Search results for: vehicle dynamics.
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1390

Search results for: vehicle dynamics.

1390 State Estimation Method Based on Unscented Kalman Filter for Vehicle Nonlinear Dynamics

Authors: Wataru Nakamura, Tomoaki Hashimoto, Liang-Kuang Chen

Abstract:

This paper provides a state estimation method for automatic control systems of nonlinear vehicle dynamics. A nonlinear tire model is employed to represent the realistic behavior of a vehicle. In general, all the state variables of control systems are not precisedly known, because those variables are observed through output sensors and limited parts of them might be only measurable. Hence, automatic control systems must incorporate some type of state estimation. It is needed to establish a state estimation method for nonlinear vehicle dynamics with restricted measurable state variables. For this purpose, unscented Kalman filter method is applied in this study for estimating the state variables of nonlinear vehicle dynamics. The objective of this paper is to propose a state estimation method using unscented Kalman filter for nonlinear vehicle dynamics. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by numerical simulations.

Keywords: State estimation, control systems, observer systems, unscented Kalman filter, nonlinear vehicle dynamics.

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1389 Modeling and Dynamics Analysis for Intelligent Skid-Steering Vehicle Based on Trucksim-Simulink

Authors: Yansong Zhang, Xueyuan Li, Junjie Zhou, Xufeng Yin, Shihua Yuan, Shuxian Liu

Abstract:

Aiming at the verification of control algorithms for skid-steering vehicles, a vehicle simulation model of 6×6 electric skid-steering unmanned vehicle was established based on Trucksim and Simulink. The original transmission and steering mechanism of Trucksim are removed, and the electric skid-steering model and a closed-loop controller for the vehicle speed and yaw rate are built in Simulink. The simulation results are compared with the ones got by theoretical formulas. The results show that the predicted tire mechanics and vehicle kinematics of Trucksim-Simulink simulation model are closed to the theoretical results. Therefore, it can be used as an effective approach to study the dynamic performance and control algorithm of skid-steering vehicle. In this paper, a method of motion control based on feed forward control is also designed. The simulation results show that the feed forward control strategy can make the vehicle follow the target yaw rate more quickly and accurately, which makes the vehicle have more maneuverability.

Keywords: Skid-steering, Trucksim-Simulink, feedforward control, dynamics.

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1388 Numerical Study of Effects of Air Dam on the Flow Field and Pressure Distribution of a Passenger Car

Authors: Min Ye Koo, Ji Ho Ahn, Byung Il You, Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

Everything that is attached to the outside of the vehicle to improve the driving performance of the vehicle by changing the flow characteristics of the surrounding air or to pursue the external personality is called a tuning part. Typical tuning components include front or rear air dam, also known as spoilers, splitter, and side air dam. Particularly, the front air dam prevents the airflow flowing into the lower portion of the vehicle and increases the amount of air flow to the side and front of the vehicle body, thereby reducing lift force generation that lifts the vehicle body, and thus, improving the steering and driving performance of the vehicle. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of anterior air dam in the flow around a sedan passenger car using computational fluid dynamics. The effects of flow velocity, trajectory of fluid particles on static pressure distribution and pressure distribution on body surface were investigated by varying flow velocity and size of air dam. As a result, it has been confirmed that the front air dam improves the flow characteristics, thereby reducing the generation of lift force of the vehicle, so it helps in steering and driving characteristics.

Keywords: Numerical study, computational fluid dynamics, air dam, tuning parts, drag, lift force.

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1387 Fluid Structure Interaction Induced by Liquid Slosh in Partly Filled Road Tankers

Authors: Guorong Yan, Subhash Rakheja

Abstract:

The liquid cargo contained in a partly-filled road tank vehicle is prone to dynamic slosh movement when subjected to external disturbances. The slosh behavior has been identified as a significant factor impairing the safety of liquid cargo transportation. The laboratory experiments have been conducted for analyzing fluid slosh in partly filled tanks. The experiment results measured under forced harmonic excitations reveal the three-dimensional nature of the fluid motion and coupling between the lateral and longitudinal fluid slosh at resonance. Several spectral components are observed for the transient slosh forces, which can be associated with the excitation, resonance, and beat frequencies. The peak slosh forces and moments in the vicinity of resonance are significantly larger than those of the equivalent rigid mass. Due to the nature of coupling between sloshing fluid and vehicle body, the issue of the dynamic fluid-structure interaction is essential in the analysis of tank-vehicle dynamics. A dynamic pitch plane model of a Tridem truck incorporated the fluid slosh dynamics is developed to analyze the fluid-vehicle interaction under the straight-line braking maneuvers. The results show that the vehicle responses are highly associated with the characteristics of fluid slosh force and moment.

Keywords: Braking performance, fluid induced vibration, fluidslosh, fluid structure interaction, tank trucks, vehicle dynamics.

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1386 Data Traffic Dynamics and Saturation on a Single Link

Authors: Reginald D. Smith

Abstract:

The dynamics of User Datagram Protocol (UDP) traffic over Ethernet between two computers are analyzed using nonlinear dynamics which shows that there are two clear regimes in the data flow: free flow and saturated. The two most important variables affecting this are the packet size and packet flow rate. However, this transition is due to a transcritical bifurcation rather than phase transition in models such as in vehicle traffic or theorized large-scale computer network congestion. It is hoped this model will help lay the groundwork for further research on the dynamics of networks, especially computer networks.

Keywords: congestion, packet flow, Internet, traffic dynamics, transcritical bifurcation

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1385 A Robust Wheel Slip Controller for a Hybrid Braking System

Authors: Martin Ringdorfer, Martin Horn

Abstract:

A robust wheel slip controller for electric vehicles is introduced. The proposed wheel slip controller exploits the dynamics of electric traction drives and conventional hydraulic brakes for achieving maximum energy efficiency and driving safety. Due to the control of single wheel traction motors in combination with a hydraulic braking system, it can be shown, that energy recuperation and vehicle stability control can be realized simultaneously. The derivation of a sliding mode wheel slip controller accessing two drivetrain actuators is outlined and a comparison to a conventionally braked vehicle is shown by means of simulation.

Keywords: Wheel slip control, sliding mode control, vehicle dynamics.

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1384 Numerical Investigation of Aerodynamic Analysis on Passenger Vehicle

Authors: Cafer Görkem Pınar, İlker Coşar, Serkan Uzun, Atahan Çelebi, Mehmet Ali Ersoy, Ali Pınarbaşı

Abstract:

In this study, it was numerically investigated that a 1:1 scale model of the Renault Clio MK4 SW brand vehicle aerodynamic analysis was performed in the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package program of ANSYS CFX 2021 R1 under steady, subsonic, and 3-D conditions. The model of vehicle used for the analysis was made independent of the number of mesh elements and the k-epsilon turbulence model was applied during the analysis. Results were interpreted as streamlines, pressure gradient, and turbulent kinetic energy contours around the vehicle at 50 km/h and 100 km/h speeds. In addition, the validity of the analysis was decided by comparing the drag coefficient of the vehicle with the values in the literature. As a result, the pressure gradient contours of the taillight of the Renault Clio MK4 SW vehicle were examined and the behavior of the total force at speeds of 50 km/h and 100 km/h was interpreted.

Keywords: CFD, k-epsilon, aerodynamics, drag coefficient, taillight.

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1383 Investigation of the Effect of Cavitator Angle and Dimensions for a Supercavitating Vehicle

Authors: Sri Raman A., A.K.Ghosh

Abstract:

At very high speeds, bubbles form in the underwater vehicles because of sharp trailing edges or of places where the local pressure is lower than the vapor pressure. These bubbles are called cavities and the size of the cavities grows as the velocity increases. A properly designed cavitator can induce the formation of a single big cavity all over the vehicle. Such a vehicle travelling in the vaporous cavity is called a supercavitating vehicle and the present research work mainly focuses on the dynamic modeling of such vehicles. Cavitation of the fins is also accounted and the effect of the same on trajectory is well explained. The entire dynamics has been developed using the state space approach and emphasis is given on the effect of size and angle of attack of the cavitator. Control law has been established for the motion of the vehicle using Non-linear Dynamic Inverse (NDI) with cavitator as the control surface.

Keywords: High speed underwater vehicle, Non-Linear Dynamic Inverse (NDI), six-dof modeling, Supercavitation, Torpedo.

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1382 Designing a Fuzzy Logic Controller to Enhance Directional Stability of Vehicles under Difficult Maneuvers

Authors: Mehrdad N. Khajavi , Golamhassan Paygane, Ali Hakima

Abstract:

Vehicle which are turning or maneuvering at high speeds are susceptible to sliding and subsequently deviate from desired path. In this paper the dynamics governing the Yaw/Roll behavior of a vehicle has been simulated. Two different simulations have been used one for the real vehicle, for which a fuzzy controller is designed to increase its directional stability property. The other simulation is for a hypothetical vehicle with much higher tire cornering stiffness which is capable of developing the required lateral forces at the tire-ground patch contact to attain the desired lateral acceleration for the vehicle to follow the desired path without slippage. This simulation model is our reference model. The logic for keeping the vehicle on the desired track in the cornering or maneuvering state is to have some braking forces on the inner or outer tires based on the direction of vehicle deviation from the desired path. The inputs to our vehicle simulation model is steer angle δ and vehicle velocity V , and the outputs can be any kinematical parameters like yaw rate, yaw acceleration, side slip angle, rate of side slip angle and so on. The proposed fuzzy controller is a feed forward controller. This controller has two inputs which are steer angle δ and vehicle velocity V, and the output of the controller is the correcting moment M, which guides the vehicle back to the desired track. To develop the membership functions for the controller inputs and output and the fuzzy rules, the vehicle simulation has been run for 1000 times and the correcting moment have been determined by trial and error. Results of the vehicle simulation with fuzzy controller are very promising and show the vehicle performance is enhanced greatly over the vehicle without the controller. In fact the vehicle performance with the controller is very near the performance of the reference ideal model.

Keywords: Vehicle, Directional Stability, Fuzzy Logic Controller, ANFIS..

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1381 A Multi Objective Optimization Approach to Optimize Vehicle Ride and Handling Characteristics

Authors: Mehrdad N. Khajavi, Bahram Notghi, Golamhassan Paygane

Abstract:

Vehicle suspension design must fulfill some conflicting criteria. Among those is ride comfort which is attained by minimizing the acceleration transmitted to the sprung mass, via suspension spring and damper. Also good handling of a vehicle is a desirable property which requires stiff suspension and therefore is in contrast with a vehicle with good ride. Among the other desirable features of a suspension is the minimization of the maximum travel of suspension. This travel which is called suspension working space in vehicle dynamics literature is also a design constraint and it favors good ride. In this research a full car 8 degrees of freedom model has been developed and the three above mentioned criteria, namely: ride, handling and working space has been adopted as objective functions. The Multi Objective Programming (MOP) discipline has been used to find the Pareto Front and some reasoning used to chose a design point between these non dominated points of Pareto Front.

Keywords: Vehicle, Ride, Handling, Suspension, Working Space, Multi Objective Programming.

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1380 A Numerical Study on Rear-spoiler of Passenger Vehicle

Authors: Xu-xia Hu, Eric T. T. Wong

Abstract:

The simulation of external aerodynamics is one of the most challenging and important automotive CFD applications. With the rapid developments of digital computers, CFD is used as a practical tool in modern fluid dynamics research. It integrates fluid mechanics disciplines, mathematics and computer science. In this study, two different types of simulations were made, one for the flow around a simplified high speed passenger car with a rear-spoiler and the other for the flow without a rear-spoiler. The standard k-ε model is selected to numerically simulate the external flow field of the simplified Camry model with or without a rear-spoiler. Through an analysis of the simulation results, a new rear spoiler is designed and it shows a mild reduction of the vehicle aerodynamics drag. This leads to less vehicle fuel consumption on the road.

Keywords: CFD, vehicle rear-spoiler design.

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1379 Design of a Drift Assist Control System Applied to Remote Control Car

Authors: Sheng-Tse Wu, Wu-Sung Yao

Abstract:

In this paper, a drift assist control system is proposed for remote control (RC) cars to get the perfect drift angle. A steering servo control scheme is given powerfully to assist the drift driving. A gyroscope sensor is included to detect the machine's tail sliding and to achieve a better automatic counter-steering to prevent RC car from spinning. To analysis tire traction and vehicle dynamics is used to obtain the dynamic track of RC cars. It comes with a control gain to adjust counter-steering amount according to the sensor condition. An illustrated example of 1:10 RC drift car is given and the real-time control algorithm is realized by Arduino Uno.

Keywords: Drift assist control system, remote control cars, gyroscope, vehicle dynamics.

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1378 RANS Simulation of Viscous Flow around Hull of Multipurpose Amphibious Vehicle

Authors: M. Nakisa, A. Maimun, Yasser M. Ahmed, F. Behrouzi, A. Tarmizi

Abstract:

The practical application of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), for predicting the flow pattern around Multipurpose Amphibious Vehicle (MAV) hull has made much progress over the last decade. Today, several of the CFD tools play an important role in the land and water going vehicle hull form design. CFD has been used for analysis of MAV hull resistance, sea-keeping, maneuvering and investigating its variation when changing the hull form due to varying its parameters, which represents a very important task in the principal and final design stages. Resistance analysis based on CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation has become a decisive factor in the development of new, economically efficient and environmentally friendly hull forms. Three-dimensional finite volume method (FVM) based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) has been used to simulate incompressible flow around three types of MAV hull bow models in steady-state condition. Finally, the flow structure and streamlines, friction and pressure resistance and velocity contours of each type of hull bow will be compared and discussed.

Keywords: RANS Simulation, Multipurpose Amphibious Vehicle, Viscous Flow Structure.

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1377 Measurement of Real Time Drive Cycle for Indian Roads and Estimation of Component Sizing for HEV using LABVIEW

Authors: Varsha Shah, Patel Pritesh, Patel Sagar, PrasantaKundu, RanjanMaheshwari

Abstract:

Performance of vehicle depends on driving patterns and vehicle drive train configuration. Driving patterns depends on traffic condition, road condition and driver behavior. HEV design is carried out under certain constrain like vehicle operating range, acceleration, decelerations, maximum speed and road grades which are directly related to the driving patterns. Therefore the detailed study on HEV performance over a different drive cycle is required for selection and sizing of HEV components. A simple hardware is design to measured velocity v/s time profile of the vehicle by operating vehicle on Indian roads under real traffic conditions. To size the HEV components, a detailed dynamic model of the vehicle is developed considering the effect of inertia of rotating components like wheels, drive chain, engine and electric motor. Using vehicle model and different Indian drive cycles data, total tractive power demanded by vehicle and power supplied by individual components has been calculated.Using above information selection and estimation of component sizing for HEV is carried out so that HEV performs efficiently under hostile driving condition. Complete analysis is carried out in LABVIEW.

Keywords: BLDC motor, Driving cycle, LABVIEW Ultracapacitors, Vehicle Dynamics,

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1376 Planar Tracking Control of an Underactuated Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

Authors: Santhakumar M., Asokan T.

Abstract:

This paper addresses the problem of trajectory tracking control of an underactuated autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) in the horizontal plane. The underwater vehicle under consideration is not actuated in the sway direction, and the system matrices are not assumed to be diagonal and linear, as often found in the literature. In addition, the effect of constant bias of environmental disturbances is considered. Using backstepping techniques and the tracking error dynamics, the system states are stabilized by forcing the tracking errors to an arbitrarily small neighborhood of zero. The effectiveness of the proposed control method is demonstrated through numerical simulations. Simulations are carried out for an experimental vehicle for smooth, inertial, two dimensional (2D) reference trajectories such as constant velocity trajectory (a circle maneuver – constant yaw rate), and time varying velocity trajectory (a sinusoidal path – sinusoidal yaw rate).

Keywords: autonomous underwater vehicle, system matrices, tracking control, time – varying feed back, underactuated control.

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1375 Electrification Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicle as a Solution to Decrease CO2 Emission in Cities

Authors: M. Mourad, K. Mahmoud

Abstract:

Recently hybrid vehicles have become a major concern as one alternative vehicles. This type of hybrid vehicle contributes greatly to reducing pollution. Therefore, this work studies the influence of electrification phase of hybrid electric vehicle on emission of vehicle at different road conditions. To accomplish this investigation, a simulation model was used to evaluate the external characteristics of the hybrid electric vehicle according to variant conditions of road resistances. Therefore, this paper reports a methodology to decrease the vehicle emission especially greenhouse gas emission inside cities. The results show the effect of electrification on vehicle performance characteristics. The results show that CO2 emission of vehicle decreases up to 50.6% according to an urban driving cycle due to applying the electrification strategy for hybrid electric vehicle.

Keywords: Electrification strategy, hybrid electric vehicle, CO2 emission.

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1374 Balancing and Synchronization Control of a Two Wheel Inverted Pendulum Vehicle

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Shin-Ham Lee, Sheam-Chyun Lin

Abstract:

A two wheel inverted pendulum (TWIP) vehicle is built with two hub DC motors for motion control evaluation. Arduino Nano micro-processor is chosen as the control kernel for this electric test plant. Accelerometer and gyroscope sensors are built in to measure the tilt angle and angular velocity of the inverted pendulum vehicle. Since the TWIP has significantly hub motor dead zone and nonlinear system dynamics characteristics, the vehicle system is difficult to control by traditional model based controller. The intelligent model-free fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC) was employed as the main control algorithm. Then, intelligent controllers are designed for TWIP balance control, and two wheels synchronization control purposes.

Keywords: Balance control, synchronization control, two wheel inverted pendulum, TWIP.

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1373 Optimal Control Strategy for High Performance EV Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

Authors: Mehdi Karbalaye Zadeh, Ehsan M. Siavashi

Abstract:

The controllable electrical loss which consists of the copper loss and iron loss can be minimized by the optimal control of the armature current vector. The control algorithm of current vector minimizing the electrical loss is proposed and the optimal current vector can be decided according to the operating speed and the load conditions. The proposed control algorithm is applied to the experimental PM motor drive system and this paper presents a modern approach of speed control for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) applied for Electric Vehicle using a nonlinear control. The regulation algorithms are based on the feedback linearization technique. The direct component of the current is controlled to be zero which insures the maximum torque operation. The near unity power factor operation is also achieved. More over, among EV-s motor electric propulsion features, the energy efficiency is a basic characteristic that is influenced by vehicle dynamics and system architecture. For this reason, the EV dynamics are taken into account.

Keywords: PMSM, Electric Vehicle, Optimal control, Traction.

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1372 Vehicle Detection Method using Haar-like Feature on Real Time System

Authors: Sungji Han, Youngjoon Han, Hernsoo Hahn

Abstract:

This paper presents a robust vehicle detection approach using Haar-like feature. It is possible to get a strong edge feature from this Haar-like feature. Therefore it is very effective to remove the shadow of a vehicle on the road. And we can detect the boundary of vehicles accurately. In the paper, the vehicle detection algorithm can be divided into two main steps. One is hypothesis generation, and the other is hypothesis verification. In the first step, it determines vehicle candidates using features such as a shadow, intensity, and vertical edge. And in the second step, it determines whether the candidate is a vehicle or not by using the symmetry of vehicle edge features. In this research, we can get the detection rate over 15 frames per second on our embedded system.

Keywords: vehicle detection, haar-like feauture, single camera, real time

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1371 Stabilization of a New Configurable Two- Wheeled Machine Using a PD-PID and a Hybrid FL Control Strategies: A Comparative Study

Authors: M. Almeshal, M. O. Tokhi, K. M. Goher

Abstract:

A novel design of two-wheeled robotic vehicle with moving payload is presented in this paper. A mathematical model describing the vehicle dynamics is derived and simulated in Matlab Simulink environment. Two control strategies were developed to stabilise the vehicle in the upright position. A robust Proportional- Integral-Derivative (PID) control strategy has been implemented and initially tested to measure the system performance, while the second control strategy is to use a hybrid fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The results are given on a comparative basis for the system performance in terms of disturbance rejection, control algorithms robustness as well as the control effort in terms of input torque.

Keywords: double inverted pendulum, modelling, robust control, simulation,

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1370 Dynamics of Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) Vehicle Collisions in Lithuania: Influence of the Time Factors

Authors: Lina Galinskaitė, Gytautas Ignatavičius

Abstract:

Animal vehicle collisions (AVCs) affect human safety, cause property damage and wildlife welfare. The number of AVCs are increasing and creating serious implications for the animal conservation and management. Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and other large ungulates (moose, wild boar, red deer) are the most frequently collided ungulate with vehicles in Europe. Therefore, we analyzed temporal patterns of roe deer vehicle collisions (RDVC) occurring in Lithuania. Using a comprehensive dataset, consisting of 15,891 data points, we examined the influence of different time units (i.e. time of the day, day of week, month, and season) on RDVC. We identified accident periods within the analyzed time units. Highest frequencies of RDVC occurred on Fridays. Highest frequencies of roe deer-vehicle accidents occurred in May, November and December. Regarding diurnal patterns, most of RDVC occur after sunset and before sunset (during dark hours). Since vehicle collisions with animals showed temporal variation, these should be taken into consideration in developing statistical models of spatial AVC patterns, and also in planning strategies to reduce accident risk.

Keywords: Animal vehicle collision, diurnal patterns, road safety, roe deer, statistical analysis.

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1369 Optimization Based Obstacle Avoidance

Authors: R. Dariani, S. Schmidt, R. Kasper

Abstract:

Based on a non-linear single track model which describes the dynamics of vehicle, an optimal path planning strategy is developed. Real time optimization is used to generate reference control values to allow leading the vehicle alongside a calculated lane which is optimal for different objectives such as energy consumption, run time, safety or comfort characteristics. Strict mathematic formulation of the autonomous driving allows taking decision on undefined situation such as lane change or obstacle avoidance. Based on position of the vehicle, lane situation and obstacle position, the optimization problem is reformulated in real-time to avoid the obstacle and any car crash.

Keywords: Autonomous driving, Obstacle avoidance, Optimal control, Path planning.

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1368 Fuzzy Control of a Quarter-Car Suspension System

Authors: M. M. M. Salem, Ayman A. Aly

Abstract:

An active suspension system has been proposed to improve the ride comfort. A quarter-car 2 degree-of-freedom (DOF) system is designed and constructed on the basis of the concept of a four-wheel independent suspension to simulate the actions of an active vehicle suspension system. The purpose of a suspension system is to support the vehicle body and increase ride comfort. The aim of the work described in the paper was to illustrate the application of fuzzy logic technique to the control of a continuously damping automotive suspension system. The ride comfort is improved by means of the reduction of the body acceleration caused by the car body when road disturbances from smooth road and real road roughness. The paper describes also the model and controller used in the study and discusses the vehicle response results obtained from a range of road input simulations. In the conclusion, a comparison of active suspension fuzzy control and Proportional Integration derivative (PID) control is shown using MATLAB simulations.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic control, ride comfort, vehicle dynamics, active suspension system, quarter-car model.

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1367 The Effect of Gross Vehicle Weight on the Stability of Heavy Vehicle during Cornering

Authors: Nurzaki Ikhsan, Ahmad Saifizul Abdullah, Rahizar Ramli

Abstract:

One of the functions of the commercial heavy vehicle is to safely and efficiently transport goods and people. Due to its size and carrying capacity, it is important to study the vehicle dynamic stability during cornering. Study has shown that there are a number of overloaded heavy vehicles or permissible Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) violations recorded at selected areas in Malaysia assigned by its type and category. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the correlation and effect of the GVW on heavy vehicle stability during cornering event using simulation. Various selected heavy vehicle types and category are simulated using IPG/Truck Maker® with different GVW and road condition (coefficient of friction of road surface), while the speed, driver characteristic, center of gravity of load and road geometry are constant. Based on the analysis, the relationship between GVW and lateral acceleration were established. As expected, on the same value of coefficient of friction, the maximum lateral acceleration would be increased as the GVW increases.

Keywords: Heavy Vehicle, Road Safety, Vehicle Stability, Lateral Acceleration, Gross Vehicle Weight.

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1366 Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Dynamics Modeling and Performance Evaluation

Authors: K. M. Tan, A. Anvar, T.F. Lu

Abstract:

A sophisticated simulator provides a cost-effective measure to carry out preliminary mission testing and diagnostic while reducing potential failures for real life at sea trials. The presented simulation framework covers three key areas: AUV modeling, sensor modeling, and environment modeling. AUV modeling mainly covers the area of AUV dynamics. Sensor modeling deals with physics and mathematical models that govern each sensor installed onto the AUV. Environment model incorporates the hydrostatic, hydrodynamics, and ocean currents that will affect the AUV in a real-time mission. Based on this designed simulation framework, custom scenarios provided by the user can be modeled and its corresponding behaviors can be observed. This paper focuses on the accuracy of the simulated data from AUV model and environmental model derived from a developed AUV test-bed which was jointly upgraded by DSTO and the University of Adelaide. The main contribution of this paper is to experimentally verify the accuracy of the proposed simulation framework.

Keywords: Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV), simulator, framework, robotics, maritime robot, modeling.

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1365 Project and Experiment-Based Fluid Dynamics Education

Authors: Etsuo Morishita

Abstract:

This paper presents the project and experiment-based fluid dynamics education in Meisei University, a private institution in Tokyo, Japan. We pay attention not only to the basic engineering courses but also to the practical aspect of engineering experience. So, we prepare courses called the Projects from I to VI. The Projects I and II are designed for the first year, III and IV are designated for the second year, V and VI are prepared for the third year, respectively. Each supervisor is responsible for two of these projects every year. When students take the Project V and VI at the third year, we automatically assume that these students will join the lab of the project for the graduation thesis. We would like to show our experience in the Project I in the summer term, 2016. In this project, we introduce a traction flight vehicle called Cat Flyer. This is a kind of a kite towed by a car for example. This is very similar to parasailing, but flight is possible even on the roads. Experiments in mechanical engineering education are also very important, and we would like to explain our course on centrifugal pump, venture, and orifice. Although these are described in detail in the text books of fluid dynamics, it is still crucial to have practical experiments as a student.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, experiment, fluid dynamics, project.

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1364 Flight Control of Vectored Thrust Aerial Vehicle by Neural Network Predictive Controller for Enhanced Situational Awareness

Authors: Igor Astrov, Mikhail Pikkov, Rein Paluoja

Abstract:

This paper focuses on a critical component of the situational awareness (SA), the control of autonomous vertical flight for vectored thrust aerial vehicle (VTAV). With the SA strategy, we proposed a flight control procedure to address the dynamics variation and performance requirement difference of flight trajectory for an unmanned helicopter model with vectored thrust configuration. This control strategy for chosen model of VTAV has been verified by simulation of take-off and forward maneuvers using software package Simulink and demonstrated good performance for fast stabilization of motors, consequently, fast SA with economy in energy can be asserted during search-and-rescue operations.

Keywords: Neural network predictive controller, situational awareness, vectored thrust aerial vehicle.

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1363 Numerical Investigation on the Interior Wind Noise of a Passenger Car

Authors: Liu Ying-jie, Lu Wen-bo, Peng Cheng-jian

Abstract:

With the development of the automotive technology and electric vehicle, the contribution of the wind noise on the interior noise becomes the main source of noise. The main transfer path which the exterior excitation is transmitted through is the greenhouse panels and side windows. Simulating the wind noise transmitted into the vehicle accurately in the early development stage can be very challenging. The basic methodologies of this study were based on the Lighthill analogy; the exterior flow field around a passenger car was computed using unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) firstly and then a Finite Element Method (FEM) was used to compute the interior acoustic response. The major findings of this study include: 1) The Sound Pressure Level (SPL) response at driver’s ear locations is mainly induced by the turbulence pressure fluctuation; 2) Peaks were found over the full frequency range. It is found that the methodology used in this study could predict the interior wind noise induced by the exterior aerodynamic excitation in industry.

Keywords: Wind noise, computational fluid dynamics, finite element method, passenger car.

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1362 Road Vehicle Recognition Using Magnetic Sensing Feature Extraction and Classification

Authors: Xiao Chen, Xiaoying Kong, Min Xu

Abstract:

This paper presents a road vehicle detection approach for the intelligent transportation system. This approach mainly uses low-cost magnetic sensor and associated data collection system to collect magnetic signals. This system can measure the magnetic field changing, and it also can detect and count vehicles. We extend Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients to analyze vehicle magnetic signals. Vehicle type features are extracted using representation of cepstrum, frame energy, and gap cepstrum of magnetic signals. We design a 2-dimensional map algorithm using Vector Quantization to classify vehicle magnetic features to four typical types of vehicles in Australian suburbs: sedan, VAN, truck, and bus. Experiments results show that our approach achieves a high level of accuracy for vehicle detection and classification.

Keywords: Vehicle classification, signal processing, road traffic model, magnetic sensing.

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1361 A Study on Remote On-Line Diagnostic System for Vehicles by Integrating the Technology of OBD, GPS, and 3G

Authors: Jyong Lin, Shih-Chang Chen, Yu-Tsen Shih, Shi-Huang Chen

Abstract:

This paper presents a remote on-line diagnostic system for vehicles via the use of On-Board Diagnostic (OBD), GPS, and 3G techniques. The main parts of the proposed system are on-board computer, vehicle monitor server, and vehicle status browser. First, the on-board computer can obtain the location of deriver and vehicle status from GPS receiver and OBD interface, respectively. Then on-board computer will connect with the vehicle monitor server through 3G network to transmit the real time vehicle system status. Finally, vehicle status browser could show the remote vehicle status including vehicle speed, engine rpm, battery voltage, engine coolant temperature, and diagnostic trouble codes. According to the experimental results, the proposed system can help fleet managers and car knockers to understand the remote vehicle status. Therefore this system can decrease the time of fleet management and vehicle repair due to the fleet managers and car knockers who find the diagnostic trouble messages in time.

Keywords: Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC), Electronic Control Unit (ECU), Global Position System (GPS), On-Board Diagnostic (OBD).

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