can provide visually more satisfactory posterization result than that of the conventional method.

Keywords: Color contrast enhancement, color quantization, color segmentation, image posterization

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222 Response Spectrum Transformation for Seismic Qualification Testing

Authors: Nouredine Bourahla, Farid Bouriche, Yacine Benghalia

Abstract:

Seismic qualification testing for equipments to be mounted on upper storeys of buildings is very demanding in terms of floor spectra. The latter is characterized by high accelerations amplitudes within a narrow frequency band. This article presents a method which permits to cover specified required response spectra beyond the shaking table capability by amplifying the acceleration amplitudes at an appropriate frequency range using a physical intermediate mounted on the platform of the shaker.

Keywords: floor spectra, response spectrum, seismicqualification testing, shaking table

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221 Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse by Means of Enzymes Produced by Solid State Fermentation Method

Authors: Nasim Shaibani, Saba Ghazvini, Mohammad R. Andalibi, Soheila Yaghmaei

Abstract:

Nowadays there is a growing interest in biofuel production in most countries because of the increasing concerns about hydrocarbon fuel shortage and global climate changes, also for enhancing agricultural economy and producing local needs for transportation fuel. Ethanol can be produced from biomass by the hydrolysis and sugar fermentation processes. In this study ethanol was produced without using expensive commercial enzymes from sugarcane bagasse. Alkali pretreatment was used to prepare biomass before enzymatic hydrolysis. The comparison between NaOH, KOH and Ca(OH)2 shows NaOH is more effective on bagasse. The required enzymes for biomass hydrolysis were produced from sugarcane solid state fermentation via two fungi: Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Aspergillus niger. The results show that the produced enzyme solution via A. niger has functioned better than T. longibrachiatum. Ethanol was produced by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with crude enzyme solution from T. longibrachiatum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. To evaluate this procedure, SSF of pretreated bagasse was also done using Celluclast 1.5L by Novozymes. The yield of ethanol production by commercial enzyme and produced enzyme solution via T. longibrachiatum was 81% and 50% respectively.

Keywords: Alkali pretreatment, bioethanol, cellulase, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, solid statefermentation, sugarcane bagasse

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220 Take Me to the Bus Stop: AR Based Assistance System for Public Transit Users

Authors: Naoki Kanatani, Masaki Ito, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

Route bus system is the fundamental public transportation system and has an important role in every province. To improve the usability of it greatly, we develop an AR application for "Bus- Net". The Bus-Net system is the shortest path planning system. Bus-Net supports bus users to make a plan to change buses by providing them with information about the direction. However, with Bus-Net, these information are provided in text-base. It is difficult to understand them for the person who does not know the place. We developed the AR application for Bus-Net. It supports the action of a bus user in an innovative way by putting information on a camera picture and leading the way to a bus stop. The application also inform the user the correct bus to get, the direction the bus takes and the fare, which ease many anxieties and worries people tend to feel when they take buses.

Keywords: AR, navigation, Bus-Net, transport

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219 Key Success Factors for Managing Projects

Authors: Nader Sh. Kandelousi, Ooi. J., Abdollahi. A

Abstract:

The use and management of projects has risen to a new prominence, with projects seen as critical to economic in both the private and public sectors due challenging and dynamic business environment. However, failure in managing project is encountered regularly, which cause the waste of company resources. The impacts of projects that failed to meet stakeholders expectations have left behind long lasting negative consequences in organization. Therefore, this research aims to investigate on key success factors of project management in an organization. It is believed that recognizing important factors that contribute to successful project will help companies to increase the overall profitability. 150 questionnaires were distributed to respondents and 110 questionnaires were collected and used in performing the data analysis. The result has strongly supported the relationship between independent variables and project performance.

Keywords: Project Performance, Leadership, TopManagement Involvement

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218 Effect of Humic Acid on Physical and Engineering Properties of Lime-Treated Organic Clay

Authors: N. Z. Mohd Yunus, D. Wanatowski, L. R. Stace

Abstract:

The present work deals with the stabilisation of organic clay using hydrated lime. Artificial organic clays were prepared by adding kaolin and different humic acid contents. Results given by physical testing show that the presence of humic acid has a drawback effect on the untreated organic clay. The decrease in specific gravity value was accompanied by a decrease in dry density and plasticity of clay at higher humic acid contents. Significant increase in shear strength at 7 days of curing period is observed in the lime-treated samples up to 5% lime content. However shear strength of lime-treated organic clay decreases at longer curing periods. The results given by laboratory testing is further verified by microstructure analysis. Based on the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that the presence of more than 1.5% humic acid reduces significantly the efficiency of lime stabilization in organic clays.

Keywords: Humic acid, kaolin, lime, organic clay

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217 Combining Skin Color and Optical Flow for Computer Vision Systems

Authors: Muhammad Raza Ali, Tim Morris

Abstract:

Skin color is an important visual cue for computer vision systems involving human users. In this paper we combine skin color and optical flow for detection and tracking of skin regions. We apply these techniques to gesture recognition with encouraging results. We propose a novel skin similarity measure. For grouping detected skin regions we propose a novel skin region grouping mechanism. The proposed techniques work with any number of skin regions making them suitable for a multiuser scenario.

Keywords: Bayesian tracking, chromaticity space, optical flowgesture recognition

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216 Investigating Daylight Quality in Malaysian Government Office Buildings Through Daylight Factor and Surface Luminance

Authors: Mohd Zin Kandar, Mohd Sabere Sulaiman, Yong Razidah Rashid, Dilshan Remaz Ossen, Aminatuzuhariah MAbdullah, Lim Yaik Wah, Mansour Nikpour

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in using daylight to save energy in buildings. In tropical regions, daylighting is always an energy saver. On the other hand, daylight provides visual comfort. According to standards, it shows that many criteria should be taken into consideration in order to have daylight utilization and visual comfort. The current standard in Malaysia, MS 1525 does not provide sufficient guideline. Hence, more research is needed on daylight performance. If architects do not consider daylight design, it not only causes inconvenience in working spaces but also causes more energy consumption as well as environmental pollution. This research had surveyed daylight performance in 5 selected office buildings from different area of Malaysian through experimental method. Several parameters of daylight quality such as daylight factor, surface luminance and surface luminance ratio were measured in different rooms in each building. The result of this research demonstrated that most of the buildings were not designed for daylight utilization. Therefore, it is very important that architects follow the daylight design recommendation to reduce consumption of electric power for artificial lighting while the sufficient quality of daylight is available.

Keywords: Daylight factor, Field measurement, Daylighting quality, Tropical

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215 Development of Roller-Based Interior Wall Painting Robot

Authors: Mohamed T. Sorour, Mohamed A. Abdellatif, Ahmed A. Ramadan, Ahmed A. Abo-Ismail

Abstract:

This paper describes the development of an autonomous robot for painting the interior walls of buildings. The robot consists of a painting arm with an end effector roller that scans the walls vertically and a mobile platform to give horizontal feed to paint the whole area of the wall. The painting arm has a planar twolink mechanism with two joints. Joints are driven from a stepping motor through a ball screw-nut mechanism. Four ultrasonic sensors are attached to the mobile platform and used to maintain a certain distance from the facing wall and to avoid collision with side walls. When settled on adjusted distance from the wall, the controller starts the painting process autonomously. Simplicity, relatively low weight and short painting time were considered in our design. Different modules constituting the robot have been separately tested then integrated. Experiments have shown successfulness of the robot in its intended tasks.

Keywords: Automated roller painting, Construction robots, Mobile robots, service robots, two link planar manipulator

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214 Analytical Prediction of Seismic Response of Steel Frames with Superelastic Shape Memory Alloy

Authors: Mohamed Omar

Abstract:

Superelastic Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) is accepted when it used as connection in steel structures. The seismic behaviour of steel frames with SMA is being assessed in this study. Three eightstorey steel frames with different SMA systems are suggested, the first one of which is braced with diagonal bracing system, the second one is braced with nee bracing system while the last one is which the SMA is used as connection at the plastic hinge regions of beams. Nonlinear time history analyses of steel frames with SMA subjected to two different ground motion records have been performed using Seismostruct software. To evaluate the efficiency of suggested systems, the dynamic responses of the frames were compared. From the comparison results, it can be concluded that using SMA element is an effective way to improve the dynamic response of structures subjected to earthquake excitations. Implementing the SMA braces can lead to a reduction in residual roof displacement. The shape memory alloy is effective in reducing the maximum displacement at the frame top and it provides a large elastic deformation range. SMA connections are very effective in dissipating energy and reducing the total input energy of the whole frame under severe seismic ground motion. Using of the SMA connection system is more effective in controlling the reaction forces at the base frame than other bracing systems. Using SMA as bracing is more effective in reducing the displacements. The efficiency of SMA is dependant on the input wave motions and the construction system as well.

Keywords: Finite element analysis, seismic response, shapesmemory alloy, steel frame, superelasticity

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213 Characterization of the O.ul-mS952 Intron:A Potential Molecular Marker to Distinguish Between Ophiostoma Ulmi and Ophiostoma Novo-Ulmi Subsp. Americana

Authors: Mohamed Hafez, Georg Hausner

Abstract:

The full length mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal (mt-rns) gene has been characterized for Ophiostoma novo-ulmi subspecies americana. The gene was also characterized for Ophiostoma ulmi and a group II intron was noted in the mt-rns gene of O. ulmi. The insertion in the mt-rns gene is at position S952 and it is a group IIB1 intron that encodes a double motif LAGLIDADG homing endonuclease from an open reading frame located within a loop of domain III. Secondary structure models for the mt-rns RNA of O. novo-ulmi subsp. americana and O. ulmi were generated to place the intron within the context of the ribosomal RNA. The in vivo splicing of the O.ul-mS952 group II intron was confirmed with reverse transcription-PCR. A survey of 182 strains of Dutch Elm Diseases causing agents showed that the mS952 intron was absent in what is considered to be the more aggressive species O. novo-ulmi but present in strains of the less aggressive O. ulmi. This observation suggests that the O.ul-mS952 intron can be used as a PCR-based molecular marker to discriminate between O. ulmi and O. novo-ulmi subsp. americana.

Keywords: Dutch Elm Disease, group II introns, mtDNA, species identification

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212 Modeling of the Process Parameters using Soft Computing Techniques

Authors: Miodrag T. Manić, Dejan I. Tanikić, Miloš S. Stojković, Dalibor M. ðenadić

Abstract:

The design of technological procedures for manufacturing certain products demands the definition and optimization of technological process parameters. Their determination depends on the model of the process itself and its complexity. Certain processes do not have an adequate mathematical model, thus they are modeled using heuristic methods. First part of this paper presents a state of the art of using soft computing techniques in manufacturing processes from the perspective of applicability in modern CAx systems. Methods of artificial intelligence which can be used for this purpose are analyzed. The second part of this paper shows some of the developed models of certain processes, as well as their applicability in the actual calculation of parameters of some technological processes within the design system from the viewpoint of productivity.

Keywords: fuzzy logic, manufacturing, neural networks

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211 Measuring Business and Information Technology Value in BPR: An Empirical Study in the Japanese Enterprises

Authors: Michiko Miyamoto, Shuhei Kudo, Kayo Iizuka

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis result of relationship between business and information technology (IT) in business process reengineering (BPR). 258 Japanese firm-level data collected have been analyzed using structural equation modeling. This analysis was aimed to illuminating success factors of achieve effective BPR. Analysis was focused on management factors (including organizational factors) and implementing management method (e.g. balanced score card, internal control, etc.).These results would contribute for achieving effective BPR by showing effective tasks and environment to be focused.

Keywords: BPR, SEM, IS Success Model, user satisfaction

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210 Particle Swarm Optimization with Reduction for Global Optimization Problems

Authors: Michiharu Maeda, Shinya Tsuda

Abstract:

This paper presents an algorithm of particle swarm optimization with reduction for global optimization problems. Particle swarm optimization is an algorithm which refers to the collective motion such as birds or fishes, and a multi-point search algorithm which finds a best solution using multiple particles. Particle swarm optimization is so flexible that it can adapt to a number of optimization problems. When an objective function has a lot of local minimums complicatedly, the particle may fall into a local minimum. For avoiding the local minimum, a number of particles are initially prepared and their positions are updated by particle swarm optimization. Particles sequentially reduce to reach a predetermined number of them grounded in evaluation value and particle swarm optimization continues until the termination condition is met. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, we examine the minimum by using test functions compared to existing algorithms. Furthermore the influence of best value on the initial number of particles for our algorithm is discussed.

Keywords: Particle swarm optimization, Global optimization, Metaheuristics, Reduction.

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209 Refinement of Object-Z Specifications Using Morgan-s Refinement Calculus

Authors: Mehrnaz Najafi, Hassan Haghighi

Abstract:

Morgan-s refinement calculus (MRC) is one of the well-known methods allowing the formality presented in the program specification to be continued all the way to code. On the other hand, Object-Z (OZ) is an extension of Z adding support for classes and objects. There are a number of methods for obtaining code from OZ specifications that can be categorized into refinement and animation methods. As far as we know, only one refinement method exists which refines OZ specifications into code. However, this method does not have fine-grained refinement rules and thus cannot be automated. On the other hand, existing animation methods do not present mapping rules formally and do not support the mapping of several important constructs of OZ, such as all cases of operation expressions and most of constructs in global paragraph. In this paper, with the aim of providing an automatic path from OZ specifications to code, we propose an approach to map OZ specifications into their counterparts in MRC in order to use fine-grained refinement rules of MRC. In this way, having counterparts of our specifications in MRC, we can refine them into code automatically using MRC tools such as RED. Other advantages of our work pertain to proposing mapping rules formally, supporting the mapping of all important constructs of Object-Z, and considering dynamic instantiation of objects while OZ itself does not cover this facility.

Keywords: Formal method, Formal specification, Formalprogram development, Morgan's Refinement Calculus, Object-Z

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208 Deoiling Hydrocyclones Flow Field-A Comparison between k-Epsilon and LES

Authors: Maysam Saidi, Reza Maddahian, Bijan Farhanieh

Abstract:

In this research a comparison between k-epsilon and LES model for a deoiling hydrocyclone is conducted. Flow field of hydrocyclone is obtained by three-dimensional simulations with OpenFOAM code. Potential of prediction for both methods of this complex swirl flow is discussed. Large eddy simulation method results have more similarity to experiment and its results are presented in figures from different hydrocyclone cross sections.

Keywords: Deoiling hydrocyclones, k-epsilon model, Largeeddy simulation, OpenFOAM

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207 Shape Restoration of the Left Ventricle

Authors: May-Ling Tan, Yi Su, Chi-Wan Lim, Liang Zhong, Ru-San Tan

Abstract:

This paper describes an automatic algorithm to restore the shape of three-dimensional (3D) left ventricle (LV) models created from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data using a geometry-driven optimization approach. Our basic premise is to restore the LV shape such that the LV epicardial surface is smooth after the restoration. A geometrical measure known as the Minimum Principle Curvature (κ2) is used to assess the smoothness of the LV. This measure is used to construct the objective function of a two-step optimization process. The objective of the optimization is to achieve a smooth epicardial shape by iterative in-plane translation of the MRI slices. Quantitatively, this yields a minimum sum in terms of the magnitude of κ 2, when κ2 is negative. A limited memory quasi-Newton algorithm, L-BFGS-B, is used to solve the optimization problem. We tested our algorithm on an in vitro theoretical LV model and 10 in vivo patient-specific models which contain significant motion artifacts. The results show that our method is able to automatically restore the shape of LV models back to smoothness without altering the general shape of the model. The magnitudes of in-plane translations are also consistent with existing registration techniques and experimental findings.

Keywords: Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Left Ventricle, ShapeRestoration, Principle Curvature, Optimization

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206 Fast 2.5D Model Reconstruction of Assembled Parts with High Occlusion for Completeness Inspection

Authors: Matteo Munaro, Stefano Michieletto, Edmond So, Daniele Alberton, Emanuele Menegatti

Abstract:

In this work a dual laser triangulation system is presented for fast building of 2.5D textured models of objects within a production line. This scanner is designed to produce data suitable for 3D completeness inspection algorithms. For this purpose two laser projectors have been used in order to considerably reduce the problem of occlusions in the camera movement direction. Results of reconstruction of electronic boards are presented, together with a comparison with a commercial system.

Keywords: 3D quality inspection, 2.5D reconstruction, laser triangulation, occlusions.

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205 Challenges to Enable Quick Start of an Environmental Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Network Technology

Authors: Masaki Ito, Hideyuki Tokuda, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

With the advancement of wireless sensor network technology, its practical utilization is becoming an important challange. This paper overviews my past environmental monitoring project, and discusses the process of starting the monitoring by classifying it into four steps. The steps to start environmental monitoring can be complicated, but not well discussed by researchers of wireless sensor network technology. This paper demonstrates our activity and challenges in each of the four steps to ease the process, and argues future challenges to enable quick start of environmental monitoring.

Keywords: Environmental Monitoring, Wireless Sensor Network, Field Experiment and Research Challenges.

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204 Development of Optimized User Interface of Public Transit Navigator for a Smartphone

Authors: Masahiro Taketa, Masaki Ito, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

We develop a new interface for Bus-Net which is optimized for a smartphone. We are continuing to develop the shortest path planning system of public transportation called "Bus-Net" in Tottori prefecture as web application to improve the usability of public transportation. Recent trend of computing platform, however has shifted to an advanced mobile device called a smartphone such as iPhone and Android in Japan. A smartphone has different characters with existing feature phone in terms of OS, large touche panel, and several other features. We derive a guideline to design the new interface for a smartphone to full use of the functionality. The guideline is about simplicity of user-s operation, location awareness and usability. We developed the new interface for “Bus-Net" on iPhone referring to the guideline. Due to the evaluation, the application interface we developed is better than the existing web-based interface in terms of the usability.

Keywords: Path Planning, Public Transportation, Smartphone, User Interface

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203 Improved Tropical Wood Species Recognition System based on Multi-feature Extractor and Classifier

Authors: Marzuki Khalid, RubiyahYusof, AnisSalwaMohdKhairuddin

Abstract:

An automated wood recognition system is designed to classify tropical wood species.The wood features are extracted based on two feature extractors: Basic Grey Level Aura Matrix (BGLAM) technique and statistical properties of pores distribution (SPPD) technique. Due to the nonlinearity of the tropical wood species separation boundaries, a pre classification stage is proposed which consists ofKmeans clusteringand kernel discriminant analysis (KDA). Finally, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) classifier and KNearest Neighbour (KNN) are implemented for comparison purposes. The study involves comparison of the system with and without pre classification using KNN classifier and LDA classifier.The results show that the inclusion of the pre classification stage has improved the accuracy of both the LDA and KNN classifiers by more than 12%.

Keywords: Tropical wood species, nonlinear data, featureextractors, classification

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202 Robust Position Control of an Electromechanical Actuator for Automotive Applications

Authors: Markus Reichhartinger, Martin Horn

Abstract:

In this paper, the position control of an electronic throttle actuator is outlined. The dynamic behavior of the actuator is described with the help of an uncertain plant model. This motivates the controller design based on the ideas of higher-order slidingmodes. As a consequence anti-chattering techniques can be omitted. It is shown that the same concept is applicable to estimate unmeasureable signals. The control law and the observer are implemented on an electronic control unit. Results achieved by numerical simulations and real world experiments are presented and discussed.

Keywords: higher order sliding-mode, throttle actuator, electromechanicalsystem, robust and nonlinear control.

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201 The Elements of the Crisis Concept

Authors: Marie Mikušová, Petr Šnapka, Viktorie Janečková

Abstract:

As every system conceptions the concept of crisis is based on the system of interdependent elements. These dialectic elements occur in a majority of definitions even though called differently. For further theoretical searching but also for practical utilization it is necessary to understand these elements. The paper stresses that the concept of crisis is ambiguous. There are identified and explained the elements that are generally found in most crises (disruption, precondition, triggers etc).

Keywords: Concept, crisis, element

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200 Comparison between Lift and Drag-Driven VAWT Concepts on Low-Wind Site AEO

Authors: Marco Raciti Castelli, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

This work presents a comparison between the Annual Energy Output (AEO) of two commercial vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) for a low-wind urban site: both a drag-driven and a liftdriven concepts are examined in order to be installed on top of the new Via dei Giustinelli building, Trieste (Italy). The power-curves, taken from the product specification sheets, have been matched to the wind characteristics of the selected installation site. The influence of rotor swept area and rated power on the performance of the two proposed wind turbines have been examined in detail, achieving a correlation between rotor swept area, electrical generator size and wind distribution, to be used as a guideline for the calculation of the AEO.

Keywords: Annual Energy Output, micro-generationtechnology, urban environment, Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine

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199 Contact Drying Simulation of Particulate Materials: A Comprehensive Approach

Authors: Marco Intelvi, Apolinar Picado, Joaquín Martínez

Abstract:

In this work, simulation algorithms for contact drying of agitated particulate materials under vacuum and at atmospheric pressure were developed. The implementation of algorithms gives a predictive estimation of drying rate curves and bulk bed temperature during contact drying. The calculations are based on the penetration model to describe the drying process, where all process parameters such as heat and mass transfer coefficients, effective bed properties, gas and liquid phase properties are estimated with proper correlations. Simulation results were compared with experimental data from the literature. In both cases, simulation results were in good agreement with experimental data. Few deviations were identified and the limitations of the predictive capabilities of the models are discussed. The programs give a good insight of the drying behaviour of the analysed powders.

Keywords: Agitated bed, Atmospheric pressure, Penetrationmodel, Vacuum

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198 Effect of Zeolite on the Decomposition Resistance of Organic Matter in Tropical Soils under Global Warming

Authors: Mai Thanh Truc, Masao Yoshida

Abstract:

Global temperature had increased by about 0.5oC over the past century, increasing temperature leads to a loss or a decrease of soil organic matter (SOM). Whereas soil organic matter in many tropical soils is less stable than that of temperate soils, and it will be easily affected by climate change. Therefore, conservation of soil organic matter is urgent issue nowadays. This paper presents the effect of different doses (5%, 15%) of Ca-type zeolite in conjunction with organic manure, applied to soil samples from Philippines, Paraguay and Japan, on the decomposition resistance of soil organic matter under high temperature. Results showed that a remain or slightly increase the C/N ratio of soil. There are an increase in percent of humic acid (PQ) that extracted with Na4P2O7. A decrease of percent of free humus (fH) after incubation was determined. A larger the relative color intensity (RF) value and a lower the color coefficient (6logK) value following increasing zeolite rates leading to a higher degrees of humification. The increase in the aromatic condensation of humic acid (HA) after incubation, as indicates by the decrease of H/C and O/C ratios of HA. This finding indicates that the use of zeolite could be beneficial with respect to SOM conservation under global warming condition.

Keywords: Global warming, Humic substances, Soil organicmatter, Zeolite.

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197 Image Enhancement using α-Trimmed Mean ε-Filters

Authors: Mahdi Shaneh, Arash Golibagh Mahyari

Abstract:

Image enhancement is the most important challenging preprocessing for almost all applications of Image Processing. By now, various methods such as Median filter, α-trimmed mean filter, etc. have been suggested. It was proved that the α-trimmed mean filter is the modification of median and mean filters. On the other hand, ε-filters have shown excellent performance in suppressing noise. In spite of their simplicity, they achieve good results. However, conventional ε-filter is based on moving average. In this paper, we suggested a new ε-filter which utilizes α-trimmed mean. We argue that this new method gives better outcomes compared to previous ones and the experimental results confirmed this claim.

Keywords: Image enhancement, median filter, ε-filter – α-trimmed mean filter.

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196 A 3D Approach for Extraction of the Coronaryartery and Quantification of the Stenosis

Authors: Mahdi Mazinani, S. D. Qanadli, Rahil Hosseini, Tim Ellis, Jamshid Dehmeshki

Abstract:

Segmentation and quantification of stenosis is an important task in assessing coronary artery disease. One of the main challenges is measuring the real diameter of curved vessels. Moreover, uncertainty in segmentation of different tissues in the narrow vessel is an important issue that affects accuracy. This paper proposes an algorithm to extract coronary arteries and measure the degree of stenosis. Markovian fuzzy clustering method is applied to model uncertainty arises from partial volume effect problem. The algorithm employs: segmentation, centreline extraction, estimation of orthogonal plane to centreline, measurement of the degree of stenosis. To evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility, the approach has been applied to a vascular phantom and the results are compared with real diameter. The results of 10 patient datasets have been visually judged by a qualified radiologist. The results reveal the superiority of the proposed method compared to the Conventional thresholding Method (CTM) on both datasets.

Keywords: 3D coronary artery tree extraction, segmentation, quantification, fuzzy clustering, and Markov random field

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195 Contribution of Vitaton (Β-Carotene) to the Rearing Factors Survival Rate and Visual Flesh Color of Rainbow Trout Fish in Comparison With Astaxanthin

Authors: M.Ghotbi, M.Ghotbi, Gh. Azari Takami

Abstract:

In this study Vitaton (an organic supplement which contains fermentative β-carotene) and synthetic astaxanthin (CAROPHYLL® Pink) were evaluated as pro-growth factors in Rainbow trout diet. An 8 week feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of Vitaton versus astaxanthin on rearing factors, survival rate and visual flesh color of Rainbow trout (Oncorhnchynchus mykiss) with initial weight of 196±5. Four practical diets were formulated to contain 50 and 80 (ppm) of β- carotene and astaxanthin and also a control diet was prepared without any pigment. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish rearing in fresh water. Fish were fed twice daily. The water temperature fluctuated from 12 to 15 (C˚) and also dissolved oxygen content was between 7 to 7.5 (mg/lit) during the experimental period. At the end of the experiment, growth and food utilization parameters and survival rate were unaffected by dietary treatments (p>0.05). Also, there was no significant difference between carcass yield within treatments (p>0.05). No significant difference recognized between visual flesh color (SalmoFan score) of fish fed Vitaton-containing diets. On the contrary, feeding on diets containing 50 and 80 (ppm) of astaxanthin, increased SalmoFan score (flesh astaxanthin concentration) from <20 (<1 mg/kg) to 23.33 (2.03 mg/kg) and 27.67 (5.74 mg/kg), respectively. Ultimately, a significant difference was seen between flesh carotenoid concentrations of fish feeding on astaxanthin containing treatments and control treatment (P<0.05). It should be mentioned that just raw fillet color of fish belonged to 80 (ppm) of astaxanthin treatment was seen to be close to color targets (SalmoFan scores) adopted for harvest-size fish.

Keywords: Astaxanthin, Flesh color, Rainbow trout, Vitaton, β- carotene,

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194 Short Time Identification of Feed Drive Systems using Nonlinear Least Squares Method

Authors: M.G.A. Nassef, Linghan Li, C. Schenck, B. Kuhfuss

Abstract:

Design and modeling of nonlinear systems require the knowledge of all inside acting parameters and effects. An empirical alternative is to identify the system-s transfer function from input and output data as a black box model. This paper presents a procedure using least squares algorithm for the identification of a feed drive system coefficients in time domain using a reduced model based on windowed input and output data. The command and response of the axis are first measured in the first 4 ms, and then least squares are applied to predict the transfer function coefficients for this displacement segment. From the identified coefficients, the next command response segments are estimated. The obtained results reveal a considerable potential of least squares method to identify the system-s time-based coefficients and predict accurately the command response as compared to measurements.

Keywords: feed drive systems, least squares algorithm, onlineparameter identification, short time window

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193 Assessment of Photodynamic Therapy for Staphylococcus Aureus Infected Wounds using Diffuse Reflectance Spectrometry

Authors: M.A. Calin, D. Voicu, M.R. Calin, D. Savastru, D. Manea

Abstract:

In this paper we evaluated the efficacy of photodynamic treatment of infected wounds on pig animal model by diffuse reflectance spectrometry. The study was conducted on fifteen wounds contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that were incubated for 30 min with methylene blue solution (c = 3.3 x 10-3 M) and exposed to laser radiations (λ = 670 nm, P = 15 mW) for 15 min. The efficiency of photodynamic inactivation of bacteria was evaluated by microbiological exams and diffuse reflectance spectrometry. The results of the microbiological exams showed that the bacterial concentration has decreased from 6.93±0.138 logCFU/ml to 3.12±0.108 logCFU/ml. The spectral examination showed that the diffuse reflectance of wounds contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus has decreased from 5.06±0.036 % to 3.36±0.025 %. In conclusion, photodynamic therapy is an effective method for the treatment of infected wounds and there is a correlation between the CFU count and diffuse reflectance.

Keywords: photodynamic inactivation, bacteria, pigs, wounds

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192 Reducing Variation of Dyeing Process in Textile Manufacturing Industry

Authors: M. Zeydan, G. Toğa

Abstract:

This study deals with a multi-criteria optimization problem which has been transformed into a single objective optimization problem using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Grey Relational Analyses (GRA) approach. Grey-RSM and Grey-ANN are hybrid techniques which can be used for solving multi-criteria optimization problem. There have been two main purposes of this research as follows. 1. To determine optimum and robust fiber dyeing process conditions by using RSM and ANN based on GRA, 2. To obtain the best suitable model by comparing models developed by different methodologies. The design variables for fiber dyeing process in textile are temperature, time, softener, anti-static, material quantity, pH, retarder, and dispergator. The quality characteristics to be evaluated are nominal color consistency of fiber, maximum strength of fiber, minimum color of dyeing solution. GRA-RSM with exact level value, GRA-RSM with interval level value and GRA-ANN models were compared based on GRA output value and MSE (Mean Square Error) performance measurement of outputs with each other. As a result, GRA-ANN with interval value model seems to be suitable reducing the variation of dyeing process for GRA output value of the model.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Grey Relational Analysis, Optimization, Response Surface Methodology

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191 Analysis of Catalytic Properties of Ni3Al Thin Foils for the Methanol and Hexane Decomposition

Authors: M. Michalska-Domańska, P. Jóźwik, Z. Bojar

Abstract:

Intermetallic Ni3Al – based alloys belong to a group of advanced materials characterized by good chemical and physical properties (such as structural stability, corrosion resistance) which offer advenced technological applications. The paper presents the study of catalytic properties of Ni3Al foils (thickness approximately 50 &m) in the methanol and hexane decomposition. The egzamined material posses microcrystalline structure without any additional catalysts on the surface. The better catalytic activity of Ni3Al foils with respect to quartz plates in both methanol and hexane decomposition was confirmed. On thin Ni3Al foils the methanol conversion reaches approximately 100% above 480 oC while the hexane conversion reaches approximately 100% (98,5%) at 500 oC. Deposit formed during the methanol decomposition is built up of carbon nanofibers decorated with metal-like nanoparticles.

Keywords: hexane decomposition, methanol decomposition, Ni3Al thin foils, Ni nanoparticles

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190 Influence of Biofertilizers on Flower Yield and Essential Oil of Chamomile ( Matricaria chamomile L.)

Authors: M. Haj Seyed Hadi, M. Taghi Darzi, Z. Ghandeharialavijeh, GH. Riazi

Abstract:

The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of vermicompost and amino acids on the qualitative and quantitative yield of chamomile. The experiment was conducted during the growing season of 2010 at the Alborz Medical Research Center. The Treatment groups consisted of vermicompost (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 tons/ha) and the sprays of amino acids (budding stag, flowering stage, and budding + flowering stage). The experimental design was a factorial experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The present results have shown that the highest plant height, flower head diameter, fresh and dry flower yield and significant essential oil content were obtained by using 20- ton vermicompost per hectare. Effects of amino acids were similar to those seen in vermicompost treatment and all measured traits were seen to be significant after the spray of amino acids at the budding + flowering stage).

Keywords: Vermicompost, amino acids, chamomile, yield

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189 Impact of Fixation Time on Subjective Video Quality Metric: a New Proposal for Lossy Compression Impairment Assessment

Authors: M. G. Albanesi, R. Amadeo

Abstract:

In this paper, a new approach for quality assessment tasks in lossy compressed digital video is proposed. The research activity is based on the visual fixation data recorded by an eye tracker. The method involved both a new paradigm for subjective quality evaluation and the subsequent statistical analysis to match subjective scores provided by the observer to the data obtained from the eye tracker experiments. The study brings improvements to the state of the art, as it solves some problems highlighted in literature. The experiments prove that data obtained from an eye tracker can be used to classify videos according to the level of impairment due to compression. The paper presents the methodology, the experimental results and their interpretation. Conclusions suggest that the eye tracker can be useful in quality assessment, if data are collected and analyzed in a proper way.

Keywords: eye tracker, video compression, video qualityassessment, visual attention

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188 Assessment of Climate Policy and Sustainability in Hungary

Authors: M. Csete, G. Szendrö

Abstract:

The last Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, stating that the greatest risk in climate change affects sustainability is now widely known and accepted. However, it has not provoked substantial reaction and attention in Hungary, while international and national efforts have also not achieved expected results so far. Still, there are numerous examples on different levels (national, regional, local, household) making considerable progress in limiting their own emissions and making steps toward mitigation of and adaptation to climate change. The local level is exceptionally important in sustainability adaptation, as local communities are often able to adapt more flexibly to changes in the natural environment.The aim of this paper is to attempt a review of the national climate policy and the local climate change strategies in Hungary considering sustainable development.

Keywords: adaptation, climate policy, mitigation, localsustainability.

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187 Restoration of Biological Function of Degraded Soil via Chemical Method

Authors: M. Chomczyńska

Abstract:

The studies concerned an effect of six variants of ion exchange substrate (nutrient carriers with a different potential impact on pH of soil solution) on vegetation of orchard grass during two different periods (42 and 84 days). In the pot experiment plants were grown on sand (model of degraded soil) and six mixtures of sand and 2% (v/v) additions of particular variants of ion exchange substrate (with pH ranged from 5.5 to 8.0). The study results showed that the addition of the substrate at pH=6.5 caused the highest increase in plant yield after shorter vegetation period whereas the addition of the substrate at pH=5.5 increased dry stem and root biomass of orchard grass after longer vegetation period. Thus, the ion exchange substrate at pH=6.5 can be recommended for restoration of exhausted soils when shorter vegetation period is planned; the ion exchange substrate at pH=5.5 can be used for the same purpose when longer periods of vegetative growth are considered.

Keywords: ion exchanger, ion exchange substrate, soilrestoration

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186 Comparative Study of Three DGS Unit Shapes and Compact Microstrip Low-Pass and Band-Pass Filters Designs

Authors: M. Challal, F. Labu, M. Dehmas, A. Azrar

Abstract:

In this paper, three types of defected ground structure (DGS) units which are triangular-head (TH), rectangular-head (RH) and U-shape (US) are investigated. They are further used to low-pass and band-pass filters designs (LPF and BPF) and the obtained performances are examined. The LPF employing RH-DGS geometry presents the advantages of compact size, low-insertion loss and wide stopband compared to the other filters. It provides cutoff frequency of 2.5 GHz, largest rejection band width of 20 dB from 2.98 to 8.76 GHz, smallest transition region and smallest sharpness of the cutoff frequency. The BPF based on RH-DGS has the highest bandwidth (BW) of about 0.74 GHz and the lowest center frequency of 3.24 GHz, whereas the other BPFs have BWs less than 0.7 GHz.

Keywords: Defected ground structure (DGS), triangular-head(TH) DGS, rectangular-head (RH) DGS, U-shape (US) DGS, lowpassfilter (LPF) and band-pass filter (BPF).

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185 Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Stainless Steel 304L

Authors: M. Benachour, N. Benachour

Abstract:

Stainless steel has been employed in many engineering applications ranging from pharmaceutical equipment to piping in the nuclear reactors and storage to chemical products. In this attempt, simulation of fatigue crack growth based on experimental results of austenitic stainless steel 304L was presented using AFGROW code when NASGRO mode laws adopted. Double through crack at hole specimen is used in this investigation under constant amplitude loading. Effect of mean stress is highlighted. Results show that fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) and fatigue life were affected by maximum applied load and dimension of hole. An equivalent of Paris law for this material was estimated.

Keywords: Fatigue crack, stainless steel, mean stress, amplitudeloading.

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184 Hydrolysis Characteristics of Polycrystalline Lithium Hydride Powders and Sintered Bulk

Authors: M. B. Shuai, S. Xiao, Q. S. Li, M. F. Chu, X. F. Yang

Abstract:

Ambient hydrolysis products in moist air and hydrolysis kinetics in argon with humidity of RH1.5% for polycrystalline LiH powders and sintered bulks were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and gravimetry. The results showed that the hydrolysis products made up a layered structure of LiOH•H2O/LiOH/Li2O from surface of the sample to inside. In low humid argon atmosphere, the primary hydrolysis product was Li2O rather than LiOH. The hydrolysis kinetic curves of LiH bulks present a paralinear shape, which could be explained by the “Layer Diffusion Control" model. While a three-stage hydrolysis kinetic profile was observed for LiH powders under the same experimental conditions. The first two sections were similar to that of the bulk samples, and the third section also presents a linear reaction kinetics but with a smaller reaction rate compared to the second section because of a larger exothermic effect for the hydrolysis reaction of LiH powder.

Keywords: Hydrolysis, lithium compound, polycrystallinelithium hydride

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183 Investigating Ultra Violet (UV) Strength against Different Level of Altitude using New Environmental Data Management System

Authors: M. Amir Abas, M. Dahlui

Abstract:

This paper presents the investigation results of UV measurement at different level of altitudes and the development of a new portable instrument for measuring UV. The rapid growth of industrial sectors in developing countries including Malaysia, brings not only income to the nation, but also causes pollution in various forms. Air pollution is one of the significant contributors to global warming by depleting the Ozone layer, which would reduce the filtration of UV rays. Long duration of exposure to high to UV rays has many devastating health effects to mankind directly or indirectly through destruction of the natural resources. This study aimed to show correlation between UV and altitudes which indirectly can help predict Ozone depletion. An instrument had been designed to measure and monitors the level of UV. The instrument comprises of two main blocks namely data logger and Graphic User Interface (GUI). Three sensors were used in the data logger to detect changes in the temperature, humidity and ultraviolet. The system has undergone experimental measurement to capture data at two different conditions; industrial area and high attitude area. The performance of the instrument showed consistency in the data captured and the results of the experiment drew a significantly high reading of UV at high altitudes.

Keywords: Ozone Layer, Monitoring, Global Warming, Measurement, Ultraviolet

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182 The Benefits of IFRS Adoption – A Survey of Chief Financial Officers of Romanian Listed Companies

Authors: Lucian Munteanu

Abstract:

The move towards internationalization of accounting encountered a great boost, when in 2002 EU delegated the IASB to provide the accounting standards to be applied inside its frontiers. Among the incentives of the standardization of accounting on the international level, is the reduction of the cost of capital. Romania made the move towards IFRS before EU, when the country was not yet a member of it. Even if this made Romania a special case, it was scarcely approached. The leak of real data is usually the reason for avoiding. The novelty of this paper is that it offers an insight from the reality of Romanian companies and their view regarding the IFRS. The paper is based on a survey that the authors made among the companies listed on the first two tiers of the Bucharest Stock Exchange (BSE), which are basically, the most important companies in the country.

Keywords: Cost of capital, IFRS, information asymmetry, transparency.

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181 Graph-Based Text Similarity Measurement by Exploiting Wikipedia as Background Knowledge

Authors: Lu Zhang, Chunping Li, Jun Liu, Hui Wang

Abstract:

Text similarity measurement is a fundamental issue in many textual applications such as document clustering, classification, summarization and question answering. However, prevailing approaches based on Vector Space Model (VSM) more or less suffer from the limitation of Bag of Words (BOW), which ignores the semantic relationship among words. Enriching document representation with background knowledge from Wikipedia is proven to be an effective way to solve this problem, but most existing methods still cannot avoid similar flaws of BOW in a new vector space. In this paper, we propose a novel text similarity measurement which goes beyond VSM and can find semantic affinity between documents. Specifically, it is a unified graph model that exploits Wikipedia as background knowledge and synthesizes both document representation and similarity computation. The experimental results on two different datasets show that our approach significantly improves VSM-based methods in both text clustering and classification.

Keywords: Text classification, Text clustering, Text similarity, Wikipedia

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180 Modeling Directional Thermal Radiance Anisotropy for Urban Canopy

Authors: Limin Zhao, Xingfa Gu, C. Tao Yu

Abstract:

one of the significant factors for improving the accuracy of Land Surface Temperature (LST) retrieval is the correct understanding of the directional anisotropy for thermal radiance. In this paper, the multiple scattering effect between heterogeneous non-isothermal surfaces is described rigorously according to the concept of configuration factor, based on which a directional thermal radiance model is built, and the directional radiant character for urban canopy is analyzed. The model is applied to a simple urban canopy with row structure to simulate the change of Directional Brightness Temperature (DBT). The results show that the DBT is aggrandized because of the multiple scattering effects, whereas the change range of DBT is smoothed. The temperature difference, spatial distribution, emissivity of the components can all lead to the change of DBT. The “hot spot" phenomenon occurs when the proportion of high temperature component in the vision field came to a head. On the other hand, the “cool spot" phenomena occur when low temperature proportion came to the head. The “spot" effect disappears only when the proportion of every component keeps invariability. The model built in this paper can be used for the study of directional effect on emissivity, the LST retrieval over urban areas and the adjacency effect of thermal remote sensing pixels.

Keywords: Directional thermal radiance, multiple scattering, configuration factor, urban canopy, hot spot effect

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179 Intrinsic Kinetics of Methanol Dehydration over Al2O3 Catalyst

Authors: Liang Zhang, Hai-Tao Zhang, W ei-Yong Ying, Ding-Ye Fang

Abstract:

Dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) over a commercial Al2O3 catalyst was studied in an isothermal integral fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed on the temperature interval 513-613 K, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) of 0.9-2.1h-1, pressures between 0.1 and 1.0 MPa. The effect of different operation conditions on the dehydration of methanol was investigated in a laboratory scale experiment. A new intrinsic kinetics equation based on the mechanism of Langmuir-Hinshelwood dissociation adsorption was developed for the dehydration reaction by fitting the expressions to the experimental data. An activation energy of 67.21 kJ/mol was obtained for the catalyst with the best performance. Statistic test showed that this new intrinsic kinetics equation was acceptable.

Keywords: catalyst, dimethyl ether, intrinsic kinetics, methanol

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178 Phytotoxicity of Daphne Gnidium L. Occurring in Tunisia

Authors: Ladhari A., Omezzine F., Rinez A., Haouala R.

Abstract:

Phytotoxicity of Daphne gnidium L. was evaluated through the effect of incorporating leaves, stems and roots biomass into soil (at 12.5, 25, 50g/Kg) and irrigation by their aqueous extracts (50g/L), on the growth of two crops (Lactuca sativa L. and Raphanus sativus L.) and two weeds (Peaganum harmala L. and Scolymus maculatus L.). Results revealed a perceptible phytotoxic effect which increased with dose and concentration. At the highest dose, roots and leaves residues was the most toxic and caused total inhibition respectively, for lettuce and thistle seedling growth. Irrigation with aqueous extracts of D. gnidium different organs decreased also seedlings length of all test species. Stems extract was more inhibitor on thistle than peganum seedling growth; it induced a significant reduction of 80% and 67%, for, respectively, roots and shoots. Results of the present study suggest that different organs of D. gnidium could be exploited in the management of agro-ecosystems.

Keywords: Biomass, Daphne gnidium L., phytoxicity, seedlinggrowth

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