Search results for: Daylight factor
1557 Investigating Daylight Quality in Malaysian Government Office Buildings Through Daylight Factor and Surface Luminance
Authors: Mohd Zin Kandar, Mohd Sabere Sulaiman, Yong Razidah Rashid, Dilshan Remaz Ossen, Aminatuzuhariah MAbdullah, Lim Yaik Wah, Mansour Nikpour
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in using daylight to save energy in buildings. In tropical regions, daylighting is always an energy saver. On the other hand, daylight provides visual comfort. According to standards, it shows that many criteria should be taken into consideration in order to have daylight utilization and visual comfort. The current standard in Malaysia, MS 1525 does not provide sufficient guideline. Hence, more research is needed on daylight performance. If architects do not consider daylight design, it not only causes inconvenience in working spaces but also causes more energy consumption as well as environmental pollution. This research had surveyed daylight performance in 5 selected office buildings from different area of Malaysian through experimental method. Several parameters of daylight quality such as daylight factor, surface luminance and surface luminance ratio were measured in different rooms in each building. The result of this research demonstrated that most of the buildings were not designed for daylight utilization. Therefore, it is very important that architects follow the daylight design recommendation to reduce consumption of electric power for artificial lighting while the sufficient quality of daylight is available.
Keywords: Daylight factor, Field measurement, Daylighting quality, TropicalProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3297
1556 Analyzing Façade Scenarios and Daylight Levels in the Reid Building: A Reflective Case Study on the Designed Daylight under Overcast Sky
Authors: Eman Mayah, Raid Hanna
This study presents the use of daylight in the case study of the Reid building at the Glasgow School of Art in the city of Glasgow, UK. In Nordic countries, daylight is one of the main considerations within building design, especially in the face of long, lightless winters. A shortage of daylight, contributing to dark and gloomy conditions, necessitates that designs incorporate strong daylight performance. As such, the building in question is designed to capture natural light for varying needs, where studios are located on the North and South façades. The study’s approach presents an analysis of different façade scenarios, where daylight from the North is observed, analyzed and compared with the daylight from the South façade for various design studios in the building. The findings then are correlated with the results of daylight levels from the daylight simulation program (Autodesk Ecotect Analysis) for the investigated studios. The study finds there to be a dramatic difference in daylight nature and levels between the North and South façades, where orientation, obstructions and designed façade fenestrations have major effects on the findings. The study concludes that some of the studios positioned on the North façade do not have a desirable quality of diffused northern light, due to the outside building’s obstructions, area and volume of the studio and the shadow effect of the designed mezzanine floor in the studios.
Keywords: Daylight levels, educational building, façade fenestration, overcast weather.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 599
1555 Daylightophil Approach towards High-Performance Architecture for Hybrid-Optimization of Visual Comfort and Daylight Factor in BSk
Authors: Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad, Hadi Yazdi
The greatest influence we have from the world is shaped through the visual form, thus light is an inseparable element in human life. The use of daylight in visual perception and environment readability is an important issue for users. With regard to the hazards of greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, and in line with the attitudes on the reduction of energy consumption, the correct use of daylight results in lower levels of energy consumed by artificial lighting, heating and cooling systems. Windows are usually the starting points for analysis and simulations to achieve visual comfort and energy optimization; therefore, attention should be paid to the orientation of buildings to minimize electrical energy and maximize the use of daylight. In this paper, by using the Design Builder Software, the effect of the orientation of an 18m2(3m*6m) room with 3m height in city of Tehran has been investigated considering the design constraint limitations. In these simulations, the dimensions of the building have been changed with one degree and the window is located on the smaller face (3m*3m) of the building with 80% ratio. The results indicate that the orientation of building has a lot to do with energy efficiency to meet high-performance architecture and planning goals and objectives.
Keywords: Daylight, window, orientation, energy consumption, design builder.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 930
1554 Horizontal and Vertical Illuminance Correlations in a Case Study for Shaded South Facing Surfaces
Authors: S. Matour, M. Mahdavinejad, R. Fayaz
Daylight utilization is a key factor in achieving visual and thermal comfort, and energy savings in integrated building design. However, lack of measured data related to this topic has become a major challenge with the increasing need for integrating lighting concepts and simulations in the early stages of design procedures. The current paper deals with the values of daylight illuminance on horizontal and south facing vertical surfaces; the data are estimated using IESNA model and measured values of the horizontal and vertical illuminance, and a regression model with an acceptable linear correlation is obtained. The resultant illuminance frequency curves are useful for estimating daylight availability on south facing surfaces in Tehran. In addition, the relationship between indirect vertical illuminance and the corresponding global horizontal illuminance is analyzed. A simple parametric equation is proposed in order to predict the vertical illumination on a shaded south facing surface. The equation correlates the ratio between the vertical and horizontal illuminance to the solar altitude and is used with another relationship for prediction of the vertical illuminance. Both equations show good agreement, which allows for calculation of indirect vertical illuminance on a south facing surface at any time throughout the year.
Keywords: Tehran daylight availability, horizontal illuminance, vertical illuminance, diffuse illuminance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 978
1553 Potential of Energy Conservation of Daylight Linked Lighting System in India
Authors: Biswajit Biswas
Demand of energy is increasing faster than the generation. It leads shortage of power in all sectors of society. At peak hours this shortage is higher. Unless we utilize energy efficient technology, it is very difficult to minimize the shortage of energy. So energy efficiency program and energy conservation has an important role. Energy efficient technologies are cost intensive hence it is always not possible to implement in country like India. In the recent study, an educational building with operating hours from 10:00 a.m. to 05:00 p.m. has been selected to quantify the possibility of lighting energy conservation. As the operating hour is in daytime, integration of daylight with artificial lighting system will definitely reduce the lighting energy consumption. Moreover the initial investment has been given priority and hence the existing lighting installation was unaltered. An automatic controller has been designed which will be operated as a function of daylight through windows and the lighting system of the room will function accordingly. The result of the study of integrating daylight gave quite satisfactory for visual comfort as well as energy conservation.
Keywords: Lighting energy, energy efficiency, daylight, illumination, energy conservation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1710
1552 Evolutionary Multi-objective Optimization for Positioning of Residential Houses
Authors: Ayman El Ansary, Mohamed Shalaby
The current study describes a multi-objective optimization technique for positioning of houses in a residential neighborhood. The main task is the placement of residential houses in a favorable configuration satisfying a number of objectives. Solving the house layout problem is a challenging task. It requires an iterative approach to satisfy design requirements (e.g. energy efficiency, skyview, daylight, roads network, visual privacy, and clear access to favorite views). These design requirements vary from one project to another based on location and client preferences. In the Gulf region, the most important socio-cultural factor is the visual privacy in indoor space. Hence, most of the residential houses in this region are surrounded by high fences to provide privacy, which has a direct impact on other requirements (e.g. daylight and direction to favorite views). This investigation introduces a novel technique to optimally locate and orient residential buildings to satisfy a set of design requirements. The developed technique explores the search space for possible solutions. This study considers two dimensional house planning problems. However, it can be extended to solve three dimensional cases.
Keywords: Evolutionary optimization, Houses planning, Urban modeling, Daylight, Visual Privacy, Residential compounds.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1431
1551 Study of the Effectiveness of Solar Heat Gain and Day Light Factors on Minimizing Electricity Use in High Rise Buildings
Authors: Mansour Nikpour, Mohd Zin kandar, Mohsen Ghasemi, Hossein Fallah
Over half of the total electricity consumption is used in buildings. Air-conditioning and electric lighting are the two main resources of electricity consumption in high rise buildings. One way to reduce electricity consumption would be to limit heat gain into buildings, therefore reduce the demand for air-conditioning during hot summer months especially in hot regions. On the other hand natural daylight can be used to reduce the use of electricity for artificial lighting. In this paper effective factors on minimizing heat gain and achieving required day light were reviewed .As daylight always accompanied by solar heat gain. Also interactions between heat gain and daylight were discussed through previous studies and equations which are related to heat gain and day lighting especially in high rise buildings. As a result importance of building-s form and its component on energy consumption in buildings were clarified.
Keywords: High rise buildings, energy demand, day lighting, heat gain.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2596
1550 A Sufficient Condition for Graphs to Have Hamiltonian [a, b]-Factors
Authors: Sizhong Zhou
Let a and b be nonnegative integers with 2 ≤ a < b, and let G be a Hamiltonian graph of order n with n ≥ (a+b−4)(a+b−2) b−2 . An [a, b]-factor F of G is called a Hamiltonian [a, b]-factor if F contains a Hamiltonian cycle. In this paper, it is proved that G has a Hamiltonian [a, b]-factor if |NG(X)| > (a−1)n+|X|−1 a+b−3 for every nonempty independent subset X of V (G) and δ(G) > (a−1)n+a+b−4 a+b−3 .
Keywords: graph, minimum degree, neighborhood, [a, b]-factor, Hamiltonian [a, b]-factor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1114
1549 Hamiltonian Factors in Hamiltonian Graphs
Authors: Sizhong Zhou, Bingyuan Pu
Abstract:Let G be a Hamiltonian graph. A factor F of G is called a Hamiltonian factor if F contains a Hamiltonian cycle. In this paper, two sufficient conditions are given, which are two neighborhood conditions for a Hamiltonian graph G to have a Hamiltonian factor.
Keywords: graph, neighborhood, factor, Hamiltonian factor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1053
1548 Constructing an Attitude Scale: Attitudes toward Violence on Televisions
Authors: Göksu Gözen Citak
Abstract:The process of constructing a scale measuring the attitudes of youth toward violence on televisions is reported. A 30-item draft attitude scale was applied to a working group of 232 students attending the Faculty of Educational Sciences at Ankara University between the years 2005-2006. To introduce the construct validity and dimensionality of the scale, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was applied to the data. Results of the exploratory factor analysis showed that the scale had three factors that accounted for 58,44% (22,46% for the first, 22,15% for the second and 13,83% for the third factor) of the common variance. It is determined that the first factor considered issues related individual effects of violence on televisions, the second factor concerned issues related social effects of violence on televisions and the third factor concerned issues related violence on television programs. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis showed that all the items under each factor are fitting the concerning factors structure. An alpha reliability of 0,90 was estimated for the whole scale. It is concluded that the scale is valid and reliable.
Keywords: Attitudes toward violence, confirmatory factor analysis, constructing attitude scale, exploratory factor analysis, violence on televisions.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1793
1547 Analysis and Measuring Surface Roughness of Nonwovens Using Machine Vision Method
Authors: Dariush Semnani, Javad Yekrang, Hossein Ghayoor
Abstract:Concerning the measurement of friction properties of textiles and fabrics using Kawabata Evaluation System (KES), whose output is constrained to the surface friction factor of fabric, and no other data would be generated; this research has been conducted to gain information about surface roughness regarding its surface friction factor. To assess roughness properties of light nonwovens, a 3-dimensional model of a surface has been simulated with regular sinuous waves through it as an ideal surface. A new factor was defined, namely Surface Roughness Factor, through comparing roughness properties of simulated surface and real specimens. The relation between the proposed factor and friction factor of specimens has been analyzed by regression, and results showed a meaningful correlation between them. It can be inferred that the new presented factor can be used as an acceptable criterion for evaluating the roughness properties of light nonwoven fabrics.
Keywords: Surface roughness, Nonwoven, Machine vision, Image processing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2831
1546 A Review on Bearing Capacity Factor Nγ of Shallow Foundations with Different Shapes
Authors: S. Taghvamanesh, R. Ziaie Moayed
There are several methods for calculating the bearing capacity factors of foundations and retaining walls. In this paper, the bearing capacity factor Nγ (shape factor) for different types of foundation have been investigated. The formula for bearing capacity on c–φ–γ soil can still be expressed by Terzaghi’s equation except that the bearing capacity factor Nγ depends on the surcharge ratio, and friction angle φ. It is apparent that the value of Nγ increases irregularly with the friction angle of the subsoil, which leads to an excessive increment in Nγ of foundations with larger width. Also, the bearing capacity factor Nγ will significantly decrease with an increase in foundation`s width. It also should be highlighted that the effect of shape and dimension will be less noticeable with a decrease in the relative density of the soil. Hence, the bearing capacity factor Nγ relatively depends on foundation`s width, surcharge and roughness ratio. This paper presents the results of various studies conducted on the bearing capacity factor Nγ of: different types of shallow foundation and foundations with irregular geometry (ring footing, triangular footing, shell foundations and etc.) Further studies on the effect of bearing capacity factor Nγ on mat foundations and the characteristics of this factor with or without consideration for the presence of friction between soil and foundation are recommended.
Keywords: Bearing capacity, Bearing capacity factor, irregular foundation, shallow foundation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 512
1545 Energy Efficiency Testing of Fluorescent and WOLED (White Organic LED)
Authors: Hari Maghfiroh, Harry Prabowo
WOLED is widely used as lighting for high efficacy and little power consumption. In this research, power factor testing between WOLED and fluorescent lamp to see which one is more efficient in consuming energy. Since both lamps use semiconductor components, so calculation of the power factor need to consider the effects of harmonics. Harmonic make bigger losses. The study is conducted by comparing the value of the power factor regardless of harmonics (DPF) and also by included the harmonics (TPF). The average value of DPF of fluorescent is 0.953 while WOLED is 0.972. The average value of TPF of fluorescent is 0.717 whereas WOLED is 0.933. So from the review of power factor WOLED is more energy efficient than fluorescent lamp.
Keywords: Fluorescent, harmonic, power factor, WOLED.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1438
1544 The Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ) with Turkish Sample: Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analysis
Authors: Oznur Korukcu, Kamile Kukulu, Mehmet Z. Firat
The propose of this study is to investigate the factor structures of the W-DEQ, originally developed on UK and Swedish women, were confirmed in Turkish samples, and to obtain a new modified factor structure appropriate to Turkish culture. Statistical analyses of the data obtained were performed using SPSS© for Windows version 13.0 and the SAS statistical software Version 9.1. Both confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis of W-DEQ were performed in the study. Factor analysis yielded four factors related to hope, fear, lack of positive anticipation and riskiness. The alpha estimates of the total W-DEQ score were somewhat higher, being 0.92 for the parous and 0.90 for the nulliparous sample. These are well above the accepted limit of 0.70 and indicate excellent levels of internal reliability, thus showing that the questions were appropriate to the Turkish culture and useful scale for the evaluation of fear of childbirth in Turkish pregnants.
Keywords: Confirmatory factor analysis, cross-cultural research, exploratory factor analysis, fear of childbirth.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4953
1543 Evaluation of Behavior Factor for Steel Moment-Resisting Frames
Authors: Taïeb Branci, Djamal Yahmi, Abdelhamid Bouchair, Eric Fourneley
According to current seismic codes the structures are calculated using the capacity design procedure based on the concept of shear at the base depending on several parameters including behavior factor which is considered to be the most important parameter. The behavior factor allows designing the structure when it is at its ultimate limit state taking into account its energy dissipation through its plastic deformation. The aim of the present study is to assess the basic parameters on which is composed the behavior factor among them the reduction factor due to ductility, and those due to redundancy and the overstrength for steel moment-resisting frames of different heights and regular configuration. Analyses are conducted on these frames using the nonlinear static method where the effect of some parameters on the behavior factor, such as the number of stories and the number of spans, are taken into account. The results show that the behavior factor is rather sensitive to the variation of the number of stories and bays.
Keywords: Behavior, code, frame, ductility, overstrength, redundancy, plastic.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3104
1542 Increase Energy Savings with Lighting Automation Using Light Pipes and Power LEDs
Using of natural lighting has come into prominence in constructed buildings, especially in last ten years, under scope of energy efficiency. Natural lighting methods are one of the methods that aim to take advantage of day light in maximum level and decrease using of artificial lighting. Increasing of day light amount in buildings by using suitable methods will give optimum result in terms of comfort and energy saving when the daylight-artificial light integration is ensured with a suitable control system. Using of natural light in places that require lighting will ensure energy saving in great extent. With this study, it is aimed to save energy used for purpose of lighting. Under this scope, lighting of a scanning laboratory of a hospital was realized by using a lighting automation containing natural and artificial lighting. In natural lighting, light pipes were used and in artificial lighting, dimmable power LED modules were used. Necessity of lighting was followed with motion sensors. The lighting automation containing natural and artificial light was ensured with fuzzy logic control. At the scanning laboratory where this application was realized, energy saving in lighting was obtained.
Keywords: Daylight transfer, fuzzy logic controller, light pipe, Power LED.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1993
1541 An Analysis of Variation of Ceiling Height and Window Level for Studio Architecture in Malaysia
Authors: Seyedehzahra Mirrahimi, Nik Lukman Nik Ibrahim, M. Surat
This paper investigated the impact of ceiling height and window head heights variation on daylighting inside architectural teaching studio with a full width window. In architectural education, using the studio is more than normal classroom in most credit hours. Therefore, window position, size and dimension of studio have direct influence on level of daylighting. Daylighting design is a critical factor that improves student learning, concentration and behavior, in addition to these, it also reduces energy consumption. The methodology of analysis involves using Radiance in IES
Keywords: Ceiling height, window head height, daylighting, studio architecture, simulation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3169
1540 Effect of Orientation of the Wall Window on Energy Saving under Clear Sky Conditions
Authors: Madhu Sudan, G. N. Tiwari
Abstract:In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze the effect of wall window orientation on Daylight Illuminance Ratio (DIR) and energy saving in a building known as “SODHA BERS COMPLEX (SBC)” at Varanasi, UP, India. The building has been designed incorporating all passive concepts for thermal comfort as well daylighting concepts to maximize the use of natural daylighting for the occupants in the day to day activities. The annual average DIR and the energy saving has been estimated by using the DIR model for wall window with different orientations under clear sky condition. It has been found that for south oriented window the energy saving per square meter is more compared to the other orientations due to the higher level of solar insolation for the south window in northern hemisphere whereas energy saving potential is minimum for north oriented wall window. The energy saving potential was 26%, 81% and 51% higher for east, south and west oriented window in comparison to north oriented window. The average annual DIR has same trends of variation as the annual energy saving and it is maximum for south oriented window and minimum for north oriented window.
Keywords: Clear sky, Daylight Illuminance Ratio, Energy saving, Wall window.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1373
1539 A Neighborhood Condition for Fractional k-deleted Graphs
Authors: Sizhong Zhou, Hongxia Liu
Abstract–Let k ≥ 3 be an integer, and let G be a graph of order n with n ≥ 9k +3- 42(k - 1)2 + 2. Then a spanning subgraph F of G is called a k-factor if dF (x) = k for each x ∈ V (G). A fractional k-factor is a way of assigning weights to the edges of a graph G (with all weights between 0 and 1) such that for each vertex the sum of the weights of the edges incident with that vertex is k. A graph G is a fractional k-deleted graph if there exists a fractional k-factor after deleting any edge of G. In this paper, it is proved that G is a fractional k-deleted graph if G satisfies δ(G) ≥ k + 1 and |NG(x) ∪ NG(y)| ≥ 1 2 (n + k - 2) for each pair of nonadjacent vertices x, y of G.
Keywords: Graph, minimum degree, neighborhood union, fractional k-factor, fractional k-deleted graph.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 954
1538 Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor: A Comprehension Augmented Complexity Metric
Authors: T. Francis Thamburaj, A. Aloysius
Abstract:Polymorphism is one of the main pillars of objectoriented paradigm. It induces hidden forms of class dependencies which may impact software quality, resulting in higher cost factor for comprehending, debugging, testing, and maintaining the software. In this paper, a new cognitive complexity metric called Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor (CWPF) is proposed. Apart from the software structural complexity, it includes the cognitive complexity on the basis of type. The cognitive weights are calibrated based on 27 empirical studies with 120 persons. A case study and experimentation of the new software metric shows positive results. Further, a comparative study is made and the correlation test has proved that CWPF complexity metric is a better, more comprehensive, and more realistic indicator of the software complexity than Abreu’s Polymorphism Factor (PF) complexity metric.
Keywords: Cognitive complexity metric, cognitive weighted polymorphism factor, object-oriented metrics, polymorphism factor, software metrics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1878
1537 A High Quality Factor Filter Based on Quasi-Periodic Photonic Structure
Authors: Hamed Alipour-Banaei, Farhad Mehdizadeh
Abstract:We report the design and characterization of ultra high quality factor filter based on one-dimensional photonic-crystal Thue- Morse sequence structure. The behavior of aperiodic array of photonic crystal structure is numerically investigated and we show that by changing the angle of incident wave, desired wavelengths could be tuned and a tunable filter is realized. Also it is shown that high quality factor filter be achieved in the telecommunication window around 1550 nm, with a device based on Thue-Morse structure. Simulation results show that the proposed structure has a quality factor more than 100000 and it is suitable for DWDM communication applications.
Keywords: Thue-Morse, filter, quality factor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1744
1536 Affine Projection Algorithm with Variable Data-Reuse Factor
Authors: ChangWoo Lee, Young Kow Lee, Sung Jun Ban, SungHoo Choi, Sang Woo Kim
This paper suggests a new Affine Projection (AP) algorithm with variable data-reuse factor using the condition number as a decision factor. To reduce computational burden, we adopt a recently reported technique which estimates the condition number of an input data matrix. Several simulations show that the new algorithm has better performance than that of the conventional AP algorithm.
Keywords: Affine projection algorithm, variable data-reuse factor, condition number, convergence rate, misalignment.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1429
1535 Establishing a New Simple Formula for Buckling Length Factor (K) of Rigid Frames Columns
Authors: Ehab Hasan Ahmed Hasan Ali
Abstract:The calculation of buckling length factor (K) for steel frames columns is a major and governing processes to determine the dimensions steel frame columns cross sections during design. The buckling length of steel frames columns has a direct effect on the cost (weight) of using cross section. A new formula is required to determine buckling length factor (K) by simplified way. In this research a new formula for buckling length factor (K) was established to determine by accurate method for a limited interval of columns ends rigidity (GA, GB). The new formula can be used ease to evaluate the buckling length factor without needing to complicated equations or difficult charts.
Keywords: Buckling length, New formula, Curve fitting, Simplification, Steel column design.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2083
1534 Electron Filling Factor and Sunlight Concentration Effects on the Efficiency of Intermediate Band Solar Cell
Authors: Nima Es'haghi Gorji, Hossein Movla, Foozieh Sohrabi, Alireza Mottaghizadeh, Mohammad Houshmand, Hassan Babaei, Arash Nikniazi
For a determined intermediate band position, the effects of electron filling factor and sunlight concentration on the active region thickness and efficiency of the quantum-dot intermediate band solar cell are calculated. For each value of electron filling factor, the maximum point of efficiency obtained and resulted in the optimum thickness of the cell under three different sunlight concentrations. We show the importance of filling factor as a parameter to be more considered. The photon recycling effect eliminated in all calculations.
Keywords: Intermediate band, Sunlight concentration, Efficiency limits, Electron filling factorProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1429
1533 Forecasting Electricity Spot Price with Generalized Long Memory Modeling: Wavelet and Neural Network
Authors: Souhir Ben Amor, Heni Boubaker, Lotfi Belkacem
Abstract:This aims of this paper is to forecast the electricity spot prices. First, we focus on modeling the conditional mean of the series so we adopt a generalized fractional -factor Gegenbauer process (k-factor GARMA). Secondly, the residual from the -factor GARMA model has used as a proxy for the conditional variance; these residuals were predicted using two different approaches. In the first approach, a local linear wavelet neural network model (LLWNN) has developed to predict the conditional variance using the Back Propagation learning algorithms. In the second approach, the Gegenbauer generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity process (G-GARCH) has adopted, and the parameters of the k-factor GARMA-G-GARCH model has estimated using the wavelet methodology based on the discrete wavelet packet transform (DWPT) approach. The empirical results have shown that the k-factor GARMA-G-GARCH model outperform the hybrid k-factor GARMA-LLWNN model, and find it is more appropriate for forecasts.
Keywords: k-factor, GARMA, LLWNN, G-GARCH, electricity price, forecasting.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 824
1532 Mind Your Product-Market Strategy on Selecting Marketing Inputs: An Uncertainty Approach in Indian Context
Authors: Susmita Ghosh, Bhaskar Bhowmick
Abstract:Market is an important factor for start-ups to look into during decision-making in product development and related areas. Emerging country markets are more uncertain in terms of information availability and institutional supports. The literature review of market uncertainty reveals the need for identifying factors representing the market uncertainty. This paper identifies factors for market uncertainty using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and confirmed the number of factor retention using an alternative factor retention criterion ‘Parallel Analysis’. 500 entrepreneurs, engaged in start-ups from all over India participated in the study. This paper concludes with the factor structure of ‘market uncertainty’ having dimensions of uncertainty in industry orientation, uncertainty in customer orientation and uncertainty in marketing orientation.
Keywords: Uncertainty, market, orientation, competitor, demand.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1397
1531 [a, b]-Factors Excluding Some Specified Edges In Graphs
Authors: Sizhong Zhou, Bingyuan Pu
Let G be a graph of order n, and let a, b and m be positive integers with 1 ≤ a<b. An [a, b]-factor of G is deﬁned as a spanning subgraph F of G such that a ≤ dF (x) ≤ b for each x ∈ V (G). In this paper, it is proved that if n ≥ (a+b−1+√(a+b+1)m−2)2−1 b and δ(G) > n + a + b − 2 √bn+ 1, then for any subgraph H of G with m edges, G has an [a, b]-factor F such that E(H)∩ E(F) = ∅. This result is an extension of thatof Egawa .
Keywords: graph, minimum degree, [a, b]-factor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 980
1530 A Novel Forgetting Factor Recursive Least Square Algorithm Applied to the Human Motion Analysis
Authors: Hadi Sadoghi Yazdi, Mehri Sadoghi Yazdi, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi
This paper is concerned with studying the forgetting factor of the recursive least square (RLS). A new dynamic forgetting factor (DFF) for RLS algorithm is presented. The proposed DFF-RLS is compared to other methods. Better performance at convergence and tracking of noisy chirp sinusoid is achieved. The control of the forgetting factor at DFF-RLS is based on the gradient of inverse correlation matrix. Compared with the gradient of mean square error algorithm, the proposed approach provides faster tracking and smaller mean square error. In low signal-to-noise ratios, the performance of the proposed method is superior to other approaches.
Keywords: Forgetting factor, RLS, Inverse correlation matrix, human motion analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2057
1529 An Investigation on Overstrength Factor (Ω) of Reinforced Concrete Buildings in Turkish Earthquake Draft Code (TEC-2016)
Authors: M. Hakan Arslan, I. Hakkı Erkan
Overstrength factor is an important parameter of load reduction factor. In this research, the overstrength factor (Ω) of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings and the parameters of Ω in TEC-2016 draft version have been explored. For this aim, 48 RC buildings have been modeled according to the current seismic code TEC-2007 and Turkish Building Code-500-2000 criteria. After modelling step, nonlinear static pushover analyses have been applied to these buildings by using TEC-2007 Section 7. After the nonlinear pushover analyses, capacity curves (lateral load-lateral top displacement curves) have been plotted for 48 RC buildings. Using capacity curves, overstrength factors (Ω) have been derived for each building. The obtained overstrength factor (Ω) values have been compared with TEC-2016 values for related building types, and the results have been interpreted. According to the obtained values from the study, overstrength factor (Ω) given in TEC-2016 draft code is found quite suitable.
Keywords: Reinforced concrete buildings, overstrength factor, earthquake, static pushover analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1875
1528 Analysis of Socio-Cultural Obstacles for Dissemination of Nanotechnology from Iran's Agricultural Experts Perspective
Authors: S. M. Mirdamadi, S. Esmaeili, S. A. Tohidloo
The main purpose of this research was to analyze Socio-Cultural obstacles of disseminating of nanotechnology in Iran's agricultural section. One hundred twenty eight out of a total of 190 researchers with different levels of expertise in and familiarity with nanotechnology were randomly selected and questionnaires completed by them. Face validity have been done by expert's suggestion and correction, reliability by using Cronbakh-Alpha formula. The results of a factor analysis showed variation for different factors. For cultural factors 19/475 percent, for management 13/139 percent, information factor 11/277 percent, production factor 9/703 percent, social factor 9/267 percent, and for attitude factor it became 8/947 percent. Also results indicated that socio-cultural factors were the most important obstacle for nanotechnology dissemination in agricultural section in Iran.
Keywords: Agriculture, Iran, nanotechnology, public perception, social-cultural obstacles.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1720