Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 337

Search results for: atmospheric gaseous attenuation

337 Study on Radio Link Availability in Millimeter Wave Range

Authors: Boncho G. Bonev, Kliment N. Angelov, Emil S. Altimirski

Abstract:

In this paper, the link quality in SHF and EHF ranges are studied. In order to achieve high data rate higher frequencies must be used – centimeter waves (SHF), millimeter waves (EHF) or optical range. However, there are significant problem when a radio link work in that diapason – rain attenuation and attenuation in earth-s atmosphere. Based on statistical rain rates data for Bulgaria, the link availability can be determined, depending on the working frequency, the path length and the Power Budget of the link. For the calculations of rain attenuation and atmosphere-s attenuation the ITU recommendations are used.

Keywords: rain attenuation, atmospheric gaseous attenuation, link availability, link breaking probability

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1810
336 Burning Rates of Turbulent Gaseous and Aerosol Flames

Authors: Shaharin A. Sulaiman, Malcolm Lawes

Abstract:

Combustion of sprays is of technological importance, but its flame behavior is not fully understood. Furthermore, the multiplicity of dependent variables such as pressure, temperature, equivalence ratio, and droplet sizes complicates the study of spray combustion. Fundamental study on the influence of the presence of liquid droplets has revealed that laminar flames within aerosol mixtures more readily become unstable than for gaseous ones and this increases the practical burning rate. However, fundamental studies on turbulent flames of aerosol mixtures are limited particularly those under near mono-dispersed droplet conditions. In the present work, centrally ignited expanding flames at near atmospheric pressures are employed to quantify the burning rates in gaseous and aerosol flames. Iso-octane-air aerosols are generated by expansion of the gaseous pre-mixture to produce a homogeneously distributed suspension of fuel droplets. The effects of the presence of droplets and turbulence velocity in relation to the burning rates of the flame are also investigated.

Keywords: Burning Rate, Droplets, Flames, Turbulent

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1425
335 Attenuation in Transferred RF Power to a Biomedical Implant due to the Absorption of Biological Tissue

Authors: Batel Noureddine, Mehenni Mohamed, Kouadik Smain

Abstract:

In a transcutanious inductive coupling of a biomedical implant, a new formula is given for the study of the Radio Frequency power attenuation by the biological tissue. The loss of the signal power is related to its interaction with the biological tissue and the composition of this one. A confrontation with the practical measurements done with a synthetic muscle into a Faraday cage, allowed a checking of the obtained theoretical results. The supply/data transfer systems used in the case of biomedical implants, can be well dimensioned by taking in account this type of power attenuation.

Keywords: Biological tissue, coupled coils, implanted device, power attenuation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2144
334 Cold Analysis for Dispersion, Attenuation and RF Efficiency Characteristics of a Gyrotron Cavity

Authors: R. K. Singh

Abstract:

In the present paper, a gyrotron cavity is analyzed in the absence of electron beam for dispersion, attenuation and RF efficiency. For all these characteristics, azimuthally symmetric TE0n modes have been considered. The attenuation characteristics for TE0n modes indicated decrease in attenuation constant as the frequency is increased. Interestingly, the lowest order TE01 mode resulted in lowest attenuation. Further, three different cavity wall materials have been selected for attenuation characteristics. The cavity made of material with higher conductivity resulted in lower attenuation. The effect of material electrical conductivity on the RF efficiency has also been observed and has been found that the RF efficiency rapidly decreases as the electrical conductivity of the cavity material decreases. The RF efficiency rapidly decreases with increasing diffractive quality factor. The ohmic loss variation as a function of frequency of operation for three different cavities made of copper, aluminum and nickel has been observed. The ohmic losses are lowest for the copper cavity and hence the highest RF efficiency.

Keywords: Gyrotron, dispersion, attenuation, quality factor.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1667
333 Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Noise-Reduction Transformer

Authors: Toshiaki Yanada, Kazumi Ishikawa

Abstract:

The present paper deals with the analysis and development of noise-reduction transformer that has a filter function for conductive noise transmission. Two types of prototype noise-reduction transformers with two different output voltages are proposed. To determine an optimum design for the noise-reduction transformer, noise attenuation characteristics are discussed based on the experiments and the equivalent circuit analysis. The analysis gives a relation between the circuit parameters and the noise attenuation. High performance step-down noise-reduction transformer for direct power supply to electronics equipment is developed. The input voltage of the transformer is 100 V and the output voltage is 5 V. Frequency characteristics of noise attenuation are discussed, and prevention of pulse noise transmission is demonstrated. Normal mode noise attenuation of this transformer is –80 dB, and common mode exceeds –90 dB. The step-down noise-reduction transformer eliminates pulse noise efficiently.

Keywords: conductive noise, EMC, EMI, noise attenuation, transformer.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1779
332 Fade Dynamics Investigation Applying Statistics of Fade Duration and Level Crossing Rate

Authors: Balázs Héder, Róbert Singliar, János Bitó

Abstract:

The impact of rain attenuation on wireless communication signals is predominant because of the used high frequency (above 10 GHz). The knowledge of statistics of attenuation is very important for planning point-to-point microwave links operating in high frequency band. Describing the statistics of attenuation is possible for instance with fade duration or level crossing rate. In our examination we determine these statistics from one year measured data for a given microwave link, and we are going to make an attempt to transform the level crossing rate statistic to fade duration statistic.

Keywords: Rain attenuation measurement, fade duration, level crossing rate.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1482
331 Rain Cell Ratio Technique in Path Attenuation for Terrestrial Radio Links

Authors: Peter Odero Akuon

Abstract:

A rain cell ratio model is proposed that computes attenuation of the smallest rain cell which represents the maximum rain rate value i.e. the cell size when rainfall rate is exceeded 0.01% of the time, R0.01 and predicts attenuation for other cells as the ratio with this maximum. This model incorporates the dependence of the path factor r on the ellipsoidal path variation of the Fresnel zone at different frequencies. In addition, the inhomogeneity of rainfall is modeled by a rain drop packing density factor. In order to derive the model, two empirical methods that can be used to find rain cell size distribution Dc are presented. Subsequently, attenuation measurements from different climatic zones for terrestrial radio links with frequencies F in the range 7-38 GHz are used to test the proposed model. Prediction results show that the path factor computed from the rain cell ratio technique has improved reliability when compared with other path factor and effective rain rate models, including the current ITU-R 530-15 model of 2013.

Keywords: Packing density of rain drops, prediction model, rain attenuation, rain cell ratio technique.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 440
330 Attenuation in Transferred RF Power to a Biomedical Implant due to the Misalignment Coils

Authors: Batel Noureddine, Mehenni Mohamed, Dekar Lies

Abstract:

In biomedical implant field, a new formula is given for the study of Radio Frequency power attenuation by simultaneous effects of side and angular misalignment of the supply/data transfer coils. A confrontation with the practical measurements done into a Faraday cage, allowed a checking of the obtained theoretical results. The DC supply systems without material connection and the data transmitters used in the case of biomedical implants, can be well dimensioned by taking into account the possibility of power attenuation by misalignment of transfer coils

Keywords: Biomedical implant field, misalignment coils, powerattenuation, transmitter and receiver coils.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1528
329 Propagation of Viscous Waves and Activation Energy of Hydrocarbon Fluids

Authors: Ram N. Singh, Abraham K. George, Dawood N. Al-Namaani

Abstract:

The Euler-s equation of motion is extended to include the viscosity stress tensor leading to the formulation of Navier– Stokes type equation. The latter is linearized and applied to investigate the rotational motion or vorticity in a viscous fluid. Relations for the velocity of viscous waves and attenuation parameter are obtained in terms of viscosity (μ) and the density (¤ü) of the fluid. μ and ¤ü are measured experimentally as a function of temperature for two different samples of light and heavy crude oil. These data facilitated to determine the activation energy, velocity of viscous wave and the attenuation parameter. Shear wave velocity in heavy oil is found to be much larger than the light oil, whereas the attenuation parameter in heavy oil is quite low in comparison to light one. The activation energy of heavy oil is three times larger than light oil.

Keywords: Activation Energy, Attenuation, Crude Oil, Navier- Stokes Equation, Viscosity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1841
328 Water Depth and Optical Attenuation Characteristics of Natural Water Reservoirs nearby Kolkata City Assessed from Hyperion Hyperspectral and LISS-3 Multispectral Images

Authors: Barun Raychaudhuri

Abstract:

A methodology is proposed for estimating the optical attenuation and proportional depth variation of shallow inland water. The process is demonstrated with EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral and IRS-P6 LISS-3 multispectral images of Kolkata city nearby area centered around 22º33′ N 88º26′ E. The attenuation coefficient of water was found to change with fine resolution of wavebands and in presence of suspended organic matter in water.

Keywords: Hyperion, hyperspectral, Kolkata, water depth.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1832
327 A Quantitative Analysis of GSM Air Interface Based on Radiating Columns and Prediction Model

Authors: K. M. Doraiswamy, Lakshminarayana Merugu, B. C. Jinaga

Abstract:

This paper explains the cause of nonlinearity in floor attenuation hither to left unexplained. The performance degradation occurring in air interface for GSM signals is quantitatively analysed using the concept of Radiating Columns of buildings. The signal levels were measured using Wireless Network Optimising Drive Test Tool (E6474A of Agilent Technologies). The measurements were taken in reflected signal environment under usual fading conditions on actual GSM signals radiated from base stations. A mathematical model is derived from the measurements to predict the GSM signal levels in different floors. It was applied on three buildings and found that the predicted signal levels deviated from the measured levels with in +/- 2 dB for all floors. It is more accurate than the prediction models based on Floor Attenuation Factor. It can be used for planning proper indoor coverage in multi storey buildings.

Keywords: GSM air interface, nonlinear attenuation, multistory building, radiating columns, ground conduction and floor attenuation factor.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1378
326 Estimation of Attenuation and Phase Delay in Driving Voltage Waveform of an Ultra-High-Speed Image Sensor by Dimensional Analysis

Authors: V. T. S. Dao, T. G. Etoh, C. Vo Le, H. D. Nguyen, K. Takehara, T. Akino, K. Nishi

Abstract:

We present an explicit expression to estimate driving voltage attenuation through RC networks representation of an ultrahigh- speed image sensor. Elmore delay metric for a fundamental RC chain is employed as the first-order approximation. By application of dimensional analysis to SPICE simulation data, we found a simple expression that significantly improves the accuracy of the approximation. Estimation error of the resultant expression for uniform RC networks is less than 2%. Similarly, another simple closed-form model to estimate 50 % delay through fundamental RC networks is also derived with sufficient accuracy. The framework of this analysis can be extended to address delay or attenuation issues of other VLSI structures.

Keywords: Dimensional Analysis, Elmore model, RC network, Signal Attenuation, Ultra-High-Speed Image Sensor.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1249
325 The Mass Attenuation Coefficients, Effective Atomic Cross Sections, Effective Atomic Numbers and Electron Densities of Some Halides

Authors: Shivalinge Gowda

Abstract:

The total mass attenuation coefficients m/r, of some halides such as, NaCl, KCl, CuCl, NaBr, KBr, RbCl, AgCl, NaI, KI, AgBr, CsI, HgCl2, CdI2 and HgI2 were determined at photon energies 279.2, 320.07, 514.0, 661.6, 1115.5, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV in a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up using a high resolution, hyper pure germanium detector. The mass attenuation coefficients and the effective atomic cross sections are found to be in good agreement with the XCOM values. From these mass attenuation coefficients, the effective atomic cross sections sa, of the compounds were determined. These effective atomic cross section sa data so obtained are then used to compute the effective atomic numbers Zeff. For this, the interpolation of total attenuation cross-sections of photons of energy E in elements of atomic number Z was performed by using the logarithmic regression analysis of the data measured by the authors and reported earlier for the above said energies along with XCOM data for standard energies. The best-fit coefficients in the photon energy range of 250 to 350 keV, 350 to 500 keV, 500 to 700 keV, 700 to 1000 keV and 1000 to 1500 keV by a piecewise interpolation method were then used to find the Zeff of the compounds with respect to the effective atomic cross section sa from the relation obtained by piece wise interpolation method. Using these Zeff values, the electron densities Nel of halides were also determined. The present Zeff and Nel values of halides are found to be in good agreement with the values calculated from XCOM data and other available published values.

Keywords: Mass attenuation coefficient, atomic cross-section, effective atomic number, electron density.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1866
324 Numerical Simulation and Analysis on Liquid Nitrogen Spray Heat Exchanger

Authors: Wenjing Ding, Weiwei Shan, Zijuan, Wang, Chao He

Abstract:

Liquid spray heat exchanger is the critical equipment of temperature regulating system by gaseous nitrogen which realizes the environment temperature in the range of -180 ℃~+180 ℃. Liquid nitrogen is atomized into smaller liquid drops through liquid nitrogen sprayer and then contacts with gaseous nitrogen to be cooled. By adjusting the pressure of liquid nitrogen and gaseous nitrogen, the flowrate of liquid nitrogen is changed to realize the required outlet temperature of heat exchanger. The temperature accuracy of shrouds is ±1 ℃. Liquid nitrogen spray heat exchanger is simulated by CATIA, and the numerical simulation is performed by FLUENT. The comparison between the tests and numerical simulation is conducted. Moreover, the results help to improve the design of liquid nitrogen spray heat exchanger.

Keywords: Liquid nitrogen spray, temperature regulating system, heat exchanger, numerical simulation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 834
323 Effect of Wind and Humidity on Microwave Links in North West Libya

Authors: M. S. Agha, A. M. Eshahiry, S. A. Aldabbar, Z. M. Alshahri

Abstract:

The propagation of microwave is affected by rain and dust particles causing signal attenuation and de-polarization. Computations of these effects require knowledge of the propagation characteristics of microwave and millimeter wave energy in the climate conditions of the studied region. This paper presents effect of wind and humidity on wireless communication such as microwave links in the North West region of Libya (Al-Khoms). The experimental procedure is done on three selected antennae towers (Nagaza station, Al-Khoms center station, Al-Khoms gateway station) for determining the attenuation loss per unit length and cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) change. Dust particles are collected along the region of the study, to measure the particle size distribution (PSD), calculate the concentration, and chemically analyze the contents, then the dielectric constant can be calculated. The results show that humidity and dust, antenna height and the visibility affect both attenuation and phase shift; in which, a few considerations must be taken into account in the communication power budget.

Keywords: Attenuation, scattering, transmission loss.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 517
322 Gasification of Trans-4-Hydroxycinnamic Acid with Ethanol at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Shyh-Ming Chern, Wei-Ling Lin

Abstract:

Lignin is a major constituent of woody biomass, and exists abundantly in nature. It is the major byproducts from the paper industry and bioethanol production processes. The byproducts are mainly used for low-valued applications. Instead, lignin can be converted into higher-valued gaseous fuel, thereby helping to curtail the ever-growing price of oil and to slow down the trend of global warming. Although biochemical treatment is capable of converting cellulose into liquid ethanol fuel, it cannot be applied to the conversion of lignin. Alternatively, it is possible to convert lignin into gaseous fuel thermochemically. In the present work, trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, a model compound for lignin, which closely resembles the basic building blocks of lignin, is gasified in an autoclave with ethanol at elevated temperatures and pressures, that are above the critical point of ethanol. Ethanol, instead of water, is chosen, because ethanol dissolves trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid easily and helps to convert it into lighter gaseous species relatively well. The major operating parameters for the gasification reaction include temperature (673-873 K), reaction pressure (5-25 MPa) and feed concentration (0.05-0.3 M). Generally, more than 80% of the reactant, including trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid and ethanol, were converted into gaseous products at an operating condition of 873 K and 5 MPa.

Keywords: Ethanol, gasification, lignin, supercritical.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 617
321 Vibration Attenuation Using Functionally Graded Material

Authors: Saeed Asiri, Hassan Hedia, Wael Eissa

Abstract:

The aim of the work was to attenuate the vibration amplitude in CESNA 172 airplane wing by using Functionally Graded Material instead of uniform or composite material. Wing strength was achieved by means of stress analysis study, while wing vibration amplitudes and shapes were achieved by means of Modal and Harmonic analysis. Results were verified by applying the methodology in a simple cantilever plate to the simple model and the results were promising and the same methodology can be applied to the airplane wing model. Aluminum models, Titanium models, and functionally graded materials of Aluminum and titanium results were compared to show a great vibration attenuation after using the FGM. Optimization in FGM gradation satisfied our objective of reducing and attenuating the vibration amplitudes to show the effect of using FGM in vibration behavior. Testing the Aluminum rich models, and comparing it with the titanium rich model was an optimization in this paper. Results have shown a significant attenuation in vibration magnitudes when using FGM instead of Titanium Plate, and Aluminium wing with FGM Spurs instead of Aluminium wings. It was also recommended that in future, changing the graphical scale to 1:10 or even 1:1 when the computers- capabilities allow.

Keywords: Vibration, Attenuation, FGM, ANSYS2011, FEM.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2972
320 Atmospheric Plasma Innovative Roll-to-Roll Machine for Continuous Materials

Authors: I. Kulyk, M. Stefan

Abstract:

Atmospheric plasma is emerging as a promising technology for many industrial sectors, because of its ecological and economic advantages respect to the traditional production processes. For textile industry, atmospheric plasma is becoming a valid alternative to the conventional wet processes, but the plasma machines realized so far do not allow the treatment of fibrous mechanically weak material. Novel atmospheric plasma machine for industrial applications, developed by VenetoNanotech SCpA in collaboration with Italian producer of corona equipment ME.RO SpA is presented. The main feature of this pre-industrial scale machine is the possibility of the inline plasma treatment of delicate fibrous substrates such as fibre sleeves, for example wool tops, cotton fibres, polymeric tows, mineral fibers and so on, avoiding burnings and disruption of the faint materials.

Keywords: Atmospheric plasma, industrial machine, fibrous materials.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1725
319 Performance Analysis of a Free-Space Optical Code Division Multiple Access through Atmospheric Turbulence Channel

Authors: Tanveer Ahmed Bhuiyan, Samiul Hayder Choudhury, Asif Al - Rasheed, S.P. Majumder

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of atmospheric turbulence on bit error probability in free-space optical CDMA scheme with Sequence Inverse Keyed (SIK) optical correlator receiver is analyzed. Here Intensity Modulation scheme is considered for transmission. The turbulence induced fading is described by the newly introduced gamma-gamma pdf[1] as a tractable mathematical model for atmospheric turbulence. Results are evaluated with Gold and Kasami code & it is shown that Gold sequence can be used for more efficient transmission than Kasami sequence in an atmospheric turbulence channel.

Keywords: CDMA, gamma-gamma pdf, atmospheric turbulence, Kasami, Gold, SIK, BER, Power Penalty, FSO.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1951
318 Analysing of Indoor Radio Wave Propagation on Ad-hoc Network by Using TP-LINK Router

Authors: Khine Phyu, Aung Myint Aye

Abstract:

This paper presents results of measurements campaign carried out at a carrier frequency of 24GHz with the help of TPLINK router in indoor line-of-sight (LOS) scenarios. Firstly, the radio wave propagation strategies are analyzed in some rooms with router of point to point Ad hoc network. Then floor attenuation is defined for 3 floors in experimental region. The free space model and dual slope models are modified by considering the influence of corridor conditions on each floor. Using these models, indoor signal attenuation can be estimated in modeling of indoor radio wave propagation. These results and modified models can also be used in planning the networks of future personal communications services.

Keywords: radio wave signal analyzing, LOS radio wavepropagation, indoor radio wave propagation, free space model, tworay model and indoor attenuation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1805
317 Learning Materials of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process: Turning Hydrophilic Surface to Hydrophobic

Authors: C.W. Kan

Abstract:

This paper investigates the use of atmospheric pressure plasma for improving the surface hydrophobicity of polyurethane synthetic leather with tetramethylsilane (TMS). The atmospheric pressure plasma treatment with TMS is a single-step process to enhance the hydrophobicity of polyurethane synthetic leather. The hydrophobicity of the treated surface was examined by contact angle measurement. The physical and chemical surface changes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The purpose of this paper is to provide learning materials for understanding how to use atmospheric pressure plasma in the textile finishing process to transform a hydrophilic surface to hydrophobic.

Keywords: Learning materials, atmospheric pressure plasma treatment, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, surface.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1456
316 Determination and Assessment of Ground Motion and Spectral Parameters for Iran

Authors: G. Ghodrati Amiri, M. Khorasani, Razavian Ameri, M.Mohamadi Dehcheshmeh, S.Fathi

Abstract:

Many studies have been conducted for derivation of attenuation relationships worldwide, however few relationships have been developed to use for the seismic region of Iranian plateau and only few of these studies have been conducted for derivation of attenuation relationships for parameters such as uniform duration. Uniform duration is the total time during which the acceleration is larger than a given threshold value (default is 5% of PGA). In this study, the database was same as that used previously by Ghodrati Amiri et al. (2007) with same correction methods for earthquake records in Iran. However in this study, records from earthquakes with MS< 4.0 were excluded from this database, each record has individually filtered afterward, and therefore the dataset has been expanded. These new set of attenuation relationships for Iran are derived based on tectonic conditions with soil classification into rock and soil. Earthquake parameters were chosen to be hypocentral distance and magnitude in order to make it easier to use the relationships for seismic hazard analysis. Tehran is the capital city of Iran wit ha large number of important structures. In this study, a probabilistic approach has been utilized for seismic hazard assessment of this city. The resulting uniform duration against return period diagrams are suggested to be used in any projects in the area.

Keywords: Attenuation Relationships, Iran, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis, Tehran, Uniform Duration

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1510
315 Air Dispersion Model for Prediction Fugitive Landfill Gaseous Emission Impact in Ambient Atmosphere

Authors: Moustafa Osman Mohammed

Abstract:

This paper will explore formation of HCl aerosol at atmospheric boundary layers and encourages the uptake of environmental modeling systems (EMSs) as a practice evaluation of gaseous emissions (“framework measures”) from small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The conceptual model predicts greenhouse gas emissions to ecological points beyond landfill site operations. It focuses on incorporation traditional knowledge into baseline information for both measurement data and the mathematical results, regarding parameters influence model variable inputs. The paper has simplified parameters of aerosol processes based on the more complex aerosol process computations. The simple model can be implemented to both Gaussian and Eulerian rural dispersion models. Aerosol processes considered in this study were (i) the coagulation of particles, (ii) the condensation and evaporation of organic vapors, and (iii) dry deposition. The chemical transformation of gas-phase compounds is taken into account photochemical formulation with exposure effects according to HCl concentrations as starting point of risk assessment. The discussion set out distinctly aspect of sustainability in reflection inputs, outputs, and modes of impact on the environment. Thereby, models incorporate abiotic and biotic species to broaden the scope of integration for both quantification impact and assessment risks. The later environmental obligations suggest either a recommendation or a decision of what is a legislative should be achieved for mitigation measures of landfill gas (LFG) ultimately.

Keywords: Air dispersion model, landfill management, spatial analysis, environmental impact and risk assessment.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1326
314 Disturbances of the Normal Operation of Kosovo Power System Regarding Atmospheric Discharges

Authors: B. Prebreza, I. Krasniqi, G. Kabashi, G. Pula, N. Avdiu

Abstract:

This paper discusses aspects of outages in the electric transmission network in the Kosovo Power System caused by the atmospheric discharges.

Frequency and location of the atmospheric discharges in Kosovo territory will be provided by a lightning location system ALARM (Automated Lightning Alert and Risk Management) and from the data from the Meteorological Department in Prishtina International Airport. These data will be used to make comparisons with the actual outages registered in the Kosovo Power System from the Kosovo Transmission, systems and market operator (KOSTT) during a specific time period.

The lines with the worst performance determined, regarding the atmospheric discharges, will be choose for further discussions in terms of over voltages caused by the direct or indirect lightning strokes.

Recommendations for protection in terms of insulator coordination and surge arresters will be given at the end and in this stage dynamic simulation will take part.

Keywords: Atmospheric discharges, dynamic simulations, Kosovo Power System, surge arresters.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1651
313 Combustion and Emission of a Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Diesel and Hydrogen-Methane Mixture

Authors: J. H. Zhou, C. S. Cheung, C. W. Leung

Abstract:

The present study conducted experimental investigation on combustion and emission characteristics of compression ignition engine using diesel as pilot fuel and methane, hydrogen and methane/hydrogen mixture as gaseous fuels at 1800 rev min-1. The effect of gaseous fuel on peak cylinder pressure and heat release is modest at low to medium loads. At high load, the high combustion temperature and high quantity of pilot fuel contribute to better combustion efficiency for all kinds of gaseous fuels and increases the peak cylinder pressure. Enrichment of hydrogen in methane gradually increases the peak cylinder pressure. The brake thermal efficiency increases with higher hydrogen fraction at lower loads. Hydrogen addition in methane contributed to a proportional reduction of CO/CO2/HC emission without penalty of NOx. For particulate emission, methane and hydrogen, could both suppress the particle emission. 30% hydrogen fraction in methane is observed to be best in reducing the particulate emission.

Keywords: Combustion characteristics, diesel engine, emissions, methane/hydrogen mixture.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3521
312 Performance Analysis of a Hybrid DF-AF Hybrid RF/FSO System under Gamma Gamma Atmospheric Turbulence Channel Using MPPM Modulation

Authors: Hechmi Saidi, Noureddine Hamdi

Abstract:

The performance of hybrid amplify and forward - decode and forward (AF-DF) hybrid radio frequency/free space optical (RF/FSO) communication system, that adopts M-ary pulse position modulation (MPPM) techniques, is analyzed. Both exact and approximate symbol-error rates (SERs) are derived. The random variations of the received optical irradiance, produced by the atmospheric turbulence, is modeled by the gamma-gamma (GG) statistical distribution. A closed-form expression for the probability density function (PDF) is derived for the whole above system is obtained. Thanks to the use of hybrid AF-DF hybrid RF/FSO configuration and MPPM, the effects of atmospheric turbulence is mitigated; hence the capacity of combating atmospheric turbulence and the transmissitted signal quality are improved.

Keywords: FSO, RF, hybrid, AF, DF, SER, SNR, GG channel.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 700
311 Gas-Solid Nitrocarburizing of Steels: Kinetic Modeling and Experimental Validation

Authors: L. Torchane

Abstract:

The study is devoted to define the optimal conditions for the nitriding of pure iron at atmospheric pressure by using NH3- Ar-C3H8 gas mixtures. After studying the mechanisms of phase formation and mass transfer at the gas-solid interface, a mathematical model is developed in order to predict the nitrogen transfer rate in the solid, the ε-carbonitride layer growth rate and the nitrogen and carbon concentration profiles. In order to validate the model and to show its possibilities, it is compared with thermogravimetric experiments, analyses and metallurgical observations (X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis). Results obtained allow us to demonstrate the sound correlation between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions.

Keywords: Gaseous Nitrocarburizing, Kinetic Model, Diffusion, Layer Growth Kinetic.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1949
310 Liquid Temperature Effect on Sound Propagation in Polymeric Solution with Gas Bubbles

Authors: S. Levitsky

Abstract:

Acoustic properties of polymeric liquids are high sensitive to free gas traces in the form of fine bubbles. Their presence is typical for such liquids because of chemical reactions, small wettability of solid boundaries, trapping of air in technological operations, etc. Liquid temperature influences essentially its rheological properties, which may have an impact on the bubble pulsations and sound propagation in the system. The target of the paper is modeling of the liquid temperature effect on single bubble dynamics and sound dispersion and attenuation in polymeric solution with spherical gas bubbles. The basic sources of attenuation (heat exchange between gas in microbubbles and surrounding liquid, rheological and acoustic losses) are taken into account. It is supposed that in the studied temperature range the interface mass transfer has a minor effect on bubble dynamics. The results of the study indicate that temperature raise yields enhancement of bubble pulsations and increase in sound attenuation in the near-resonance range and may have a strong impact on sound dispersion in the liquid-bubble mixture at frequencies close to the resonance frequency of bubbles.

Keywords: Sound propagation, gas bubbles, temperature effect, polymeric liquid.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1950
309 Surface and Guided Waves in Composites with Nematic Coatings

Authors: Dmitry D. Zakharov

Abstract:

The theoretical prediction of the acoustical polarization effects in the heterogeneous composites, made of thick elastic solids with thin nematic films, is presented. The numericalanalytical solution to the problem of the different wave propagation exhibits some new physical effects in the low frequency domain: the appearance of the critical frequency and the existence of the narrow transition zone where the wave rapidly changes its speed. The associated wave attenuation is highly perturbed in this zone. We also show the possible appearance of the critical frequencies where the attenuation changes the sign. The numerical results of parametrical analysis are presented and discussed.

Keywords: Surface wave, guided wave, heterogeneous composite, nematic coating.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1153
308 Nickel Electroplating in Post Supercritical CO2 Mixed Watts Bath under Different Agitations

Authors: Chun-Ying Lee, Kun-Hsien Lee, Bor-Wei Wang

Abstract:

The process of post-supercritical CO2 electroplating uses the electrolyte solution after being mixed with supercritical CO2 and released to atmospheric pressure. It utilizes the microbubbles that form when oversaturated CO2 in the electrolyte returns to gaseous state, which gives the similar effect of pulsed electroplating. Under atmospheric pressure, the CO2 bubbles gradually diffuse. Therefore, the introduction of ultrasound and/or other agitation can potentially excite the CO2 microbubbles to achieve an electroplated surface of even higher quality. In this study, during the electroplating process, three different modes of agitation: magnetic stirrer agitation, ultrasonic agitation and a combined mode (magnetic + ultrasonic) were applied, respectively, in order to obtain an optimal surface morphology and mechanical properties for the electroplated Ni coating. It is found that the combined agitation mode at a current density of 40 A/dm2 achieved the smallest grain size, lower surface roughness, and produced an electroplated Ni layer that achieved hardness of 320 HV, much higher when compared with conventional method, which were usually in the range of 160 to 300 HV. However, at the same time, the electroplating with combined agitation developed a higher internal stress of 320 MPa due to the lower current efficiency of the process and finer grain in the coating. Moreover, a new control methodology for tailoring the coating’s mechanical property through its thickness was demonstrated by the timely introduction of ultrasonic agitation during the electroplating process with post supercritical CO2 mixed electrolyte.

Keywords: Nickel electroplating, micro-bubbles, supercritical carbon dioxide, ultrasonic agitation, magnetic stirring.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 665