Search results for: Essam Al Daoud
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 44

Search results for: Essam Al Daoud

44 Unconditionally Secure Quantum Payment System

Authors: Essam Al-Daoud

Abstract:

A potentially serious problem with current payment systems is that their underlying hard problems from number theory may be solved by either a quantum computer or unanticipated future advances in algorithms and hardware. A new quantum payment system is proposed in this paper. The suggested system makes use of fundamental principles of quantum mechanics to ensure the unconditional security without prior arrangements between customers and vendors. More specifically, the new system uses Greenberger-Home-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and Quantum Key Distribution to authenticate the vendors and guarantee the transaction integrity.

Keywords: Bell state, GHZ state, Quantum key distribution, Quantum payment system.

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43 Comparison between XGBoost, LightGBM and CatBoost Using a Home Credit Dataset

Authors: Essam Al Daoud

Abstract:

Gradient boosting methods have been proven to be a very important strategy. Many successful machine learning solutions were developed using the XGBoost and its derivatives. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the efficiency of three gradient methods. Home credit dataset is used in this work which contains 219 features and 356251 records. However, new features are generated and several techniques are used to rank and select the best features. The implementation indicates that the LightGBM is faster and more accurate than CatBoost and XGBoost using variant number of features and records.

Keywords: Gradient boosting, XGBoost, LightGBM, CatBoost, home credit.

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42 An Accurate Method for Phylogeny Tree Reconstruction Based on a Modified Wild Dog Algorithm

Authors: Essam Al Daoud

Abstract:

This study solves a phylogeny problem by using modified wild dog pack optimization. The least squares error is considered as a cost function that needs to be minimized. Therefore, in each iteration, new distance matrices based on the constructed trees are calculated and used to select the alpha dog. To test the suggested algorithm, ten homologous genes are selected and collected from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) databanks (i.e., 16S, 18S, 28S, Cox 1, ITS1, ITS2, ETS, ATPB, Hsp90, and STN). The data are divided into three categories: 50 taxa, 100 taxa and 500 taxa. The empirical results show that the proposed algorithm is more reliable and accurate than other implemented methods.

Keywords: Least squares, neighbor joining, phylogenetic tree, wild dogpack.

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41 Face Recognition using Features Combination and a New Non-linear Kernel

Authors: Essam Al Daoud

Abstract:

To improve the classification rate of the face recognition, features combination and a novel non-linear kernel are proposed. The feature vector concatenates three different radius of local binary patterns and Gabor wavelet features. Gabor features are the mean, standard deviation and the skew of each scaling and orientation parameter. The aim of the new kernel is to incorporate the power of the kernel methods with the optimal balance between the features. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, numerous methods are tested by using four datasets, which are consisting of various emotions, orientations, configuration, expressions and lighting conditions. Empirical results show the superiority of the proposed technique when compared to other methods.

Keywords: Face recognition, Gabor wavelet, LBP, Non-linearkerner

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40 Integration of Support Vector Machine and Bayesian Neural Network for Data Mining and Classification

Authors: Essam Al-Daoud

Abstract:

Several combinations of the preprocessing algorithms, feature selection techniques and classifiers can be applied to the data classification tasks. This study introduces a new accurate classifier, the proposed classifier consist from four components: Signal-to- Noise as a feature selection technique, support vector machine, Bayesian neural network and AdaBoost as an ensemble algorithm. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed classifier, seven well known classifiers are applied to four datasets. The experiments show that using the suggested classifier enhances the classification rates for all datasets.

Keywords: AdaBoost, Bayesian neural network, Signal-to-Noise, support vector machine, MCMC.

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39 Improving Protein-Protein Interaction Prediction by Using Encoding Strategies and Random Indices

Authors: Essam Al-Daoud

Abstract:

A New features are extracted and compared to improve the prediction of protein-protein interactions. The basic idea is to select and use the best set of features from the Tensor matrices that are produced by the frequency vectors of the protein sequences. Three set of features are compared, the first set is based on the indices that are the most common in the interacting proteins, the second set is based on the indices that tend to be common in the interacting and non-interacting proteins, and the third set is constructed by using random indices. Moreover, three encoding strategies are compared; that are based on the amino asides polarity, structure, and chemical properties. The experimental results indicate that the highest accuracy can be obtained by using random indices with chemical properties encoding strategy and support vector machine.

Keywords: protein-protein interactions, random indices, encoding strategies, support vector machine.

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38 Intrusion Detection Using a New Particle Swarm Method and Support Vector Machines

Authors: Essam Al Daoud

Abstract:

Intrusion detection is a mechanism used to protect a system and analyse and predict the behaviours of system users. An ideal intrusion detection system is hard to achieve due to nonlinearity, and irrelevant or redundant features. This study introduces a new anomaly-based intrusion detection model. The suggested model is based on particle swarm optimisation and nonlinear, multi-class and multi-kernel support vector machines. Particle swarm optimisation is used for feature selection by applying a new formula to update the position and the velocity of a particle; the support vector machine is used as a classifier. The proposed model is tested and compared with the other methods using the KDD CUP 1999 dataset. The results indicate that this new method achieves better accuracy rates than previous methods.

Keywords: Feature selection, Intrusion detection, Support vector machine, Particle swarm.

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37 An Improved Ant Colony Algorithm for Genome Rearrangements

Authors: Essam Al Daoud

Abstract:

Genome rearrangement is an important area in computational biology and bioinformatics. The basic problem in genome rearrangements is to compute the edit distance, i.e., the minimum number of operations needed to transform one genome into another. Unfortunately, unsigned genome rearrangement problem is NP-hard. In this study an improved ant colony optimization algorithm to approximate the edit distance is proposed. The main idea is to convert the unsigned permutation to signed permutation and evaluate the ants by using Kaplan algorithm. Two new operations are added to the standard ant colony algorithm: Replacing the worst ants by re-sampling the ants from a new probability distribution and applying the crossover operations on the best ants. The proposed algorithm is tested and compared with the improved breakpoint reversal sort algorithm by using three datasets. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm achieves better accuracy ratio than the previous methods.

Keywords: Ant colony algorithm, Edit distance, Genome breakpoint, Genome rearrangement, Reversal sort.

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36 Development of a Tunisian Measurement Scale for Patient Satisfaction: Study case in Tunisian Private Clinics

Authors: M. Daoud-Marrakchi, S. Fendri-Elouze, Ch. Ill, B. Bejar-Ghadhab

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to propose a Measurement Scale for Patient Satisfaction (MSPS) in the context of Tunisian private clinics. This scale is developed using value management methods and is validated by statistic tools with SPSS.

Keywords: Functional analysis, Patient satisfaction, Questionnaire, Reliability, Validity.

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35 Problems that Impede Sustainable Tourism Development in Egypt

Authors: Essam Abdel-Salam Gouda

Abstract:

This paper analysis the tourism development on the Red Sea in Egypt (west bank) and the needed ongoing action toward a sustainable approach. It addresses, at the first, the development's evolution occurred in the coastal area, the environmental effects it left, and how to minimize those impacts in the future. The second main point is dealing with the most important issues that hinder the achievement of sustainable tourism development on the Red Sea coast and how we can overcome them in the future.

Keywords: Coastal management, Environment, Red Sea, Sustainable tourism.

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34 A New Algorithm for Cluster Initialization

Authors: Moth'd Belal. Al-Daoud

Abstract:

Clustering is a very well known technique in data mining. One of the most widely used clustering techniques is the k-means algorithm. Solutions obtained from this technique are dependent on the initialization of cluster centers. In this article we propose a new algorithm to initialize the clusters. The proposed algorithm is based on finding a set of medians extracted from a dimension with maximum variance. The algorithm has been applied to different data sets and good results are obtained.

Keywords: clustering, k-means, data mining.

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33 Simulation of the Large Hadrons Collisions Using Monte Carlo Tools

Authors: E. Al Daoud

Abstract:

In many cases, theoretical treatments are available for models for which there is no perfect physical realization. In this situation, the only possible test for an approximate theoretical solution is to compare with data generated from a computer simulation. In this paper, Monte Carlo tools are used to study and compare the elementary particles models. All the experiments are implemented using 10000 events, and the simulated energy is 13 TeV. The mean and the curves of several variables are calculated for each model using MadAnalysis 5. Anomalies in the results can be seen in the muons masses of the minimal supersymmetric standard model and the two Higgs doublet model.

Keywords: Feynman rules, hadrons, Lagrangian, Monte Carlo, simulation.

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32 The Application of Six Sigma to Integration of Computer Based Systems

Authors: Zenon Chaczko, Essam Rahali, Rizwan Tariq

Abstract:

This paper introduces a process for the module level integration of computer based systems. It is based on the Six Sigma Process Improvement Model, where the goal of the process is to improve the overall quality of the system under development. We also present a conceptual framework that shows how this process can be implemented as an integration solution. Finally, we provide a partial implementation of key components in the conceptual framework.

Keywords: Software Quality, Six Sigma, System Integration, 3SI Process, 3SI Conceptual Framework.

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31 An E-Coaching Methodology for Higher Education in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Essam Almuhsin, Ben Soh, Alice Li, Azmat Ullah

Abstract:

It is widely accepted that university students must acquire new knowledge, skills, awareness, and understanding to increase opportunities for professional and personal growth. The study reveals a significant increase in users engaging in e-coaching activities and a growing need for it during the COVID-19 pandemic. The paper proposes an e-coaching methodology for higher education in Saudi Arabia to address the need for effective coaching in the current online learning environment.

Keywords: Role of e-coaching, e-coaching in higher education, Saudi higher education environment, e-coaching methodology, importance of e-coaching.

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30 Analysis of Different Designed Landing Gears for a Light Aircraft

Authors: Essam A. Al-Bahkali

Abstract:

The design of a landing gear is one of the fundamental aspects of aircraft design. The need for a light weight, high strength, and stiffness characteristics coupled with techno economic feasibility are a key to the acceptability of any landing gear construction. In this paper, an approach for analyzing two different designed landing gears for an unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV) using advanced CAE techniques will be applied. Different landing conditions have been considered for both models. The maximum principle stresses for each model along with the factor of safety are calculated for every loading condition. A conclusion is drawing about better geometry.

Keywords: Landing Gear, Model, Finite Element Analysis, Aircraft.

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29 Computing the Similarity and the Diversity in the Species Based on Cronobacter Genome

Authors: E. Al Daoud

Abstract:

The purpose of computing the similarity and the diversity in the species is to trace the process of evolution and to find the relationship between the species and discover the unique, the special, the common and the universal proteins. The proteins of the whole genome of 40 species are compared with the cronobacter genome which is used as reference genome. More than 3 billion pairwise alignments are performed using blastp. Several findings are introduced in this study, for example, we found 172 proteins in cronobacter genome which have insignificant hits in other species, 116 significant proteins in the all tested species with very high score value and 129 common proteins in the plants but have insignificant hits in mammals, birds, fishes, and insects.

Keywords: Genome, species, blastp, conserved genes, cronobacter.

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28 Design of Folded Cascode OTA in Different Regions of Operation through gm/ID Methodology

Authors: H. Daoud Dammak, S. Bensalem, S. Zouari, M. Loulou

Abstract:

This paper presents an optimized methodology to folded cascode operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) design. The design is done in different regions of operation, weak inversion, strong inversion and moderate inversion using the gm/ID methodology in order to optimize MOS transistor sizing. Using 0.35μm CMOS process, the designed folded cascode OTA achieves a DC gain of 77.5dB and a unity-gain frequency of 430MHz in strong inversion mode. In moderate inversion mode, it has a 92dB DC gain and provides a gain bandwidth product of around 69MHz. The OTA circuit has a DC gain of 75.5dB and unity-gain frequency limited to 19.14MHZ in weak inversion region.

Keywords: CMOS IC design, Folded Cascode OTA, gm/ID methodology, optimization.

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27 Steady State Temperature Distribution of Cast-Resin Dry Type Transformer Based on New Thermal Model Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Magdy B. Eteiba, Essam A. Alzahab, Yomna O. Shaker

Abstract:

In this paper, a thermal model of cast- resin dry type transformer is proposed. The proposed thermal model is solved by finite element technique to get the temperature at any location of the transformer. The basic modes of heat transfer such as conduction; convection and radiation are used to get the steady state temperature distribution of the transformer. The predicted temperatures are compared with experimental results reported in this paper and it is found a good agreement between them. The effects of various parameters such as width of air duct, ambient temperature and emissivity of the outer surface were also studied.

Keywords: Convection, dry type transformer, finite-elementtechnique, thermal model.

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26 Sintering Properties of Mechanically Alloyed Ti-5Al-2.5Fe

Authors: Ridvan Yamanoglu, Erdinc Efendi, Ismail Daoud

Abstract:

In this study, Ti-5Al-2.5Fe alloy was prepared by powder metallurgy. The elemental titanium, aluminum, and iron powders were mechanically alloyed for 10 h in a vacuum atmosphere. A stainless steel jar and stainless steel balls were used for mechanical alloying. The alloyed powders were then sintered by vacuum hot pressing at 950 °C for a soaking time of 30 minutes. Pure titanium was also sintered at the same conditions for comparison of mechanical properties and microstructural behavior. The samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, XRD analysis, and optical microscopy. Results showed that, after mechanical alloying, a homogeneous distribution of the elements was obtained, and desired a-b structure was determined. Ti-5Al-2.5Fe alloy was successfully produced, and the alloy showed enhanced mechanical properties compared to the commercial pure titanium.

Keywords: Ti5Al2.5Fe, mechanical alloying, hot pressing, sintering.

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25 Egyptian Electronic Government: The University Enrolment Case Study

Authors: Hend S.H. Hassan, Essam M. Shehab, Joe Peppard

Abstract:

E-government projects have potential for greater efficiency and effectiveness of government operations. For this reason, many developing countries governments have invested heavily in this agenda and an increasing number of e-government projects are being implemented. However, there is a lack of clear case material, which describes the potentialities and consequence experienced by organizations trying to manage with this change. The Ministry of State for Administrative Development (MSAD) is the organization responsible for the e-Government program in Egypt since early 2004. This paper presents a case study of the process of admission to public universities and institutions in Egypt which is led by MSAD. Underlining the key benefits resulting from the initiative, explaining the strategies and the development steps used to implement it, and highlighting the main obstacles encountered and how they were overcome will help repeat the experience in other useful e-government projects.

Keywords: Case studies, Egypt, Electronic government, Electronic services, University enrolment.

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24 A New Vision of Fractal Geometry with Triangulati on Algorithm

Authors: Yasser M. Abd El-Latif, Fatma S.Abousaleh, Daoud S. S.

Abstract:

L-system is a tool commonly used for modeling and simulating the growth of fractal plants. The aim of this paper is to join some problems of the computational geometry with the fractal geometry by using the L-system technique to generate fractal plant in 3D. L-system constructs the fractal structure by applying rewriting rules sequentially and this technique depends on recursion process with large number of iterations to get different shapes of 3D fractal plants. Instead, it was reiterated a specific number of iterations up to three iterations. The vertices generated from the last stage of the Lsystem rewriting process are used as input to the triangulation algorithm to construct the triangulation shape of these vertices. The resulting shapes can be used as covers for the architectural objects and in different computer graphics fields. The paper presents a gallery of triangulation forms which application in architecture creates an alternative for domes and other traditional types of roofs.

Keywords: Computational geometry, fractal geometry, L-system, triangulation.

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23 Software Obsolescence Drivers in Aerospace: An Industry Analysis

Authors: Raúl González Muñoz, Essam Shehab, Martin Weinitzke, Chris Fowler, Paul Baguley

Abstract:

Software applications have become crucial for the aerospace industry, providing a wide range of functionalities and capabilities. However, due to the considerable time difference between aircraft and software life cycles, obsolescence has turned into a major challenge for industry in last decades. This paper aims to provide a view on the different causes of software obsolescence within aerospace industry, as well as a perception on the importance of each of them. The key research question addressed is what drives software obsolescence in the aerospace industry, managing large software application portfolios. This question has been addressed by conducting firstly an in depth review of current literature and secondly by arranging an industry workshop with professionals from aerospace and consulting companies. The result is a set of drivers of software obsolescence, distributed among three different environments and several domains. By incorporating monitoring methodologies to assess those software obsolescence drivers, benefits in maintenance efforts and operations disruption avoidance are expected.

Keywords: Aerospace industry, obsolescence drivers, software lifecycle, software obsolescence.

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22 Average Switching Thresholds and Average Throughput for Adaptive Modulation using Markov Model

Authors: Essam S. Altubaishi

Abstract:

The motivation for adaptive modulation and coding is to adjust the method of transmission to ensure that the maximum efficiency is achieved over the link at all times. The receiver estimates the channel quality and reports it back to the transmitter. The transmitter then maps the reported quality into a link mode. This mapping however, is not a one-to-one mapping. In this paper we investigate a method for selecting the proper modulation scheme. This method can dynamically adapt the mapping of the Signal-to- Noise Ratio (SNR) into a link mode. It enables the use of the right modulation scheme irrespective of changes in the channel conditions by incorporating errors in the received data. We propose a Markov model for this method, and use it to derive the average switching thresholds and the average throughput. We show that the average throughput of this method outperforms the conventional threshold method.

Keywords: Adaptive modulation and coding, CDMA, Markov model.

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21 Waste Lubricating Oil Treatment by Adsorption Process Using Different Adsorbents

Authors: Nabil M. Abdel-Jabbar, Essam A.H. Al Zubaidy, Mehrab Mehrvar

Abstract:

Waste lubricating oil re-refining adsorption process by different adsorbent materials was investigated. Adsorbent materials such as oil adsorbent, egg shale powder, date palm kernel powder, and acid activated date palm kernel powder were used. The adsorption process over fixed amount of adsorbent at ambient conditions was investigated. The adsorption/extraction process was able to deposit the asphaltenic and metallic contaminants from the waste oil to lower values. It was found that the date palm kernel powder with contact time of 4 h was able to give the best conditions for treating the waste oil. The recovered solvent could be also reused. It was also found that the activated bentonite gave the best physical properties followed by the date palm kernel powder.

Keywords: activated bentonite, egg shale powder, datepalm kernel powder, used oil treatment, used oilcharacteristics.

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20 An Efficient Hardware Implementation of Extended and Fast Physical Addressing in Microprocessor-Based Systems Using Programmable Logic

Authors: Mountassar Maamoun, Abdelhamid Meraghni, Abdelhalim Benbelkacem, Daoud Berkani

Abstract:

This paper describes an efficient hardware implementation of a new technique for interfacing the data exchange between the microprocessor-based systems and the external devices. This technique, based on the use of software/hardware system and a reduced physical address, enlarges the interfacing capacity of the microprocessor-based systems, uses the Direct Memory Access (DMA) to increases the frequency of the new bus, and improves the speed of data exchange. While using this architecture in microprocessor-based system or in computer, the input of the hardware part of our system will be connected to the bus system, and the output, which is a new bus, will be connected to an external device. The new bus is composed of a data bus, a control bus and an address bus. A Xilinx Integrated Software Environment (ISE) 7.1i has been used for the programmable logic implementation.

Keywords: Interfacing, Software/hardware System, CPLD, programmable logic, DMA.

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19 High Order Cascade Multibit ΣΔ Modulator for Wide Bandwidth Applications

Authors: S. Zouari, H. Daoud, M. Loulou, P. Loumeau, N. Masmoudi

Abstract:

A wideband 2-1-1 cascaded ΣΔ modulator with a single-bit quantizer in the two first stages and a 4-bit quantizer in the final stage is developed. To reduce sensitivity of digital-to-analog converter (DAC) nonlinearities in the feedback of the last stage, dynamic element matching (DEM) is introduced. This paper presents two modelling approaches: The first is MATLAB description and the second is VHDL-AMS modelling of the proposed architecture and exposes some high-level-simulation results allowing a behavioural study. The detail of both ideal and non-ideal behaviour modelling are presented. Then, the study of the effect of building blocks nonidealities is presented; especially the influences of nonlinearity, finite operational amplifier gain, amplifier slew rate limitation and capacitor mismatch. A VHDL-AMS description presents a good solution to predict system-s performances and can provide sensitivity curves giving the impact of nonidealities on the system performance.

Keywords: behavioural study, DAC nonlinearity, DEM, ΣΔ modulator, VHDL-AMS modelling.

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18 Effect of Including Thermal Process on Spot Welded and Weld-Bonded Joints

Authors: Essam A. Al-Bahkali

Abstract:

A three-dimensional finite element modeling for austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 annealed condition sheets of 1.0 mm thickness are developed using ABAQUS® software. This includes spot welded and weld bonded joints models. Both models undergo thermal heat caused by spot welding process and then are subjected to axial load up to the failure point. The properties of elastic and plastic regions, modulus of elasticity, fracture limit, nugget and heat affected zones are determined. Complete loaddisplacement curve for each joining model is obtained and compared with the experiment data and with the finite element models without including the effect of thermal process. In general, the results obtained for both spot welded and weld-bonded joints affected by thermal process showed an excellent agreement with the experimental data.

Keywords: Heat Affected Zone, Spot Welded, Thermal Process, Weld-Bonded.

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17 Investigation of the Effect of Grid Size on External Store Separation Trajectory Using CFD

Authors: Alaa A. Osman, Amgad M. Bayoumy, Ismail El baialy, Osama E. Abdellatif, Essam E. Khallil

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical simulation of a finned store separating from a wing-pylon configuration has been studied and validated. A dynamic unstructured tetrahedral mesh approach is accomplished by using three grid sizes to numerically solving the discretized three dimensional, inviscid and compressible Euler equations. The method used for computations of separation of an external store assuming quasi-steady flow condition. Computations of quasi-steady flow have been directly coupled to a six degree-offreedom (6DOF) rigid-body motion code to generate store trajectories. The pressure coefficients at four different angular cuts and time histories of various trajectory parameters and wing pressure distribution during the store separation are compared for every grid size with published experimental data.

Keywords: CFD Modelling, Quasi-steady Flow, Moving-body Trajectories, Transonic Store Separation, Moving-body Trajectories.

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16 VLSI Design of 2-D Discrete Wavelet Transform for Area-Efficient and High-Speed Image Computing

Authors: Mountassar Maamoun, Mehdi Neggazi, Abdelhamid Meraghni, Daoud Berkani

Abstract:

This paper presents a VLSI design approach of a highspeed and real-time 2-D Discrete Wavelet Transform computing. The proposed architecture, based on new and fast convolution approach, reduces the hardware complexity in addition to reduce the critical path to the multiplier delay. Furthermore, an advanced twodimensional (2-D) discrete wavelet transform (DWT) implementation, with an efficient memory area, is designed to produce one output in every clock cycle. As a result, a very highspeed is attained. The system is verified, using JPEG2000 coefficients filters, on Xilinx Virtex-II Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) device without accessing any external memory. The resulting computing rate is up to 270 M samples/s and the (9,7) 2-D wavelet filter uses only 18 kb of memory (16 kb of first-in-first-out memory) with 256×256 image size. In this way, the developed design requests reduced memory and provide very high-speed processing as well as high PSNR quality.

Keywords: Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Fast Convolution, FPGA, VLSI.

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15 Risk Assessment of Particulate Matter (PM10) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Turki M. Habeebullah, Atef M. F. Mohammed, Essam A. Morsy

Abstract:

In recent decades, particulate matter (PM10) have received much attention due to its potential adverse health impact and the subsequent need to better control or regulate these pollutants. The aim of this paper is focused on study risk assessment of PM10 in four different districts (Shebikah, Masfalah, Aziziyah, Awali) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia during the period from 1 Ramadan 1434 AH - 27 Safar 1435 AH. Samples were collected by using Low Volume Sampler (LVS Low Volume Sampler) device and filtration method for estimating the total concentration of PM10. The study indicated that the mean PM10 concentrations were 254.6 (186.1 - 343.2) μg/m3 in Shebikah, 184.9 (145.6 - 271.4) μg/m3 in Masfalah, 162.4 (92.4-253.8) μg/m3 in Aziziyah, and 56.0 (44.5 - 119.8) μg/m3 in Awali. These values did not exceed the permissible limits in PME (340 μg/m3 as daily average). Furthermore, health assessment is carried out using AirQ2.2.3 model to estimate the number of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases. The cumulative number of cases per 100,000 were 1534 (18-3050 case), which lower than that recorded in the United States, Malaysia. The concentration response coefficient was 0.49 (95% CI 0.05 - 0.70) per 10 μg/m3 increase of PM10.

Keywords: Air pollution, Respiratory diseases, AirQ2.2.3, Makkah.

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