Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 139

Search results for: Weiyong Ying

139 Catalytic Cracking of Butene to Propylene over Modified HZSM-5 Zeolites

Authors: Jianwen Li, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Qiwen Sun, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Catalytic cracking of butene to propylene was carried out in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor over HZSM-5 catalysts modified by nickel and phosphorus. The structure and acidity of catalysts were measured by N2 adsorption, NH3-TPD and XPS. The results revealed that surface area and strong acid sites both decreased with increasing phosphorus loadings. The increment of phosphorus loadings reduced the butene conversion but enhanced the propylene selectivity and catalyst stability.

Keywords: Butene, catalytic cracking, HZSM-5, modification.

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138 Investigation on Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Cobalt-Gadolinium Catalyst

Authors: Jian Huang, Weixin Qian, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Cobalt-gadolinium catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was prepared by impregnation method with commercial silica gel, and its texture properties were characterized by BET, XRD, and TPR. The catalytic performance of the catalyst was tested in a fixed bed reactor. The results showed that the addition of gadolinium to the cobalt catalyst might decrease the size of cobalt particles, and increased the dispersion of catalytic active cobalt phases. The carbon number distributions for the catalysts was calculated by ASF equation.

Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, cobalt-based catalysts, gadolinium, carbon number distributions.

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137 Na Promoted Ni/γ-Al2O3 Catalysts Prepared by Solution Combustion Method for Syngas Methanation

Authors: Yan Zeng, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Ni-based catalysts with different amounts of Na as promoter from 2 to 6 wt % were prepared by solution combustion method. The catalytic activity was investigated in syngas methanation reaction. Carbon oxides conversion and methane selectivity are greatly influenced by sodium loading. Adding 2 wt% Na remarkably improves catalytic activity and long-term stability, attributed to its smaller mean NiO particle size, better distribution, and milder metal-support interaction. However, excess addition of Na results in deactivation distinctly due to the blockage of active sites.

Keywords: Nickel catalysts, Syngas methanation, Sodium, Solution combustion method.

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136 Hydrogenation of Acetic Acid on Alumina-Supported Pt-Sn Catalysts

Authors: Ke Zhang, Fang Li, Haitao Zhang, Hongfang Ma, Weiyong Ying, Dingye Fang

Abstract:

Three alumina-supported Pt-Sn catalysts have been prepared by means of co-impregnation and characterized by XRD and N2 adsorption. The influence of catalyst composition and reaction conditions on the conversion and selectivity were investigated in the hydrogenation of acetic acid in an isothermal integral fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed on the temperature interval 468-548 K, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) of 0.3-0.7h-1, pressures between 1.0 and 5.0Mpa. A good compromise of 0.75%Pt-1.5%Sn can act as an optimized acetic acid hydrogenation catalyst, and the conversion and selectivity can be tuned through the variation of reaction conditions.

Keywords: Acetic acid, hydrogenation, Pt-Sn catalysts, ethanol.

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135 The Catalytic Properties of PtSn/Al2O3 for Acetic Acid Hydrogenation

Authors: Mingchuan Zhou, Haitao Zhang, Hongfang Ma, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Alumina supported platinum and tin catalysts with different loadings of Pt and Sn were prepared and characterized by low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption, H2-temperature programed reduction and CO pulse chemisorption. Pt and Sn below 1% loading were suitable for acetic acid hydrogenation. The best performance over 0.75Pt1Sn/Al2O3 can reach 87.55% conversion of acetic acid and 47.39% selectivity of ethanol. The operating conditions of acetic acid hydrogenation over 1Pt1Sn/Al2O3 were investigated. High reaction temperature can enhance the conversion of acetic acid, but it decreased total selectivity of ethanol and acetyl acetate. High pressure and low weight hourly space velocity were beneficial to both conversion of acetic acid and selectivity to ethanol.

Keywords: Acetic acid, hydrogenation, PtSn, operating condition.

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134 Catalytic Study of Methanol-to-Propylene Conversion over Nano-Sized HZSM-5

Authors: Jianwen Li, Hongfang Ma, Weixin Qian, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Methanol-to-propylene conversion was carried out in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor over nano-sized HZSM-5 zeolites. The HZSM-5 catalysts were synthesized with different Si/Al ratio and silicon sources, and treated with NaOH. The structural property, morphology, and acidity of catalysts were measured by XRD, N2 adsorption, FE-SEM, TEM, and NH3-TPD. The results indicate that the increment of Si/Al ratio decreased the acidity of catalysts and then improved propylene selectivity, while silicon sources had slight impact on the acidity but affected the product distribution. The desilication after alkali treatment could increase intracrystalline mesopores and enhance propylene selectivity.

Keywords: Alkali treatment, HZSM-5, methanol-to-propylene, synthesis condition.

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133 Butene Catalytic Cracking to Propylene over Iron and Phosphorus Modified HZSM-5

Authors: Jianwen Li, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Qiwen Sun, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

HZSM-5 zeolites modified by iron and phosphorus were applied in catalytic cracking of butene. N2 adsorption and NH3-TPD were employed to measure the structure and acidity of catalysts. The results indicate that increasing phosphorus loading decreased surface area, pore volume and strong acidity of catalysts. The addition of phosphorus significantly decreased butene conversion and promoted propylene selectivity. The catalytic performance of catalyst was strongly dependent on the reaction conditions. Appropriate reaction conditions could suppress side reactions and enhance propylene selectivity.

Keywords: Butene catalytic cracking, HZSM-5, modification, reaction conditions.

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132 Investigation of the Synthesis of Alcohols Byproducts in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis on Modified Fe-Cu Catalyst: Reactivity and Mechanism

Authors: Wanyu Mao, Qiwen Sun, Weiyong Ying, Dingye Fang

Abstract:

The influence of copper promoters and reaction conditions on the formation of alcohols byproducts of a common Fischer-Tropsch synthesis used iron-based catalysts were investigated. A good compromise of 28%Cu/FeKLaSiO2 can lead to the optimization of an improved Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. The product distribution shifts towards hydrocarbons with increasing the reaction temperature, while pressure promotes the formation of alcohols. It was found that the production of either alcohols or hydrocarbons followed A-S-F distributions, and their α parameters were essentially different which indicated a competition in the growing chain between the two species. TPD after acetaldehyde adsorption gave strong evidence of the insertion of a C1 oxygen-containing species into an alkyl chain.

Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, Fe-Cu catalyst, alcohols byproducts, reaction pathways

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131 Measurements of Radial Velocity in Fixed Fluidized Bed for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Using LDV

Authors: Xiaolai Zhang, Haitao Zhang, Qiwen Sun, Weixin Qian, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

High temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process use fixed fluidized bed as a reactor. In order to understand the flow behavior in the fluidized bed better, the research of how the radial velocity affects the entire flow field is necessary. Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) was used to study the radial velocity distribution along the diameter direction of the cross-section of the particle in a fixed fluidized bed. The velocity in the cross-section is fluctuating within a small range. The direction of the speed is a random phenomenon. In addition to r/R is 1, the axial velocity are more than 6 times of the radial velocity, the radial velocity has little impact on the axial velocity in a fixed fluidized bed.

Keywords: LDV, fixed fluidized bed, velocity, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

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130 Conversion of Methanol to Propylene over a High Silica B-HZSM-5 Catalyst

Authors: Aina Xu, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying, Dingye Fang

Abstract:

Hydrothermally synthesized high silica borosilicates with the MFI structure was subjected to several characterization techniques. The effect of boron on the structure and acidity of HZSM-5 catalyst were studied by XRD, SEM, N2 adsorption, solid state NMR, NH3-TPD. It was confirmed that boron had entered the framework in the boron samples. The results also revealed that strong acidity was weakened and weak acidity was strengthened by the boron added zeolite framework compared with parent catalyst. The catalytic performance was carried out in a fixed bed at 460°C for methanol to propylene (MTP) reaction. The results of MTP reaction showed a great increment of the propylene selectivity and excellent stability for the B-HZSM-5. The catalyst exhibited about 81% selectivity to C2 = - C4 = olefins with 40% selectivity of propylene as major component at near 100% methanol conversion, and the stable performance in the studied period was 100h.

Keywords: Methanol to propylene, HZSM-5, boron.

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129 Cold Model Experimental Research on Particle Velocity Distribution in Gas-Solid Circulating Fluidized Bed for Methanol-to-Olefins Process

Authors: Yongzheng Li, Hongfang Ma, Qiwen Sun, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Radial profiles of particle velocities were investigated in a 6.1m high methanol-to-olefins cold model experimental device using a TSI laser Doppler velocimeter. The effect of axial height on flow development was not obvious in fully developed region under the same operating condition. Superficial gas velocity and solid circulating rate had significant influence on particle velocity in the center region of the riser. Besides, comparisons among rising, descending and average particle velocity were conducted. The particle average velocity was similar to the rising particle velocity and higher than the descending particle velocity in radial locations except the wall region of riser.

Keywords: Circulating fluidized bed, laser doppler velocimeter, particle velocity, radial profile.

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128 Adsorption of H2 and CO on Iron-based Catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

Authors: Weixin Qian, Haitao Zhang, Hongfang Ma, Yongdi Liu, Weiyong Ying, Dingye Fang

Abstract:

The adsorption properties of CO and H2 on iron-based catalyst with addition of Zr and Ni were investigated using temperature programmed desorption process. It was found that on the carburized iron-based catalysts, molecular state and dissociative state CO existed together. The addition of Zr was preferential for the molecular state adsorption of CO on iron-based catalyst and the presence of Ni was beneficial to the dissociative adsorption of CO. On H2 reduced catalysts, hydrogen mainly adsorbs on the surface iron sites and surface oxide sites. On CO reduced catalysts, hydrogen probably existed as the most stable CH and OH species. The addition of Zr was not benefit to the dissociative adsorption of hydrogen on iron-based catalyst and the presence of Ni was preferential for the dissociative adsorption of hydrogen.

Keywords: adsorption, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, iron-based catalysts

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127 Effect of the Support Shape on Fischer-Tropsch Cobalt Catalyst Performance

Authors: Jian Huang, Weixin Qian, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Cobalt catalysts were supported on extruded silica carrier and different-type (SiO2, γ-Al2O3) commercial supports with different shapes and sizes to produce heavy hydrocarbons for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The catalysts were characterized by N2 physisorption and H2-TPR. The catalytic performance of the catalysts was tested in a fixed bed reactor. The results of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis performance showed that the cobalt catalyst supported on spherical silica supports displayed a higher activity and a higher selectivity to C5+ products, due to the fact that the active components were only distributed in the surface layer of spherical carrier, and the influence of gas diffusion restriction on catalytic performance was weakened. Therefore, it can be concluded that the eggshell cobalt catalyst was superior to precious metals modified catalysts in the synthesis of heavy hydrocarbons.

Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, cobalt catalyst, support shape, heavy hydrocarbons.

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126 The Performance of PtSn/Al₂O₃ with Cylindrical Particles for Acetic Acid Hydrogenation

Authors: Mingchuan Zhou, Haitao Zhang, Hongfang Ma, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Alumina supported PtSn catalysts with cylindrical particles were prepared and characterized by using low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption and X-ray diffraction. Low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption demonstrate that the tableting changed the texture properties of catalysts. XRD pattern indicate that the crystal structure of supports had no change after reaction. The performances over particles of PtSn/Al2O3 catalysts were investigated with regards to reaction temperature, pressure, and H2/AcOH mole ratio. After tableting, the conversion of acetic acid and selectivity of ethanol and acetyl acetate decreased. High reaction temperature and pressure can improve conversion of acetic acid. H2/AcOH mole ratio of 9.36 showed the best performance on acetic acid hydrogenation. High pressure had benefits for the selectivity of ethanol and other two parameters had no obvious effect on selectivity.  

Keywords: Acetic acid hydrogenation, ethanol, PtSn, cylindrical particles.

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125 An Infrared Investigation on Surface Species over Iron-Based Catalysts: Implications for Oxygenates Formation

Authors: Wanyu Mao, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, WeixinQian, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

The nature of adsorbed species on catalytic surface over an industrial precipitated iron-based high temperature catalyst during FTS was investigated by in-situ DRIFTS and chemical trapping. The formulation of the mechanism of oxygenates formation and key intermediates were also discussed. Numerous oxygenated precursors and crucial intermediates were found by in-situ DRIFTS, such as surface acetate, acetyl and methoxide. The results showed that adsorbed molecules on surface such as methanol or acetaldehyde could react with basic sites such as lattice oxygen or free surface hydroxyls. Adsorbed molecules also had reactivity of oxidizing. Moreover, acetyl as a key intermediate for oxygenates was observed by investigation of CH3OH + CO and CH3I + CO + H2. Based on the nature of surface properties, the mechanism of oxygenates formation on precipitated iron-based high temperature catalyst was discussed.

Keywords: Iron-based catalysts, intermediates, oxygenates, in-situ DRIFTS, chemical trapping.

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124 Effect of Si/Al Ratio on SSZ-13 Crystallization and Its Methanol-To-Olefins Catalytic Properties

Authors: Zhiqiang Xu, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Weixin Qian, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

SSZ-13 materials with different Si/Al ratio were prepared by varying the composition of aluminosilicate precursor solutions upon hydrothermal treatment at 150 °C. The Si/Al ratio of the initial system was systematically changed from 12.5 to infinity in order to study the limits of Al composition in precursor solutions for constructing CHA structure. The intermediates and final products were investigated by complementary techniques such as XRD, HRTEM, FESEM, and chemical analysis. NH3-TPD was used to study the Brønsted acidity of SSZ-13 samples with different Si/Al ratios. The effect of the Si/Al ratio on the precursor species, ultimate crystal size, morphology and yield was investigated. The results revealed that Al species determine the nucleation rate and the number of nuclei, which is tied to the morphology and yield of SSZ-13. The size of SSZ-13 increased and the yield decreased as the Si/Al ratio was improved. Varying Si/Al ratio of the initial system is a facile, commercially viable method of tailoring SSZ-13 crystal size and morphology. Furthermore, SSZ-13 materials with different Si/Al ratio were tested as catalysts for the methanol to olefins (MTO) reaction at 350 °C. SSZ-13 with the Si/Al ratio of 35 shows the best MTO catalytic performance.

Keywords: Crystallization, MTO, Si/Al ratio, SSZ-13.

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123 Mathematical Simulation of Bubble Column Slurry Reactor for Direct Dimethyl Ether Synthesis Process from Syngas

Authors: Zhen Chen, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying, Dingye Fang

Abstract:

Based on a global kinetics of direct dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis process from syngas, a steady-state one-dimensional mathematical model for the bubble column slurry reactor (BCSR) has been established. It was built on the assumption of plug flow of gas phase, sedimentation-dispersion model of catalyst grains and isothermal chamber regardless of reaction heats and rates for the design of an industrial scale bubble column slurry reactor. The simulation results indicate that higher pressure and lower temperature were favorable to the increase of CO conversion, DME selectivity, products yield and the height of slurry bed, which has a coincidence with the characteristic of DME synthesis reaction system, and that the height of slurry bed is lessen with the increasing of operation temperature in the range of 220-260℃. CO conversion, the optimal operation conditions in BCSR were proposed. 

Keywords: Alcohol/ether fuel, bubble column slurry reactor, global kinetics, mathematical model.

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122 Global Kinetics of Direct Dimethyl Ether Synthesis Process from Syngas in Slurry Reactor over a Novel Cu-Zn-Al-Zr Slurry Catalyst

Authors: Zhen Chen, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying, Dingye Fang

Abstract:

The direct synthesis process of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas in slurry reactors is considered to be promising because of its advantages in caloric transfer. In this paper, the influences of operating conditions (temperature, pressure and weight hourly space velocity) on the conversion of CO, selectivity of DME and methanol were studied in a stirred autoclave over Cu-Zn-Al-Zr slurry catalyst, which is far more suitable to liquid phase dimethyl ether synthesis process than bifunctional catalyst commercially. A Langmuir- Hinshelwood mechanism type global kinetics model for liquid phase DME direct synthesis based on methanol synthesis models and a methanol dehydration model has been investigated by fitting our experimental data. The model parameters were estimated with MATLAB program based on general Genetic Algorithms and Levenberg-Marquardt method, which is suitably fitting experimental data and its reliability was verified by statistical test and residual error analysis.

Keywords: alcohol/ether fuel, Cu-Zn-Al-Zr slurry catalyst, global kinetics, slurry reactor

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121 One Dimensional Reactor Modeling for Methanol Steam Reforming to Hydrogen

Authors: Hongfang Ma, Mingchuan Zhou, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

One dimensional pseudo-homogenous modeling has been performed for methanol steam reforming reactor. The results show that the models can well predict the industrial data. The reactor had minimum temperature along axial because of endothermic reaction. Hydrogen productions and temperature profiles along axial were investigated regarding operation conditions such as inlet mass flow rate and mass fraction of methanol, inlet temperature of external thermal oil. Low inlet mass flow rate of methanol, low inlet temperature, and high mass fraction of methanol decreased minimum temperature along axial. Low inlet mass flow rate of methanol, high mass fraction of methanol, and high inlet temperature of thermal oil made cold point forward. Low mass fraction, high mass flow rate, and high inlet temperature of thermal oil increased hydrogen production. One dimensional models can be a guide for industrial operation.

Keywords: Reactor, modeling, methanol, steam reforming.

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120 Thermal Distribution in Axial-Flow Fixed Bed with Flowing Gas

Authors: Kun Lei, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying, Dingye Fang

Abstract:

This paper reported an experimental research of steady-state heat transfer behaviour of a gas flowing through a fixed bed under the different operating conditions. Studies had been carried out in a fixed-bed packed methanol synthesis catalyst percolated by air at appropriate flow rate. Both radial and axial direction temperature distribution had been investigated under the different operating conditions. The effects of operating conditions including the reactor inlet air temperature, the heating pipe temperature and the air flow rate on temperature distribution was investigated and the experimental results showed that a higher inlet air temperature was conducive to uniform temperature distribution in the fixed bed. A large temperature drop existed at the radial direction, and the temperature drop increased with the heating pipe temperature increasing under the experimental conditions; the temperature profile of the vicinity of the heating pipe was strongly affected by the heating pipe temperature. A higher air flow rate can improve the heat transfer in the fixed bed. Based on the thermal distribution, heat transfer models of the fixed bed could be established, and the characteristics of the temperature distribution in the fixed bed could be finely described, that had an important practical significance.

Keywords: Thermal distribution, heat transfer, axial-flow, fixed bed.

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119 Impact of Zn/Cr Ratio on ZnCrOx-SAPO-34 Bifunctional Catalyst for Direct Conversion of Syngas to Light Olefins

Authors: Yuxuan Huang, Weixin Qian, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Light olefins are important building blocks for chemical industry. Direct conversion of syngas to light olefins has been investigated for decades. Meanwhile, the limit for light olefins selectivity described by Anderson-Schulz-Flory (ASF) distribution model is still a great challenge to conventional Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The emerging strategy called oxide-zeolite concept (OX-ZEO) is a promising way to get rid of this limit. ZnCrOx was prepared by co-precipitation method and (NH4)2CO3 was used as precipitant. SAPO-34 was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis, and Tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAOH) was used as template, while silica sol, pseudo-boehmite, and phosphoric acid were Al, Si and P source, respectively. The bifunctional catalyst was prepared by mechanical mixing of ZnCrOx and SAPO-34. Catalytic reactions were carried out under H2/CO=2, 380 ℃, 1 MPa and 6000 mL·gcat-1·h-1 in a fixed-bed reactor with a quartz lining. Catalysts were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, NH3-TPD, H2-TPR, and CO-TPD. The addition of Al as structure promoter enhances CO conversion and selectivity to light olefins. Zn/Cr ratio, which decides the active component content and chemisorption property of the catalyst, influences CO conversion and selectivity to light olefins at the same time. C2-4= distribution of 86% among hydrocarbons at CO conversion of 14% was reached when Zn/Cr=1.5.

Keywords: Light olefins, OX-ZEO, syngas, ZnCrOx.

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118 La promoted Ni/α-Al2O3 Catalysts for Syngas Methanation

Authors: Anmin Zhao, Weiyong Yingı , Haitao Zhang, Hongfang Ma, Dingye Fang

Abstract:

The Ni/α-Al2O3 catalysts with different amounts of La as promoter from 0 to 4 wt % were prepared, characterized and their catalytic activity was investigated in syngas methanation reaction. Effects of reaction temperature and lanthanum loading on carbon oxides conversion and methane selectivity were also studied. Adding certain amount of lanthanum to 10Ni /α-Al2O3 catalysts can decrease the average NiO crystallite diameter which leads to higher activity and stability while excessive addition would cause deactivation quickly. Stability on stream towards deactivation was observed up to 800 min at 500 °C, 0.1MPa and 600000 mL·g-1·h-1.

Keywords: Methanation; Nickel catalysts; Syngas methanation

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117 The Impact of the Type of Diversification of Listed Construction Enterprises in China on Corporation Performance

Authors: Yi-Hsin Lin, Ying-Ying Li

Abstract:

The construction industry is the pillar industry in China, accounting for about 6% of the gross domestic product. Along with changes in the external environment of the construction industry in China, the construction firm faces fierce competition. The paper aims to investigate the relationship between diversified types of construction firm and its performance in China. Based on generalist and specialist strategy in organizational ecology, we think a generalist organization can be applied to an enterprise with diversified developments, while specialist groups are extended to professional enterprises .This study takes advantage of annual financial data of listed construction firm to empirically verify the relationship between diversification and corporation performance establishing a regression equation to econometric analysis. We find that: 1) Specialization can significantly improve the level of profitability of listed construction firms, and there is a significant positive relationship with corporate performance; 2) The level of operating performance of listed construction enterprises which engage in unrelated diversification is higher than those with related diversification; 3) The relationship between state-owned construction firms and corporate performance is negative. The more the year of foundation is, the higher performance will be; however, the more the year of being listed, the lower performance will be.

Keywords: Diversification, Specialization, Construction Firm, Performance.

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116 Simulation of PM10 Source Apportionment at An Urban Site in Southern Taiwan by a Gaussian Trajectory Model

Authors: Chien-Lung Chen, Jeng-Lin Tsai, Feng-Chao Chung, Su-Ching Kuo, Kuo-Hsin Tseng, Pei-Hsuan Kuo, Li-Ying Hsieh, Ying I. Tsai

Abstract:

This study applied the Gaussian trajectory transfer-coefficient model (GTx) to simulate the particulate matter concentrations and the source apportionments at Nanzih Air Quality Monitoring Station in southern Taiwan from November 2007 to February 2008. The correlation coefficient between the observed and the calculated daily PM10 concentrations is 0.5 and the absolute bias of the PM10 concentrations is 24%. The simulated PM10 concentrations matched well with the observed data. Although the emission rate of PM10 was dominated by area sources (58%), the results of source apportionments indicated that the primary sources for PM10 at Nanzih Station were point sources (42%), area sources (20%) and then upwind boundary concentration (14%). The obvious difference of PM10 source apportionment between episode and non-episode days was upwind boundary concentrations which contributed to 20% and 11% PM10 sources, respectively. The gas-particle conversion of secondary aerosol and long range transport played crucial roles on the PM10 contribution to a receptor.

Keywords: back trajectory model, particulate matter, sourceapportionment

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115 Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Vibration Control of an ERF Embedded Smart Structure

Authors: Chih-Jer Lin, Chun-Ying Lee, Ying Liu, Chiang-Ho Cheng

Abstract:

The main objective of this article is to present the semi-active vibration control using an electro-rheological fluid embedded sandwich structure for a cantilever beam. ER fluid is a smart material, which cause the suspended particles polarize and connect each other to form chain. The stiffness and damping coefficients of the ER fluid can be changed in 10 micro seconds; therefore, ERF is suitable to become the material embedded in the tunable vibration absorber to become a smart absorber. For the ERF smart material embedded structure, the fuzzy control law depends on the experimental expert database and the proposed self-tuning strategy. The electric field is controlled by a CRIO embedded system to implement the real application. This study investigates the different performances using the Type-1 fuzzy and interval Type-2 fuzzy controllers. The Interval type-2 fuzzy control is used to improve the modeling uncertainties for this ERF embedded shock absorber. The self-tuning vibration controllers using Type-1 and Interval Type-2 fuzzy law are implemented to the shock absorber system. Based on the resulting performance, Internal Type-2 fuzzy is better than the traditional Type-1 fuzzy control for this vibration control system.

 

Keywords: Electro-Rheological Fluid, Semi-active vibration control, shock absorber, type 2 fuzzy control.

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114 Remarks on Some Properties of Decision Rules

Authors: Songlin Yang, Ying Ge

Abstract:

This paper shows that some properties of the decision rules in the literature do not hold by presenting a counterexample. We give sufficient and necessary conditions under which these properties are valid. These results will be helpful when one tries to choose the right decision rules in the research of rough set theory.

Keywords: set, Decision table, Decision rule, coverage factor.

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113 Establishment and Evaluation of Information System for Chemotherapy Care

Authors: Yi-Ting Liu, Pei-Ying Wen

Abstract:

In order to improve the overall safety of chemotherapy, safety-protecting netwas established for the whole process from prescribing by physicians, transcribing by nurses, dispensing by pharmacists to administering by nurses. The information system was used to check and monitorwhole process of administration and related sheets were computerized to simplify the paperwork.

Keywords: Chemotherapy, Bar Code Medication Administration (BCMA), Medication Safety.

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112 Pedometer Development Utilizing an Accelerometer Sensor

Authors: Ling-Mei Wu, Jia-Shing Sheu, Wei-Cian Jheng, Ying-Tung Hsiao

Abstract:

This paper develops a pedometer with a three-axis acceleration sensor that can be placed with any angle. The proposed pedometer measures the number of steps while users walk, jog or run. It can be worn on users’ waistband or placed within pocket or backpack. The work address to improve on the general pedometers, which can only be used in a single direction or can only count of steps without the continuous exercise judgment mechanism. Finally, experimental results confirm the superior performance of the proposed pedometer.

Keywords: Accelerometer sensor, Angle estimation, Pedometer.

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111 State of the Art: A Study on Fall Detection

Authors: Goh Yongli, Ooi Shih Yin, Pang Ying Han

Abstract:

Unintentional falls are rife throughout the ages and have been the common factor of serious or critical injuries especially for the elderly society. Fortunately, owing to the recent rapid advancement in technology, fall detection system is made possible, enabling detection of falling events for the elderly, monitoring the patient and consequently provides emergency support in the event of falling. This paper presents a review of 3 main categories of fall detection techniques, ranging from year 2005 to year 2010. This paper will be focusing on discussing the techniques alongside with summary and conclusion for them.

Keywords: State of the art, fall detection, wearable devices, ambient analyser, motion detection.

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110 Investors’ Misreaction to Subsequent Bad News

Authors: Liang-Chien Lee, Chih-Hsiang Chang, Ying-Shu Tseng

Abstract:

Comparing with prior studies mainly focused on the effect of a certain event (it may be the initial announcement of bad news or the repeated announcements of identical bad news) on stock price, the aim of this study is to explore how investors react to subsequent bad news with identical content. Empirical results show that as a result of behavioral pitfalls, investors underreact to the initial announcement of the bad news (i.e., unknown bad news) and overreact to the repeated announcements of the identical bad news (i.e., known bad news).

Keywords: Subsequent bad news, Behavioral finance, Investors’ misreaction, Behavioral pitfalls.

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