Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1546

Search results for: phase

1546 Phase Equilibrium in Aqueous Two-phase Systems Containing Poly (propylene glycol) and Sodium Citrate at Different pH

Authors: Farshad Rahimpour, Ali Reza Baharvand

Abstract:

The phase diagrams and compositions of coexisting phases have been determined for aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(propylene glycol) with average molecular weight of 425 and sodium citrate at various pH of 3.93, 4.44, 4.6, 4.97, 5.1, 8.22. The effect of pH on the salting-out effect of poly (propylene glycol) by sodium citrate has been studied. It was found that, an increasing in pH caused the expansion of two-phase region. Increasing pH also increases the concentration of PPG in the PPGrich phase, while the salt-rich phase will be somewhat mole diluted.

Keywords: Aqueous two-phase system, Phase equilibrium, Biomolecules purification

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1545 Model of Controled Six Phase Induction Motor

Authors: R. Rinkeviciene, B. Kundrotas, S. Lisauskas

Abstract:

In this paper, the authors take a look at advantages of multiphase induction motors comparing them with three phase ones and present the applications where six-phase induction motors are used. They elaborate the mathematical model of six-phase induction motor with two similar stator three phase winding, shifted by 30 degrees in space and three phase winding in rotor, in synchronous reference frame for soft starting and scalar control. The authors simulate and discuss results of speed and torque starting transients.

Keywords: Model, scalar control, six-phase induction motor.

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1544 Simultaneous Reaction-Separation in a Microchannel Reactor with the Aid of a Guideline Structure

Authors: Salah Aljbour, Hiroshi Yamada, Tomohiko Tagawa

Abstract:

A microchannel with two inlets and two outlets was tested as a potential reactor to carry out two-phase catalytic phase transfer reaction with phase separation at the exit of the microchannel. The catalytic phase transfer reaction between benzyl chloride and sodium sulfide was chosen as a model reaction. The effect of operational time on the conversion was studied. By utilizing a multiphase parallel flow inside the microchannel reactor with the aid of a guideline structure, the catalytic phase reaction followed by phase separation could be ensured. The organic phase could be separated completely from one exit and part of the aqueous phase was separated purely and could be reused with slightly affecting the catalytic phase transfer reaction.

Keywords: Green engineering, microchannel reactor, multiphase reaction, process intensification.

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1543 Generalized d-q Model of n-Phase Induction Motor Drive

Authors: G. Renukadevi, K. Rajambal

Abstract:

This paper presents a generalized d-q model of n- phase induction motor drive. Multi -phase (n-phase) induction motor (more than three phases) drives possess several advantages over conventional three-phase drives, such as reduced current/phase without increasing voltage/phase, lower torque pulsation, higher torque density, fault tolerance, stability, high efficiency and lower current ripple. When the number of phases increases, it is also possible to increase the power in the same frame. In this paper, a generalized dq-axis model is developed in Matlab/Simulink for an n-phase induction motor. The simulation results are presented for 5, 6, 7, 9 and 12 phase induction motor under varying load conditions. Transient response of the multi-phase induction motors are given for different number of phases. Fault tolerant feature is also analyzed for 5-phase induction motor drive.

Keywords: d-q model, dynamic Response, fault tolerant feature, Matlab/Simulink, multi-phase induction motor, transient response.

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1542 Design and Analysis of Fault Tolerate feature of n-Phase Induction Motor Drive

Authors: G. Renuka Devi

Abstract:

This paper presents design and analysis of fault tolerate feature of n-phase induction motor drive. The n-phase induction motor (more than 3-phases) has a number of advantages over conventional 3-phase induction motor, it has low torque pulsation with increased torque density, more fault tolerant feature, low current ripple with increased efficiency. When increasing the number of phases, it has reduced current per phase without increasing per phase voltage, resulting in an increase in the total power rating of n-phase motors in the same volume machine. In this paper, the theory of operation of a multi-phase induction motor is discussed. The detailed study of d-q modeling of n-phase induction motors is elaborated. The d-q model of n-phase (5, 6, 7, 9 and 12) induction motors is developed in a MATLAB/Simulink environment. The steady state and dynamic performance of the multi-phase induction motor is studied under varying load conditions. Comparison of 5-phase induction is presented under normal and fault conditions.

Keywords: d-q model, dynamic Response, fault tolerant feature, matlab/simulink, multi-phase induction motor, transient response.

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1541 Design of an Ultra Low Power Low Phase Noise CMOS LC Oscillator

Authors: Mahdi Ebrahimzadeh

Abstract:

In this paper we introduce an ultra low power CMOS LC oscillator and analyze a method to design a low power low phase noise complementary CMOS LC oscillator. A 1.8GHz oscillator is designed based on this analysis. The circuit has power supply equal to 1.1 V and dissipates 0.17 mW power. The oscillator is also optimized for low phase noise behavior. The oscillator phase noise is -126.2 dBc/Hz and -144.4 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz and 8 MHz offset respectively.

Keywords: LC oscillator, Low Power, Low Phase Noise

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1540 Generalized Mean-field Theory of Phase Unwrapping via Multiple Interferograms

Authors: Yohei Saika

Abstract:

On the basis of Bayesian inference using the maximizer of the posterior marginal estimate, we carry out phase unwrapping using multiple interferograms via generalized mean-field theory. Numerical calculations for a typical wave-front in remote sensing using the synthetic aperture radar interferometry, phase diagram in hyper-parameter space clarifies that the present method succeeds in phase unwrapping perfectly under the constraint of surface- consistency condition, if the interferograms are not corrupted by any noises. Also, we find that prior is useful for extending a phase in which phase unwrapping under the constraint of the surface-consistency condition. These results are quantitatively confirmed by the Monte Carlo simulation.

Keywords: Bayesian inference, generalized mean-field theory, phase unwrapping, statistical mechanics.

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1539 Frequency-Dependent and Full Range Tunable Phase Shifter

Authors: Yufu Yin, Tao Lin, Shanghong Zhao, Zihang Zhu, Xuan Li, Wei Jiang, Qiurong Zheng, Hui Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, a frequency-dependent and tunable phase shifter is proposed and numerically analyzed. The key devices are the dual-polarization binary phase shift keying modulator (DP-BPSK) and the fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The phase-frequency response of the FBG is employed to determine the frequency-dependent phase shift. The simulation results show that a linear phase shift of the recovered output microwave signal which depends on the frequency of the input RF signal is achieved. In addition, by adjusting the power of the RF signal, the full range phase shift from 0° to 360° can be realized. This structure shows the spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of 70.90 dB·Hz2/3 and 72.11 dB·Hz2/3 under different RF powers.

Keywords: Microwave photonics, phase shifter, spurious free dynamic range, frequency-dependent.

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1538 Approximation for Average Error Probability of BPSK in the Presence of Phase Error

Authors: Yeonsoo Jang, Dongweon Yoon, Ki Ho Kwon, Jaeyoon Lee, Wooju Lee

Abstract:

Phase error in communications systems degrades error performance. In this paper, we present a simple approximation for the average error probability of the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) in the presence of phase error having a uniform distribution on arbitrary intervals. For the simple approximation, we use symmetry and periodicity of a sinusoidal function. Approximate result for the average error probability is derived, and the performance is verified through comparison with simulation result.

Keywords: Average error probability, Phase shift keying, Phase error

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1537 Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of 4-Phase Boost Converter

Authors: Nagulapati Kiran, V. Rangavalli, B. Vanajakshi

Abstract:

This paper designs the four-phase Boost Converter which overcomes the problem of high input ripple current and output ripple voltage. Digital control is more convenient for such a topology on basis of synchronization, phase shift operation, etc. Simulation results are presented for open-loop and closed-loop for four phase boost converter. This control scheme is applicable for PFC rectifiers as well. Thus a comparative analysis based on the obtained results is performed.

Keywords: Boost Converter, Bode plot, PI Controller, Four phase.

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1536 Study of Cahn-Hilliard Equation to Simulate Phase Separation

Authors: Nara Guimarães, Marcelo Aquino Martorano, Douglas Gouvêa

Abstract:

An investigation into Cahn-Hilliard equation was carried out through numerical simulation to identify a possible phase separation for one and two dimensional domains. It was observed that this equation can reproduce important mass fluxes necessary for phase separation within the miscibility gap and for coalescence of particles.

Keywords: Cahn-Hilliard equation, miscibility gap, phase separation.

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1535 Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow Phenomenon in Near Horizontal Upward and Downward Inclined Pipe Orientations

Authors: Afshin J. Ghajar, Swanand M. Bhagwat

Abstract:

The main purpose of this work is to experimentally investigate the effect of pipe orientation on two phase flow phenomenon. Flow pattern, void fraction and two phase pressure drop is measured in a polycarbonate pipe with an inside diameter of 12.7mm for inclination angles ranging from -20o to +20o using air-water fluid combination. The experimental data covers all flow patterns and the entire range of void fraction typically observed in two phase flow. The effect of pipe orientation on void fraction and two phase pressure drop is justified with reference to the change in flow structure and two phase flow behavior. In addition to this, the top performing void fraction and two phase pressure drop correlations available in the literature are presented and their performance is assessed against the experimental data in the present study and that available in the literature.

Keywords: Flow patterns, inclined two phase flow, pressure drop, void fraction.

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1534 The Effect of Guanidine Hydrochloride on Phase Diagram of PEG- Phosphate Aqueous Two-Phase System

Authors: Farshad Rahimpour, Mohsen Pirdashti

Abstract:

This report focus on phase behavior of polyethylene glycol (PEG)4000/ phosphate/ guanidine hydrochloride/ water system at different guanidine hydrochloride concentrations and pH. The binodal of the systems was displaced toward higher concentrations of the components with increasing guanidine hydrochloride concentrations. The partition coefficient of guanidine hydrochloride was near unity and increased with decreasing pH and increasing PEG/salt (%w/w) ratio.

Keywords: Aqueous two-phase system, guanidinehydrochloride, partition coefficient, phase diagram.

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1533 Mathematical Model for Progressive Phase Distribution of Ku-band Reflectarray Antennas

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, M. Inam, A. F. M. Zain, N. Misran

Abstract:

Progressive phase distribution is an important consideration in reflectarray antenna design which is required to form a planar wave in front of the reflectarray aperture. This paper presents a detailed mathematical model in order to determine the required reflection phase values from individual element of a reflectarray designed in Ku-band frequency range. The proposed technique of obtaining reflection phase can be applied for any geometrical design of elements and is independent of number of array elements. Moreover the model also deals with the solution of reflectarray antenna design with both centre and off-set feed configurations. The theoretical modeling has also been implemented for reflectarrays constructed on 0.508mm thickness of different dielectric substrates. The results show an increase in the slope of the phase curve from 4.61°/mm to 22.35°/mm by varying the material properties.

Keywords: Mathematical modeling, Progressive phase distribution, Reflectarray antenna, Reflection phase.

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1532 On Enhancing Robustness of an Evolutionary Fuzzy Tracking Controller

Authors: H. Megherbi, A. C. Megherbi, N. Megherbi, K. Benmahamed

Abstract:

This paper presents three-phase evolution search methodology to automatically design fuzzy logic controllers (FLCs) that can work in a wide range of operating conditions. These include varying load, parameter variations, and unknown external disturbances. The three-phase scheme consists of an exploration phase, an exploitation phase and a robustness phase. The first two phases search for FLC with high accuracy performances while the last phase aims at obtaining FLC providing the best compromise between the accuracy and robustness performances. Simulations were performed for direct-drive two-axis robot arm. The evolved FLC with the proposed design technique found to provide a very satisfactory performance under the wide range of operation conditions and to overcome problem associated with coupling and nonlinearities characteristics inherent to robot arms.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic control, evolutionary algorithms, robustness, exploration/exploitation phase.

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1531 Phase Noise Impact on BER in Space Communication

Authors: Ondrej Baran, Miroslav Kasal, Petr Vagner, Tomas Urbanec

Abstract:

This paper deals with the modeling and the evaluation of a multiplicative phase noise influence on the bit error ratio in a general space communication system. Our research is focused on systems with multi-state phase shift keying modulation techniques and it turns out, that the phase noise significantly affects the bit error rate, especially for higher signal to noise ratios. These results come from a system model created in Matlab environment and are shown in a form of constellation diagrams and bit error rate dependencies. The change of a user data bit rate is also considered and included into simulation results. Obtained outcomes confirm theoretical presumptions.

Keywords: Additive thermal noise, AWGN, BER, bit error rate, multiplicative phase noise, phase shift keying.

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1530 Five-Phase Induction Motor Drive System Driven by Five-Phase Packed U Cell Inverter: Its Modeling and Performance Evaluation

Authors: Mohd Tariq

Abstract:

The three phase system drives produce the problem of more torque pulsations and harmonics. This issue prevents the smooth operation of the drives and it also induces the amount of heat generated thus resulting in an increase in power loss. Higher phase system offers smooth operation of the machines with greater power capacity. Five phase variable-speed induction motor drives are commonly used in various industrial and commercial applications like tractions, electrical vehicles, ship propulsions and conveyor belt drive system. In this work, a comparative analysis of the different modulation schemes applied on the five-level five-phase Packed U Cell (PUC) inverter fed induction motor drives is presented. The performance of the inverter is greatly affected with the modulation schemes applied. The system is modeled, designed, and implemented in MATLAB®/Simulink environment. Experimental validation is done for the prototype of single phase, whereas five phase experimental validation is proposed in the future works.

Keywords: Packed U-Cell inverter, pulse width modulation, five-phase system, induction motor.

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1529 Bubble Growth in a Two Phase Upward Flow in a Miniature Tube

Authors: R. S. Hassani, S. Chikh, L. Tadrist, S. Radev

Abstract:

A bubbly flow in a vertical miniature tube is analyzed theoretically. The liquid and gas phase are co-current flowing upward. The gas phase is injected via a nozzle whose inner diameter is 0.11mm and it is placed on the axis of the tube. A force balance is applied on the bubble at its detachment. The set of governing equations are solved by use of Mathematica software. The bubble diameter and the bubble generation frequency are determined for various inlet phase velocities represented by the inlet mass quality. The results show different behavior of bubble growth and detachment depending on the tube size.

Keywords: Two phase flow, bubble growth, minichannel, generation frequency.

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1528 Analysis of Injection-Lock in Oscillators versus Phase Variation of Injected Signal

Authors: M. Yousefi, N. Nasirzadeh

Abstract:

In this paper, behavior of an oscillator under injection of another signal has been investigated. Also, variation of output signal amplitude versus injected signal phase variation, the effect of varying the amplitude of injected signal and quality factor of the oscillator has been investigated. The results show that the locking time depends on phase and the best locking time happens at 180-degrees phase. Also, the effect of injected lock has been discussed. Simulations show that the locking time decreases with signal injection to bulk. Locking time has been investigated versus various phase differences. The effect of phase and amplitude changes on locking time of a typical LC oscillator in 180 nm technology has been investigated.

Keywords: Injection-lock oscillator, oscillator, analysis, phase modulation.

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1527 Modeling and Analysis of Twelve-phase (Multi- Phase) DSTATCOM for Multi-Phase Load Circuits

Authors: Zakir Husain

Abstract:

This paper presents modeling and analysis of 12-phase distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM), which is capable of balancing the source currents in spite of unbalanced loading and phase outages. In addition to balance the supply current, the power factor can be set to a desired value. The theory of instantaneous symmetrical components is used to generate the twelve-phase reference currents. These reference currents are then tracked using current controlled voltage source inverter, operated in a hysteresis band control scheme. An ideal compensator in place of physical realization of the compensator is used. The performance of the proposed DTATCOM is validated through MATLAB simulation and detailed simulation results are given.

Keywords: DSTATCOM, Modeling, Load balancing, Multiphase, Power factor correction.

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1526 Realization of Soliton Phase Characteristics in 10 Gbps, Single Channel, Uncompensated Telecommunication System

Authors: A. Jawahar

Abstract:

In this paper, the dependence of soliton pulses with respect to phase in a 10Gbps, single channel, dispersion uncompensated telecommunication system was studied. The characteristic feature of periodic soliton interaction was noted at the Interaction point (I=6202.5Km) in one collision length of L=12405.1 Km. The interaction point is located for 10Gbps system with an initial relative spacing (qo) of soliton as 5.28 using Perturbation theory. It is shown that, when two in-phase solitons are launched, they interact at the point I=6202.5 Km, but the interaction could be restricted with introduction of different phase initially. When the phase of the input solitons increases, the deviation of soliton pulses at the ‘I’ also increases. We have successfully demonstrated this effect in a telecommunication set-up in terms of Quality factor (Q), where the Q=0 for in-phase soliton. The Q was noted to be 125.9, 38.63, 47.53, 59.60, 161.37, and 78.04 for different phases such as 10o, 20o, 30o, 45o, 60o and 90o degrees respectively at Interaction point (I).

Keywords: Soliton interaction, Initial relative spacing, phase, Perturbation theory and telecommunication system.

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1525 Exact Solution of the Ising Model on the 15 X 15 Square Lattice with Free Boundary Conditions

Authors: Seung-Yeon Kim

Abstract:

The square-lattice Ising model is the simplest system showing phase transitions (the transition between the paramagnetic phase and the ferromagnetic phase and the transition between the paramagnetic phase and the antiferromagnetic phase) and critical phenomena at finite temperatures. The exact solution of the squarelattice Ising model with free boundary conditions is not known for systems of arbitrary size. For the first time, the exact solution of the Ising model on the square lattice with free boundary conditions is obtained after classifying all ) spin configurations with the microcanonical transfer matrix. Also, the phase transitions and critical phenomena of the square-lattice Ising model are discussed using the exact solution on the square lattice with free boundary conditions.

Keywords: Phase transition, Ising magnet, Square lattice, Freeboundary conditions, Exact solution.

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1524 Comparative Performance and Microbial Community of Single-phase and Two-phase Anaerobic Systems Co-Digesting Cassava Pulpand Pig Manure

Authors: P. Panichnumsin, B. K. Ahring, A. Nopharatana, P. Chaipresert

Abstract:

In this study, we illustrated the performance and microbial community of single- and two-phase systems anaerobically co-digesting cassava pulp and pig manure. The results showed that the volatile solid reduction and biogas productivity of two-phase CSTR were 66 ± 4% and 2000 ± 210 ml l-1 d-1, while those of singlephase CSTR were 59 ± 1% and 1670 ± 60 ml l-1 d-1, respectively. Codigestion in two-phase CSTR gave higher 12% solid degradation and 25% methane production than single-phase CSTR. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA clone library revealed that the Bacteroidetes were the most abundant group, followed by the Clostridia in singlephase CSTR. In hydrolysis/acidification reactor of two-phase system, the bacteria within the phylum Firmicutes, especially Clostridium, Eubacteriaceae and Lactobacillus were the dominant phylogenetic groups. Among the Archaea, Methanosaeta sp. was the exclusive predominant in both digesters while the relative abundance of Methanosaeta sp. and Methanospirillum hungatei differed between the two systems.

Keywords: Anaerobic co-digestion, Cassava pulp, Microbialdiversity, Pig manure.

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1523 A Grid Synchronization Phase Locked Loop Method for Grid-Connected Inverters Systems

Authors: Naima Ikken, Abdelhadi Bouknadel, Nour-eddine Tariba Ahmed Haddou, Hafsa El Omari

Abstract:

The operation of grid-connected inverters necessity a single-phase phase locked loop (PLL) is proposed in this article to accurately and quickly estimate and detect the grid phase angle. This article presents the improvement of a method of phase-locked loop. The novelty is to generate a method (PLL) of synchronizing the grid with a Notch filter based on adaptive fuzzy logic for inverter systems connected to the grid. The performance of the proposed method was tested under normal and abnormal operating conditions (amplitude, frequency and phase shift variations). In addition, simulation results with ISPM software are developed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method strategy. Finally, the experimental test will be used to extract the result and discuss the validity of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Phase locked loop, PLL, notch filter, fuzzy logic control.

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1522 A Capacitive Sensor Interface Circuit Based on Phase Differential Method

Authors: H. A. Majid, N. Razali, M. S. Sulaiman, A. K. A'ain

Abstract:

A new interface circuit for capacitive sensor is presented. This paper presents the design and simulation of soil moisture capacitive sensor interface circuit based on phase differential technique. The circuit has been designed and fabricated using MIMOS- 0.35"m CMOS technology. Simulation and test results show linear characteristic from 36 – 52 degree phase difference, representing 0 – 100% in soil moisture level. Test result shows the circuit has sensitivity of 0.79mV/0.10 phase difference, translating into resolution of 10% soil moisture level.

Keywords: Capacitive sensor, interface, phase differential.

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1521 Study on the Mechanical Behavior of the Varactor of a Micro-Phase Shifter

Authors: Mehrdad Nouri Khajavi, Sajjad Ahoui Ghazvin, Ghader Rezazadeh, Mohammad Fathalilou

Abstract:

In this paper static and dynamic response of a varactor of a micro-phase shifter to DC, step DC and AC voltages have been studied. By presenting a mathematical modeling Galerkin-based step by step linearization method (SSLM) and Galerkin-based reduced order model have been used to solve the governing static and dynamic equations, respectively. The calculated static and dynamic pull-in voltages have been validated by previous experimental and theoretical results and a good agreement has been achieved. Then the frequency response and phase diagram of the system has been studied. It has been shown that applying the DC voltage shifts down the phase diagram and frequency response. Also increasing the damping ratio shifts up the phase diagram.

Keywords: MEMS, Phase Shifter, Pull-in Voltage, PhaseDiagram

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1520 Breaking of Charge Independence of Nucleon-Nucleon Interaction Using Phase Shift Calculations

Authors: B. Rezaei, N. Amiri, N. Azizi

Abstract:

Using calculated phase- shift values, for pp, nn, and np elastic scattering in the energy range 1MeV to 350MeV, the charge independence breaking of nucleon-nucleon interaction is investigated. We have used Darboux transformation to calculate phase-shift for the first three values of

Keywords: Phase-shift, charge independence breaking, Darboux transformation.

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1519 Phase Jitter Transfer in High Speed Data Links

Authors: Tsunwai Gary Yip

Abstract:

Phase locked loops in 10 Gb/s and faster data links are low phase noise devices. Characterization of their phase jitter transfer functions is difficult because the intrinsic noise of the PLLs is comparable to the phase noise of the reference clock signal. The problem is solved by using a linear model to account for the intrinsic noise. This study also introduces a novel technique for measuring the transfer function. It involves the use of the reference clock as a source of wideband excitation, in contrast to the commonly used sinusoidal excitations at discrete frequencies. The data reported here include the intrinsic noise of a PLL for 10 Gb/s links and the jitter transfer function of a PLL for 12.8 Gb/s links. The measured transfer function suggests that the PLL responded like a second order linear system to a low noise reference clock.

Keywords: Intrinsic phase noise, jitter in data link, PLL jitter transfer function, high speed clocking in electronic circuit

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1518 MPC of Single Phase Inverter for PV System

Authors: Irtaza M. Syed, Kaamran Raahemifar

Abstract:

This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) of a utility interactive (UI) single phase inverter (SPI) for a photovoltaic (PV) system at residential/distribution level. The proposed model uses single-phase phase locked loop (PLL) to synchronize SPI with the grid and performs MPC control in a dq reference frame. SPI model consists of boost converter (BC), maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control, and a full bridge (FB) voltage source inverter (VSI). No PI regulators to tune and carrier and modulating waves are required to produce switching sequence. Instead, the operational model of VSI is used to synthesize sinusoidal current and track the reference. Model is validated using a three kW PV system at the input of UI-SPI in Matlab/Simulink. Implementation and results demonstrate simplicity and accuracy, as well as reliability of the model.

Keywords: Matlab/Simulink, Model Predictive Control, Phase Locked Loop, Single Phase Inverter, Voltage Source Inverter.

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1517 Voltage Sag Effect on Three Phase Five Leg Transformers

Authors: M. R. Dolatian, A. Jalilian

Abstract:

The behavior of three phase five leg transformer under voltage sag is studied in this paper. This paper proposes a simple, practical model of a three phase-five leg, saturated transformer with accurate performance. Transformer saturation is produced when the voltage sag is recovered and it causes inrush current in transformer. Effects of voltage sag depth, duration and initial point on wave have been analyzed in this paper. Initial point on wave can produce maximum inrush current in five leg transformers while comparing with three leg transformers. The magnetic circuit symmetry of five leg transformer produces the more symmetrical shape of inrush current curves versus initial point on wave and sag duration than three leg transformer. The simulations show that current peak has a periodical dependence on sag duration and linear dependence on sag depth. Inrush current that is produced in three phase five leg transformer is higher than three phase three leg transformer.

Keywords: Inrush current, three phase five leg transformer, saturation, voltage sag.

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