Search results for: late time universe
6474 The Reconstruction New Agegraphic and Gauss- Bonnet Dark Energy Models with a Special Power Law Expasion
Authors: V. Fayaz , F. Felegary
Here, in this work we study correspondence the energy density New agegraphic and the energy density Gauss- Bonnet models in flat universe. We reconstruct Λ and Λ ω for them with 0 ( ) 0 h a t = a t .
Keywords: dark energy, new age graphic, gauss- bonnet, late time universeProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1364
6473 The Explanation for Dark Matter and Dark Energy
Authors: Richard Lewis
The following assumptions of the Big Bang theory are challenged and found to be false: the cosmological principle, the assumption that all matter formed at the same time and the assumption regarding the cause of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The evolution of the universe is described based on the conclusion that the universe is finite with a space boundary. This conclusion is reached by ruling out the possibility of an infinite universe or a universe which is finite with no boundary. In a finite universe, the centre of the universe can be located with reference to our home galaxy (The Milky Way) using the speed relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) rest frame and Hubble's law. This places our home galaxy at a distance of approximately 26 million light years from the centre of the universe. Because we are making observations from a point relatively close to the centre of the universe, the universe appears to be isotropic and homogeneous but this is not the case. The CMB is coming from a source located within the event horizon of the universe. There is sufficient mass in the universe to create an event horizon at the Schwarzschild radius. Galaxies form over time due to the energy released by the expansion of space. Conservation of energy must consider total energy which is mass (+ve) plus energy (+ve) plus spacetime curvature (-ve) so that the total energy of the universe is always zero. The predominant position of galaxy formation moves over time from the centre of the universe towards the boundary so that today the majority of new galaxy formation is taking place beyond our horizon of observation at 14 billion light years.
Keywords: Cosmic microwave background, dark energy, dark matter, evolution of the universe.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 667
6472 Fuzzy Time Series Forecasting Using Percentage Change as the Universe of Discourse
Authors: Meredith Stevenson, John E. Porter
Since the pioneering work of Zadeh, fuzzy set theory has been applied to a myriad of areas. Song and Chissom introduced the concept of fuzzy time series and applied some methods to the enrollments of the University of Alabama. In recent years, a number of techniques have been proposed for forecasting based on fuzzy set theory methods. These methods have either used enrollment numbers or differences of enrollments as the universe of discourse. We propose using the year to year percentage change as the universe of discourse. In this communication, the approach of Jilani, Burney, and Ardil is modified by using the year to year percentage change as the universe of discourse. We use enrollment figures for the University of Alabama to illustrate our proposed method. The proposed method results in better forecasting accuracy than existing models.
Keywords: Fuzzy forecasting, fuzzy time series, fuzzified enrollments, time-invariant modelProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2355
6471 Solitons and Universes with Acceleration Driven by Bulk Particles
Authors: A. C. Amaro de Faria Jr, A. M. Canone
Abstract:Considering a scenario where our universe is taken as a 3d domain wall embedded in a 5d dimensional Minkowski space-time, we explore the existence of a richer class of solitonic solutions and their consequences for accelerating universes driven by collisions of bulk particle excitations with the walls. In particular it is shown that some of these solutions should play a fundamental role at the beginning of the expansion process. We present some of these solutions in cosmological scenarios that can be applied to models that describe the inflationary period of the Universe.
Keywords: Solitons, topological defects, Branes, kinks, accelerating universes in Brane scenarios.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 368
6470 Inhibiting Gene for a Late-Heading Gene Responsible for Photoperiod Sensitivity in Rice (Oryza sativa)
Authors: Amol Dahal, Shunsuke Hori, Haruki Nakazawa, Kazumitsu Onishi, Toshio Kawano, Masayuki Murai
Two indica varieties, IR36 and ‘Suweon 258’ (“S”) are middle-heading in southern Japan. 36U, also middle-heading, is an isogenic line of IR36 carrying Ur1 (Undulate rachis-1) gene. However, late-heading plants segregated in the F2 population from the F1 of S × 36U, and so did in the following generations. The concerning lateness gene is designated as Ex. From the F8 generation, isogenic-line pair of early-heading and late-heading lines, denoted by “E” (ex/ex) and “L” (Ex/Ex), were developed. Genetic analyses of heading time were conducted, using F1s and F2s among L, E, S and 36U. The following inferences were drawn from the experimental results: 1) L, and both of E and 36U harbor Ex and ex, respectively; 2) Besides Ex, S harbors an inhibitor gene to it, i.e. I-Ex which is a novel finding of the present study. 3) Ex is a dominant allele at the E1 locus.
Keywords: Basic vegetative phase, heading time, lateness gene, photoperiod-sensitive phase.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1186
6469 Thailand Throne Hall Architecture in the Grand Palace in the Early Days of Ratthanakosin Era
Authors: Somchai Seviset, Lin Jian Qun
Abstract:Amarindra-vinitchai-mahaisuraya Bhiman throne hall is one of the most significant throne halls in the grand palace in the Ratthanakosin city situated in Bangkok, Thailand. This is the first group of throne halls built in order to serve as a place for meetings, performing state affairs and royal duties until the present time. The structure and pattern of architectural design including the decoration and interior design of the throne hall obviously exhibits and convey the status of the king under the context of Thai society in the early period of Ratthanakosin era. According to the tradition of ruling the kingdom in absolute monarchy which had been in place since Ayutthaya era (A.D.1350-1767), the king was deemed as Deva Raja, the highest power and authority over the kingdom and as the greatest emperor of the universe (Chakkravatin). The architectural design adopted the concept of “Prasada" or Viman which served as the dwelling place of the gods and was presented in the form of “Thai traditional architecture" For the interior design of the throne hall, it had been adopted to be the heaven and the centre of the Universe in line with the cosmological beliefs of ancient people described in scripture Tribhumikatha (Tri Bhumi) written by Phra Maha Thamma Raja (Phraya Lithai) of the Sukhothai era (A.D.1347-1368). According to this belief, the throne hall had been designed to represent mount Meru, the central of the universe. On the top end of Mount Meru is situated the Viman and dwelling place of Indra who is the king of gods according to the idea of Deva Raja (the king god Avatar). At the same time, Indra also existed as the king of the universe simultaneously.
Keywords: Amarindra-vinitchai-mahaisuraya Bhiman throne hall, throne hall architecture, grand palace, Thai traditional architecture, Ratthanakosin eraProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2323
6468 Study of the Late Phase of Core Degradation during Reflooding by Safety Injection System for VVER1000 with ASTECv2 Computer Code
Authors: Antoaneta Stefanova, Rositsa Gencheva, Pavlin Groudev
Abstract:This paper presents the modeling approach in SBO sequence for VVER 1000 reactors and describes the reactor core behavior at late in-vessel phase in case of late reflooding by HPIS and gives preliminary results for the ASTECv2 validation. The work is focused on investigation of plant behavior during total loss of power and the operator actions. The main goal of these analyses is to assess the phenomena arising during the Station blackout (SBO) followed by primary side high pressure injection system (HPIS) reflooding of already damaged reactor core at very late “in-vessel” phase. The purpose of the analyses is to define how the later HPIS switching on can delay the time of vessel failure or possibly avoid vessel failure. The times for HPP injection were chosen based on previously performed investigations.
Keywords: VVER, operator action validation, reflooding of overheated reactor core, ASTEC computer code.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1348
6467 Discontinuous Spacetime with Vacuum Holes as Explanation for Gravitation, Quantum Mechanics and Teleportation
Authors: Constantin Z. Leshan
Hole Vacuum theory is based on discontinuous spacetime that contains vacuum holes. Vacuum holes can explain gravitation, some laws of quantum mechanics and allow teleportation of matter. All massive bodies emit a flux of holes which curve the spacetime; if we increase the concentration of holes, it leads to length contraction and time dilation because the holes do not have the properties of extension and duration. In the limited case when space consists of holes only, the distance between every two points is equal to zero and time stops - outside of the Universe, the extension and duration properties do not exist. For this reason, the vacuum hole is the only particle in physics capable of describing gravitation using its own properties only. All microscopic particles must 'jump' continually and 'vibrate' due to the appearance of holes (impassable microscopic 'walls' in space), and it is the cause of the quantum behavior. Vacuum holes can explain the entanglement, non-locality, wave properties of matter, tunneling, uncertainty principle and so on. Particles do not have trajectories because spacetime is discontinuous and has impassable microscopic 'walls' due to the simple mechanical motion is impossible at small scale distances; it is impossible to 'trace' a straight line in the discontinuous spacetime because it contains the impassable holes. Spacetime 'boils' continually due to the appearance of the vacuum holes. For teleportation to be possible, we must send a body outside of the Universe by enveloping it with a closed surface consisting of vacuum holes. Since a material body cannot exist outside of the Universe, it reappears instantaneously in a random point of the Universe. Since a body disappears in one volume and reappears in another random volume without traversing the physical space between them, such a transportation method can be called teleportation (or Hole Teleportation). It is shown that Hole Teleportation does not violate causality and special relativity due to its random nature and other properties. Although Hole Teleportation has a random nature, it can be used for colonization of extrasolar planets by the help of the method called 'random jumps': after a large number of random teleportation jumps, there is a probability that the spaceship may appear near a habitable planet. We can create vacuum holes experimentally using the method proposed by Descartes: we must remove a body from the vessel without permitting another body to occupy this volume.
Keywords: Border of the universe, causality violation, perfect isolation, quantum jumps.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1002
6466 Research on Morning Commuting Behavior under Autonomous Vehicle Environment Based on Activity Method
Authors: Qing Dai, Zhengkui Lin, Jiajia Zhang, Yi Qu
Based on activity method, this paper focuses on morning commuting behavior when commuters travel with autonomous vehicles (AVs). Firstly, a net utility function of commuters is constructed by the activity utility of commuters at home, in car and at workplace, and the disutility of travel time cost and that of schedule delay cost. Then, this net utility function is applied to build an equilibrium model. Finally, under the assumption of constant marginal activity utility, the properties of equilibrium are analyzed. The results show that, in autonomous driving, the starting and ending time of morning peak and the number of commuters who arrive early and late at workplace are the same as those in manual driving. In automatic driving, however, the departure rate of arriving early at workplace is higher than that of manual driving, while the departure rate of arriving late is just the opposite. In addition, compared with manual driving, the departure time of arriving at workplace on time is earlier and the number of people queuing at the bottleneck is larger in automatic driving. However, the net utility of commuters and the total net utility of system in automatic driving are greater than those in manual driving.
Keywords: Autonomous cars, bottleneck model, activity utility, user equilibrium.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 421
6465 Effects of Lateness Gene on Yield and Related Traits in Indica Rice
Authors: B. B. Rana, M. Yokota, Y. Shimizu, Y. Koide, I. Takamure, T. Kawano, M. Murai
Various genes which control or affect heading time have been found in rice. Out of them, Se1 and E1 loci play important roles in determining heading time by controlling photosensitivity. An isogenic-line pair of late and early lines were developed from progenies of the F1 from Suweon 258 × 36U. A lateness gene tentatively designated as “Ex” was found to control the difference in heading time between the early and late lines mentioned above. The present study was conducted to examine the effect of Ex on yield and related traits. Indica-type variety Suweon 258 was crossed with 36U, which is an Ur1 (Undulate rachis-1) isogenic line of IR36. In the F2 population, comparatively early-heading, late-heading and intermediate-heading plants were segregated. Segregation similar to that by the three types of heading was observed in the F3 and later generations. A late-heading plant and an early-heading plant were selected in the F8 population from an intermediate-heading F7 plant, for developing L and E of the isogenic-line pair, respectively. Experiments for L and E were conducted by randomized block design with three replications. Transplanting was conducted on May 3 at a planting distance of 30 cm × 15 cm with two seedlings per hill to an experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi University. Chemical fertilizers containing N, P2O5 and K2O were applied at the nitrogen levels of 4 g/m2, 9 g/m2 and 18 g/m2 in total being denoted by "N4", "N9" and "N18", respectively. Yield, yield components and other traits were measured. Ex delayed 80%-heading by 17 or 18 days in L as compared with E. In total brown rice yield (g/m2), L was 635, 606 and 590, and E was 577, 548 and 501, respectively, at N18, N9 and N4, indicating that Ex increased this trait by 10% to 18%. Ex increased yield-1.5 mm sieve (g/m2) b 9% to 15% at the three fertilizer levels. Ex increased the spikelet number per panicle by 16% to 22%. As a result, the spikelet number per m2 was increased by 11% to 18% at the three fertilizer levels. Ex decreased 1000-grain weight (g) by 2 to 4%. L was not significantly different from E in ripened-grain percentage, fertilized-spikelet percentage and percentage of ripened grains to fertilized spikelets. Hence, it is inferred that Ex increased yield by increasing spikelet number per panicle. Hence, Ex could be utilized to develop high yielding varieties for warmer districts.
Keywords: Heading time, lateness gene, photosensitivity, rice, yield, yield components.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 857
6464 Risk of Late Payment in the Malaysian Construction Industry
Authors: Kho Mei Ye, Hamzah Abdul Rahman
Abstract:The purpose of this study is to identify the underlying causes of late payment from the contractors- perspective in the Malaysian construction industry and to recommend effective solutions to mitigate late payment problems. The target groups of respondents in this study were Grades G3, G5, G6 and G7 contractors with specialization in building works and civil engineering works registered with the Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) in Malaysia. Results from this study were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS 15.0). From this study, it was found that respondents have highest ranked five significant variables out of a total of forty-one variables which can caused late payment problems: a) cash flow problems due to deficiencies in client-s management capacity (mean = 3.96); b) client-s ineffective utilization of funds (mean = 3.88); c) scarcity of capital to finance the project (mean = 3.81); d) clients failure to generate income from bank when sales of houses do not hit the targeted amount (mean=3.72); and e) poor cash flow because of lack of proper process implementation, delay in releasing of the retention monies to contractor and delay in the evaluation and certification of interim and final payment (mean = 3.66).
Keywords: Underlying causes, late payment, constructionindustry, Malaysia.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 6821
6463 Generalized Chaplygin Gas and Varying Bulk Viscosity in Lyra Geometry
Authors: A. K. Sethi, R. N. Patra, B. Nayak
In this paper, we have considered Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric with generalized Chaplygin gas which has viscosity in the context of Lyra geometry. The viscosity is considered in two different ways (i.e. zero viscosity, non-constant r (rho)-dependent bulk viscosity) using constant deceleration parameter which concluded that, for a special case, the viscous generalized Chaplygin gas reduces to modified Chaplygin gas. The represented model indicates on the presence of Chaplygin gas in the Universe. Observational constraints are applied and discussed on the physical and geometrical nature of the Universe.
Keywords: Bulk viscosity, Lyra geometry, generalized Chaplygin gas, cosmology.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 517
6462 JEWEL: A Cosmological Model Due to the Geometrical Displacement of Galactic Object Like Black, White and Worm Holes
Authors: Francesco Pia
Stellar objects such as black, white and worm holes can be the subject of speculative reasoning if represented in a simplified and geometric form in order to be able to move them; and the cosmological model is one of the most important contents in relation to speculations that can then open the way to other aspects that are not strictly speculative but practical, precisely in the Universe represented by us. In this work, thanks to the hypothesis of a very large number of black, white and worm holes present in our Universe, we imagine that they can be moved; it was therefore thought to align them on a plane and following a redistribution, and the boundaries of this plane were ideally joined, giving rise to a sphere that has the stellar objects examined radially distributed. Thanks to geometrical displacements of these stellar objects that do not make each one of them lose their functionality in the region in which they are located, at the end of the speculative process it is possible to highlight a spherical layer that allows a flow from the outside and inside this spherical shell allowing to relate to other external and internal spherical layers; this aspect that seems useful to describe the universe we live in, for example inside one of the spherical shells just described. The name "Jewel" was chosen because, imagining the speculative process present in this work at the end of steps, the cosmological model tends to be "luminous". This cosmological model includes, for each internal part of a generic layer, different and numerous moments of our universe thanks to an eternal flow inward. There are many aspects to explore, one of these is the connection between the outermost and the inside of the spherical layers.
Keywords: Black hole, cosmological model, cosmology, white hole.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 326
6461 Validity of Universe Structure Conception as Nested Vortexes
Authors: Khaled M. Nabil
This paper introduces the Nested Vortexes conception of the universe structure and interprets all the physical phenomena according this conception. The paper first reviews recent physics theories, either in microscopic scale or macroscopic scale, to collect evidence that the space is not empty. But, these theories describe the property of the space medium without determining its structure. Determining the structure of space medium is essential to understand the mechanism that leads to its properties. Without determining the space medium structure, many phenomena; such as electric and magnetic fields, gravity, or wave-particle duality remain uninterpreted. Thus, this paper introduces a conception about the structure of the universe. It assumes that the universe is a medium of ultra-tiny homogeneous particles which are still undiscovered. Like any medium with certain movements, possibly because of a great asymmetric explosion, vortexes have occurred. A vortex condenses the ultra-tiny particles in its center forming a bigger particle, the bigger particles, in turn, could be trapped in a bigger vortex and condense in its center forming a much bigger particle and so on. This conception describes galaxies, stars, protons as particles at different levels. Existing of the particle’s vortexes make the consistency of the speed of light postulate is not true. This conception shows that the vortex motion dynamic agrees with the motion of all the universe particles at any level. An experiment has been carried out to detect the orbiting effect of aggregated vortexes of aligned atoms of a permanent magnet. Based on the described particle’s structure, the gravity force of a particle and attraction between particles as well as charge, electric and magnetic fields and quantum mechanics characteristics are interpreted. All augmented physics phenomena are solved.
Keywords: Astrophysics, cosmology, particles’ structure model, particles’ forces, vortex dynamics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 635
6460 The Effect of Sowing Time on Phytopathogenic Characteristics and Yield of Sunflower Hybrids
Authors: Adrienn Novák
The field research was carried out at the Látókép AGTC KIT research area of the University of Debrecen in Eastern-Hungary, on the area of the aeolain loess of the Hajdúság. We examined the effects of the sowing time on the phytopathogenic characteristics and yield production by applying various fertilizer treatments on two different sunflower genotypes (NK Ferti, PR64H42) in 2012 and 2013. We applied three different sowing times (early, optimal, late) and two different treatment levels of fungicides (control = no fungicides applied, double fungicide protection).
During our investigations, the studied cropyears were of different sowing time optimum in terms of yield amount (2012: early, 2013: average). By Pearson’s correlation analysis, we have found that delaying the sowing time pronouncedly decreased the extent of infection in both crop years (Diaporthe: r=0.663**, r=0.681**, Sclerotinia: r=0.465**, r=0.622**). The fungicide treatment not only decreased the extent of infection, but had yield increasing effect too (2012: r=0.498**, 2013: r=0.603**). In 2012, delaying of the sowing time increased (r=0.600**), but in 2013, it decreased (r= 0.356*) the yield amount.
Keywords: Fungicide treatment, genotypes, sowing time, yield, sunflower.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1651
6459 On Bianchi Type Cosmological Models in Lyra’s Geometry
Authors: R. K. Dubey
Abstract:Bianchi type cosmological models have been studied on the basis of Lyra’s geometry. Exact solution has been obtained by considering a time dependent displacement field for constant deceleration parameter and varying cosmological term of the universe. The physical behavior of the different models has been examined for different cases.
Keywords: Bianchi type-I cosmological model, variable gravitational coupling (G) and Cosmological Constant term (β).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1146
6458 Effects of Late Sowing on Quality of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.)
Authors: Mohammad-Eghbal Ghobadi, Mokhtar Ghobadi
Abstract:Coriander is an annual and herbaceous plant, belong to the apiaceae family. This plant is cultivated world widely. It is well known for having medicinal properties. The aim of this experiment was to study seed quality of species grown in Kermanshah conditions. The experiment was carried out in research farm, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. Coriander (local type) was grown in late spring May (5th and 20th) and Jun (4th and 19th), and plant density (10, 30, 50 and 70 plants m-2) in 2009. The experimental plots were laid out in a factorial according to a randomized complete block design with three replications. The fruits were harvest between 83.5 – 106.5 days after sowing. The essential oil and oil content was extracted by Clevenger and Soxhlet apparatuses, respectively. Results showed that delay at planting date increased the oil content. Also, with the increase at plant density was decreased oil content and essential oil.
Keywords: coriander, late sowing, plant density, oil content, essential oilProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1972
6457 A Study on Early Prediction of Fault Proneness in Software Modules using Genetic Algorithm
Authors: Parvinder S. Sandhu, Sunil Khullar, Satpreet Singh, Simranjit K. Bains, Manpreet Kaur, Gurvinder Singh
Abstract:Fault-proneness of a software module is the probability that the module contains faults. To predict faultproneness of modules different techniques have been proposed which includes statistical methods, machine learning techniques, neural network techniques and clustering techniques. The aim of proposed study is to explore whether metrics available in the early lifecycle (i.e. requirement metrics), metrics available in the late lifecycle (i.e. code metrics) and metrics available in the early lifecycle (i.e. requirement metrics) combined with metrics available in the late lifecycle (i.e. code metrics) can be used to identify fault prone modules using Genetic Algorithm technique. This approach has been tested with real time defect C Programming language datasets of NASA software projects. The results show that the fusion of requirement and code metric is the best prediction model for detecting the faults as compared with commonly used code based model.
Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Fault Proneness, Software Faultand Software Quality.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1835
6456 Survival of Neutrino Mass Models in Nonthermal Leptogenesis
Authors: Amal Kr Sarma, H Zeen Devi, N Nimai Singh
Abstract:The Constraints imposed by non-thermal leptogenesis on the survival of the neutrino mass models describing the presently available neutrino mass patterns, are studied numerically. We consider the Majorana CP violating phases coming from right-handed Majorana mass matrices to estimate the baryon asymmetry of the universe, for different neutrino mass models namely quasi-degenerate, inverted hierarchical and normal hierarchical models, with tribimaximal mixings. Considering two possible diagonal forms of Dirac neutrino mass matrix as either charged lepton or up-quark mass matrix, the heavy right-handed mass matrices are constructed from the light neutrino mass matrix. Only the normal hierarchical model leads to the best predictions of baryon asymmetry of the universe, consistent with observations in non-thermal leptogenesis scenario.
Keywords: Thermal leptogenesis, Non-thermal leptogenesis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1169
6455 A Third Drop Level For TCP-RED Congestion Control Strategy
Authors: Nabhan Hamadneh, Michael Dixon, Peter Cole, David Murray
Abstract:This work presents the Risk Threshold RED (RTRED) congestion control strategy for TCP networks. In addition to the maximum and minimum thresholds in existing RED-based strategies, we add a third dropping level. This new dropping level is the risk threshold which works with the actual and average queue sizes to detect the immediate congestion in gateways. Congestion reaction by RTRED is on time. The reaction to congestion is neither too early, to avoid unfair packet losses, nor too late to avoid packet dropping from time-outs. We compared our novel strategy with RED and ARED strategies for TCP congestion handling using a NS-2 simulation script. We found that the RTRED strategy outperformed RED and ARED.
Keywords: AQM, congestion control, RED, TCP.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1368
6454 Partial Derivatives and Optimization Problem on Time Scales
Authors: Francisco Miranda
Abstract:The optimization problem using time scales is studied. Time scale is a model of time. The language of time scales seems to be an ideal tool to unify the continuous-time and the discrete-time theories. In this work we present necessary conditions for a solution of an optimization problem on time scales. To obtain that result we use properties and results of the partial diamond-alpha derivatives for continuous-multivariable functions. These results are also presented here.
Keywords: Lagrange multipliers, mathematical programming, optimization problem, time scales.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1595
6453 Factors for Entry Timing Choices Using Principal Axis Factorial Analysis and Logistic Regression Model
Authors: Mat Isa, C. M., Mohd Saman, H., Mohd Nasir, S. R., Jaapar, A.
International market expansion involves a strategic process of market entry decision through which a firm expands its operation from domestic to the international domain. Hence, entry timing choices require the needs to balance the early entry risks and the problems in losing opportunities as a result of late entry into a new market. Questionnaire surveys administered to 115 Malaysian construction firms operating in 51 countries worldwide have resulted in 39.1 percent response rate. Factor analysis was used to determine the most significant factors affecting entry timing choices of the firms to penetrate the international market. A logistic regression analysis used to examine the firms’ entry timing choices, indicates that the model has correctly classified 89.5 per cent of cases as late movers. The findings reveal that the most significant factor influencing the construction firms’ choices as late movers was the firm factor related to the firm’s international experience, resources, competencies and financing capacity. The study also offers valuable information to construction firms with intention to internationalize their businesses.
Keywords: Factors, early movers, entry timing choices, late movers, Logistic Regression Model, Principal Axis Factorial Analysis, Malaysian construction firms.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2130
6452 Historical and Future Rainfall Variations in Bangladesh
Authors: M. M. Hossain, M. Z. Hasan, M. Alauddin, S. Akhter
Climate change has become a major concern across the world as the intensity along with quantity of the rainfall, mean surface temperature and other climatic parameters have been changed not only in Bangladesh but also in the entire globe. Bangladesh has already experienced many natural hazards. Among them changing of rainfall pattern, erratic and heavy rainfalls are very common. But changes of rainfall pattern and its amount is still in question to some extent. This study aimed to unfold how the historical rainfalls varied over time and how would be their future trends. In this context, historical rainfall data (1975-2014) were collected from Bangladesh Metrological Department (BMD) and then a time series model was developed using Box-Jenkins algorithm in IBM SPSS to forecast the future rainfall. From the historical data analysis, this study revealed that the amount of rainfall decreased over the time and shifted to the post monsoons. Forecasted rainfall shows that the pre-monsoon and early monsoon will get drier in future whereas late monsoon and post monsoon will show huge fluctuations in rainfall magnitudes with temporal variations which means Bangladesh will get comparatively drier seasons in future which may be a serious problem for the country as it depends on agriculture.
Keywords: Monsoon, Pre-monsoon, rainfall, pattern, variations, IBM-SPSS.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1009
6451 Time Map
Authors: A. Peveri
The interaction of mass will determine the curvature of space-time, may determine that events proceed at different rates of time at each point in space, so each has a corresponding gravitational potential time. So we can find different values of gravity (g), corresponding to different times (t), thus making a "map of time in space." The space-time is curved by present mass, causing a force of attraction towards the body, but if you invest the curvature of space-time, we find that this field is repulsive: Obtaining negative gravitational forces and positive gravitational forces respectively.
Keywords: Space-time, time, positive gravitation, negative gravitation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1406
6450 Calibration of Time-Skew Error in a M-Channel Time-Interleaved Analog-to-Digital Converter
Authors: Yu-Sheng Lee, Qi An
Offset mismatch, gain mismatch, and time-skew error between time-interleaved channels limit the performance of time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters (TIADC). This paper focused on the time-skew error. A new technique for calibrating time-skew error in M-channels TIADC is described, and simulation results are also presented.
Keywords: Calibration, time-skew error, time-interleavedanalog-to-digital converters.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1428
6449 Covering-based Rough sets Based on the Refinement of Covering-element
Authors: Jianguo Tang, Kun She, William Zhu
Abstract:Covering-based rough sets is an extension of rough sets and it is based on a covering instead of a partition of the universe. Therefore it is more powerful in describing some practical problems than rough sets. However, by extending the rough sets, covering-based rough sets can increase the roughness of each model in recognizing objects. How to obtain better approximations from the models of a covering-based rough sets is an important issue. In this paper, two concepts, determinate elements and indeterminate elements in a universe, are proposed and given precise definitions respectively. This research makes a reasonable refinement of the covering-element from a new viewpoint. And the refinement may generate better approximations of covering-based rough sets models. To prove the theory above, it is applied to eight major coveringbased rough sets models which are adapted from other literature. The result is, in all these models, the lower approximation increases effectively. Correspondingly, in all models, the upper approximation decreases with exceptions of two models in some special situations. Therefore, the roughness of recognizing objects is reduced. This research provides a new approach to the study and application of covering-based rough sets.
Keywords: Determinate element, indeterminate element, refinementof covering-element, refinement of covering, covering-basedrough sets.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1198
6448 Transcriptomics Analysis on Comparing Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer versus Normal Lung, and Early Stage Compared versus Late-Stages of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Authors: Achitphol Chookaew, Paramee Thongsukhsai, Patamarerk Engsontia, Narongwit Nakwan, Pritsana Raugrut
Abstract:Lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies and primary cause of death due to cancer worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the main subtype in which majority of patients present with advanced-stage disease. Herein, we analyzed differentially expressed genes to find potential biomarkers for lung cancer diagnosis as well as prognostic markers. We used transcriptome data from our 2 NSCLC patients and public data (GSE81089) composing of 8 NSCLC and 10 normal lung tissues. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between NSCLC and normal tissue and between early-stage and late-stage NSCLC were analyzed by the DESeq2. Pairwise correlation was used to find the DEGs with false discovery rate (FDR) adjusted p-value £ 0.05 and |log2 fold change| ³ 4 for NSCLC versus normal and FDR adjusted p-value £ 0.05 with |log2 fold change| ³ 2 for early versus late-stage NSCLC. Bioinformatic tools were used for functional and pathway analysis. Moreover, the top ten genes in each comparison group were verified the expression and survival analysis via GEPIA. We found 150 up-regulated and 45 down-regulated genes in NSCLC compared to normal tissues. Many immnunoglobulin-related genes e.g., IGHV4-4, IGHV5-10-1, IGHV4-31, IGHV4-61, and IGHV1-69D were significantly up-regulated. 22 genes were up-regulated, and five genes were down-regulated in late-stage compared to early-stage NSCLC. The top five DEGs genes were KRT6B, SPRR1A, KRT13, KRT6A and KRT5. Keratin 6B (KRT6B) was the most significantly increased gene in the late-stage NSCLC. From GEPIA analysis, we concluded that IGHV4-31 and IGKV1-9 might be used as diagnostic biomarkers, while KRT6B and KRT6A might be used as prognostic biomarkers. However, further clinical validation is needed.
Keywords: Bioinformatics, differentially expressed genes, non-small cell lung cancer, transcriptomics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 644
6447 Obsession of Time and the New Musical Ontologies: The Concert for Saxophone, Daniel Kientzy and Orchestra by Myriam Marbe
Authors: Luminiţa Duţică
Abstract:For the music composer Myriam Marbe the musical time and memory represent 2 (complementary) phenomena with conclusive impact on the settlement of new musical ontologies. Summarizing the most important achievements of the contemporary techniques of composition, her vision on the microform presented in The Concert for Daniel Kientzy, saxophone and orchestra transcends the linear and unidirectional time in favour of a flexible, multivectorial speech with spiral developments, where the sound substance is auto(re)generated by analogy with the fundamental processes of the memory. The conceptual model is of an archetypal essence, the music composer being concerned with identifying the mechanisms of the creation process, especially of those specific to the collective creation (of oral tradition). Hence the spontaneity of expression, improvisation tint, free rhythm, micro-interval intonation, coloristictimbral universe dominated by multiphonics and unique sound effects, hence the atmosphere of ritual, however purged by the primary connotations and reprojected into a wonderful spectacular space. The Concert is a work of artistic maturity and enforces respect, among others, by the timbral diversity of the three species of saxophone required by the music composer (baritone, sopranino and alt), in Part III Daniel Kientzy shows the performance of playing two saxophones concomitantly. The score of the music composer Myriam Marbe contains a deeply spiritualized music, full or archetypal symbols, a music whose drama suggests a real cinematographic movement.
Keywords: Archetype, chronogenesis, concert, multiphonics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1672
6446 Transformation of Kosovo Education from Traditional into Modern 1999-2012
Authors: Bekim Avdiaj
Everyday life is and will be influenced depending on the developments that society undergoes throughout the history. Particularly, countries undergoing transition from one system to another sustain the greatest impact in trying to embrace the modern system. Kosovo society had the fortune to experience a change, which began in late 1999 to continue up to date. One of the 'developments' of the time with the evolution in Kosovo society was the transition from the traditional education system into the modern one. This transformation began immediately after the war, to continue even today. It was started by internationals, which governed and administered Kosovo society, including education. There was a great 'evolution', because almost the entire system was 'changed'. Among other things, for the first time it was enabled the opening of private schools from the lowest level up to the colleges and universities. This paper will address: how much was ready the society to embrace such a 'cultural' change in education, respectively, how much were prepared teachers for such changes; as it was actually thought to be a modern education system, how much was it according to international standards; what are the results and current situation in Kosovo education.
Keywords: Education, evolution, reform, transformation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1619
6445 Second-order Time Evolution Scheme for Time-dependent Neutron Transport Equation
Authors: Zhenying Hong, Guangwei Yuan, Xuedong Fu, Shulin Yang
In this paper, the typical exponential method, diamond difference and modified time discrete scheme is researched for self adaptive time step. The second-order time evolution scheme is applied to time-dependent spherical neutron transport equation by discrete ordinates method. The numerical results show that second-order time evolution scheme associated exponential method has some good properties. The time differential curve about neutron current is more smooth than that of exponential method and diamond difference and modified time discrete scheme.
Keywords: Exponential method, diamond difference, modified time discrete scheme, second-order time evolution scheme.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1449