Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30848
Evaluation of Some Chemical Parameters as Potential Determinants of Fresh Water Snails with Special Reference to Medically Important Snails in Egypt

Authors: H.M. El-Khayat, N.M. Ismail, K.M. Mahmoud, F.M. Ragb, K.M. El-Said, B. B. Mostafa, F. A. El- Deeb, A.A. Tantawy


Seasonal survey of freshwater snails in different water courses in Egypt during two successive years included 13 snail species. They represented by Biomphalaria alexandrina, Bulinus truncatus, Physa acuta, Helisoma duryi, Lymnaea natalensis, Planorbis pantries, Cleopatra bulimoides, Lanistes carinatus, Bellamya unicolor, Melanoides tuberculata, Theodoxus niloticus, Succinia cleopatra and Valvata nilotica. B. alexandrina was most abundant during autumn and spring represented by 26and14 snails/site, respectively. B. truncatus was most abundant during winter (7.7and3.6snails/site) of the two years, respectively. L. natalensis was represented by 7snails/site in summer. The tolerance of different snail species to the chemical elements was determined seasonally and correlated to their abundance. In spring, autumn and winter, B. alexandrina was significantly found to live under the highest level of Pb, Cd,Cu, Na, K and Ca concentrations than the other species (p<0.01). Most snail species could be lived at approximately the same concentrations of Na, K and Ca during all seasons.

Keywords: Tolerance, Freshwater, Chemical Parameters, snails

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1292


[1] A. Ibrahim, H. Bishai and M.T Khalil, "Freshwater mollusks of Egypt". Publication of National Biodiversity Unit, Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency. No. 10, 1999.
[2] F. Yousif, A. Ibrahim, A. Abdel Kader and S. El-Bardicy, "Invasion of the Nile Valley by a hybrid of Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria alexandrina, snail vectors of Schistosoma mansoni in Egypt" J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol, vol . 28, 1998a, pp. 569-582.
[3] F. Yousif, M. El-Emam, A. Abdel Kader, A.S. El-Din, K. El- Hommossany and C. Shiff, "Schistosomiasis in newly reclaimed areas in Egypt. 1-Distribution and population seasonal fluctuation of intermediate host snails." J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol., vol 28, 1998b, pp. 915-928.
[4] F. Yousif, M. EL-Emam, A. Abdel Kader, A. Sharaf El-Din, K. El- Hommossany and C. Shiff, "Schistosomiasis in newly reclaimed areas in Egypt. 2- Pattern of transmission", J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol., vol. 29, 1999a, pp. 635-648.
[5] F. Yousif, G. Soilman and A. Sharaf El-Din, "Geographical range and pattern of distribution of Helisom duryi (Wetherby, 1879), as a potential biocontrol agent against Schistosome vector snails, in Nile Delta.", Egypt. J. Zool., vol. 33, 1999b , pp. 49-64.
[6] A. Abdel Kader, "The effect of ecological parameters on the distribution of snail vectors of schistosomiasis.", J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol., vol 31, 2001, pp. 145-152.
[7] A. H. Ahmed, A. Ruppel and M. R. Ramzy, "A longitudinal study of Schistosome intermediate host snail populations and three trematode infection in certain areas of Egypt." J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol., vol 33, 2003, pp. 201-217.
[8] H. A. Sayed, A. El-Ayyat, A. Abdel Kader, H.Y. Sabry and N.M. Amer, "Epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni infection and its relationship to snail distribution in a village at the Nile Bank south to Cairo." J. Egypt. Soc. Publ. Hlth. Assoc., vol 79, 2004, pp. 95-113.
[9] A. Ibrahim, F. Yousif and K. El-Hommossany, "Ecological studies on schistosome vector snails in the River Nile at greater Cairo." J. Environ. Sci., vol 11, 2005, pp. 19-3
[10] K.M. El-Hommossany, "Schistosomiasis transmission in the River Nile at Greater Cairo." Ph.D. Ain Shams Univ. Cairo, Egypt. 2006.
[11] Z. Pokora, "Role of gastropods in epidemiology of human parasitic diseases." Wiad Parazytol, vol 47, 2001, pp. 3-24.
[12] J.D. Rhoades, A. Kandiah and A..M. Mashali, "The use of saline waters for crop production: Environmental and ecological aspects," FAO irrigation and drainage paper 48, 1992, Ch. 5.
[13] WHO , "The control of schistosomiasis", 2nd Report of the WHO Expert Committee, Tec. Rep. Ser. No. 830, 1993, pp. 1- 80.
[14] F. Yousif, G. Kamel, M. El-Emam and S. Mohamed, "Ecology of Biomphalaria alexandrina the snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni in Egypt", J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol., vol. 23, 1993a, pp. 29-42.
[15] F. Yousif, M. El-Emam and M.Z. Roushdy, "Helisoma duryi: its present range of distribution and implications with schistosomiasis snails in Egypt", J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol., vol. 23, 1993b, pp. 195-211.
[16] F. Yousif, G. Kamel, M. El-Emam and S. H. Mohamed, "Population dynamics and Schistosomal infection of Biomphalaria alexandrina in four irrigation canals in Egypt", J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol., vol. 23, 1993c, pp. 621-630.
[17] F. S. Barbosa and C. S. Barbosa "The bioecology of snail vectors for Schitosomiasis in Brazil", Cad. Sa├║de P├║blica Rio de Janeiro, vol. 10, 1994, pp. 200 -209.
[18] W. R. Jobin, "Population dynamics of aquatic snails in three farm ponds in Puerto Rico", Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., vol. 19, 1970, pp. 1038-1048.
[19] F. Yousif, M. Khalil and M. El-Emam, "Evaluation of three common tools in estimating Biomphalaria alexandrina population in irrigation ditches", Egypt. J. Bilh., vol. 14, 1992, pp. 151-158.
[20] A.D. Berrie, "Snail problems in African schistosomiasis" Adv. Parastitol, vol. 8, 1970, pp. 43-96.
[21] P. Jurberg, J.V. Barbosa and L. Rotenberg, "The role of behavior in the survival of Biomphalaria glabrata in bioassays with the plant molluscicide Phytolacca dodecandra", Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, vol. 83, 1988. pp. 41-46.
[22] A.A.F. Mahmoud, "The schistosomes and their intermediate hosts", in: Schistosomiasis, G. Pasvol and S.L. Hofffman, (Eds), Imperical College Press, London, 2001, pp. 7-84.
[23] H.M.M. El-Khayat, B.B. Mostafa, K.M.A. Mahmoud, K.M. El-Said and N.M.M. Ismail, "The association between fresh water snails, macrophytes and water quality in different water courses in Egypt", New Egypt. J. Med., vol. 40, 2009, pp. 381-392.
[24] H. Lefcort, D.P. Abbott, D.A. Cleary, E. Howell, N.C. Keller and M. M. Smith, "Aquatic snails from mining sites have evolved to detect and avoid heavy metals", Arc. Environ. Contamination Toxicol., vol. 46, 2004, pp. 478-484.
[25] Y. Yang, Z. He, Y. Lin, E.J. Phlips, P.J. Stoffella and C.A. Powell, "Temporal and spatial variations of copper, cadmium, lead and zinc in Ten Mile Creek in South Florida, USA water", Environ. Res., vol. 81, 2009, pp. 40-50.
[26] A. Abdel-Kader, B. Mostafa and A. Tantawy, "A field study on water characteristics and their effect on the vector snails of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis in Egypt", J. Egypt. Ger. Soc. Zool. Vol. 48(A),(Comparative physiology), 2005, pp. 203- 216.
[27] A. H. Ahmed, A. M. EL-Refai, M. A. El-Alamy and M. Habib, "Effect of heavy metals on the distribution and life cycle of two snail species, the intermediate hosts of Schistosomes in Egypt", in Conf. Rec., 1995, The SRP Inter. Conf. on Schist., p.
[28] A. A. El-Hawary, "Some ecological and physiological studies on fresh water pollution and relationship with distribution of snail intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis in Egypt", M.Sc. Thesis, faculty of science, Cairo university, 1990.
[29] T. Caquet, "Spatial distribution of four fresh water gastropod species in Aditch near Orsay, France", Hydrobiologia, vol. 203, 1990, pp. 83-92.
[30] L. Kriajev, I. Otremski and S. Edelstein, "Calcium cells from snails: response to vitamin D metabolites", Calcif. Tissue Int., vol. 55, 1994, pp. 204-7.
[31] H.I. El-Gindy, "The ecology of Egyptian snail vectors of Bilharziasis and Fascioliasis", phD. Thesis, faculty of Science, Cairo university, 1960