Search results for: winter wheat production
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2226

Search results for: winter wheat production

2226 Precipitation Change and its Implication in the Change of Winter Wheat drought and Production in North China Region from 2000 to 2010

Authors: Y. Huang, Q. J. Tian, L. T. Du, J. Liu, S. S. Li

Abstract:

Understanding how precipitation inter-annually changes and its implication in agricultural drought and production change in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth season is critical for crop production in China. MODIS Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) and daily mean precipitation time series for the main growth season(Feb. to May) of winter wheat from 2000 to 2010 were used to analyze the distribution of trends of precipitation, agricultural drought and winter wheat yield change respectively, and relationships between them in North China region(Huang-huai-hai region, HHH region), China. The results indicated that the trend of precipitation in HHH region past 11 years was increasing, which had induced generally corresponding decreasing trend of agricultural drought and increasing trend of wheat yield, while the trend of drought was spatially diverse. The study could provide a basis for agricultural drought research during winter wheat season in HHH region under the ground of climate change.

Keywords: drought, MODIS, precipitation change, TVDI, winter wheat production

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2225 The Effectiveness of Tebuconazole and Chitosan in Inhibiting the Growth of Fusarium Species on Winter Wheat Grain under Field Conditions

Authors: Urszula Wachowska, Anna Daria Stasiulewicz-Paluch, Katarzyna Kucharska

Abstract:

A three-year field experiment (2010-2012) was conducted to determine the abundance of epiphytic and endophytic filamentous fungi colonizing the grain of winter wheat cv. Bogatka. Wheat spikes were protected with tebuconazole or chitosan at the watery ripe stage. Untreated plants served as control. Tebuconazole exerted an inhibitory effect primarily on F. culmorum and F. graminearum, and its effectiveness was determined by the pressure from pathogens that infected wheat spikes during the growing season. Chitosan did not suppress the growth of Fusarium species and Alternaria alternata.

Keywords: Winter wheat, tebuconazole, chitosan, Fusarium.

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2224 Influence of Nitrogen Fertilization on the Yields and Grain Quality of Winter Wheat under Different Environmental Conditions

Authors: Alicja Sułek, Grażyna Cacak-Pietrzak, Marta Wyzińska, Anna Nieróbca

Abstract:

In 2013/2014 and 2014/2015, a field experiment was conducted in two locations: Osiny and Wielichowo (Poland). The two-factor experiment was based on the method of randomized subblocks, in three replications. The first factor (A) was dose of nitrogen fertilization (two levels). The second factor (B) was nine winter wheat cultivars. It was found that winter wheat cultivars exhibited different reactions to higher nitrogen fertilization depending on the years and localities. Only KWS Dacanto cultivar under all growing conditions showed a significant increase in grain yield after the application of a higher level of nitrogen fertilization. The increase in nitrogen fertilization influenced the increase in gluten proteins content in wheat grain, but these changes were statistically significant only in the first year of the study. The quality of gluten does not depend on nitrogen fertilization. The quality of wheat grain depends on cultivars.

Keywords: Fertilization, grain quality, winter wheat, yield.

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2223 Carbon Accumulation in Winter Wheat under Different Growing Intensity and Climate Change

Authors: V. Povilaitis, S. Lazauskas, Š. Antanaitis, S. Sakalauskien, J. Sakalauskait, G. Pšibišauskien, O. Auškalnien, S. Raudonius, P. Duchovskis

Abstract:

World population growth drives food demand, promotes intensification of agriculture, development of new production technologies and varieties more suitable for regional nature conditions. Climate change can affect the length of growing period, biomass and carbon accumulation in winter wheat. The increasing mean air temperature resulting from climate change can reduce the length of growth period of cereals, and without adequate adjustments in growing technologies or varieties, can reduce biomass and carbon accumulation. Deeper understanding and effective measures for monitoring and management of cereal growth process are needed for adaptation to changing climate and technological conditions.

Keywords: carbon, climate change, modeling, winter wheat

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2222 Cold Hardiness in Near Isogenic Lines of Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. em. Thell.)

Authors: Abolfazl Rashidi Asl, Siroos Mahfoozi, Mohammad Reza Bihamta

Abstract:

Low temperature (LT) is one of the most abiotic stresses causing loss of yield in wheat (T. aestivum). Four major genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with the dominant alleles designated Vrn–A1,Vrn–B1,Vrn–D1 and Vrn4, are known to have large effects on the vernalization response, but the effects on cold hardiness are ambiguous. Poor cold tolerance has restricted winter wheat production in regions of high winter stress [9]. It was known that nearly all wheat chromosomes [5] or at least 10 chromosomes of 21 chromosome pairs are important in winter hardiness [15]. The objective of present study was to clarify the role of each chromosome in cold tolerance. With this purpose we used 20 isogenic lines of wheat. In each one of these isogenic lines only a chromosome from ‘Bezostaya’ variety (a winter habit cultivar) was substituted to ‘Capple desprez’ variety. The plant materials were planted in controlled conditions with 20º C and 16 h day length in moderately cold areas of Iran at Karaj Agricultural Research Station in 2006-07 and the acclimation period was completed for about 4 weeks in a cold room with 4º C. The cold hardiness of these isogenic lines was measured by LT50 (the temperature in which 50% of the plants are killed by freezing stress).The experimental design was completely randomized block design (RCBD)with three replicates. The results showed that chromosome 5A had a major effect on freezing tolerance, and then chromosomes 1A and 4A had less effect on this trait. Further studies are essential to understanding the importance of each chromosome in controlling cold hardiness in wheat.

Keywords: Cold hardiness, isogenic lines, LT50 , Triticum.

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2221 The Impact of Crop Rotation and N Fertilization on the Leaf Area Index, Leaf Disease and Yield of Winter Wheat

Authors: E. Vári, K. Máriás

Abstract:

The research focused on the effects of previous cropping and fertilizers on the LAI, rhythm of the dry matter, leaf disease intensity and amount of yield. Long term field experiments’ results proved that the previous crop fundamentally determines size, rate and dynamics of the dry matter formation in the spring time vegetation period. The LAI index and crop results of winter wheat can be influenced mainly by raising the fertilizer amount. N fertilization has an outstanding role in the changes in leaf area index (LAI), weight of dry matter and yield of winter wheat. According to our results, the interaction effect of leaf area index, weight of dry matter and fertilization resulted in the maximum yield in biculture and triculture.

Keywords: Crop rotation, Leaf Area Index, leaf disease of winter wheat.

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2220 The Effects of Crop Rotation and Nutrient Supply on the Leaf Area Values of Winter Wheat in a Long-Term Experiment

Authors: Gergely Szilágyi, Péter Pepó

Abstract:

Our field experiments were set at the RISF Látókép Experimental Farm of the Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen, on lime-coated chernozem soil. During our studies, we have investigated two winter wheat varieties (GK Öthalom, Mv Csárdás) of different genotypes. The preceding crops were sunflower and grain maize. We examined wheat leaf area index (LAI) five times during by BBCH scale. We have found that during the different stages of the vegetation period, the LAI values were different depending on the preceding crop, variety and nutrient levels. According to our results, the lowest LAI values were experienced in the control treatment, in the case of both preceding crops. According to our studies we can conclude that crop rotation and fertilizer treatment influenced the studied physiological trait to different extents.

Keywords: Winter wheat, crop rotation, fertilization, genotype, LAI.

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2219 Aureobasidium pullulans Used as a Biological Control Agent under Field Conditions Affects the Microbial Quality of Winter Wheat Grain

Authors: Urszula Wachowska, Anna Daria Stasiulewicz-Paluch, Iwona Konopka, Katarzyna Kucharska, Justyna Borowska

Abstract:

The biological activity of A. pullulans isolates against species of the genus Fusarium, bacteria of the genus Azotobacter and pseudomonads colonizing wheat kernels was evaluated. A field experiment was carried out in 2009-2011, in north-eastern Poland. Winter wheat (cv. Bogatka) plants were sprayed with a cell suspension of A. pullulans at a density of 106 - 108 per cm3 water at the stem elongation stage and the heading stage. Untreated plants served as control. The abundance of epiphytic yeasts, bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, pseudomonads and Fusarium pathogens on wheat grain was estimated at harvest and after six months’ storage. The average size of yeast communities was significantly greater on wheat kernels treated with a cell suspension of A. pullulans, compared with control samples. In 2010-2011, biological control reduced the abundance of some species of the genus Fusarium.

Keywords: Aureobasidium pullulans, winter wheat grain, Fusarium, bacteria.

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2218 The Effectiveness of Mineral Fertilization of Winter Wheat by Nitrogen in the Soil and Climatic Conditions in the Cr

Authors: Václav Voltr, Jan Leština

Abstract:

The basis of examines is survey of 500 in the years 2002-2010, which was selected according to homogeneity of land cover and where 1090 revenues were evaluated. For achieved yields of winter wheat is obtained multicriterial regression function depending on the major factors influencing the consumption of nitrogen. The coefficient of discrimination of the established model is 0.722. The increase in efficiency of fertilization is involved in supply of organic nutrients, tillage, soil pH, past weather, the humus content in the subsoil and grain content to 0.001 mm. The decrease in efficiency was mainly influenced by the total dose of mineral nitrogen, although it was divided into multiple doses, the proportion loamy particles up to 0.01 mm, rainy, or conversely dry weather during the vegetation. The efficiency of nitrogen was found to be the smallest on undeveloped soils and the highest on chernozem and alluvial soils.

Keywords: Nitrogen efficiency, winter wheat, regression model

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2217 The Response of Winter Wheat to Flooding

Authors: M. E. Ghobadi, M. Ghobadi, A. Zebarjadi

Abstract:

The effect of flooding can be a serious problem for wheat farmers, even at dry land condition. Amount of flooding damage depends on duration flooding, developmental stage, wheat type and variety. Therefore as a factorial experiment in randomized complete design based on winter bread wheat cultivars (Pishtaz, Marvdasht, Shiraz, Zarin, Shahriar, C-81-4, Sardari, Agosta seed, FGS and Azar2) at stages (Non- flooding stress, flooding at tillering and stem elongation stages for 15 days) carried out in Faculty of Agriculture, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. During flooding, soil environment of plant roots were water saturated. Analysis of variance showed that flooding had a significant effect on the number of grains per spike, grain weight per spike and a grain weight. Hence flooding reduces the number of grain per spike between 27.1 to 42.5 percent, grain weight per spike between 34.7 to 54.4 percent and single grain weight between 12.1 to 15.1 percent. Effects of flooding at the tillering stage reduced higher than stem elongation stage on studied traits. The result also showed that flooding at tillering stage delayed spikelet primordial and floret. Between wheat cultivars was significant for traits, but were different reactions. "Shiraz", "Zarin" and "Shahriar" had the most no. grain per spike, but "Zarin" and "Sardari" had the most grain weight per spike and single grain weight, respectively. Also, interaction between start of flooding and cultivar was significant.

Keywords: Flooding, winter wheat, yield components

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2216 Modelling of Energy Consumption in Wheat Production Using Neural Networks “Case Study in Canterbury Province, New Zealand“

Authors: M. Safa, S. Samarasinghe

Abstract:

An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was used to model the energy consumption of wheat production. This study was conducted over 35,300 hectares of irrigated and dry land wheat fields in Canterbury in the 2007-2008 harvest year.1 In this study several direct and indirect factors have been used to create an artificial neural networks model to predict energy use in wheat production. The final model can predict energy consumption by using farm condition (size of wheat area and number paddocks), farmers- social properties (education), and energy inputs (N and P use, fungicide consumption, seed consumption, and irrigation frequency), it can also predict energy use in Canterbury wheat farms with error margin of ±7% (± 1600 MJ/ha).

Keywords: Artificial neural network, Canterbury, energy consumption, modelling, New Zealand, wheat.

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2215 Technological Value of Selected Spring Wheat Cultivars Depending on the Sowing Date

Authors: Marta Wyzińska, Jerzy Grabiński, Alicja Sułek

Abstract:

The grain quality is a decisive factor in its use. In Poland, spring wheat is characterized by more favorable quality parameters in relation to the winter form of this species. In the present study, the effects of three different sowing dates (autumn, delayed autumn, and spring) and cultivar (Tybalt, Cytra, Bombona, Monsun, and Parabola) on the selected technological value parameters of spring wheat over three years were studied. The field trials were carried out in two locations (Bezek, Czesławice) in the Lubelskie Vivodeship, Poland. It was found that the falling number of spring wheat grains from autumn sowing dates was at a similar level to wheat sown in spring. The amount of wet gluten in the grain was variable in years, and its quality was better in wheat sown in spring. Sedimentation index was dependent upon on the cultivar.

Keywords: Sowing term, spring wheat, technological value, quality.

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2214 Production of Cellulases by Aspergillus Heteromorphus from Wheat Straw under Submerged Fermentation

Authors: Anita Singh, Namita Singh, Narsi R. Bishnoi

Abstract:

To investigate the production of cellulases from Aspergillus heteromorphus, submerged fermentation was performed using wheat straw as substrate. Optimization of saccharification conditions like pH, temperature and time were studied. Highest reducing sugar was released on 5th day at 5 pH, 30° C temperature. When A. heteromorphous was grown on wheat straw in submerged fermentation after 5 days incubation at 30 ° C, 3.2 IU/ml and 83 IU/ml, filter paper activity and CMCase activity respectively.

Keywords: Aspergillus heteromorphus, Wheat Straw, Submerged Fermentation, Production of Cellulases

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2213 Polymorphism of HMW-GS in Collection of Wheat Genotypes

Authors: M. Chňapek, M. Tomka, R. Peroutková, Z. Gálová

Abstract:

Processes of plant breeding, testing and licensing of new varieties, patent protection in seed production, relations in trade and protection of copyright are dependent on identification, differentiation and characterization of plant genotypes. Therefore, we focused our research on utilization of wheat storage proteins as genetic markers suitable not only for differentiation of individual genotypes, but also for identification and characterization of their considerable properties. We analyzed a collection of 102 genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), 41 genotypes of spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.), and 35 genotypes of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), in this study. Our results show, that genotypes of bread wheat and durum wheat were homogenous and single line, but spelt wheat genotypes were heterogenous. We observed variability of HMW-GS composition according to environmental factors and level of breeding and predict technological quality on the basis of Glu-score calculation.

Keywords: Genotype identification, HMW-GS, wheat quality.

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2212 Performance of Ripped and Unripped Plantain-Wheat Flour Blend in Biscuit production

Authors: Idoko J. O., Nwajiaku I.

Abstract:

Unripe and ripe plantain were dried and milled into flour and used with wheat flour in biscuit production to determine the best plantain-wheat composite flour for biscuit production. The blends as follows: 100% wheat flour, 100% ripe plantain flour, 100% unripe plantain flour, 50% wheat flour and 50% ripe plantain flour and 50% wheat flour and 50% unripe plantain flour. The Biscuit samples were stored at ambient temperature for 8 weeks after which the equilibrium moisture content and water activity were determined. The sensory evaluation of the biscuit samples was also determined. The results of these analyses showed 100% unripe plantain flour as the most stable of the BISCUIT samples judging from its equilibrium moisture content level of 0.32% and water activity of 0.62. The sensory evaluation results showed Biscuit made from 150:50 ripe plantain and wheat flour as most generally accepted at 5% level of significance.

Keywords: Biscuit, equilibrium moisture content, performance, plantain, water activity.

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2211 Determination of Alkaline Protease Production In Serratia Marcescens Sp7 Using Agro Wastes As Substrate Medium, Optimization Of Production Parameters And Purification Of The Enzyme

Authors: Baby Joseph, Sankarganesh Palaniyandi

Abstract:

The enzyme alkaline protease production was determined under solid state fermentation using the soil bacteria Serratia marcescens sp7. The maximum production was obtained from wheat bran medium than ground nut shell and chemically defined medium. The physiological fermentation factors such as pH of the medium (pH 8), Temperature (40oC) and incubation time (48 hrs) played a vital role in alkaline protease production in all the above. 100Mm NaCl has given better resolution during elution of the enzymes. The enzyme production was found to be associated with growth of the bacterial culture.

Keywords: Alkaline protease, Wheat bran, Ground nut shell, Serratia marcescens

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2210 Baking Quality of Hulled Wheat Species in Organic Farming

Authors: P. Konvalina, I. Capouchová, Z. Stehno

Abstract:

The organic farmers use wider range of crop varieties than the conventional farming. Bread wheat is the most favorite and the most common food crop. The organic bread wheat is usually of worse technological quality. Therefore, it is supposed to be an attractive alternative to the hulled wheat species (einkorn, emmer wheat and spelt). Twenty-five hulled bread wheat varieties and control bread wheat ones were grown on the certified organic parcel in České Budějovice (the Czech Republic) between 2009 and 2012. Their baking quality was measured and evaluated with standard methods, and in accordance with ICC. The results have shown that the grain of hulled wheat varieties contain a lot of proteins in grains (up to 18 percent); even the organic hulled bread wheat varieties are characterized by such good baking quality. Einkorn and emmer wheat are of worse technological quality of proteins (low values of gluten index and Zeleny test), which is a disadvantage of these two wheat species. On the other hand, spelt wheat is of better technological quality and is similar to the control bread wheat varieties. Mixtures consisting of bread wheat, among others, are considered good alternatives; they may contribute to wider range of use of the hulled wheat species. It is one of the possibilities which may increase the proportion of proteins in bread wheat grains; the nutrition-rich hulled wheat grains may be also used in such way at the same time.

Keywords: Baking quality, organic farming, einkorn, emmer wheat, spelt.

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2209 Vegetation Index-Deduced Crop Coefficient of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Using Remote Sensing: Case Study on Four Basins of Golestan Province, Iran

Authors: Hoda Zolfagharnejad, Behnam Kamkar, Omid Abdi

Abstract:

Crop coefficient (Kc) is an important factor contributing to estimation of evapotranspiration, and is also used to determine the irrigation schedule. This study investigated and determined the monthly Kc of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using five vegetation indices (VIs): Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Difference Vegetation Index (DVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Infrared Percentage Vegetation Index (IPVI), and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) of four basins in Golestan province, Iran. 14 Landsat-8 images according to crop growth stage were used to estimate monthly Kc of wheat. VIs were calculated based on infrared and near infrared bands of Landsat 8 images using Geographical Information System (GIS) software. The best VIs were chosen after establishing a regression relationship among these VIs with FAO Kc and Kc that was modified for the study area by the previous research based on R² and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The result showed that local modified SAVI with R²= 0.767 and RMSE= 0.174 was the best index to produce monthly wheat Kc maps.

Keywords: Crop coefficient, remote sensing, vegetation indices, wheat.

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2208 Utilization of Wheat Bran as Bed Material in Solid State Bacterial Production of Lactic Acid with Various Nitrogen Sources

Authors: U.K.Ghosh, M.K.Ghosh

Abstract:

The present experimental investigation brings about a comparative study of lactic acid production by pure strains of Lactobacilli (1) L. delbreuckii (NCIM2025), (2) L. pentosus (NCIM 2912), (3) Lactobacillus sp.(NCIM 2734, (4) Lactobacillus sp. (NCIM2084) and coculture of strain-1 and Stain-2 in solid bed of wheat bran, under the influence of different nitrogen sources such as baker-s yeast, meat extract and proteose peptone. Among the pure cultures, strain-3 attained lowest pH value of 3.44, hence highest acid formation 46.41 g/L, while the coculture attained an overall maximum value 47.56 g/L lactic acid (pH 3.38) at 15 g/L and 20 g/L level of baker-s yeast, respectively.

Keywords: Eco-friendly, lactic acid, lactobacilli, wheat bran

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2207 Wheat Bran Carbohydrates as Substrate for Bifidobacterium lactis Development

Authors: V. Radenkovs, D. Klava, K. Juhnevica

Abstract:

The present study addresses problems and solutions related to new functional food production. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) bran obtained from industrial mill company “Dobeles dzirnavieks”, was used to investigate them as raw material like nutrients for Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12. Enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat bran starch was carried out by α-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (Sigma Aldrich). The Viscozyme L purchased from (Sigma Aldrich) were used for reducing released sugar. Bifidibacterium lactis Bb-12 purchased from (Probio-Tec® CHR Hansen) was cultivated in enzymatically hydrolysed wheat bran mash. All procedures ensured the number of active Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 in the final product reached 105 CFUg-1. After enzymatic and bacterial fermentations sample were freeze dried for analysis of chemical compounds. All experiments were performed at Faculty of Food Technology of Latvia University of Agriculture in January- March 2013. The obtained results show that both types of wheat bran (enzymatically treated and non-treated) influenced the fermentative activity and number of Bifidibacterium lactis Bb-12 viable in wheat bran mash. Amount of acidity strongly increase during the wheat bran mash fermentation. The main objective of this work was to create low-energy functional enzymatically and bacterially treated food from wheat bran using enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates and following cultivation of Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12.

Keywords: Viscozyme L, α-amylase, Bifidobacterium lactis, fermented wheat bran.

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2206 A Tool for Creation Artificial Symbiotic Associations of Wheat

Authors: Zilya R. Vershinina, Andrei K. Baymiev, Aleksei K. Baymiev, Aleksei V. Chemeris

Abstract:

This paper reports optimization of characteristics of bioballistic transformation of spring soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivar Raduga) and getting of transgenic plants, carrying pea lectin gene. This gene will let to create new associative wheat symbiosis with nodule bacteria of field pea, which has growth encouraging, fungistatic and other useful characteristics.

Keywords: transgenic wheat, pea lectin, rhizobia root colonization, symbiosis

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2205 Bioprocessing of Proximally Analyzed Wheat Straw for Enhanced Cellulase Production through Process Optimization with Trichodermaviride under SSF

Authors: Ishtiaq Ahmed, Muhammad Anjum Zia, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir Iqbal

Abstract:

The purpose of the present work was to study the production and process parameters optimization for the synthesis of cellulase from Trichoderma viride in solid state fermentation (SSF) using an agricultural wheat straw as substrates; as fungal conversion of lignocellulosic biomass for cellulase production is one among the major increasing demand for various biotechnological applications. An optimization of process parameters is a necessary step to get higher yield of product. Several kinetic parameters like pretreatment, extraction solvent, substrate concentration, initial moisture content, pH, incubation temperature and inoculum size were optimized for enhanced production of third most demanded industrially important cellulase. The maximum cellulase enzyme activity 398.10±2.43 μM/mL/min was achieved when proximally analyzed lignocellulosic substrate wheat straw inocubated at 2% HCl as pretreatment tool along with distilled water as extraction solvent, 3% substrate concentration 40% moisture content with optimum pH 5.5 at 45°C incubation temperature and 10% inoculum size.

Keywords: Cellulase, Lignocellulosic residue, Processoptimization, Proximal analysis, SSF, Trichoderma viride.

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2204 Production of the Protein-Vitamin Complex from Wheat Germ

Authors: Gulmira Kenenbay, Urishbay Chomanov, Tamara Tultabayeva, Aruzhan Shoman

Abstract:

Wheat germ has a balanced amino acid composition of the protein, which is well digested by enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract of humans, a high content of vitamins, minerals and unsaturated acids. Introduction components grain food products will enrich their biologically important substances, giving these products a number of valuable properties and reducing their caloric. A complex natural system of substances in foods will help replenish the body's need of essential nutrients, increasing its resistance to the harmful effects of the environment, prolong life. In this regard, there was a need for the development of production technology of protein complexes from wheat germ and then applying them in food, particularly in the dairy industry. Experimental studies were conducted to determine the number of herbal supplements on the sensory characteristics of the product. Studies have been conducted to determine the optimal process parameters of water activity and moisture content of the investigational product. 

Keywords: Wheat germ, sensory characteristics of the product, water activity.

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2203 Utilization of Kitchen Waste inside Green House Chamber: A Community Level Biogas Programme

Authors: Ravi P. Agrahari

Abstract:

The present study was undertaken with the objective of evaluating kitchen waste as an alternative organic material for biogas production in community level biogas plant. The field study was carried out for one month (January 19, 2012– February 17, 2012) at Centre for Energy Studies, IIT Delhi, New Delhi, India.

This study involves the uses of greenhouse canopy to increase the temperature for the production of biogas in winter period. In continuation, a semi-continuous study was conducted for one month with the retention time of 30 days under batch system. The gas generated from the biogas plant was utilized for cooking (burner) and lighting (lamp) purposes. Gas productions in the winter season registered lower than other months. It can be concluded that the solar greenhouse assisted biogas plant can be efficiently adopted in colder region or in winter season because temperature plays a major role in biogas production. 

Keywords: Biogas, Green house chamber, organic material, solar intensity.

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2202 Utilization of Soymilk Residue for Wheat Flour Substitution in Gyoza skin

Authors: Naruemon Prapasuwannakul

Abstract:

Soymilk residue is obtained as a byproduct from soymilk and tofu production with little economic value. It contains high protein and fiber as well as various minerals and phyto-chemical compounds. The objective of this research was to substitute soymilk residue for wheat flour in gyoza skin in order to enhance value of soymilk residue and increase protein and fiber content of gyoza skin. Wheat flour was replaced with soymilk residue from 0 to 40%. The soy milk residue prepared in this research contains 26.92%protein, 3.58% fiber, 2.88% lipid, 6.29% ash and 60.33% carbohydrate. The results showed that increasing soymilk residue decreased lightness (L*value), tensile strength and sensory attributes but increased redness (a*), yellowness (b*), protein and fiber contents of product. The result also showed that the gyoza skin substituted with 30% soymilk residue was the most acceptable (p≤0.05) and its protein and fiber content increased up to 45 % and 867 % respectively.

Keywords: Gyoza skin, sensory, soymilk residue, wheat flour.

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2201 Total and Partial Factor Productivity Analysis of Irrigated Wheat in Iran by Separate of Exploitation Scales

Authors: Hassan Masoumi, Rashed Alavi

Abstract:

Wheat is one of the strategic crops in Iran, on which the household food basket is highly dependent. Although this crop is cultivated and produced in almost all provinces of the country, its production efficiency is lower than the global and regional averages due to the lack of optimal use of allocated resources. In this research, which was carried out with a documentary and library method, first, the total and partial productivity indices of irrigated wheat production were calculated in large, medium and small exploitation scales in different provinces of the country, and then the provinces were clustered in terms of these indices. The results showed that the total productivity of production factors had a direct correlation with the scale of exploitation, so that with the increase in the size of exploitations, the total productivity index increased. On the scale of small exploitations, North Khorasan, Zanjan, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, on a medium scale, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province and on the scale of large exploitations, Zanjan, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari provinces, Kohkiloyeh and Boyer Ahmad and North Khorasan, with better use of production resources compared to other provinces, were placed in the best cluster in terms of total productivity index. The high total productivity index in Zanjan, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province is related to the higher productivity of factors such as mechanization and land in these provinces. Finally, the methods of using these factors in productive provinces, along with technical and specialized regional guidelines, can facilitate the improvement of productivity in less productive provinces.

Keywords: Clustering, Irrigated wheat, Iran, total productivity.

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2200 Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Phenolics and Tocopherols Enriched Oil from Wheat Bran

Authors: Kyung-Tae Kwon, Md. Salim Uddin, Go-Woon Jung, Jeong-Eun Sim, Byung-Soo Chun

Abstract:

Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) was used as a solvent to extract oil from wheat bran. Extractions were carried out in a semi-batch process at temperatures ranging from 40 to 60ºC and pressures ranging from 10 to 30 MPa, with a carbon dioxide (CO2) flow rate of 26.81 g/min. The oil obtained from wheat bran at different extraction conditions was quantitatively measured to investigate the solubility of oil in SC-CO2. The solubility of wheat bran oil was found to be enhanced in high temperature and pressure. The composition of fatty acids in wheat bran oil was measured by gas chromatography (GC). Linoleic, palmitic, oleic and γ-linolenic acid were the major fatty acids of wheat bran oil. Tocopherol contents in oil were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The highest amount of phenolics and tocopherols (α and β) were found at temperature of 60ºC and pressure of 30 MPa.

Keywords: Supercritical carbon dioxide, Tocopherols, Totalphenolic content, Wheat bran oil

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2199 Comparing Measurements of UV Radiation in Winter and Summer in Finland

Authors: R. Pääkkönen, L. Korpinen, F. Gobba

Abstract:

The objective of our study is to investigate UV exposure in Finland through sample measurements as a typical case study in summer and winter. We measured UV-BC weighted radiation and calculated a daily dose, which is about 100–150 times the Finnish exposure limit value in summer and 1–6 times in winter. The measured ultraviolet indices varied from 0 to 7 (scale 0–18), which is less than the values obtained in countries that are located farther south from Tampere latitude of 61 degrees. In wintertime, the UV exposure was modest compared to summertime, 50–150 mW/m2 and about 1–5 mW/m2 in summer and winter, respectively. However, technical means to manage UV exposure in Scandinavia are also needed in summer- and springtime.

Keywords: Ultraviolet radiation, measurement, winter, summer.

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2198 Effect of Calving Season on the Economic and Production Efficiency of Dairy Production Breeds

Authors: Eman. K. Ramadan, Abdelgawad. S. El-Tahawy

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of calving season on the production and economic efficiency of dairy farms in Egypt. Our study was performed at dairy production farms in the Alexandria, Behera, and Kafr El-Sheikh provinces of Egypt from summer 2010 to winter 2013. The randomly selected dairy farms had herds consisting of Baladi, Holstein-Friesian, or cross-bred (Baladi × Holstein-Friesian) cows. The data were collected from production records and responses to a structured questionnaire. The average total return differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the different cattle breeds and calving seasons. The average total return was highest for the Holstein- Friesian cows that calved in the winter (29106.42 EGP/cow/year), and it was lowest for Baladi cows that calved in the summer (12489.79 EGP/cow/year). Differences in total returns between the cows that calved in the winter or summer or between the foreign and native breeds, as well as variations in calf prices, might have contributed to the differences in milk yield. The average net profit per cow differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the cattle breeds and calving seasons. The average net profit values for the Baladi cows that calved in the winter or summer were 2413 and 2994.96 EGP/cow/year, respectively, and those for the Holstein- Friesian cows were 10744.17 and 7860.56 EGP/cow/year, respectively, whereas those for the cross-bred cows were 10174.86 and 7571.33 EGP/cow/year, respectively. The variations in net profit might have resulted from variation in the availability or price of feed materials, milk prices, or sales volumes. Our results show that the breed and calving season of dairy cows significantly affected the economic efficiency of dairy farms in Egypt. The cows that calved in the winter produced more milk than those that calved in the summer, which may have been the result of seasonal influences, such as temperature, humidity, management practices, and the type of feed or green fodder available.

Keywords:

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2197 Assessment of Resistance of Wheat Genotypes (T. aestivum and T. durum) To Boron Toxicity

Authors: M. Rüştü Karaman, Mehmet Zengin, Ayhan Horuz

Abstract:

Research on the boron (B) toxicity problems had recently considerable relation, especially in the dry regions of the world. Development of resistant varieties to B toxicity is a high priority on these regions, where the soils have high levels of B. Thus, this study aimed to assessment the resistance of wheat genotypes to B toxicity using the agronomic and physiologic parameters. For this aim, a pot experiment, based on a completely randomized design with three replications, was conducted using the soil of calcareous usthochrepts. In the study, twenty different wheat genotypes of T. aestivum and T. Durum were used. Boron fertilizer at the levels of 0 (-B), 30 mg B kg-1 (+B) as H3BO3 was applied to the pots. After harvest, plant dry matter yield was recorded, and total B concentrations in tops of wheat plants were determined. The results have revealed the existence of a large genotypic variation among wheat genotypes to their physiologic and agronomic susceptibility to B toxicity.

Keywords: Boron, B toxicity, B uptake, wheat genotypes.

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