Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 447

Search results for: tubular equipment

447 Damage of Tubular Equipment in Process Industry

Authors: Pavel Losak, Tomas Letal, Radek Nejezchleb

Abstract:

Tubular process equipment is often damaged in industrial processes. The damage occurs both on devices working at high temperatures and also on less exposed devices. In case of sudden damage of key equipment a shutdown of the whole production unit and resulting significant economic losses are imminent. This paper presents a solution of several types of tubular process equipment. The causes of damage and suggestions of correction actions are discussed in all cases. Very important part is the analysis of operational conditions, determination of unfavourable working states decreasing lifetime of devices and suggestions of correction actions. Lately very popular numerical methods are used for analysis of the equipment.

Keywords: creep, damage, fatigue, FEM, FSI, lifetime, tubular equipment

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446 Degree of Bending in Axially Loaded Tubular KT-Joints of Offshore Structures: Parametric Study and Formulation

Authors: Hamid Ahmadi, Shadi Asoodeh

Abstract:

The fatigue life of tubular joints commonly found in offshore industry is not only dependent on the value of hot-spot stress (HSS), but is also significantly influenced by the through-thethickness stress distribution characterized by the degree of bending (DoB). The determination of DoB values in a tubular joint is essential for improving the accuracy of fatigue life estimation using the stresslife (S–N) method and particularly for predicting the fatigue crack growth based on the fracture mechanics (FM) approach. In the present paper, data extracted from finite element (FE) analyses of tubular KT-joints, verified against experimental data and parametric equations, was used to investigate the effects of geometrical parameters on DoB values at the crown 0°, saddle, and crown 180° positions along the weld toe of central brace in tubular KT-joints subjected to axial loading. Parametric study was followed by a set of nonlinear regression analyses to derive DoB parametric formulas for the fatigue analysis of KT-joints under axial loads. The tubular KTjoint is a quite common joint type found in steel offshore structures. However, despite the crucial role of the DoB in evaluating the fatigue performance of tubular joints, this paper is the first attempt to study and formulate the DoB values in KT-joints.

Keywords: Tubular KT-joint, fatigue, degree of bending (DoB), axial loading, parametric formula.

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445 Reliability Analysis of Tubular Joints of Offshore Platforms in Malaysia

Authors: Nelson J. Cossa, Narayanan S. Potty, Mohd Shahir Liew, Arazi B. Idrus

Abstract:

The oil and gas industry has moved towards Load and Resistance Factor Design through API RP2A - LRFD and the recently published international standard, ISO-19902, for design of fixed steel offshore structures. The ISO 19902 is intended to provide a harmonized design practice that offers a balanced structural fitness for the purpose, economy and safety. As part of an ongoing work, the reliability analysis of tubular joints of the jacket structure has been carried out to calibrate the load and resistance factors for the design of offshore platforms in Malaysia, as proposed in the ISO. Probabilistic models have been established for the load effects (wave, wind and current) and the tubular joints strengths. In this study the First Order Reliability Method (FORM), coded in MATLAB Software has been employed to evaluate the reliability index of the typical joints, designed using API RP2A - WSD and ISO 19902.

Keywords: FORM, Reliability Analysis, Tubular Joints

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444 Outer-Brace Stress Concentration Factors of Offshore Two-Planar Tubular DKT-Joints

Authors: Mohammad Ali Lotfollahi-Yaghin, Hamid Ahmadi

Abstract:

In the present paper, a set of parametric FE stress analyses is carried out for two-planar welded tubular DKT-joints under two different axial load cases. Analysis results are used to present general remarks on the effect of geometrical parameters on the stress concentration factors (SCFs) at the inner saddle, outer saddle, toe, and heel positions on the main (outer) brace. Then a new set of SCF parametric equations is developed through nonlinear regression analysis for the fatigue design of two-planar DKT-joints. An assessment study of these equations is conducted against the experimental data; and the satisfaction of the criteria regarding the acceptance of parametric equations is checked. Significant effort has been devoted by researchers to the study of SCFs in various uniplanar tubular connections. Nevertheless, for multi-planar joints covering the majority of practical applications, very few investigations have been reported due to the complexity and high cost involved.

Keywords: Offshore jacket structure, Parametric equation, Stress concentration factor (SCF), Two-planar tubular KT-joint

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443 Equipment Design for Lunar Lander Landing-Impact Test

Authors: Xiaohuan Li, Wangmin Yi, Xinghui Wu

Abstract:

In order to verify the performance of lunar lander structure, landing-impact test is urgently needed. And the test equipment is necessary for the test. The functions and the key points of the equipment are presented to satisfy the requirements of the test, and the design scheme is proposed. The composition, the major function and the critical parts’ design of the equipment are introduced. By the load test of releasing device and single-beam hoist, and the compatibility test of landing-impact testing system, the rationality and reliability of the equipment is proved.

Keywords: Landing-impact test, lunar lander, releasing device, test equipment.

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442 Implementing ALD in Product Development: The Effect of Geometrical Dimensions on Tubular Member Deformation

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, Aidil Khaidir Bin Muhamad, Tadayuki Kyoutani, Dai-Heng Chen, Ken Kaminishi

Abstract:

The product development process has undergone many changes concomitant with world progress in order to produce products that meet customer needs quickly and inexpensively. Analysis-Led Design (ALD) is one of the latest methods in the product development process. It focuses more on up-front engineering, a product quality optimization process that starts early in the conceptual design stage. Product development and manufacturing through ALD utilizes digital tools extensively for design, analysis and product optimization. This study uses computer-aided design (CAD) and finite element method (FEM) simulation to examine the modes of deformation of tubular members under axial loading. A multiple-combination impact absorption tubular member, referred to as a compress–expand member, is proposed as a substitute for the conventional thin-walled cylindrical tube to be used as a vehicle’s crash box. The study of deformation modes is crucial for evaluating the geometrical dimension limits by which a member can absorb energy efficiently.

Keywords: Analysis-led design, axial collapse, tubular member, finite element method, thin-walled cylindrical tube, compress-expand member, deformation modes.

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441 Dynamic Performances of Tubular Linear Induction Motor for Pneumatic Capsule Pipeline System

Authors: Wisuwat Plodpradista

Abstract:

Tubular linear induction motor (TLIM) can be used as a capsule pump in a large pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) system. Parametric performance evaluation of the designed 1-meter diameter PCP-TLIM system yields encouraging results for practical implementation. The capsule thrust and speed inside the TLIM pump can be calculated from the combination of the PCP fluid mechanics and the TLIM equations. The TLIM equivalent circuits derived from those of the conventional three-phase induction motor are used as a model to predict the static test results of a small-scale PCP-TLIM system. In this paper, additional dynamic tests are performed on the same small-scale PCP-TLIM system with two capsules of different diameters. The behaviors of the capsule inside the pump are observed and analyzed. The dynamic performances from the dynamic tests are compared with the theoretical predictions based on the TLIM equivalent circuit model.

Keywords: Pneumatic capsule pipeline, Tubular linear induction motor

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440 Intensification of Ethyl Esters Synthesis Using a Packed-Bed Tubular Reactor at Supercritical Conditions

Authors: Camila da Silva, Simone Belorte de Andrade, Vitor Augusto dos Santos Garcia, Vladimir Ferreira Cabral, J. Vladimir Oliveira Lúcio Cardozo-Filho

Abstract:

In the present study, the non-catalytic transesterification of soybean oil in continuous mode using supercritical ethanol were investigated. Experiments were performed in a packed-bed tubular reactor (PBTR) and variable studied were reaction temperature (523 K to 598 K), pressure (10 MPa to 20 MPa), oil to ethanol molar ratio (1:10 to 1:40) and water concentration (0 wt% to 10 wt% in ethanol). Results showed that ethyl esters yields obtained in the PBTR were higher (> 20 wt%) than those verified in a tubular reactor (TR), due to improved mass transfer conditions attained in the PBTR. Results demonstrated that temperature, pressure, oil to ethanol molar ratio and water concentration had a positive effect on fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) production in the experimental range investigated, with appreciable reaction yields (90 wt%) achieved at 598 K, 20 MPa, oil to ethanol molar ratio of 1:40 and 10 wt% of water concentration.

Keywords: Packed bed reactor, ethyl esters, continuous process, catalyst-free process.

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439 The Status Info Processing and Keeping System for Production Equipment

Authors: So Jeong Nam, Seung Woo Lee, Jai-Kyung Lee

Abstract:

With the globalized production and logistics environment, the need for reducing the product development interval and lead time, having a faster response to orders, conforming to quality standards, fair tracking, and boosting information exchanging activities with customers and partners, and coping with changes in the management environment, manufacturers are in dire need of an information management system in their manufacturing environments. There are lots of information systems that have been designed to manage the condition or operation of equipment in the field but existing systems have a decentralized architecture, which is not unified. Also, these systems cannot effectively handle the status data extraction process upon encountering a problem related to protocols or changes in the equipment or the setting. In this regard, this paper will introduce a system for processing and saving the status info of production equipment, which uses standard representation formats, to enable flexible responses to and support for variables in the field equipment. This system can be used for a variety of manufacturing and equipment settings and is capable of interacting with higher-tier systems such as MES.

Keywords: DAS, Equipment Status, Regular Expression

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438 An Economical Operation Analysis Optimization Model for Heavy Equipment Selection

Authors: A. Jrade, N. Markiz, N. Albelwi

Abstract:

Optimizing equipment selection in heavy earthwork operations is a critical key in the success of any construction project. The objective of this research incentive was geared towards developing a computer model to assist contractors and construction managers in estimating the cost of heavy earthwork operations. Economical operation analysis was conducted for an equipment fleet taking into consideration the owning and operating costs involved in earthwork operations. The model is being developed in a Microsoft environment and is capable of being integrated with other estimating and optimization models. In this study, Caterpillar® Performance Handbook [5] was the main resource used to obtain specifications of selected equipment. The implementation of the model shall give optimum selection of equipment fleet not only based on cost effectiveness but also in terms of versatility. To validate the model, a case study of an actual dam construction project was selected to quantify its degree of accuracy.

Keywords: Operation analysis, optimization model, equipment economics, equipment selection.

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437 Educational Plan and Program of the Subject Maintenance of Electric Power Equipment

Authors: Rade Ciric, Sasa Mandic

Abstract:

Students of Higher Education Technical School of Professional Studies in Novi Sad follow the subject ‘Maintenance of Electric Power Equipment’ at the Electrotechnical Department. This paper presents educational plan and program of the subject Maintenance of Electric Power Equipment. The course deals with the problems of preventive and investing maintenance of transformer stations (TS), performing and maintenance of grounding of TS and pillars, as well as tracing and detection the location of the cables failure. There is a special elaborated subject concerning the safe work conditions for the electrician during network maintenance, as well as the basics of making and keeping technical documentation of the equipment.

Keywords: Educational plan and program, electric power equipment, maintenance, technical documentation, safe work.

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436 A Tubular Electrode for Radiofrequency Ablation Therapy

Authors: Carlos L. Antunes, Tony R. Almeida, Nélia Raposeiro, Belarmino Gonçalves, Paulo Almeida, André Antunes

Abstract:

In the last two decades radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been considered a promising medical procedure for the treatment of primary and secondary malignancies. However, the needle-based electrodes so far developed for this kind of treatment are not suitable for the thermal ablation of tumors located in hollow organs like esophagus, colon or bile duct. In this work a tubular electrode solution is presented. Numerical and experimental analyses were performed to characterize the volume of the lesion induced. Results show that this kind of electrode is a feasible solution and numerical simulation might provide a tool for planning RFA procedure with some accuracy.

Keywords: 3D modeling, cancer, medical therapy, radiofrequency ablation.

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435 Hand Motion and Gesture Control of Laboratory Test Equipment Using the Leap Motion Controller

Authors: Ian A. Grout

Abstract:

In this paper, the design and development of a system to provide hand motion and gesture control of laboratory test equipment is considered and discussed. The Leap Motion controller is used to provide an input to control a laboratory power supply as part of an electronic circuit experiment. By suitable hand motions and gestures, control of the power supply is provided remotely and without the need to physically touch the equipment used. As such, it provides an alternative manner in which to control electronic equipment via a PC and is considered here within the field of human computer interaction (HCI).

Keywords: Control, hand gesture, human computer interaction, test equipment.

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434 Performance Complexity Measurement of Tightening Equipment Based on Kolmogorov Entropy

Authors: Guoliang Fan, Aiping Li, Xuemei Liu, Liyun Xu

Abstract:

The performance of the tightening equipment will decline with the working process in manufacturing system. The main manifestations are the randomness and discretization degree increasing of the tightening performance. To evaluate the degradation tendency of the tightening performance accurately, a complexity measurement approach based on Kolmogorov entropy is presented. At first, the states of performance index are divided for calibrating the discrete degree. Then the complexity measurement model based on Kolmogorov entropy is built. The model describes the performance degradation tendency of tightening equipment quantitatively. At last, a study case is applied for verifying the efficiency and validity of the approach. The research achievement shows that the presented complexity measurement can effectively evaluate the degradation tendency of the tightening equipment. It can provide theoretical basis for preventive maintenance and life prediction of equipment.

Keywords: Complexity measurement, Kolmogorov entropy, manufacturing system, performance evaluation, tightening equipment.

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433 Failure Cases Analysis in Petrochemical Industry

Authors: S. W. Liu, J. H. Lv, W. Z. Wang

Abstract:

In recent years, the failure accidents in petrochemical industry have been frequent, and have posed great security problems in personnel and property. The improvement of petrochemical safety is highly requested in order to prevent re-occurrence of severe accident. This study focuses on surveying the failure cases occurred in petrochemical field, which were extracted from journals of engineering failure, including engineering failure analysis and case studies in engineering failure analysis. The relation of failure mode, failure mechanism, type of components, and type of materials was analyzed in this study. And the analytical results showed that failures occurred more frequently in vessels and piping among the petrochemical equipment. Moreover, equipment made of carbon steel and stainless steel accounts for the majority of failures compared to other materials. This may be related to the application of the equipment and the performance of the material. In addition, corrosion failures were the largest in number of occurrence in the failure of petrochemical equipment, in which stress corrosion cracking accounts for a large proportion. This may have a lot to do with the service environment of the petrochemical equipment. Therefore, it can be concluded that the corrosion prevention of petrochemical equipment is particularly important.

Keywords: Cases analysis, corrosion, failure, petrochemical industry.

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432 Improving Cleanability by Changing Fish Processing Equipment Design

Authors: Lars A. L. Giske, Ola J. Mork, Emil Bjoerlykhaug

Abstract:

The design of fish processing equipment greatly impacts how easy the cleaning process for the equipment is. This is a critical issue in fish processing, as cleaning of fish processing equipment is a task that is both costly and time consuming, in addition to being very important with regards to product quality. Even more, poorly cleaned equipment could in the worst case lead to contaminated product from which consumers could get ill. This paper will elucidate how equipment design changes could improve the work for the cleaners and saving money for the fish processing facilities by looking at a case for product design improvements. The design of fish processing equipment largely determines how easy it is to clean. “Design for cleaning” is the new hype in the industry and equipment where the ease of cleaning is prioritized gets a competitive advantage over equipment in which design for cleaning has not been prioritized. Design for cleaning is an important research area for equipment manufacturers. SeaSide AS is doing continuously improvements in the design of their products in order to gain a competitive advantage. The focus in this paper will be conveyors for internal logistic and a product called the “electro stunner” will be studied with regards to “Design for cleaning”. Often together with SeaSide’s customers, ideas for new products or product improvements are sketched out, 3D-modelled, discussed, revised, built and delivered. Feedback from the customers is taken into consideration, and the product design is revised once again. This loop was repeated multiple times, and led to new product designs. The new designs sometimes also cause the manufacturing processes to change (as in going from bolted to welded connections). Customers report back that the concrete changes applied to products by SeaSide has resulted in overall more easily cleaned equipment. These changes include, but are not limited to; welded connections (opposed to bolted connections), gaps between contact faces, opening up structures to allow cleaning “inside” equipment, and generally avoiding areas in which humidity and water may gather and build up. This is important, as there will always be bacteria in the water which will grow if the area never dries up. The work of creating more cleanable design is still ongoing, and will “never” be finished as new designs and new equipment will have their own challenges.

Keywords: Cleaning, design, equipment, fish processing, innovation.

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431 Making India a Telecom Manufacturing Hub: Emerging Issues and Challenges

Authors: Utpal Chattopadhyay

Abstract:

Indian telecom services industry has been witnessing a stupendous growth since 1990s. Over the years, subscriber base has grown steadily and it crossed 950 million marks in March 2012. India with second largest subscriber base also offers one of the lowest call tariffs in the world. But in the euphoria of high growth in services, the equipment manufacturing received least priority. India mainly depends on imported components from China. Of late, it is realized that lack of domestic manufacturing may pose a serious challenge to India-s continued success in the telecom sector. Therefore, the National Telecom Policy 2012 aims at developing a strong equipment manufacturing base within India. This paper realistically assesses India-s true potential in equipment manufacturing and seeks to identify the emerging issues and challenges before the Indian telecom equipment manufacturing sector while it tries to make a transition from an import-dependent industry to a global manufacturing hub.

Keywords: Equipment manufacturing, global hub, Indian telecom industry, issues and challenges.

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430 Submicron Size of Alumina/Titania Tubes for CO2-CH4 Conversion

Authors: Chien-Wan Hun, Shao-Fu Chang, Jheng-En Yang, Chien-Chon Chen, Wern-Dare Jheng

Abstract:

This research provides a systematic way to study and better understand double nano-tubular structure of alunina (Al2O3) and titania (TiO2). The TiO2 NT was prepared by immersing Al2O3 template in 0.02 M titanium fluoride (TiF4) solution (pH=3) at 25 °C for 120 min, followed by annealing at 450 °C for 1 h to obtain anatase TiO2 NT in the Al2O3 template. Large-scale development of film for nanotube-based CO2 capture and conversion can potentially result in more efficient energy harvesting. In addition, the production process will be relatively environmentally friendly. The knowledge generated by this research will significantly advance research in the area of Al2O3, TiO2, CaO, and Ca2O3 nano-structure film fabrication and applications for CO2 capture and conversion. This green energy source will potentially reduce reliance on carbon-based energy resources and increase interest in science and engineering careers.

Keywords: Alumina, titania, nano-tubular, film, CO2.

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429 Quantitative Changes in Biofilms of a Seawater Tubular Heat Exchanger Subjected to Electromagnetic Fields Treatment

Authors: Sergio Garcia, Alfredo Trueba, Luis M. Vega, Ernesto Madariaga

Abstract:

Biofilms adhesion is one of the more important cost of industries plants on wide world, which use to water for cooling heat exchangers or are in contact with water. This study evaluated the effect of Electromagnetic Fields on biofilms in tubular heat exchangers using seawater cooling. The results showed an up to 40% reduction of the biofilm thickness compared to the untreated control tubes. The presence of organic matter was reduced by 75%, the inorganic mater was reduced by 87%, and 53% of the dissolved solids were eliminated. The biofilm thermal conductivity in the treated tube was reduced by 53% as compared to the control tube. The hardness in the effluent during the experimental period was decreased by 18% in the treated tubes compared with control tubes. Our results show that the electromagnetic fields treatment has a great potential in the process of removing biofilms in heat exchanger.

Keywords: Biofilm, heat exchanger, electromagnetic fields, seawater.

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428 A Case Study on Barriers in Total Productive Maintenance Implementation in the Abu Dhabi Power Industry

Authors: A. Alseiari, P. Farrell

Abstract:

Maintenance has evolved into an imperative function, and contributes significantly to efficient and effective equipment performance. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is an ideal approach to support the development and implementation of operation performance improvement. It systematically aims to understand the function of equipment, the service quality relationship with equipment and the probable critical equipment failure conditions. Implementation of TPM programmes need strategic planning and there has been little research applied in this area within Middle-East power plants. In the power sector of Abu Dhabi, technologically and strategically, the power industry is extremely important, and it thus needs effective and efficient equipment management support. The aim of this paper is to investigate barriers to successful TPM implementation in the Abu Dhabi power industry. The study has been conducted in the context of a leading power company in the UAE. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 employees, including maintenance and operation staff, and senior managers. The findings of this research identified seven key barriers, thus: managerial; organisational; cultural; financial; educational; communications; and auditing. With respect to the understanding of these barriers and obstacles in TPM implementation, the findings can contribute towards improved equipment operations and maintenance in power organisations.

Keywords: Abu Dhabi power industry, TPM implementation, key barriers, organisational culture, critical success factors.

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427 A Study of Current Maintenance Strategies and the Reliability of Critical Medical Equipment in Hospitals in Relation to Patient Outcomes

Authors: Khelood A. Mkalaf, Peter Gibson, John Flanagan

Abstract:

This study investigates the relationship between the reliability of critical medical equipment (CME) and the effectiveness of CME maintenance management strategies in relation to patient outcomes in 84 public hospitals of a top 20 OECD country. The work has examined the effectiveness of CME maintenance management strategies used by the public hospital system of a large state run health organization. The conceptual framework was designed to examine the significance of the relationship between six variables: (1) types of maintenance management strategies, (2) maintenance services, (3) maintenance practice, (4) medical equipment reliability, (5) maintenance costs and (6) patient outcomes. The results provide interesting insights into the effectiveness of the maintenance strategies used. For example, there appears to be about a 1 in 10 000 probability of failure of anesthesia equipment, but these seem to be confined to specific maintenance situations. There are also some findings in relation to outsourcing of maintenance. For each of the variables listed, results are reported in relation to the various types of maintenance strategies and services. Decision-makers may use these results to evaluate more effective maintenance strategies for their CME and generate more effective patient outcomes.

Keywords: Critical medical equipment, maintenance strategy, patient outcomes, reliability.

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426 Measuring the Efficiency of Medical Equipment

Authors: Panagiotis H. Tsarouhas

Abstract:

the reliability analysis of the medical equipments can help to increase the availability and the efficiency of the systems. In this manuscript we present a simple method of decomposition that could be easily applied on the complex medical systems. Using this method we can easily calculate the effect of the subsystems or components on the reliability of the overall system. Furthermore, to investigate the effect of subsystems or components on system performance, we perform a numerical study varying every time the worst reliability of subsystem or component with another which has higher reliability. It can also be useful to engineers and designers of medical equipment, who wishes to optimize the complex systems.

Keywords: Reliability, Availability, Series-parallel System, medical equipment.

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425 Risk Based Maintenance Planning for Loading Equipment in Underground Hard Rock Mine: Case Study

Authors: Sidharth Talan, Devendra Kumar Yadav, Yuvraj Singh Rajput, Subhajit Bhattacharjee

Abstract:

Mining industry is known for its appetite to spend sizeable capital on mine equipment. However, in the current scenario, the mining industry is challenged by daunting factors of non-uniform geological conditions, uneven ore grade, uncontrollable and volatile mineral commodity prices and the ever increasing quest to optimize the capital and operational costs. Thus, the role of equipment reliability and maintenance planning inherits a significant role in augmenting the equipment availability for the operation and in turn boosting the mine productivity. This paper presents the Risk Based Maintenance (RBM) planning conducted on mine loading equipment namely Load Haul Dumpers (LHDs) at Vedanta Resources Ltd subsidiary Hindustan Zinc Limited operated Sindesar Khurd Mines, an underground zinc and lead mine situated in Dariba, Rajasthan, India. The mining equipment at the location is maintained by the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) namely Sandvik and Atlas Copco, who carry out the maintenance and inspection operations for the equipment. Based on the downtime data extracted for the equipment fleet over the period of 6 months spanning from 1st January 2017 until 30th June 2017, it was revealed that significant contribution of three downtime issues related to namely Engine, Hydraulics, and Transmission to be common among all the loading equipment fleet and substantiated by Pareto Analysis. Further scrutiny through Bubble Matrix Analysis of the given factors revealed the major influence of selective factors namely Overheating, No Load Taken (NTL) issues, Gear Changing issues and Hose Puncture and leakage issues. Utilizing the equipment wise analysis of all the downtime factors obtained, spares consumed, and the alarm logs extracted from the machines, technical design changes in the equipment and pre shift critical alarms checklist were proposed for the equipment maintenance. The given analysis is beneficial to allow OEMs or mine management to focus on the critical issues hampering the reliability of mine equipment and design necessary maintenance strategies to mitigate them.

Keywords: Bubble matrix analysis, LHDs, OEMs, pareto chart analysis, spares consumption matrix, critical alarms checklist.

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424 Optimum Design of Tall Tube-Type Building: An Approach to Structural Height Premium

Authors: Ali Kheyroddin, Niloufar Mashhadiali, Frazaneh Kheyroddin

Abstract:

In last decades, tubular systems employed for tall buildings were efficient structural systems. However, increasing the height of a building leads to an increase in structural material corresponding to the loads imposed by lateral loads. Based on this approach, new structural systems are emerging to provide strength and stiffness with the minimum premium for height. In this research, selected tube-type structural systems such as framed tubes, braced tubes, diagrids and hexagrid systems were applied as a single tube, tubular structures combined with braced core and outrigger trusses on a set of 48, 72, and 96-story, respectively, to improve integrated structural systems. This paper investigated structural material consumption by model structures focusing on the premium for height. Compared analytical results indicated that as the height of the building increased, combination of the structural systems caused the framed tube, hexagrid and braced tube system to pay fewer premiums to material tonnage while in diagrid system, combining the structural system reduced insignificantly the steel material consumption.

Keywords: Braced tube, diagrid, framed tube, hexagrid.

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423 A New Failure Analysis for Maintenance Management in Complex Hospitals

Authors: R. Miniati, F. Dori, E. Iadanza, M. Fregonara Medici

Abstract:

management of medical devices in hospitals includes the planning of medical equipment acquisition and maintenance. The presence of critical and non-critical areas together with technological proliferation render the management of medical devices very complex. This study creates an easy and objective methodology for the analysis of medical equipment maintenance, that makes the management of medical devices more feasible. The study has been carried out at Florence Hospital Careggi and it aims to help the clinical engineering department to manage medical equipment by clarifying the hospital situation through a characterization of the different areas, technologies and fault typologies.

Keywords: Clinical Engineering, Maintenance, Medical DevicesManagement, Key Performance Indicators.

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422 Edge Detection Algorithm Based on Wavelet De-nosing Applied tothe X-ray Image Enhancement of the Electric Equipment

Authors: Fei Xue, Hong Yu, Da-da Wang, Wei Zhang, Rong-min Zou, Xiao-lanCai

Abstract:

The X-ray technology has been used in non-destructive evaluation in the Power System, in which a visual non-destructive inspection method for the electrical equipment is provided. However, lots of noise is existed in the images that are got from the X-ray digital images equipment. Therefore, the auto defect detection which based on these images will be very difficult to proceed. A theory on X-ray image de-noising algorithm based on wavelet transform is proposed in this paper. Then the edge detection algorithm is used so that the defect can be pushed out. The result of experiment shows that the method which utilized by this paper is very useful for de-noising on the X-ray images.

Keywords: de-noising, edge detection, wavelet transform, X-ray

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421 Numerical Simulation of Liquid Nitrogen Spray Equipment for Space Environmental Simulation Facility

Authors: He Chao, Zhang Lei, Liu Ran, Li Ang

Abstract:

Temperature regulating system by gaseous nitrogen is of importance to the space environment simulator, which keeps the shrouds in the temperature range from -150°C to +150°C. Liquid nitrogen spray equipment is one of the most critical parts in the temperature regulating system by gaseous nitrogen. Y type jet atomizer and internal mixing atomizer of the liquid nitrogen spray equipment are studied in this paper, 2D/3D atomizer model was established and grid division was conducted respectively by the software of Catia and ICEM. Based on the above preparation, numerical simulation on the spraying process of the atomizer by FLUENT is performed. Using air and water as the medium, comparison between the tests and numerical simulation was conducted and the results of two ways match well. Hence, it can be conclude that this atomizer model can be applied in the numerical simulation of liquid nitrogen spray equipment.

Keywords: Space environmental simulator, liquid nitrogen spray, Y type jet atomizer, internal mixing atomizer, numerical simulation, fluent.

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420 Effect of Stitching Pattern on Composite Tubular Structures Subjected to Quasi-Static Crushing

Authors: Ali Rabiee, Hessam Ghasemnejad

Abstract:

Extensive experimental investigation on the effect of stitching pattern on tubular composite structures was conducted. The effect of stitching reinforcement through thickness on using glass flux yarn on energy absorption of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) was investigated under high speed loading conditions at axial loading. Keeping the mass of the structure at 125 grams and applying different pattern of stitching at various locations in theory enables better energy absorption, and also enables the control over the behaviour of force-crush distance curve. The study consists of simple non-stitch absorber comparison with single and multi-location stitching behaviour and its effect on energy absorption capabilities. The locations of reinforcements are 10 mm, 20 mm, 30 mm, 10-20 mm, 10-30 mm, 20-30 mm, 10-20-30 mm and 10-15-20-25-30-35 mm from the top of the specimen. The effect of through the thickness reinforcements has shown increase in energy absorption capabilities and crushing load. The significance of this is that as the stitching locations are closer, the crushing load increases and consequently energy absorption capabilities are also increased. The implementation of this idea would improve the mean force by applying stitching and controlling the behaviour of force-crush distance curve.

Keywords: Through-thickness, stitching, reinforcement, Tulbular composite structures, energy absorption.

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419 Material Handling Equipment Selection using Hybrid Monte Carlo Simulation and Analytic Hierarchy Process

Authors: Amer M. Momani, Abdulaziz A. Ahmed

Abstract:

The many feasible alternatives and conflicting objectives make equipment selection in materials handling a complicated task. This paper presents utilizing Monte Carlo (MC) simulation combined with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to evaluate and select the most appropriate Material Handling Equipment (MHE). The proposed hybrid model was built on the base of material handling equation to identify main and sub criteria critical to MHE selection. The criteria illustrate the properties of the material to be moved, characteristics of the move, and the means by which the materials will be moved. The use of MC simulation beside the AHP is very powerful where it allows the decision maker to represent his/her possible preference judgments as random variables. This will reduce the uncertainty of single point judgment at conventional AHP, and provide more confidence in the decision problem results. A small business pharmaceutical company is used as an example to illustrate the development and application of the proposed model.

Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Materialhandling equipment selection, Monte Carlo simulation, Multi-criteriadecision making

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418 Reciprocating Equipment Piston Rod Dynamic Elastic-Plastic Deformation Analysis

Authors: Amin Almasi

Abstract:

Analysis of reciprocating equipment piston rod leads to nonlinear elastic-plastic deformation analysis of rod with initial imperfection under axial dynamic load. In this paper a new and effective model and analytical formulations are presented to evaluate dynamic deformation and elastic-plastic stresses of reciprocating machine piston rod. This new method has capability to account for geometric nonlinearity, elastic-plastic deformation and dynamic effects. Proposed method can be used for evaluation of piston rod performance for various reciprocating machines under different operation situations. Rod load curves and maximum allowable rod load are calculated with presented method for a refinery type reciprocating compressor. Useful recommendations and guidelines for rod load, rod load reversal and rod drop monitoring are also addressed.

Keywords: Deformation, Reciprocating Equipment, Rod.

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