Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Takao Kawamura

27 Determination of Neighbor Node in Consideration of the Imaging Range of Cameras in Automatic Human Tracking System

Authors: Kozo Tanigawa, Tappei Yotsumoto, Kenichi Takahashi, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

A automatic human tracking system using mobile agent technology is realized because a mobile agent moves in accordance with a migration of a target person. In this paper, we propose a method for determining the neighbor node in consideration of the imaging range of cameras.

Keywords: Human tracking, Mobile agent, Pan/Tilt/Zoom, Neighbor relation.

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26 Management of Multimedia Contents for Distributed e-Learning System

Authors: Kazunari Meguro, Daisuke Yamamoto, Shinichi Motomura, Toshihiko Sasama, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

We have developed a distributed asynchronous Web based training system. In order to improve the scalability and robustness of this system, all contents and functions are realized on mobile agents. These agents are distributed to computers, and they can use a Peer to Peer network that modified Content-Addressable Network. In the proposed system, only text data can be included in a exercise. To make our proposed system more useful, the mechanism that it not only adapts to multimedia data but also it doesn-t influence the user-s learning even if the size of exercise becomes large is necessary.

Keywords: e-Learning, multimedia, Mobile Agent.

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25 Attempt to Reuse Used-PCs as Distributed Storage

Authors: Toshiya Kawato, Shin-ichi Motomura, Masayuki Higashino, Takao Kawamura

Abstract:

Storage for storing data is indispensable. If a storage capacity becomes insufficient, we can increase its capacity by adding new disks. It is, however, difficult to add a new disk when a budget is not enough. On the other hand, there are many unused idle resources such as used personal computers despite those use value. In order to solve those problems, used personal computers can be reused as storage. In this paper, we attempt to reuse used-PCs as a distributed storage. First, we list up the characteristics of used-PCs and design a storage system that utilizes its characteristics. Next, we experimentally implement an auto-construction system that automatically constructs a distributed storage environment in used-PCs.

Keywords: Distributed storage, used personal computer, idle resource, auto construction.

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24 Human Tracking across Heterogeneous Systems Based On Mobile Agent Technologies

Authors: Tappei Yotsumoto, Atsushi Nomura, Kozo Tanigawa, Kenichi Takahashi, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

In a human tracking system, expanding a monitoring range of one system is complicating the management of devices and increasing its cost. Therefore, we propose a method to realize a wide-range human tracking by connecting small systems. In this paper, we examined an agent deploy method and information contents across the heterogeneous human tracking systems. By implementing the proposed method, we can construct a human tracking system across heterogeneous systems, and the system can track a target continuously between systems.

Keywords: Human tracking system, mobile agent, monitoring.

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23 Distributed e-Learning System with Client-Server and P2P Hybrid Architecture

Authors: Kazunari Meguro, Shinichi Motomura, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

We have developed a distributed asynchronous Web based training system. In order to improve the scalability and robustness of this system, all contents and a function are realized on mobile agents. These agents are distributed to computers, and they can use a Peer to Peer network that modified Content-Addressable Network. In this system, all computers offer the function and exercise by themselves. However, the system that all computers do the same behavior is not realistic. In this paper, as a solution of this issue, we present an e-Learning system that is composed of computers of different participation types. Enabling the computer of different participation types will improve the convenience of the system.

Keywords: Distributed Multimedia Systems, e-Learning, P2P, Mobile Agen

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22 Development of User Interface for Path Planning System for Bus Network and On-demand Bus Reservation System

Authors: Seiichi Tamagawa, Takao Kawamura, Toshihiko Sasama, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

Route bus system is one of fundamental transportation device for aged people and students, and has an important role in every province. However, passengers decrease year by year, therefore the authors have developed the system called "Bus-Net" as a web application to sustain the public transport. But there are two problems in Bus-Net. One is the user interface that does not consider the variety of the device, and the other is the path planning system that dose not correspond to the on-demand bus. Then, Bus-Net was improved to be able to utilize the variety of the device, and a new function corresponding to the on-demand bus was developed.

Keywords: Route Bus, Path Planning System, User Interface, Ondemandbus, Reservation system.

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21 A Design for Application of Mobile Agent Technology to MicroService Architecture

Authors: Masayuki Higashino, Toshiya Kawato, Takao Kawamura

Abstract:

A monolithic service is based on the N-tier architecture in many cases. In order to divide a monolithic service into microservices, it is necessary to redefine a model as a new microservice by extracting and merging existing models across layers. Refactoring a monolithic service into microservices requires advanced technical capabilities, and it is a difficult way. This paper proposes a design and concept to ease the migration of a monolithic service to microservices using the mobile agent technology. Our proposed approach, mobile agents-based design and concept, enables to ease dividing and merging services.

Keywords: Mobile agent, microservice, web service, distributed system.

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20 Take Me to the Bus Stop: AR Based Assistance System for Public Transit Users

Authors: Naoki Kanatani, Masaki Ito, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

Route bus system is the fundamental public transportation system and has an important role in every province. To improve the usability of it greatly, we develop an AR application for "Bus- Net". The Bus-Net system is the shortest path planning system. Bus-Net supports bus users to make a plan to change buses by providing them with information about the direction. However, with Bus-Net, these information are provided in text-base. It is difficult to understand them for the person who does not know the place. We developed the AR application for Bus-Net. It supports the action of a bus user in an innovative way by putting information on a camera picture and leading the way to a bus stop. The application also inform the user the correct bus to get, the direction the bus takes and the fare, which ease many anxieties and worries people tend to feel when they take buses.

Keywords: AR, navigation, Bus-Net, transport

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19 Challenges to Enable Quick Start of an Environmental Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Network Technology

Authors: Masaki Ito, Hideyuki Tokuda, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

With the advancement of wireless sensor network technology, its practical utilization is becoming an important challange. This paper overviews my past environmental monitoring project, and discusses the process of starting the monitoring by classifying it into four steps. The steps to start environmental monitoring can be complicated, but not well discussed by researchers of wireless sensor network technology. This paper demonstrates our activity and challenges in each of the four steps to ease the process, and argues future challenges to enable quick start of environmental monitoring.

Keywords: Environmental Monitoring, Wireless Sensor Network, Field Experiment and Research Challenges.

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18 On the Continuous Service of Distributed e-Learning System

Authors: Kazunari Meguro, Shinichi Motomura, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

In this paper, backup and recovery technique for Peer to Peer applications, such as a distributed asynchronous Web-Based Training system that we have previously proposed. In order to improve the scalability and robustness of this system, all contents and function are realized on mobile agents. These agents are distributed to computers, and they can obtain using a Peer to Peer network that modified Content-Addressable Network. In the proposed system, although entire services do not become impossible even if some computers break down, the problem that contents disappear occurs with an agent-s disappearance. As a solution for this issue, backups of agents are distributed to computers. If a failure of a computer is detected, other computers will continue service using backups of the agents belonged to the computer.

Keywords: Distributed Multimedia Systems, e-Learning, P2P, Mobile Agent

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17 Development of User Interface for Multiple Devices Connecting Path Planning System for Bus Network

Authors: Takahiro Takayama, Takao Kawamura, Toshihiko Sasama, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

Recently, web services to access from many type devices are often used. We have developed the shortest path planning system called "Bus-Net" in Tottori prefecture as a web application to sustain the public transport. And it used the same user interface for both devices. To support both devices, the interface cannot use JavaScript and so on. Thus, we developed the method that use individual user interface for each device type to improve its convenience. To be concrete, we defined formats of condition input to the path planning system and result output from it and separate the system into the request processing part and user interface parts that depend on device types. By this method, we have also developed special device for Bus-Net named "Intelligent-Bus-Stop".

Keywords: Bus, Path planning, Public transport, User interface

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16 Development of Monitoring and Simulation System of Human Tracking System Based On Mobile Agent Technologies

Authors: Kozo Tanigawa, Toshihiko Sasama, Kenichi Takahashi, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

In recent years, the number of the cases of information leaks is increasing. Companies and Research Institutions make various actions against information thefts and security accidents. One of the actions is adoption of the crime prevention system, including the monitoring system by surveillance cameras. In order to solve difficulties of multiple cameras monitoring, we develop the automatic human tracking system using mobile agents through multiple surveillance cameras to track target persons. In this paper, we develop the monitor which confirms mobile agents tracing target persons, and the simulator of video picture analysis to construct the tracking algorithm.

Keywords: Human tracking, mobile agent, monitoring, simulate.

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15 Context Aware Navigation System for Using Public Transport on Smartphone

Authors: Satoru Fukuta, Masaki Ito, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

Recently, many web services to provide information for public transport are developed and released. They are optimized for mobile devices such a smartphone. We are also developing better path planning system for route buses and trains called “Bus-Net"[1]. However these systems only provide paths and related information before the user start moving. So we propose a context aware navigation to change the way to support public transport users. If we go to somewhere using many kinds of public transport, we have to know how to use them. In addition, public transport is dynamic system, and these have different characteristic by type. So we need information at real-time. Therefore we suggest the system that can support on user-s state. It has a variety of ways to help public transport users by each state, like turn-by-turn navigation. Context aware navigation will be able to reduce anxiety for using public transport.

Keywords: Navigation, Public Transport, Smartphone, User Experience.

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14 Providing On-Demand Path and Arrival Time Information Considering Realtime Delays of Buses

Authors: Yoshifumi Ishizaki, Naoki Kanatani, Masaki Ito, Toshihiko Sasama, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

This paper demonstrates the bus location system for the route bus through the experiment in the real environment. A bus location system is a system that provides information such as the bus delay and positions. This system uses actual services and positions data of buses, and those information should match data on the database. The system has two possible problems. One, the system could cost high in preparing devices to get bus positions. Two, it could be difficult to match services data of buses. To avoid these problems, we have developed this system at low cost and short time by using the smart phone with GPS and the bus route system. This system realizes the path planning considering bus delay and displaying position of buses on the map. The bus location system was demonstrated on route buses with smart phones for two months.

Keywords: Route Bus, Path Planning System, GPS, Smart Phone.

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13 Multifunctional Electrical Outlet based on Mobile Ad Hoc Network

Authors: Toshihiko Sasama, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

Nowadays, new home appliances and office appliances have been developed that communicate with users through the Internet, for remote monitor and remote control. However, developments and sales of these new appliances are just started, then, many products in our houses and offices do not have these useful functions. In few years, we add these new functions to the outlet, it means multifunctional electrical power socket plug adapter. The outlet measure power consumption of connecting appliances, and it can switch power supply to connecting appliances, too. Using this outlet, power supply of old appliances can be control and monitor. And we developed the interface system using web browser to operate it from users[1]. But, this system need to set up LAN cables between outlets and so on. It is not convenience that cables around rooms. In this paper, we develop the system that use wireless mobile ad hoc network instead of wired LAN to communicate with the outlets.

Keywords: outlet, remote monitor, mobile ad hoc network, zigbee.

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12 Development of Optimized User Interface of Public Transit Navigator for a Smartphone

Authors: Masahiro Taketa, Masaki Ito, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

We develop a new interface for Bus-Net which is optimized for a smartphone. We are continuing to develop the shortest path planning system of public transportation called "Bus-Net" in Tottori prefecture as web application to improve the usability of public transportation. Recent trend of computing platform, however has shifted to an advanced mobile device called a smartphone such as iPhone and Android in Japan. A smartphone has different characters with existing feature phone in terms of OS, large touche panel, and several other features. We derive a guideline to design the new interface for a smartphone to full use of the functionality. The guideline is about simplicity of user-s operation, location awareness and usability. We developed the new interface for “Bus-Net" on iPhone referring to the guideline. Due to the evaluation, the application interface we developed is better than the existing web-based interface in terms of the usability.

Keywords: Path Planning, Public Transportation, Smartphone, User Interface

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11 Controllable Electrical Power Plug Adapters Made As A ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Toshihiko Sasama, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

Using Internet communication, new home electronics have functions of monitoring and control from remote. However in many case these electronics work as standalone, and old electronics are not followed. Then, we developed the total remote system include not only new electronics but olds. This systems node is a adapter of electrical power plug that embed relay switch and some sensors, and these nodes communicate with each other. the system server was build on the Internet, and users access to this system from web browsers. To reduce the cost to set up of this system, communication between adapters are used ZigBee wireless network instead of wired LAN cable[3]. From measured RSSI(received signal strength indicator) information between each nodes, the system can estimate roughly adapters were mounted on which room, and where in the room. So also it reduces the cost of mapping nodes. Using this system, energy saving and house monitoring are expected.

Keywords: outlet, remote monitor, remote control, mobile ad hocnetwork, sensor network, zigbee.

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10 Development of Prediction Tool for Sound Absorption and Sound Insulation for Sound Proof Properties

Authors: Yoshio Kurosawa, Takao Yamaguchi

Abstract:

High frequency automotive interior noise above 500 Hz considerably affects automotive passenger comfort. To reduce this noise, sound insulation material is often laminated on body panels or interior trim panels. For a more effective noise reduction, the sound reduction properties of this laminated structure need to be estimated. We have developed a new calculate tool that can roughly calculate the sound absorption and insulation properties of laminate structure and handy for designers. In this report, the outline of this tool and an analysis example applied to floor mat are introduced.

Keywords: Automobile, acoustics, porous material, Transfer Matrix Method.

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9 Efficacy and Stability of Ceramic Powder to Inactivate Avian Influenza Virus

Authors: Chanathip Thammakarn, Misato Tsujimura, Keisuke Satoh, Tomomi Hasegawa, Miho Tamura, Akinobu Kawamura, Yuki Ishida, Atsushi Suguro, Hakimullah Hakim, Sakchai Ruenphet, , Kazuaki Takehara

Abstract:

This experiment aims to demonstrate the efficacy of ceramic powder derived from various sources to inactivate avian influenza virus and its possibility to use in the environment. The ceramics used in the present experiment were derived from chicken feces (CF), scallop shell (SS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and soybean (SB). All ceramics were mixed with low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) H7N1, and then kept at room temperature. The recovered virus was titrated onto Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. All ceramics were assessed the inactivation stability in the environment by keeping under sunlight and under wet-dry condition until reached 7 week or 7 resuspension times respectively. The results indicate that all ceramics have excellent efficacy to inactivate LPAIV. This efficacy can be maintained under the simulated condition. The ceramics are expected to be the good materials for application in the biosecurity system at farms.

Keywords: Avian Influenza, Ceramics, Efficacy, Stability.

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8 Effect of Blade Shape on the Performance of Wells Turbine for Wave Energy Conversion

Authors: Katsuya Takasaki, Manabu Takao, Toshiaki Setoguchi

Abstract:

The effect of a 3-dimensional (3D) blade on the turbine characteristics of Wells turbine for wave energy conversion has been investigated experimentally by model testing under steady flow conditions in this study, in order to improve the peak efficiency and stall characteristics. The aim of use of 3D blade is to prevent flow separation on the suction surface near the tip. The chord length is constant with radius and the blade profile changes gradually from the mean radius to tip. The proposed blade profiles in the study are NACA0015 from the hub to mean radius and NACA0025 at the tip. The performances of Wells turbine with 3D blades has been compared with those of the original Wells turbine, i.e., the turbine with 2-dimensional (2D) blades. As a result, it was concluded that although the peak efficiency of Wells turbine can be improved by the use of the proposed 3D blade, its blade does not overcome the weakness of stalling.

Keywords: Fluid machinery, ocean engineering, stall, wave energy conversion, Wells turbine.

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7 Influence of Initial Surface Roughness on Severe Wear Volume for SUS304 Austenitic Stainless Steels

Authors: A. Kawamura, K. Ishida, K. Okada, T. Sato

Abstract:

Simultaneous measurements of the curves for wear versus distance, wear rate versus distance, and coefficient of friction versus distance were performed in situ to distinguish the transition from severe running-in wear to mild wear. The effects of the initial surface roughness on the severe running-in wear volume were investigated. Disk-on-plate friction and wear tests were carried out with SUS304 austenitic stainless steel in contact with itself under repeated dry sliding conditions at room temperature. The wear volume was dependent on the initial surface roughness. The wear volume when the initial surfaces on the plate and disk had dissimilar roughness was lower than that when these surfaces had similar roughness. For the dissimilar roughness, the wear volume decreased with decreasing initial surface roughness and reached a minimum; it stayed nearly constant as the roughness was less than the mean size of the oxide particles.

Keywords: Austenitic stainless steel, initial surface roughness, running-in, severe wear.

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6 Optimization of Loudspeaker Part Design Parameters by Air Viscosity Damping Effect

Authors: Yue Hu, Xilu Zhao, Takao Yamaguchi, Manabu Sasajima, Yoshio Koike, Akira Hara

Abstract:

This study optimized the design parameters of a cone loudspeaker as an example of high flexibility of the product design. We developed an acoustic analysis software program that considers the impact of damping caused by air viscosity. In sound reproduction, it is difficult to optimize each parameter of the loudspeaker design. To overcome the limitation of the design problem in practice, this study presents an acoustic analysis algorithm to optimize the design parameters of the loudspeaker. The material character of cone paper and the loudspeaker edge were the design parameters, and the vibration displacement of the cone paper was the objective function. The results of the analysis showed that the design had high accuracy as compared to the predicted value. These results suggested that although the parameter design is difficult, with experience and intuition, the design can be performed easily using the optimized design found with the acoustic analysis software.

Keywords: Air viscosity, design parameters, loudspeaker, optimization.

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5 k-Neighborhood Template A-Type Three-Dimensional Bounded Cellular Acceptor

Authors: Makoto Nagatomo, Yasuo Uchida, Makoto Sakamoto, Tuo Zhang, Tatsuma Kurogi, Takao Ito, Tsunehiro Yoshinaga, Satoshi Ikeda, Masahiro Yokomichi, Hiroshi Furutani

Abstract:

This paper presents a four-dimensional computational model, k-neighborhood template A-type three-dimensional bounded cellular acceptor (abbreviated as A-3BCA(k)), and discusses the hierarchical properties. An A-3BCA(k) is a four-dimensional automaton which consists of a pair of a converter and a configuration-reader. The former converts the given four-dimensional tape to the three- and two- dimensional configuration and the latter determines the acceptance or nonacceptance of given four-dimensional tape whether or not the derived two-dimensional configuration is accepted. We mainly investigate the difference of the accepting power based on the difference of the configuration-reader. It is shown that the difference of the accepting power of the configuration-reader tends to affect directly that of the A-3BCA(k) for the case when the converter is deterministic. On the other hand, results are not analogous for the nondeterministic case.

Keywords: Cellular acceptor, configuration-reader, converter, finite automaton, four-dimension, on-line tessellation acceptor, parallel/sequential array acceptor, turing machine.

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4 Providing Medical Information in Braille: Research and Development of Automatic Braille Translation Program for Japanese “eBraille“

Authors: Aki Sugano, Mika Ohta, Mineko Ikegami, Kenji Miura, Sayo Tsukamoto, Akihiro Ichinose, Toshiko Ohshima, Eiichi Maeda, Masako Matsuura, Yutaka Takao

Abstract:

Along with the advances in medicine, providing medical information to individual patient is becoming more important. In Japan such information via Braille is hardly provided to blind and partially sighted people. Thus we are researching and developing a Web-based automatic translation program “eBraille" to translate Japanese text into Japanese Braille. First we analyzed the Japanese transcription rules to implement them on our program. We then added medical words to the dictionary of the program to improve its translation accuracy for medical text. Finally we examined the efficacy of statistical learning models (SLMs) for further increase of word segmentation accuracy in braille translation. As a result, eBraille had the highest translation accuracy in the comparison with other translation programs, improved the accuracy for medical text and is utilized to make hospital brochures in braille for outpatients and inpatients.

Keywords: Automatic Braille translation, Medical text, Partially sighted people.

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3 An Organizational Strategic Analysis for Dynamics of Generating Firms- Alliance Networks

Authors: Takao Sakakura, Kazunori Fujimoto

Abstract:

This paper proposes an analytical method for the dynamics of generating firms- alliance networks along with business phases. Dynamics in network developments have previously been discussed in the research areas of organizational strategy rather than in the areas of regional cluster, where the static properties of the networks are often discussed. The analytical method introduces the concept of business phases into innovation processes and uses relationships called prior experiences; this idea was developed in organizational strategy to investigate the state of networks from the viewpoints of tradeoffs between link stabilization and node exploration. This paper also discusses the results of the analytical method using five cases of the network developments of firms. The idea of Embeddedness helps interpret the backgrounds of the analytical results. The analytical method is useful for policymakers of regional clusters to establish concrete evaluation targets and a viewpoint for comparisons of policy programs.

Keywords: Regional Clusters, Alliance Networks, Innovation Processes, Prior Experiences, Embeddedness.

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2 Direct Measurement of Electromagnetic Thrust of Electrodeless Helicon Plasma Thruster Using Magnetic Nozzle

Authors: Takahiro Nakamura, Kenji Takahashi, Hiroyuki Nishida, Shunjiro Shinohara, Takeshi Matsuoka, Ikkoh Funaki, Takao Tanikawa, Tohru Hada

Abstract:

In order to realize long-lived electric propulsion systems, we have been investigating an electrodeless plasma thruster. In our concept, a helicon plasma is accelerated by the magnetic nozzle for the thrusts production. In addition, the electromagnetic thrust can be enhanced by the additional radio-frequency rotating electric field (REF) power in the magnetic nozzle. In this study, a direct measurement of the electromagnetic thrust and a probe measurement have been conducted using a laboratory model of the thruster under the condition without the REF power input. Fromthrust measurement, it is shown that the thruster produces a sub-milli-newton order electromagnetic thrust force without the additional REF power. The thrust force and the density jump are observed due to the discharge mode transition from the inductive coupled plasma to the helicon wave excited plasma. The thermal thrust is theoretically estimated, and the total thrust force, which is a sum of the electromagnetic and the thermal thrust force and specific impulse are calculated to be up to 650 μN (plasma production power of 400 W, Ar gas mass flow rate of 1.0 mg/s) and 210 s (plasma production power of 400 W, Ar gas mass flow rate of 0.2 mg/s), respectively.

Keywords: Electric propulsion, Helicon plasma, Lissajous acceleration, Thrust stand.

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1 Hierarchies Based On the Number of Cooperating Systems of Finite Automata on Four-Dimensional Input Tapes

Authors: Makoto Sakamoto, Yasuo Uchida, Makoto Nagatomo, Takao Ito, Tsunehiro Yoshinaga, Satoshi Ikeda, Masahiro Yokomichi, Hiroshi Furutani

Abstract:

In theoretical computer science, the Turing machine has played a number of important roles in understanding and exploiting basic concepts and mechanisms in computing and information processing [20]. It is a simple mathematical model of computers [9]. After that, M.Blum and C.Hewitt first proposed two-dimensional automata as a computational model of two-dimensional pattern processing, and investigated their pattern recognition abilities in 1967 [7]. Since then, a lot of researchers in this field have been investigating many properties about automata on a two- or three-dimensional tape. On the other hand, the question of whether processing fourdimensional digital patterns is much more difficult than two- or threedimensional ones is of great interest from the theoretical and practical standpoints. Thus, the study of four-dimensional automata as a computasional model of four-dimensional pattern processing has been meaningful [8]-[19],[21]. This paper introduces a cooperating system of four-dimensional finite automata as one model of four-dimensional automata. A cooperating system of four-dimensional finite automata consists of a finite number of four-dimensional finite automata and a four-dimensional input tape where these finite automata work independently (in parallel). Those finite automata whose input heads scan the same cell of the input tape can communicate with each other, that is, every finite automaton is allowed to know the internal states of other finite automata on the same cell it is scanning at the moment. In this paper, we mainly investigate some accepting powers of a cooperating system of eight- or seven-way four-dimensional finite automata. The seven-way four-dimensional finite automaton is an eight-way four-dimensional finite automaton whose input head can move east, west, south, north, up, down, or in the fu-ture, but not in the past on a four-dimensional input tape.

Keywords: computational complexity, cooperating system, finite automaton, four-dimension, hierarchy, multihead.

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