Search results for: Mukul Shukla
21 Laser Forming of Titanium and Its Alloys – An Overview
Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Mukul Shukla, Stephen A. Akinlabi
Abstract:Laser beam forming is a novel technique developed for the joining of metallic components. In this study, an overview of the laser beam forming process, areas of application, the basic mechanisms of the laser beam forming process, some recent research studies and the need to focus more research effort on improving the laser-material interaction of laser beam forming of titanium and its alloys are presented.
Keywords: Aerospace, Deformation, Laser forming, Mechanisms, Titanium, Titanium alloy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3021
20 Effect of Scanning Speed on Material Efficiency of Laser Metal Deposited Ti6Al4V
Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Rasheedat M. Mahamood, Mukul Shukla, Sisa. Pityana
Abstract:The study of effect of laser scanning speed on material efficiency in Ti6Al4V application is very important because unspent powder is not reusable because of high temperature oxygen pick-up and contamination. This study carried out an extensive study on the effect of scanning speed on material efficiency by varying the speed between 0.01 to 0.1m/sec. The samples are wire brushed and cleaned with acetone after each deposition to remove un-melted particles from the surface of the deposit. The substrate is weighed before and after deposition. A formula was developed to calculate the material efficiency and the scanning speed was compared with the powder efficiency obtained. The results are presented and discussed. The study revealed that the optimum scanning speed exists for this study at 0.01m/sec, above and below which the powder efficiency will drop
Keywords: Additive Manufacturing, Laser Metal Deposition Process, Material efficiency, Processing Parameter, Titanium alloy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2145
19 Laser Beam Forming of 3 mm Steel Plate and the Evolving Properties
Authors: Stephen Akinlabi, Mukul Shukla, Esther Akinlabi, Marwala Tshilidzi
This paper reports the evolving properties of a 3 mm low carbon steel plate after Laser Beam Forming achieve this objective, the chemical analyse material and the formed components were carried thereafter both were characterized through microhardness profiling microstructural evaluation and tensile testing. showed an increase in the elemental concentration of the component when compared to the as received attributed to the enhancement property of the LBF process Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) and the Vickers the formed component shows an increase when compared to the as received material, this was attributed to strain hardening and grain refinement brought about by the LBF process. The microstructure of the as received steel consists of equiaxed ferrit that of the formed component exhibits elongated orming process (LBF). To es of the as received out and compared; profiling, The chemical analyses formed material; this can be process. The microhardness of ferrite and pearlite while grains.
Keywords: Laser beam forming, deformation , deformation, elongated grainsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1778
18 Effect of Laser Power and Powder Flow Rate on Properties of Laser Metal Deposited Ti6Al4V
Authors: Mukul Shukla, Rasheedat M. Mahamood, Esther T. Akinlabi, Sisa. Pityana
Abstract:Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing process with capabilities that include: producing new part directly from 3 Dimensional Computer Aided Design (3D CAD) model, building new part on the existing old component and repairing an existing high valued component parts that would have been discarded in the past. With all these capabilities and its advantages over other additive manufacturing techniques, the underlying physics of the LMD process is yet to be fully understood probably because of high interaction between the processing parameters and studying many parameters at the same time makes it further complex to understand. In this study, the effect of laser power and powder flow rate on physical properties (deposition height and deposition width), metallurgical property (microstructure) and mechanical (microhardness) properties on laser deposited most widely used aerospace alloy are studied. Also, because the Ti6Al4V is very expensive, and LMD is capable of reducing buy-to-fly ratio of aerospace parts, the material utilization efficiency is also studied. Four sets of experiments were performed and repeated to establish repeatability using laser power of 1.8 kW and 3.0 kW, powder flow rate of 2.88 g/min and 5.67 g/min, and keeping the gas flow rate and scanning speed constant at 2 l/min and 0.005 m/s respectively. The deposition height / width are found to increase with increase in laser power and increase in powder flow rate. The material utilization is favoured by higher power while higher powder flow rate reduces material utilization. The results are presented and fully discussed.
Keywords: Laser Metal Deposition, Material Efficiency, Microstructure, Ti6Al4V.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3438
17 Low Cost Real-Time Communication Braille Hand-Glove for Visually Impaired Using Slot Sensors and Vibration Motors
Authors: Mukul Bandodkar, Virat Chourasia
Visually impaired people find it extremely difficult to acquire basic and vital information necessary for their living. Therefore, they are at a very high risk of being socially excluded as a result of poor access to information. In recent years, several attempts have been made in improving the communication methods for visually impaired people which involve tactile sensation such as finger Braille, manual alphabets and the print on palm method and several other electronic devices. But, there are some problems which arise in such methods such as lack of privacy and lack of compatibility to computer environment. This paper describes a low cost Braille hand glove for blind people using slot sensors and vibration motors with the help of which they can read and write emails, text messages and read e-books. This glove allows the person to type characters based on different Braille combination using six slot sensors. The vibration in six different positions of the glove which matches to the Braille code allows them to read characters.
Keywords: Braille, Braille Hand-Glove, Slot sensors, Vibration motors.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3989
16 Practices in Planning, Design and Construction of Head Race Tunnel of a Hydroelectric Project
Authors: M. S. Thakur, Mohit Shukla
Abstract:A channel/tunnel, which carries the water to the penstock/pressure shaft is called headrace tunnel (HRT). It is necessary to know the general topography, geology of the area, state of stress and other mechanical properties of the strata. For this certain topographical and geological investigations, in-situ and laboratory tests, and observations are required to be done. These investigations play an important role in a tunnel design as these help in deciding the optimum layout, shape and size and support requirements of the tunnel. The paper includes inputs from Nathpa Jhakri Hydeoelectric project which is India’s highest capacity (1500 MW) operating hydroelectric project. The paper would help the design engineers with various new concepts and preparedness against geological surprises.
Keywords: Tunnelling, geology, head race tunnel, rockmass.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3356
15 RBF- based Meshless Method for Free Vibration Analysis of Laminated Composite Plates
Authors: Jeeoot Singh, Sandeep Singh, K. K. Shukla
Abstract:The governing differential equations of laminated plate utilizing trigonometric shear deformation theory are derived using energy approach. The governing differential equations discretized by different radial basis functions are used to predict the free vibration behavior of symmetric laminated composite plates. Effect of orthotropy and span to thickness ratio on frequency parameter of simply supported laminated plate is presented. Numerical results show the accuracy and good convergence of radial basis functions.
Keywords: Composite plates, Meshfree method, free vibration, Shear deformation, RBFsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1959
14 Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys: A Review
Authors: S. K. Tiwari, Dinesh Kumar Shukla, R. Chandra
Friction stir welding is a solid state joining process. High strength aluminum alloys are widely used in aircraft and marine industries. Generally, the mechanical properties of fusion welded aluminum joints are poor. As friction stir welding occurs in solid state, no solidification structures are created thereby eliminating the brittle and eutectic phases common in fusion welding of high strength aluminum alloys. In this review the process parameters, microstructural evolution, and effect of friction stir welding on the properties of weld specific to aluminum alloys have been discussed.
Keywords: Aluminum alloys, Friction stir welding (FSW), Microstructure, Properties.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5218
13 Impact of Personality and Loneliness on Life: Role of Online Flow Experiences
Authors: Asmita Shukla, Soma Parija
Abstract:The present study examines the mediating effect of online flow experience on the relationship between extraversionintroversion, locus of control and loneliness, and depression and satisfaction with life. The data was obtained using a structured questionnaire prepared by adapting standardized scales available from a sample of 102 engineering students from different technical institutions at Bhubaneswar, India. The results indicate that there is a positive significant relationship between introversion, external locus of control, loneliness, depression and online flow experience, and extraversion, internal locus of control and satisfaction with life. The results also suggest that online flow experience mediates the relationship between the aforementioned variables.
Keywords: Life satisfaction and depression, loneliness, online flow experience, personality.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1967
12 Hospital Based Electrocardiogram Sensor Grid
Authors: Suken Nayak, Aditya Kambli, Bharati Ingale, Gauri Shukla
Abstract:The technological concepts such as wireless hospital and portable cardiac telemetry system require the development of physiological signal acquisition devices to be easily integrated into the hospital database. In this paper we present the low cost, portable wireless ECG acquisition hardware that transmits ECG signals to a dedicated computer.The front end of the system obtains and processes incoming signals, which are then transmitted via a microcontroller and wireless Bluetooth module. A monitoring purpose Bluetooth based end user application integrated with patient database management module is developed for the computers. The system will act as a continuous event recorder, which can be used to follow up patients who have been resuscitatedfrom cardiac arrest, ventricular tachycardia but also for diagnostic purposes for patients with arrhythmia symptoms. In addition, cardiac information can be saved into the patient-s database of the hospital.
Keywords: ECG, Bluetooth communication, monitoring application, patient databaseProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1987
11 Estimation of PM2.5 Emissions and Source Apportionment Using Receptor and Dispersion Models
Authors: Swetha Priya Darshini Thammadi, Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Sanjay Kumar Shukla
Source apportionment using Dispersion model depends primarily on the quality of Emission Inventory. In the present study, a CMB receptor model has been used to identify the sources of PM2.5, while the AERMOD dispersion model has been used to account for missing sources of PM2.5 in the Emission Inventory. A statistical approach has been developed to quantify the missing sources not considered in the Emission Inventory. The inventory of each grid was improved by adjusting emissions based on road lengths and deficit in measured and modelled concentrations. The results showed that in CMB analyses, fugitive sources - soil and road dust - contribute significantly to ambient PM2.5 pollution. As a result, AERMOD significantly underestimated the ambient air concentration at most locations. The revised Emission Inventory showed a significant improvement in AERMOD performance which is evident through statistical tests.
Keywords: CMB, GIS, AERMOD, PM2.5, fugitive, emission inventory.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 731
10 A Novel Architecture for Wavelet based Image Fusion
Authors: Susmitha Vekkot, Pancham Shukla
Abstract:In this paper, we focus on the fusion of images from different sources using multiresolution wavelet transforms. Based on reviews of popular image fusion techniques used in data analysis, different pixel and energy based methods are experimented. A novel architecture with a hybrid algorithm is proposed which applies pixel based maximum selection rule to low frequency approximations and filter mask based fusion to high frequency details of wavelet decomposition. The key feature of hybrid architecture is the combination of advantages of pixel and region based fusion in a single image which can help the development of sophisticated algorithms enhancing the edges and structural details. A Graphical User Interface is developed for image fusion to make the research outcomes available to the end user. To utilize GUI capabilities for medical, industrial and commercial activities without MATLAB installation, a standalone executable application is also developed using Matlab Compiler Runtime.
Keywords: Filter mask, GUI, hybrid architecture, image fusion, Matlab Compiler Runtime, wavelet transform.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2259
9 Dislocation Modelling of the 1997-2009 High-Precision Global Positioning System Displacements in Darjiling- Sikkim Himalaya, India
Authors: Kutubuddin Ansari, Malay Mukul, Sridevi Jade
We used high-precision Global Positioning System (GPS) to geodetically constrain the motion of stations in the Darjiling-Sikkim Himalayan (DSH) wedge and examine the deformation at the Indian-Tibetan plate boundary using IGS (International GPS Service) fiducial stations. High-precision GPS based displacement and velocity field was measured in the DSH between 1997 and 2009. To obtain additional insight north of the Indo-Tibetan border and in the Darjiling-Sikkim-Tibet (DaSiT) wedge, published velocities from four stations J037, XIGA, J029 and YADO were also included in the analysis. India-fixed velocities or the back-slip was computed relative to the pole of rotation of the Indian Plate (Latitude 52.97 ± 0.22º, Longitude - 0.30 ± 3.76º, and Angular Velocity 0.500 ± 0.008º/ Myr) in the DaSiT wedge. Dislocation modelling was carried out with the back-slip to model the best possible solution of a finite rectangular dislocation or the causative fault based on dislocation theory that produced the observed back-slip using a forward modelling approach. To find the best possible solution, three different models were attempted. First, slip along a single thrust fault, then two thrust faults and in finally, three thrust faults were modelled to simulate the back-slip in the DaSiT wedge. The three-fault case bests the measured displacements and is taken as the best possible solution.
Keywords: Global Positioning System, Darjiling-Sikkim Himalaya, Dislocation modelling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1966
8 Effects of Urbanization on Land Use/Land Cover and Stream Flow of a Sub-Tropical River Basin of India
Authors: Satyavati Shukla, Lakhan V. Rathod, Mohan V. Khire
Rapid urbanization changes the land use/land cover pattern of a developing region. Due to these land surface changes, stream flow of the rivers also changes. It is important to investigate the factors affecting hydrological characteristics of the river basin for better river basin management planning. This study is aimed to understand the effect of Land Use/Land Cover (LU/LC) changes on stream flow of Upper Bhima River basin which is highly stressed in terms of water resources. In this study, Upper Bhima River basin is divided into two adjacent sub-watersheds: Mula-Mutha (urbanized) sub-watershed and Bhima (non-urbanized) sub-watershed. First of all, LU/LC changes were estimated over 1980, 2002, and 2009 for both Mula-Mutha and Bhima sub-watersheds. Further, stream flow simulations were done using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for the streams draining both watersheds. Results revealed that stream flow was relatively higher for urbanized sub-watershed. Through Sensitivity Analysis it was observed that out of all the parameters used, base flow was the most sensitive parameter towards LU/LC changes.
Keywords: Land Use/Land Cover, remote sensing, stream flow, urbanization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1506
7 Proposing an Efficient Method for Frequent Pattern Mining
Authors: Vaibhav Kant Singh, Vijay Shah, Yogendra Kumar Jain, Anupam Shukla, A.S. Thoke, Vinay KumarSingh, Chhaya Dule, Vivek Parganiha
Abstract:Data mining, which is the exploration of knowledge from the large set of data, generated as a result of the various data processing activities. Frequent Pattern Mining is a very important task in data mining. The previous approaches applied to generate frequent set generally adopt candidate generation and pruning techniques for the satisfaction of the desired objective. This paper shows how the different approaches achieve the objective of frequent mining along with the complexities required to perform the job. This paper will also look for hardware approach of cache coherence to improve efficiency of the above process. The process of data mining is helpful in generation of support systems that can help in Management, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology, Medical Science, Statistics, Mathematics, Banking, Networking and other Computer related applications. This paper proposes the use of both upward and downward closure property for the extraction of frequent item sets which reduces the total number of scans required for the generation of Candidate Sets.
Keywords: Data Mining, Candidate Sets, Frequent Item set, Pruning.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1545
6 Gene Expression Signature for Classification of Metastasis Positive and Negative Oral Cancer in Homosapiens
Authors: A. Shukla, A. Tarsauliya, R. Tiwari, S. Sharma
Cancer classification to their corresponding cohorts has been key area of research in bioinformatics aiming better prognosis of the disease. High dimensionality of gene data has been makes it a complex task and requires significance data identification technique in order to reducing the dimensionality and identification of significant information. In this paper, we have proposed a novel approach for classification of oral cancer into metastasis positive and negative patients. We have used significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) for identifying significant genes which constitutes gene signature. 3 different gene signatures were identified using SAM from 3 different combination of training datasets and their classification accuracy was calculated on corresponding testing datasets using k-Nearest Neighbour (kNN), Fuzzy C-Means Clustering (FCM), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Backpropagation Neural Network (BPNN). A final gene signature of only 9 genes was obtained from above 3 individual gene signatures. 9 gene signature-s classification capability was compared using same classifiers on same testing datasets. Results obtained from experimentation shows that 9 gene signature classified all samples in testing dataset accurately while individual genes could not classify all accurately.
Keywords: Cancer, Gene Signature, SAM, Classification.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1940
5 Computer Aided Drug Design and Studies of Antiviral Drug against H3N2 Influenza Virus
Authors: Aditi Shukla, Ambarish S. Vidyarthi, Subir Samanta
Abstract:The worldwide prevalence of H3N2 influenza virus and its increasing resistance to the existing drugs necessitates for the development of an improved/better targeting anti-influenza drug. H3N2 influenza neuraminidase is one of the two membrane-bound proteins belonging to group-2 neuraminidases. It acts as key player involved in viral pathogenicity and hence, is an important target of anti-influenza drugs. Oseltamivir is one of the potent drugs targeting this neuraminidase. In the present work, we have taken subtype N2 neuraminidase as the receptor and probable analogs of oseltamivir as drug molecules to study the protein-drug interaction in anticipation of finding efficient modified candidate compound. Oseltamivir analogs were made by modifying the functional groups using Marvin Sketch software and were docked using Schrodinger-s Glide. Oseltamivir analog 10 was detected to have significant energy value (16% less compared to Oseltamivir) and could be the probable lead molecule. It infers that some of the modified compounds can interact in a novel manner with increased hydrogen bonding at the active site of neuraminidase and it might be better than the original drug. Further work can be carried out such as enzymatic inhibition studies; synthesis and crystallizing the drug-target complex to analyze the interactions biologically.
Keywords: H3N2 Influenza, Neuraminidase, Oseltamiviranalogs, structure based drug designingProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2414
4 An Investigation to Study the Moisture Dependency of Ground Enhancement Compound
Authors: Arunima Shukla, Vikas Almadi, Devesh Jaiswal, Sunil Saini, Bhusan S. Patil
Lightning protection consists of three main parts; mainly air termination system, down conductor, and earth termination system. Earth termination system is the most important part as earth is the sink and source of charges. Therefore, even when the charges are captured and delivered to the ground, and an easy path is not provided to the charges, earth termination system would lead to problems. Soil has significantly different resistivities ranging from 10 Ωm for wet organic soil to 10000 Ωm for bedrock. Different methods have been discussed and used conventionally such as deep-ground-well method and altering the length of the rod. Those methods are not considered economical. Therefore, it was a general practice to use charcoal along with salt to reduce the soil resistivity. Bentonite is worldwide acceptable material, that had led our interest towards study of bentonite at first. It was concluded that bentonite is a clay which is non-corrosive, environment friendly. Whereas bentonite is suitable only when there is moisture present in the soil, as in the absence of moisture, cracks will appear on the surface which will provide an open passage to the air, resulting into increase in the resistivity. Furthermore, bentonite without moisture does not have enough bonding property, moisture retention, conductivity, and non-leachability. Therefore, bentonite was used along with the other backfill material to overcome the dependency of bentonite on moisture. Different experiments were performed to get the best ratio of bentonite and carbon backfill. It was concluded that properties will highly depend on the quantity of bentonite and carbon-based backfill material.
Keywords: Backfill material, bentonite, conducting soil, grounding material, low resistivity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 227
3 Network State Classification based on the Statistical properties of RTT for an Adaptive Multi-State Proactive Transport Protocol for Satellite based Networks
Authors: Mohanchur Sakar, K.K.Shukla, K.S.Dasgupta
Abstract:This paper attempts to establish the fact that Multi State Network Classification is essential for performance enhancement of Transport protocols over Satellite based Networks. A model to classify Multi State network condition taking into consideration both congestion and channel error is evolved. In order to arrive at such a model an analysis of the impact of congestion and channel error on RTT values has been carried out using ns2. The analysis results are also reported in the paper. The inference drawn from this analysis is used to develop a novel statistical RTT based model for multi state network classification. An Adaptive Multi State Proactive Transport Protocol consisting of Proactive Slow Start, State based Error Recovery, Timeout Action and Proactive Reduction is proposed which uses the multi state network state classification model. This paper also confirms through detail simulation and analysis that a prior knowledge about the overall characteristics of the network helps in enhancing the performance of the protocol over satellite channel which is significantly affected due to channel noise and congestion. The necessary augmentation of ns2 simulator is done for simulating the multi state network classification logic. This simulation has been used in detail evaluation of the protocol under varied levels of congestion and channel noise. The performance enhancement of this protocol with reference to established protocols namely TCP SACK and Vegas has been discussed. The results as discussed in this paper clearly reveal that the proposed protocol always outperforms its peers and show a significant improvement in very high error conditions as envisaged in the design of the protocol.
Keywords: GEO, ns2, Proactive TCP, SACK, VegasProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1276
2 The Current Practices of Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Panels Subjected to Blast Loading
Authors: Palak J. Shukla, Atul K. Desai, Chentankumar D. Modhera
For any country in the world, it has become a priority to protect the critical infrastructure from looming risks of terrorism. In any infrastructure system, the structural elements like lower floors, exterior columns, walls etc. are key elements which are the most susceptible to damage due to blast load. The present study revisits the state of art review of the design and analysis of reinforced concrete panels subjected to blast loading. Various aspects in association with blast loading on structure, i.e. estimation of blast load, experimental works carried out previously, the numerical simulation tools, various material models, etc. are considered for exploring the current practices adopted worldwide. Discussion on various parametric studies to investigate the effect of reinforcement ratios, thickness of slab, different charge weight and standoff distance is also made. It was observed that for the simulation of blast load, CONWEP blast function or equivalent numerical equations were successfully employed by many researchers. The study of literature indicates that the researches were carried out using experimental works and numerical simulation using well known generalized finite element methods, i.e. LS-DYNA, ABAQUS, AUTODYN. Many researchers recommended to use concrete damage model to represent concrete and plastic kinematic material model to represent steel under action of blast loads for most of the numerical simulations. Most of the studies reveal that the increase reinforcement ratio, thickness of slab, standoff distance was resulted in better blast resistance performance of reinforced concrete panel. The study summarizes the various research results and appends the present state of knowledge for the structures exposed to blast loading.
Keywords: Blast phenomenon, experimental methods, material models, numerical methods.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 965
1 Revival of the Modern Wing Sails for the Propulsion of Commercial Ships
Authors: Pravesh Chandra Shukla, Kunal Ghosh
Abstract:Over 90% of the world trade is carried by the international shipping industry. As most of the countries are developing, seaborne trade continues to expand to bring benefits for consumers across the world. Studies show that world trade will increase 70-80% through shipping in the next 15-20 years. Present global fleet of 70000 commercial ships consumes approximately 200 million tonnes of diesel fuel a year and it is expected that it will be around 350 million tonnes a year by 2020. It will increase the demand for fuel and also increase the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. So, it-s essential to control this massive fuel consumption and CO2 emission. The idea is to utilize a diesel-wind hybrid system for ship propulsion. Use of wind energy by installing modern wing-sails in ships can drastically reduce the consumption of diesel fuel. A huge amount of wind energy is available in oceans. Whenever wind is available the wing-sails would be deployed and the diesel engine would be throttled down and still the same forward speed would be maintained. Wind direction in a particular shipping route is not same throughout; it changes depending upon the global wind pattern which depends on the latitude. So, the wing-sail orientation should be such that it optimizes the use of wind energy. We have made a computer programme in which by feeding the data regarding wind velocity, wind direction, ship-motion direction; we can find out the best wing-sail position and fuel saving for commercial ships. We have calculated net fuel saving in certain international shipping routes, for instance, from Mumbai in India to Durban in South Africa. Our estimates show that about 8.3% diesel fuel can be saved by utilizing the wind. We are also developing an experimental model of the ship employing airfoils (small scale wingsail) and going to test it in National Wind Tunnel Facility in IIT Kanpur in order to develop a control mechanism for a system of airfoils.
Keywords: Commercial ships, Wind diesel hybrid system, Wing-sail, Wind direction, Wind velocity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3768