Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3651

Search results for: receding horizon control

3651 Receding Horizon Filtering for Mobile Robot Systems with Cross-Correlated Sensor Noises

Authors: Il Young Song, Du Yong Kim, Vladimir Shin

Abstract:

This paper reports on a receding horizon filtering for mobile robot systems with cross-correlated sensor noises and uncertainties. Also, the effect of uncertain parameters in the state of the tracking error model performance is considered. A distributed fusion receding horizon filter is proposed. The distributed fusion filtering algorithm represents the optimal linear combination of the local filters under the minimum mean square error criterion. The derivation of the error cross-covariances between the local receding horizon filters is the key of this paper. Simulation results of the tracking mobile robot-s motion demonstrate high accuracy and computational efficiency of the distributed fusion receding horizon filter.

Keywords: Distributed fusion, fusion formula, Kalman filter, multisensor, receding horizon, wheeled mobile robot

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3650 Hybrid Control of Networked Multi-Vehicle System Considering Limitation of Communication Range

Authors: Toru Murayama, Akinori Nagano, Zhi-Wei Luo

Abstract:

In this research, we study a control method of a multivehicle system while considering the limitation of communication range for each vehicles. When we control networked vehicles with limitation of communication range, it is important to control the communication network structure of a multi-vehicle system in order to keep the network-s connectivity. From this, we especially aim to control the network structure to the target structure. We formulate the networked multi-vehicle system with some disturbance and the communication constraints as a hybrid dynamical system, and then we study the optimal control problems of the system. It is shown that the system converge to the objective network structure in finite time when the system is controlled by the receding horizon method. Additionally, the optimal control probrems are convertible into the mixed integer problems and these problems are solvable by some branch and bound algorithm.

Keywords: Hybrid system, multi-vehicle system, receding horizon control, topology control.

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3649 Finite-Horizon Tracking Control for Repetitive Systems with Uncertain Initial Conditions

Authors: Sung Wook Yun, Yun Jong Choi, Kyong-min Lee, Poogyeon Park*

Abstract:

Repetitive systems stand for a kind of systems that perform a simple task on a fixed pattern repetitively, which are widely spread in industrial fields. Hence, many researchers have been interested in those systems, especially in the field of iterative learning control (ILC). In this paper, we propose a finite-horizon tracking control scheme for linear time-varying repetitive systems with uncertain initial conditions. The scheme is derived both analytically and numerically for state-feedback systems and only numerically for output-feedback systems. Then, it is extended to stable systems with input constraints. All numerical schemes are developed in the forms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A distinguished feature of the proposed scheme from the existing iterative learning control is that the scheme guarantees the tracking performance exactly even under uncertain initial conditions. The simulation results demonstrate the good performance of the proposed scheme.

Keywords: Finite time horizon, linear matrix inequality (LMI), repetitive system, uncertain initial condition.

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3648 Application of Feed Forward Neural Networks in Modeling and Control of a Fed-Batch Crystallization Process

Authors: Petia Georgieva, Sebastião Feyo de Azevedo

Abstract:

This paper is focused on issues of nonlinear dynamic process modeling and model-based predictive control of a fed-batch sugar crystallization process applying the concept of artificial neural networks as computational tools. The control objective is to force the operation into following optimal supersaturation trajectory. It is achieved by manipulating the feed flow rate of sugar liquor/syrup, considered as the control input. A feed forward neural network (FFNN) model of the process is first built as part of the controller structure to predict the process response over a specified (prediction) horizon. The predictions are supplied to an optimization procedure to determine the values of the control action over a specified (control) horizon that minimizes a predefined performance index. The control task is rather challenging due to the strong nonlinearity of the process dynamics and variations in the crystallization kinetics. However, the simulation results demonstrated smooth behavior of the control actions and satisfactory reference tracking.

Keywords: Feed forward neural network, process modelling, model predictive control, crystallization process.

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3647 Nonlinear Model Predictive Swing-Up and Stabilizing Sliding Mode Controllers

Authors: S. Kahvecioglu, A. Karamancioglu, A. Yazici

Abstract:

In this paper, a nonlinear model predictive swing-up and stabilizing sliding controller is proposed for an inverted pendulum-cart system. In the swing up phase, the nonlinear model predictive control is formulated as a nonlinear programming problem with energy based objective function. By solving this problem at each sampling instant, a sequence of control inputs that optimize the nonlinear objective function subject to various constraints over a finite horizon are obtained. Then, this control drives the pendulum to a predefined neighborhood of the upper equilibrium point, at where sliding mode based model predictive control is used to stabilize the systems with the specified constraints. It is shown by the simulations that, due to the way of formulating the problem, short horizon lengths are sufficient for attaining the swing up goal.

Keywords: Inverted pendulum, model predictive control, swingup, stabilization.

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3646 Predictive Functional Control with Disturbance Observer for Tendon-Driven Balloon Actuator

Authors: Jun-ya Nagase, Toshiyuki Satoh, Norihiko Saga, Koichi Suzumori

Abstract:

In recent years, Japanese society has been aging, engendering a labor shortage of young workers. Robots are therefore expected to perform tasks such as rehabilitation, nursing elderly people, and day-to-day work support for elderly people. The pneumatic balloon actuator is a rubber artificial muscle developed for use in a robot hand in such environments. This actuator has a long stroke and a high power-to-weight ratio compared with the present pneumatic artificial muscle. Moreover, the dynamic characteristics of this actuator resemble those of human muscle. This study evaluated characteristics of force control of balloon actuator using a predictive functional control (PFC) system with disturbance observer. The predictive functional control is a model-based predictive control (MPC) scheme that predicts the future outputs of the actual plants over the prediction horizon and computes the control effort over the control horizon at every sampling instance. For this study, a 1-link finger system using a pneumatic balloon actuator is developed. Then experiments of PFC control with disturbance observer are performed. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of its control of a pneumatic balloon actuator for a robot hand.

Keywords: Disturbance observer, Pneumatic balloon, Predictive functional control, Rubber artificial muscle.

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3645 States Estimation and Fault Detection of a Doubly Fed Induction Machine by Moving Horizon Estimation

Authors: A. T. Boum, L. Bitjoka, N. N. Léandre, S. Bennet

Abstract:

This paper presents the estimation of the key parameters of a double fed induction machine (DFIM) by the use of the moving horizon estimator (MHE) for control and monitoring purpose. A study was conducted on the behavior of this observer in the presence of some faults which can occur during the operation of the machine. In the first case a stator phase has been suppressed. In the second case the rotor resistance has been multiplied by a factor. The results show a good estimation of different parameters such as rotor flux, rotor speed, stator current with a very small estimation error. The robustness of the observer was also tested in the practical case of DFIM by using another model different from the real one at a constant close. The very small estimation error makes the MHE a good software sensor candidate for monitoring purpose for the DFIM. 

Keywords: Doubly fed induction machine, moving horizon estimator parameters’ estimation.

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3644 A Study of Replacement Policies for Warranty Products with Different Failure Rate

Authors: Wen Liang Chang

Abstract:

This paper provides a replacement policy for warranty products with different failure rate from the consumer-s viewpoint. Assume that the product is replaced once within a finite planning horizon, and the failure rate of the second product is lower than the failure rate of the first product. Within warranty period (WP), the failed product is corrected by minimal repair without any cost to the consumers. After WP, the failed product is repaired with a fixed repair cost to the consumers. However, each failure incurs a fixed downtime cost to the consumers over a finite planning horizon. In this paper, we derive the model of the expected total disbursement cost within a finite planning horizon and some properties of the optimal replacement policy under some reasonable conditions are obtained. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the features of the optimal replacement policy under various maintenance costs.

Keywords: Planning horizon, Free-repair warranty, Minimal repair, Replacement.

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3643 Optimal Bayesian Control of the Proportion of Defectives in a Manufacturing Process

Authors: Viliam Makis, Farnoosh Naderkhani, Leila Jafari

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a model and an algorithm for the calculation of the optimal control limit, average cost, sample size, and the sampling interval for an optimal Bayesian chart to control the proportion of defective items produced using a semi-Markov decision process approach. Traditional p-chart has been widely used for controlling the proportion of defectives in various kinds of production processes for many years. It is well known that traditional non-Bayesian charts are not optimal, but very few optimal Bayesian control charts have been developed in the literature, mostly considering finite horizon. The objective of this paper is to develop a fast computational algorithm to obtain the optimal parameters of a Bayesian p-chart. The decision problem is formulated in the partially observable framework and the developed algorithm is illustrated by a numerical example.

Keywords: Bayesian control chart, semi-Markov decision process, quality control, partially observable process.

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3642 Simulation of the Performance of Novel Nonlinear Optimal Control Technique on Two Cart-inverted Pendulum System

Authors: B. Baigzadeh, V.Nazarzehi, H.Khaloozadeh

Abstract:

The two cart inverted pendulum system is a good bench mark for testing the performance of system dynamics and control engineering principles. Devasia introduced this system to study the asymptotic tracking problem for nonlinear systems. In this paper the problem of asymptotic tracking of the two-cart with an inverted-pendulum system to a sinusoidal reference inputs via introducing a novel method for solving finite-horizon nonlinear optimal control problems is presented. In this method, an iterative method applied to state dependent Riccati equation (SDRE) to obtain a reliable algorithm. The superiority of this technique has been shown by simulation and comparison with the nonlinear approach.

Keywords: Nonlinear optimal control, State dependent Riccatiequation, Asymptotic tracking, inverted pendulum

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3641 Predictive Model of Sensor Readings for a Mobile Robot

Authors: Krzysztof Fujarewicz

Abstract:

This paper presents a predictive model of sensor readings for mobile robot. The model predicts sensor readings for given time horizon based on current sensor readings and velocities of wheels assumed for this horizon. Similar models for such anticipation have been proposed in the literature. The novelty of the model presented in the paper comes from the fact that its structure takes into account physical phenomena and is not just a black box, for example a neural network. From this point of view it may be regarded as a semi-phenomenological model. The model is developed for the Khepera robot, but after certain modifications, it may be applied for any robot with distance sensors such as infrared or ultrasonic sensors.

Keywords: Mobile robot, sensors, prediction, anticipation.

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3640 Faster Pedestrian Recognition Using Deformable Part Models

Authors: Alessandro Preziosi, Antonio Prioletti, Luca Castangia

Abstract:

Deformable part models achieve high precision in pedestrian recognition, but all publicly available implementations are too slow for real-time applications. We implemented a deformable part model algorithm fast enough for real-time use by exploiting information about the camera position and orientation. This implementation is both faster and more precise than alternative DPM implementations. These results are obtained by computing convolutions in the frequency domain and using lookup tables to speed up feature computation. This approach is almost an order of magnitude faster than the reference DPM implementation, with no loss in precision. Knowing the position of the camera with respect to horizon it is also possible prune many hypotheses based on their size and location. The range of acceptable sizes and positions is set by looking at the statistical distribution of bounding boxes in labelled images. With this approach it is not needed to compute the entire feature pyramid: for example higher resolution features are only needed near the horizon. This results in an increase in mean average precision of 5% and an increase in speed by a factor of two. Furthermore, to reduce misdetections involving small pedestrians near the horizon, input images are supersampled near the horizon. Supersampling the image at 1.5 times the original scale, results in an increase in precision of about 4%. The implementation was tested against the public KITTI dataset, obtaining an 8% improvement in mean average precision over the best performing DPM-based method. By allowing for a small loss in precision computational time can be easily brought down to our target of 100ms per image, reaching a solution that is faster and still more precise than all publicly available DPM implementations.

Keywords: Autonomous vehicles, deformable part model, dpm, pedestrian recognition.

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3639 Real Time Data Communication with FlightGear Using Simulink over a UDP Protocol

Authors: Adil Loya, Ali Haider, Arslan A. Ghaffor, Abubaker Siddique

Abstract:

Simulation and modelling of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has gained wide popularity in front of aerospace community. The demand of designing and modelling optimized control system for UAV has increased ten folds since last decade, as next generation warfare is dependent on unmanned technologies. Therefore, this research focuses on the simulation of nonlinear UAV dynamics on Simulink and its integration with Flightgear. There has been lots of research on implementation of optimizing control using Simulink, however, there are fewer known techniques to simulate these dynamics over Flightgear and a tedious technique of acquiring data has been tackled in this research horizon. Sending data to Flightgear is easy but receiving it from Simulink is not that straight forward, i.e. we can only receive control data on the output. However, in this research we have managed to get the data out from the Flightgear by implementation of level 2 s-function block within Simulink. Moreover, the results captured from Flightgear over a Universal Datagram Protocol (UDP) communication are then compared with the attitude signal that were sent previously. This provide useful information regarding the difference in outputs attained from Simulink to Flightgear. It was found that values received on Simulink were in high agreement with that of the Flightgear output. And complete study has been conducted in a discrete way.

Keywords: aerospace, flight control, FlightGear, communication, Simulink

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3638 A Study of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman Equation Systems Arising in Differential Game Models of Changing Society

Authors: Weihua Ruan, Kuan-Chou Chen

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with a system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations coupled with an autonomous dynamical system. The mathematical system arises in the differential game formulation of political economy models as an infinite-horizon continuous-time differential game with discounted instantaneous payoff rates and continuously and discretely varying state variables. The existence of a weak solution of the PDE system is proven and a computational scheme of approximate solution is developed for a class of such systems. A model of democratization is mathematically analyzed as an illustration of application.

Keywords: Differential games, Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations, infinite horizon, political-economy models.

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3637 The Explanation for Dark Matter and Dark Energy

Authors: Richard Lewis

Abstract:

The following assumptions of the Big Bang theory are challenged and found to be false: the cosmological principle, the assumption that all matter formed at the same time and the assumption regarding the cause of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The evolution of the universe is described based on the conclusion that the universe is finite with a space boundary. This conclusion is reached by ruling out the possibility of an infinite universe or a universe which is finite with no boundary. In a finite universe, the centre of the universe can be located with reference to our home galaxy (The Milky Way) using the speed relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) rest frame and Hubble's law. This places our home galaxy at a distance of approximately 26 million light years from the centre of the universe. Because we are making observations from a point relatively close to the centre of the universe, the universe appears to be isotropic and homogeneous but this is not the case. The CMB is coming from a source located within the event horizon of the universe. There is sufficient mass in the universe to create an event horizon at the Schwarzschild radius. Galaxies form over time due to the energy released by the expansion of space. Conservation of energy must consider total energy which is mass (+ve) plus energy (+ve) plus spacetime curvature (-ve) so that the total energy of the universe is always zero. The predominant position of galaxy formation moves over time from the centre of the universe towards the boundary so that today the majority of new galaxy formation is taking place beyond our horizon of observation at 14 billion light years.

Keywords: Cosmic microwave background, dark energy, dark matter, evolution of the universe.

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3636 Combining Ant Colony Optimization and Dynamic Programming for Solving a Dynamic Facility Layout Problem

Authors: A. Udomsakdigool, S. Bangsaranthip

Abstract:

This paper presents an algorithm which combining ant colony optimization in the dynamic programming for solving a dynamic facility layout problem. The problem is separated into 2 phases, static and dynamic phase. In static phase, ant colony optimization is used to find the best ranked of layouts for each period. Then the dynamic programming (DP) procedure is performed in the dynamic phase to evaluate the layout set during multi-period planning horizon. The proposed algorithm is tested over many problems with size ranging from 9 to 49 departments, 2 and 4 periods. The experimental results show that the proposed method is an alternative way for the plant layout designer to determine the layouts during multi-period planning horizon.

Keywords: Ant colony optimization, Dynamicprogramming, Dynamic facility layout planning, Metaheuristic

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3635 Design of an Stable GPC for Nonminimum Phase LTI Systems

Authors: Mahdi Yaghobi, Mohammad Haeri

Abstract:

The current methods of predictive controllers are utilized for those processes in which the rate of output variations is not high. For such processes, therefore, stability can be achieved by implementing the constrained predictive controller or applying infinite prediction horizon. When the rate of the output growth is high (e.g. for unstable nonminimum phase process) the stabilization seems to be problematic. In order to avoid this, it is suggested to change the method in the way that: first, the prediction error growth should be decreased at the early stage of the prediction horizon, and second, the rate of the error variation should be penalized. The growth of the error is decreased through adjusting its weighting coefficients in the cost function. Reduction in the error variation is possible by adding the first order derivate of the error into the cost function. By studying different examples it is shown that using these two remedies together, the closed-loop stability of unstable nonminimum phase process can be achieved.

Keywords: GPC, Stability, Varying Weighting Coefficients.

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3634 Wadi Halfa Oolitic Ironstone Formation, Wadi Halfa and Argein Areas, North Sudan

Authors: M. Nafi, A. El Amein, M. El Dawi, K. Salih, O. Elbahi, A. Abou

Abstract:

In present study, a large deposit of oolitic iron ore of Late Carboniferous-Permotriassic-Lower Jurassic age was discovered in Wadi Halfa and Argein areas, North Sudan. It seems that the iron ore mineralization exists in the west and east bank of the River Nile of the study area that are found on the Egyptian-Sudanese border. The Carboniferous-Lower Jurassic age strata were covered by 67 sections and each section has been examined and carefully described. The iron-ore in Wadi Halfa occurs as oolitic ironstone and contained two horizons: (A) horizon and (B) horizon. Only horizon (A) was observed in southern Argein area. The texture of the ore is variable depending on the volume of the component. In thin sections, the average of the ooids was ranged between 90%-80%. The matrix varies between 10%-20% by volume and detritus quartz in other component my reach up to 30% by volume in sandy massive ore. Ooids size ranges from 0.2mm-1.00 mm on average in very coarse ooids may attend up to 1 mm in size. The matrix around the ooids is dominated by iron hydroxide, carbonate, fine, and amorphous silica. The probable ore reserve estimate of 1.234 billion at a head grade of 41.29% Fe for the Wadi Halfa Oolitic Ironstone Formation. The iron ore shows higher content of phosphorus ranges from 6.15% to 0.16%, with mean 1.45%. The new technology Hatch–Ironstone Chloride Segregation (HICS) can be used to produce commercial-quality of iron and reduce phosphorus and silica to acceptable levels for steel industry. The presence of infrastructures in addition to the presence of massive quantities of iron ore would make exploitation economically.

Keywords: HICS, Late Carboniferous age, Oolitic iron ore, phosphorus.

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3633 Methane versus Carbon Dioxide: Mitigation Prospects

Authors: Alexander J. Severinsky, Allen L. Sessoms

Abstract:

Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has dominated the discussion around the causes of climate change. This is a reflection of a 100-year time horizon for all greenhouse gases that became a norm.  The 100-year time horizon is much too long – and yet, almost all mitigation efforts, including those set in the near-term frame of within 30 years, are still geared toward it. In this paper, we show that for a 30-year time horizon, methane (CH4) is the greenhouse gas whose radiative forcing exceeds that of CO2. In our analysis, we use the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, because they directly affect the rise in temperature on Earth. We found that in 2019, the radiative forcing (RF) of methane was ~2.5 W/m2 and that of carbon dioxide was ~2.1 W/m2. Under a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario until 2050, such forcing would be ~2.8 W/m2 and ~3.1 W/m2 respectively. There is a substantial spread in the data for anthropogenic and natural methane (CH4) emissions, along with natural gas, (which is primarily CH4), leakages from industrial production to consumption. For this reason, we estimate the minimum and maximum effects of a reduction of these leakages, and assume an effective immediate reduction by 80%. Such action may serve to reduce the annual radiative forcing of all CH4 emissions by ~15% to ~30%. This translates into a reduction of RF by 2050 from ~2.8 W/m2 to ~2.5 W/m2 in the case of the minimum effect that can be expected, and to ~2.15 W/m2 in the case of the maximum effort to reduce methane leakages. Under the BAU, we find that the RF of CO2 will increase from ~2.1 W/m2 now to ~3.1 W/m2 by 2050. We assume a linear reduction of 50% in anthropogenic emission over the course of the next 30 years, which would reduce the radiative forcing of CO2 from ~3.1 W/m2 to ~2.9 W/m2. In the case of "net zero," the other 50% of only anthropogenic CO2 emissions reduction would be limited to being either from sources of emissions or directly from the atmosphere. In this instance, the total reduction would be from ~3.1 W/m2 to ~2.7 W/m2, or ~0.4 W/m2. To achieve the same radiative forcing as in the scenario of maximum reduction of methane leakages of ~2.15 W/m2, an additional reduction of radiative forcing of CO2 would be approximately 2.7 -2.15 = 0.55 W/m2. In total, one would need to remove ~660 GT of CO2 from the atmosphere in order to match the maximum reduction of current methane leakages, and ~270 GT of CO2 from emitting sources, to reach "negative emissions". This amounts to over 900 GT of CO2.

Keywords: Methane Leakages, Methane Radiative Forcing, Methane Mitigation, Methane Net Zero.

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3632 Neural Adaptive Switching Control of Robotic Systems

Authors: A. Denker, U. Akıncıoğlu

Abstract:

In this paper a neural adaptive control method has been developed and applied to robot control. Simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the controller. These results show that the performance by using this controller is better than those which just use either direct inverse control or predictive control. In addition, they show that the resulting is a useful method which combines the advantages of both direct inverse control and predictive control.

Keywords: Neural networks, robotics, direct inverse control, predictive control.

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3631 Identification, Prediction and Detection of the Process Fault in a Cement Rotary Kiln by Locally Linear Neuro-Fuzzy Technique

Authors: Masoud Sadeghian, Alireza Fatehi

Abstract:

In this paper, we use nonlinear system identification method to predict and detect process fault of a cement rotary kiln. After selecting proper inputs and output, an input-output model is identified for the plant. To identify the various operation points in the kiln, Locally Linear Neuro-Fuzzy (LLNF) model is used. This model is trained by LOLIMOT algorithm which is an incremental treestructure algorithm. Then, by using this method, we obtained 3 distinct models for the normal and faulty situations in the kiln. One of the models is for normal condition of the kiln with 15 minutes prediction horizon. The other two models are for the two faulty situations in the kiln with 7 minutes prediction horizon are presented. At the end, we detect these faults in validation data. The data collected from White Saveh Cement Company is used for in this study.

Keywords: Cement Rotary Kiln, Fault Detection, Delay Estimation Method, Locally Linear Neuro Fuzzy Model, LOLIMOT.

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3630 Dynamics and Feedback Control for a New Hyperchaotic System

Authors: Kejun Zhuang, Hailong Zhu

Abstract:

In this paper, stability and Hopf bifurcation analysis of a novel hyperchaotic system are investigated. Four feedback control strategies, the linear feedback control method, enhancing feedback control method, speed feedback control method and delayed feedback control method, are used to control the hyperchaotic attractor to unstable equilibrium. Moreover numerical simulations are given to verify the theoretical results.

Keywords: Feedback control, Hopf bifurcation, hyperchaotic system, stability.

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3629 A Model-Free Robust Control Approach for Robot Manipulator

Authors: A. Izadbakhsh, M. M. Fateh

Abstract:

A model-free robust control (MFRC) approach is proposed for position control of robot manipulators in the state space. The control approach is verified analytically to be robust subject to uncertainties including external disturbances, unmodeled dynamics, and parametric uncertainties. There is a high flexibility to work on different systems including actuators by the use of the proposed control approach. The proposed control approach can guarantee the robustness of control system. A PUMA 560 robot driven by geared permanent magnet dc motors is simulated. The simulation results show a satisfactory performance for control system under technical specifications. KeywordsModel-free, robust control, position control, PUMA 560.

Keywords: Model-free, robust control, position control, PUMA 560.

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3628 Non-Singular Gravitational Collapse of a Homogeneous Scalar Field in Deformed Phase Space

Authors: Amir Hadi Ziaie

Abstract:

In the present work, we revisit the collapse process of a spherically symmetric homogeneous scalar field (in FRW background) minimally coupled to gravity, when the phase-space deformations are taken into account. Such a deformation is mathematically introduced as a particular type of noncommutativity between the canonical momenta of the scale factor and of the scalar field. In the absence of such deformation, the collapse culminates in a spacetime singularity. However, when the phase-space is deformed, we find that the singularity is removed by a non-singular bounce, beyond which the collapsing cloud re-expands to infinity. More precisely, for negative values of the deformation parameter, we identify the appearance of a negative pressure, which decelerates the collapse to finally avoid the singularity formation. While in the un-deformed case, the horizon curve monotonically decreases to finally cover the singularity, in the deformed case the horizon has a minimum value that this value depends on deformation parameter and initial configuration of the collapse. Such a setting predicts a threshold mass for black hole formation in stellar collapse and manifests the role of non-commutative geometry in physics and especially in stellar collapse and supernova explosion.

Keywords: Gravitational collapse, non-commutative geometry, spacetime singularity, black hole physics.

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3627 Service Architecture for 3rd Party Operator's Participation

Authors: F. Sarabchi, A. H. Darvishan, H. Yeganeh, H. Ahmadian

Abstract:

Next generation networks with the idea of convergence of service and control layer in existing networks (fixed, mobile and data) and with the intention of providing services in an integrated network, has opened new horizon for telecom operators. On the other hand, economic problems have caused operators to look for new source of income including consider new services, subscription of more users and their promotion in using morenetwork resources and easy participation of service providers or 3rd party operators in utilizing networks. With this requirement, an architecture based on next generation objectives for service layer is necessary. In this paper, a new architecture based on IMS model explains participation of 3rd party operators in creation and implementation of services on an integrated telecom network.

Keywords: Service model, IMS, API, Scripting language, JAIN, Parlay.

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3626 Application of Model Free Adaptive Control in Main Steam Temperature System of Thermal Power Plant

Authors: Khaing Yadana Swe, Lillie Dewan

Abstract:

At present, the cascade PID control is widely used to control the superheating temperature (main steam temperature). As Main Steam Temperature has the characteristics of large inertia, large time-delay and time varying, etc., conventional PID control strategy cannot achieve good control performance. In order to overcome the bad performance and deficiencies of main steam temperature control system, Model Free Adaptive Control (MFAC) - P cascade control system is proposed in this paper. By substituting MFAC in PID of the main control loop of the main steam temperature control, it can overcome time delays, non-linearity, disturbance and time variation.

Keywords: Model free Adaptive Control, Cascade Control, Adaptive Control, PID.

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3625 Sensitizing Rules for Fuzzy Control Charts

Authors: N. Pekin Alakoç, A. Apaydın

Abstract:

Quality control charts indicate out of control conditions if any nonrandom pattern of the points is observed or any point is plotted beyond the control limits. Nonrandom patterns of Shewhart control charts are tested with sensitizing rules. When the processes are defined with fuzzy set theory, traditional sensitizing rules are insufficient for defining all out of control conditions. This is due to the fact that fuzzy numbers increase the number of out of control conditions. The purpose of the study is to develop a set of fuzzy sensitizing rules, which increase the flexibility and sensitivity of fuzzy control charts. Fuzzy sensitizing rules simplify the identification of out of control situations that results in a decrease in the calculation time and number of evaluations in fuzzy control chart approach.

Keywords: Fuzzy set theory, Quality control charts, Run Rules, Unnatural patterns.

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3624 Robust Control of a Parallel 3-RRR Robotic Manipulator via μ-Synthesis Method

Authors: A. Abbasi Moshaii, M. Soltan Rezaee, M. Mohammadi Moghaddam

Abstract:

Control of some mechanisms is hard because of their complex dynamic equations. If part of the complexity is resulting from uncertainties, an efficient way for solving that is robust control. By this way, the control procedure could be simple and fast and finally, a simple controller can be designed. One kind of these mechanisms is 3-RRR which is a parallel mechanism and has three revolute joints. This paper aims to robust control a 3-RRR planner mechanism and it presents that this could be used for other mechanisms. So, a significant problem in mechanisms control could be solved. The relevant diagrams are drawn and they show the correctness of control process.

Keywords: 3-RRR, dynamic equations, mechanisms control, structural uncertainty.

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3623 Numbers and Biomass of Bacteria and Fungi Obtained by the Direct Microscopic Count Method

Authors: Ayuko Itsuki, Sachiyo Aburatani

Abstract:

The soil ecology of the organic and mineral soil layers of laurel-leaved and Cryptomeria japonica forest in the Kasuga-yama Hill Primeval Forest (Nara, Japan) was assessed. The number of bacteria obtained by the dilution plate count method was less than 0.05% of those counted by the direct microscopic count. We therefore found that forest soil contains large numbers of non-culturable bacteria compared with agricultural soils. The numbers of bacteria and fungi obtained by both the dilution plate count and the direct microscopic count were larger in the deeper horizons (F and H) of the organic layer than in the mineral soil layer. This suggests that active microbial metabolism takes place in the organic layer. The numbers of bacteria and the length of fungal hyphae obtained by the direct count method were greater in the H horizon than in the F horizon. The direct microscopic count revealed numerous non-culturable bacteria and fungi in the soil. The ratio of fungal to bacterial biomass was lower in the laurel-leaved forest soil. The fungal biomass was therefore relatively low in the laurel-leaved forest soil due to differences in forest vegetation.

Keywords: Bacterial number, Dilution plate count, Direct microscopic count, Forest soil.

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3622 Dynamics and Control of Bouncing Ball

Authors: A. K. Kamath, N. M. Singh, R. Pasumarthy

Abstract:

This paper investigates the control of a bouncing ball using Model Predictive Control. Bouncing ball is a benchmark problem for various rhythmic tasks such as juggling, walking, hopping and running. Humans develop intentions which may be perceived as our reference trajectory and tries to track it. The human brain optimizes the control effort needed to track its reference; this forms the central theme for control of bouncing ball in our investigations.

Keywords: Bouncing Ball, impact dynamics, intermittent control, model predictive control.

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