A Proposed Managerial Framework for International Marketing Operations in the Fast Food Industry
When choosing marketing strategies for international markets, one of the factors that should be considered is the cultural differences that exist among consumers in different countries. If the branding strategy has to be contextual and in tune with the culture, then the brand positioning variables has to interact, adapt and respond to the cultural variables in which the brand is operating. This study provides an overview of the relevance of culture in the development of an effective branding strategy in the international business environment. Hence, the main objective of this study is to provide a managerial framework for developing strategies for cross cultural brand management. The framework is useful because it incorporates the variables that are important in the competitiveness of fast food enterprises irrespective of their size. It provides practical, proactive and result oriented analysis that will help fast food firms augment their strategies in the international fast food markets. The proposed framework will enable managers understand the intricacies involved in branding in the global fast food industry and decrease the use of 'trial and error' when entering into unfamiliar markets.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1057927Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2215
 AAKER, D. A. "Managing brand equity capitalizing on the value of a brand name". New York: Free Press. 1991
 AAKER, J. L. and LEE, A. Y. "I" Seek Pleasures and "We" Avoid Pains: The Role of Self-Regulatory Goal in Information Processing and Persuasion, Journal of Consumer Research, 28, 2001, pp. 33-49.
 ACKRMAN, D. and TELLIS, G. Can culture affect prices? A cross-cultural study of shopping and retail prices. Journal of Retailing. 77, 2001, pp. 57-82.
 ARNOLD, D. The Handbook of Brand Management, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1992
 BAALBAKI, I. B. and MALHOTRA, N. K. Marketing management bases for international market segmentation: An alternate look at the standardization/customization debate. International Marketing Review, 1993, 10(1), 19-42.
 BARLON, K. The concept of the marketing mix. Marketing Management, 1, 2006, pp. 2-7.
 BLACKWEL, R.D., MINNIARD, P.W. and ENGEL, J.L. Consumer behaviour (5th edition), The Dryden Press. 2001
 BRILEY, D. A., MORRIS, M. M. and SIMONSON, I. Reasons as carriers of culture. Journal of Consumer Research, 27, 2000, pp. 157- 178 .
 CLARITY MARKETING LTD, Marketing mix-7 Ps of the marketing mix: a framework for complete marketing (online) 2005.
[cit. 05.09.2010]. available at http://www.clarity-in- communication. com/getattachment/5efd93 e3 -cdf7-489e-a0b6- 9 cb 5 fb19cf2d/7-P s-of-the-marketing-mix. aspx
 CUI, Y. and TING, Z. American Fast Food in Chinese Market: A Cross-Cultural Perspective: The Case of KFC and McDonald's, Unpublished Master's thesis, University of Halmstad. 2009
 DAWAR, N., PARKER, P. and PRICE, L. A cross-cultural study of interpersonal information exchange. Journal of International Business Studies 1996; 27(3):497-516.
 DE MOOIJ, M. Convergence and divergence in consumer behaviour: implications for global advertising. International Journal of Advertising, 22, 2003, pp. 183-202.
 DE MOOIJ, M. Consumer Behavior and Culture: Consequences for Global Marketing and Advertising. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 2004
 DE MOOIJ, M. Global Marketing and Advertising, Understanding Cultural Paradoxes (3rd edn). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 2010
 DE MOOIJ, M. and HOFSTEDE, G. Convergence and divergence in consumer behaviour: implications for international retailing. Journal of Retailing, 78, 2002, pp. 61-69.
 DORFMAN, P. and HOWELL J. Dimensions of national culture and effective leadership patterns: Hofstede revisited. In: Farmer Richard N, McGoun Elton G, editors. Advances in International Comparative Management; 1988. p. 127-50.
 DOOLE, I. and LOWE, R. International Marketing Strategy -Analysis, Development and Implementation, Thomson Learning, 3rd Ed. 2001
 DOOLE, L. and LOWE, R. International Marketing Strategy, London: South-Western Cengage Learning, 5th edition. 2008
 ENGEL J, BLACKWELL, R. and MINIARD P. Consumer behaviour. Forth Worth: The Dryden Press; 1995.
 FOSCHT, T., MALOLES, III, C., SWOBODA, B., MORSCHETT, D. and SINHA, I. The impact of culture on brand perception: a six-nation study. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 17(3), 2008, pp. 131-142.
 HAN, S-P. and SHVITT, S. Persuasion and Culture: Advertising Appeals in Individualistic and Collectivistic Societies, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 30,1994, pp. 326-350.
 HERRMANN, A. and HEITMANN, M. "Providing More or Providing Less?: Accounting for Cultural Differences in Consumer Preference for Variety", in: International Marketing Review, 2006, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 7-24
 HOFSTEDE, G. Culture's consequences: international differences in work-related values. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications; 1984
 HOFSTEDE, G. and USUNIER J-C. Hofstede's dimensions of culture and their influence on international business negotiations. In: Ghauri Pervez, Usunier Jean-Claude, editors. International business negotiations. Amesterdam: Pergamon; 1999. p. 119-30.
 HOFSTEDE, G. Cultures and organizations - software of the mind. New York: McGraw Hill; 1991.
 HOFSTEDE, G. Culture's consequences. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications; 2001.
 INKELES, A. and LEVINSON, D. National character: the study of modal personality and sociocultural systems. In: Lindzey G, Aronson E, editors. The handbook of social psychology, 2nd ed., vol. 4. Reading- Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company; 1969. p. 418-99.
 KALE, S. and BARNES, J. Understanding the domain of cross-national buyer-seller interactions. Journal of International Business Studies 1992;23 (1 ): 101
 KALE, S. H. Culture-specific Marketing Communications: An Analytical Approach, International Marketing Review, MCB UP Ltd, Vol. 8 Iss: 2,1983
 KEILLOR, B. and HULT, G. A five-country study of national identity: implications for international marketing research and practice. International Marketing Review 1999; 16(1):65-82.
 KOTLER, P. Marketing Management (10th edition), Tsinghua University Press. 2001
 KOTLER P., ARMSTRONG G., SAUNDER J., and WONG, V. "Principle of marketing" (2nd edn) England; Prentice hall, 1999
 LIN, M.Y. AND CHANG, L. H. Determinant of habitual behaviour for national and leading brands in chain. Journal of product and brand management, 2003, pp. 94-107
 MACDONALD, E. and SHARP, B. Brand awareness effects on consumer decision making for a common, repeat purchase product: A replication. Journal of Business Research 48 (1), 2000,5-15.
 MEFFERT, H., and BOLZ, J. International marketing management, completely revised edition. 1994, Stuttgart: Kohlharrnner Verlag.
 MILNER, D. FODNESS and M.W. SPEECE, Hofstede's research on cross-cultural work-related values: Implications for consumer behaviour, European Advertising and Consumer Research 1 (1993), pp. 70-76.
 SAMIEE, S. and JEONG, I. Cross-cultural research in advertising: an assessment of methodologies. Journal of Academy of Marketing Science 1994; 22(3):205-17.
 SCHUTTE, H. and CIARLANTE, D. Consumer Behaviour in Asia, Macmillan Press Limited. 1998
 SIVAKUMAR, K. and NAKATA, C. The stampede toward Hofstede's framework: avoiding the sample design pit in cross-cultural research. Journal of International Business Studies 2001; 32(3):555-74.
 SMITH P, DUGAN, S. and TROMPENAARS F. National culture and the values of organizational employees—a dimensional analysis across 43 nations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 1996; 27(2):231-64.
 STEENKAMP J. The role of national culture in international marketing research. International Marketing Review, 18(1), 2001, pp. 30-44.
 YENIURT, S. and TOWNSEND, J.D. Does culture explain acceptance of new products in a country? International Marketing Review, 20(4), 2003, pp. 377-396.