Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1328

Search results for: adsorption capacity

1328 Towards CO2 Adsorption Enhancement via Polyethyleneimine Impregnation

Authors: Supasinee Pipatsantipong, Pramoch Rangsunvigit, Santi Kulprathipanja

Abstract:

To reduce the carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere, adsorption is believed to be one of the most attractive methods for post-combustion treatment of flue gas. In this work, activated carbon (AC) was modified by polyethylenimine (PEI) via impregnation in order to enhance CO2 adsorption capacity. The adsorbents were produced at 0.04, 0.16, 0.22, 0.25, and 0.28 wt% PEI/AC. The adsorption was carried out at a temperature range from 30 °C to 75 °C and five different gas pressures up to 1 atm. TG-DTA, FT-IR, UV-visible spectrometer, and BET were used to characterize the adsorbents. Effects of PEI loading on the AC for the CO2 adsorption were investigated. Effectiveness of the adsorbents on the CO2 adsorption including CO2 adsorption capacity and adsorption temperature was also investigated. Adsorption capacities of CO2 were enhanced with the increase in the amount of PEI from 0.04 to 0.22 wt% PEI before the capacities decreased onwards from0.25 wt% PEI at 30 °C. The 0.22 wt% PEI/AC showed higher adsorption capacity than the AC for adsorption at 50 °C to 75 °C.

Keywords: Activated Carbon, Adsorption, CO2, Polyethyleneimine

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1327 The Effect of Unburned Carbon on Coal Fly Ash toward its Adsorption Capacity for Methyl Violet

Authors: Widi Astuti, Agus Prasetya, Endang Tri Wahyuni, I Made Bendiyasa

Abstract:

Coal fly ash (CFA) generated by coal-based thermal power plants is mainly composed of quartz, mullite, and unburned carbon. In this study, the effect of unburned carbon on CFA toward its adsorption capacity was investigated. CFA with various carbon content was obtained by refluxing it with sulfuric acid having various concentration at various temperature and reflux time, by heating at 400-800°C, and by sieving into 100-mesh in particle size. To evaluate the effect of unburned carbon on CFA toward its adsorption capacity, adsorption of methyl violet solution with treated CFA was carried out. The research shows that unburned carbon leads to adsorption capacity decrease. The highest adsorption capacity of treated CFA was found 5.73 x 10-4mol.g-1.

Keywords: CFA, carbon, methyl violet, adsorption capacity.

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1326 Experimental Study on Adsorption Capacity of Activated Carbon Pairs with Different Refrigerants

Authors: Ahmed N. Shmroukh, Ahmed Hamza H. Ali, Ali K. Abel-Rahman

Abstract:

This study is experimentally targeting to develop effective in heat and mass transfer processes for the adsorbate to obtain applicable adsorption capacity data. This is done by using fin and tube heat exchanger core and the adsorbate is adhesive over its surface and located as the core of the adsorber. The pairs are activated carbon powder/R-134a, activated carbon powder/R-407c, activated carbon powder/R-507A, activated carbon granules/R-507A, activated carbon granules/R-407c and activated carbon granules/R-134a, at different adsorption temperatures of 25, 30, 35 and 50°C. The following is results is obtained: at adsorption temperature of 25 °C the maximum adsorption capacity is found to be 0.8352kg/kg for activated carbon powder with R-134a and the minimum adsorption capacity found to be 0.1583kg/kg for activated carbon granules with R-407c. While, at adsorption temperature of 50°C the maximum adsorption capacity is found to be 0.3207kg/kg for activated carbon powder with R-134a and the minimum adsorption capacity found to be 0.0609kg/kg for activated carbon granules with R-407c. Therefore, the activated carbon powder/R-134a pair is highly recommended to be used as adsorption refrigeration working pair because of its higher maximum adsorption capacity than the other tested pairs, to produce a compact, efficient and reliable for long life performance adsorption refrigeration system.

Keywords: Adsorption, Adsorbent/Adsorbate Pairs, Adsorption Capacity, Refrigeration.

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1325 Adsorption Refrigeration Working Pairs: The State-of-the-Art in the Application

Authors: Ahmed N. Shmroukh, Ahmed Hamza H. Ali, Ali K. Abel-Rahman

Abstract:

Adsorption refrigeration working pair is a vital and is the main component in the adsorption refrigeration machine. Therefore the development key is laying on the adsorption pair that leads to the improvement of the adsorption refrigeration machine. In this study the state-of-the-art in the application of the adsorption refrigeration working pairs in both classical and modern adsorption pairs are presented, compared and summarized. It is found that the maximum adsorption capacity for the classical working pairs was 0.259kg/kg for activated carbon/methanol and that for the modern working pairs was 2kg/kg for maxsorb III/R-134a. The study concluded that, the performances of the adsorption working pairs of adsorption cooling systems are still need further investigations as well as developing adsorption pairs having higher sorption capacity with low or no impact on environmental, to build compact, efficient, reliable and long life performance adsorption chillier. Also, future researches need to be focused on designing the adsorption system that provide efficient heating and cooling for the adsorbent materials through distributing the adsorbent material over heat exchanger surface, to allow good heat and mass transfer between the adsorbent and the refrigerant.

Keywords: Adsorption, Adsorbent/Adsorbate Pairs, Refrigeration.

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1324 The Adsorption of Lead from Aqueous Solutions Using Coal Fly Ash : Effect of Crystallinity

Authors: Widi Astuti, Agus Prasetya, Endang Tri Wahyuni, I Made Bendiyasa

Abstract:

Coal fly ash (CFA) generated by coal-based thermal power plants is mainly composed of some oxides having high crystallinity, like quartz and mullite. In this study, the effect of CFA crystallinity toward lead adsorption capacity was investigated. To get solid with various crystallinity, the solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) of 1-7 M was used to treat CFA at various temperature and reflux time. Furthermore, to evaluate the effect of NaOH-treated CFA with respect to adsorption capacity, the treated CFA were examine as adsorbent for removing lead in the solution. The result shows that using NaOH to treat CFA causes crystallinity of quartz and mullite decrease. At higher NaOH concentration (>3M), in addition the damage of quartz and mullite crystallinity is followed by crystal formation called hydroxysodalite. The lower crystalllinity, the higher adsorption capacity.

Keywords: Coal fly ash, crystallinity, lead, adsorption capacity

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1323 Adsorption of Phenol and 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid onto Functional Materials

Authors: Mourad Makhlouf, Omar Bouchher, Messabih Sidi Mohamed, Benrachedi Khaled

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to investigate the removal of two organic pollutants; 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-hydroxybenzoic acid) and phenol from synthetic wastewater by the adsorption on mesoporous materials. In this context, the aim of this work is to study the adsorption of organic compounds phenol and 4AHB on MCM-41 and FSM-16 non-grafted (NG) and other grafted (G) by trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The results of phenol and 4AHB adsorption in aqueous solution show that the adsorption capacity tends to increase after grafting in relation to the increase in hydrophobicity. The materials are distinguished by a higher adsorption capacity to the other NG materials. The difference in the phenol is 14.43% (MCM-41), 14.55% (FSM-16), and 16.72% (MCM-41), 13.57% (FSM-16) in the 4AHB. Our adsorption results show that the grafted materials by TMCS are good adsorbent at 25 °C.

Keywords: MCM-41, FSM-16, TMCS, phenol, 4AHB.

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1322 Adsorption of Bovine Serum Albumin on CeO2

Authors: Roman Marsalek

Abstract:

Preparation of nanoparticles of cerium oxide and adsorption of bovine serum albumin on them were studied. Particle size distribution and influence of pH on zeta potential of prepared CeO2 were determined. Average size of prepared cerium oxide nanoparticles was 9 nm. The simultaneous measurements of the bovine serum albumin adsorption and zeta potential determination of the (adsorption) suspensions were carried out. The adsorption isotherms were found to be of typical Langmuir type; values of the bovine serum albumin adsorption capacities were calculated. Increasing of pH led to decrease of zeta potential and decrease of adsorption capacity of cerium oxide nanoparticles. The maximum adsorption capacity was found for strongly acid suspension (am = 118 mg/g). The samples of nanoceria with positive zeta potential adsorbed more bovine serum albumin on the other hand, the samples with negative zeta potential showed little or no protein adsorption. Surface charge or better say zeta potential of CeO2 nanoparticles plays the key role in adsorption of proteins on such type of materials.

Keywords: Adsorption, BSA, cerium oxide nanoparticles, zeta potential.

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1321 Defluoridation of Water by Schwertmannite

Authors: Aparajita Goswami, Mihir K Purkait

Abstract:

In the present study Schwertmannite (an iron oxide hydroxide) is selected as an adsorbent for defluoridation of water. The adsorbent was prepared by wet chemical process and was characterized by SEM, XRD and BET. The fluoride adsorption efficiency of the prepared adsorbent was determined with respect to contact time, initial fluoride concentration, adsorbent dose and pH of the solution. The batch adsorption data revealed that the fluoride adsorption efficiency was highly influenced by the studied factors. Equilibrium was attained within one hour of contact time indicating fast kinetics and the adsorption data followed pseudo second order kinetic model. Equilibrium isotherm data fitted to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models for a concentration range of 5-30 mg/L. The adsorption system followed Langmuir isotherm model with maximum adsorption capacity of 11.3 mg/g. The high adsorption capacity of Schwertmannite points towards the potential of this adsorbent for fluoride removal from aqueous medium.

Keywords: Adsorption, fluoride, isotherm study, kinetics, schwertmannite.

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1320 Effect of the Experimental Conditions on the Adsorption Capacities in the Removal of Pb2+ from Aqueous Solutions by the Hydroxyapatite Nanopowders

Authors: Oral Lacin, Turan Calban, Fatih Sevim, Taner Celik

Abstract:

In this study, Pb2+ uptake by the hydroxyapatite nanopowders (n-Hap) from aqueous solutions was investigated by using batch adsorption techniques. The adsorption equilibrium studies were carried out as a function of contact time, adsorbent dosage, pH, temperature, and initial Pb2+ concentration. The results showed that the equilibrium time of adsorption was achieved within 60 min, and the effective pH was selected to be 5 (natural pH). The maximum adsorption capacity of Pb2+ on n-Hap was found as 565 mg.g-1. It is believed that the results obtained for adsorption may provide a background for the detailed mechanism investigations and the pilot and industrial scale applications.

Keywords: Nanopowders, hydroxyapatite, heavy metals, adsorption.

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1319 A Kinetic Study on the Adsorption of Cd(II) and Zn(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions on Zeolite NaA

Authors: Dimitar Georgiev, Bogdan Bogdanov, Irena Markovska, Yancho Hristov, Dencho Stanev

Abstract:

The present paper reports the removal of Cd(II) and Zn(II) ions using synthetic Zeolit NaA. The adsorption capacity of the sorbent (Zeolite NaA) strongly depends on simultaneous or not simultaneous (concurrent) presence of Cd(II) and Zn(II) in the sorbate. When Cd(II) and Zn(II) are present simultaneously (concurrently) in the sorbate, Zn(II) ions were sorbed at higher rate. Equilibrium data fitted Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isotherms well. The applicability of the isotherm equation to describe the adsorption process was judged by the correlation coefficients R2. The Langmuir model yielded the best fit with R2 values equal to or higher than 0.970, as compared to the Freundlich and Tempkin models. The fact that 1/n values range from 0.322 to 0.755 indicates that the adsorption of Cd(II) and Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions also favored by the Freundlich model.

Keywords: Adsorption, adsorption capacity, kinetic sorption, Zeolite NaA

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1318 The Removal of Cu (II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions on Synthetic Zeolite NaA

Authors: Dimitar Georgiev, Bogdan Bogdanov, Yancho Hristov, Irena Markovska

Abstract:

In this study the adsorption of Cu (II) ions from aqueous solutions on synthetic zeolite NaA was evaluated. The effect of solution temperature and the determination of the kinetic parameters of adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution on zeolite NaA is important in understanding the adsorption mechanism. Variables of the system include adsorption time, temperature (293- 328K), initial solution concentration and pH for the system. The sorption kinetics of the copper ions were found to be strongly dependent on pH (the optimum pH 3-5), solute ion concentration and temperature (293 – 328 K). It was found, the pseudo-second-order model was the best choice among all the kinetic models to describe the adsorption behavior of Cu(II) onto ziolite NaA, suggesting that the adsorption mechanism might be a chemisorptions process The activation energy of adsorption (Ea) was determined as Cu(II) 13.5 kJ mol-1. The low value of Ea shows that Cu(II) adsorption process by zeolite NaA may be an activated chemical adsorption. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0) were also determined from the temperature dependence. The results show that the process of adsorption Cu(II) is spontaneous and endothermic process and rise in temperature favors the adsorption.

Keywords: Zeolite NaA, adsorption, adsorption capacity, kinetic sorption

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1317 Adsorption of Lead from Synthetic Solution using Luffa Charcoal

Authors: C. Umpuch, N. Bunmanan, U. Kueasing, P. Kaewsan

Abstract:

This work was to study batch biosorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by Luffa charcoal. The effect of operating parameters such as adsorption contact time, initial pH solution and different initial Pb(II) concentration on the sorption of Pb(II) were investigated. The results showed that the adsorption of Pb(II) ions was initially rapid and the equilibrium time was 10 h. Adsorption kinetics of Pb(II) ions onto Luffa charcoal could be best described by the pseudo-second order model. At pH 5.0 was favorable for the adsorption and removal of Pb(II) ions. Freundlich adsorption isotherm model was better fitted for the adsorption of Pb(II) ions than Langmuir and Timkin isotherms, respectively. The highest monolayer adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm model was 51.02 mg/g. This study demonstrated that Luffa charcoal could be used for the removal of Pb(II) ions in water treatment.

Keywords: Lead (II), Luffa charcoal, Biosorption, initial pHsolution, contact time, adsorption isotherm.

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1316 Removal of Copper and Zinc Ions onto Biomodified Palm Shell Activated Carbon

Authors: Gulnaziya Issabayeva, Mohamed Kheireddine Aroua

Abstract:

commercially produced in Malaysia granular palm shell activated carbon (PSAC) was biomodified with bacterial biomass (Bacillus subtilis) to produce a hybrid biosorbent of higher efficiency. The obtained biosorbent was evaluated in terms of adsorption capacity to remove copper and zinc metal ions from aqueous solutions. The adsorption capacity was evaluated in batch adsorption experiments where concentrations of metal ions varied from 20 to 350 mg/L. A range of pH from 3 to 6 of aqueous solutions containing metal ions was tested. Langmuir adsorption model was used to interpret the experimental data. Comparison of the adsorption data of the biomodified and original palm shell activated carbon showed higher uptake of metal ions by the hybrid biosorbent. A trend in metal ions uptake increase with the increase in the solution-s pH was observed. The surface characterization data indicated a decrease in the total surface area for the hybrid biosorbent; however the uptake of copper and zinc by it was at least equal to the original PSAC at pH 4 and 5. The highest capacity of the hybrid biosorbent was observed at pH 5 and comprised 22 mg/g and 19 mg/g for copper and zinc, respectively. The adsorption capacity at the lowest pH of 3 was significantly low. The experimental results facilitated identification of potential factors influencing the adsorption of copper and zinc onto biomodified and original palm shell activated carbon.

Keywords: Adsorption, biomodification, copper, zinc, palm shell carbon.

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1315 Removal of Tartrazine Dye form Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption on the Surface of Polyaniline/Iron Oxide Composite

Authors: Salem Ali Jebreil

Abstract:

In this work, a polyaniline/Iron oxide (PANI/Fe2O3) composite was chemically prepared by oxidative polymerization of aniline in acid medium, in presence of ammonium persulphate as an oxidant and amount of Fe2O3. The composite was characterized by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared composite has been used as adsorbent to remove Tartrazine dye form aqueous solutions. The effects of initial dye concentration and temperature on the adsorption capacity of PANI/Fe2O3 for Tartrazine dye have been studied in this paper. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models have been used for the mathematical description of adsorption equilibrium data. The best fit is obtained using the Freundlich isotherm with an R2 value of 0.998. The change of Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of adsorption has been also evaluated for the adsorption of Tartrazine onto PANI/ Fe2O3. It has been proved according the results that the adsorption process is endothermic in nature.

Keywords: Adsorption, Composite, dye, Polyaniline, Tartrazine.

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1314 Investigation of the Effect of Nano-Alumina Particles on Adsorption Property of Acrylic Fiber

Authors: Mehdi Ketabchi, Shallah Alijanlo

Abstract:

The flue gas from fossil fuels combustion contains harmful pollutants dangerous for human health and environment. One of the air pollution control methods to restrict the emission of these pollutants is based on using the nanoparticle in adsorption process. In the present research, gamma nano-alumina particle is added to polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer through simple loading method, and the adsorption capacity of the wet spun fiber is investigated. The results of exposure the fiber to the acid gases including SO2, CO, NO2, NO, and CO2 show the noticeable increase of gas adsorption capacity on fiber contains nanoparticle. The research has been conducted in Acrylic II Plant of Polyacryl Iran Corporation.

Keywords: Acrylic fiber, adsorbent, wet spun, polyacryl company, gamma nano-alumina.

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1313 GIC-Based Adsorbents for Wastewater Treatment through Adsorption and Electrochemical-Regeneration

Authors: H. M. A. Asghar, S. N. Hussain, E. P. L. Roberts, N. W. Brown, H. Sattar

Abstract:

Intercalation imparts interesting features to the host graphite material. Two different types of intercalated compounds called (GIC-bisulphate or Nyex 1000 and GIC-nitrate or Nyex 3000) were tested for their adsorption capacity and ability to undergo electrochemical regeneration. It was found that Nyex 3000 showed comparatively slow kinetics along with reduced adsorption capacity to one half for acid violet 17 as adsorbate. Acid violet 17 was selected as model organic pollutant for evaluating comparative performance of said adsorbents. Both adsorbent materials showed 100% regeneration efficiency as achieved by passing a charge of 36 C g-1 at a current density of 12 mA cm-2 and a treatment time of 60 min.  

Keywords: Intercalation compound of graphite, Adsorption, electrochemical-regeneration, waste water.

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1312 Adsorption of Ferrous and Ferric Ions in Aqueous and Industrial Effluent onto Pongamia pinnata Tree Bark

Authors: M. Mamatha, H. B. Aravinda, E. T. Puttaiah, S. Manjappa

Abstract:

One of the causes of water pollution is the presence of heavy metals in water. In the present study, an adsorbent prepared from the raw bark of the Pongamia pinnata tree is used for the removal of ferrous or ferric ions from aqueous and waste water containing heavy metals. Adsorption studies were conducted at different pH, concentration of metal ion, amount of adsorbent, contact time, agitation and temperature. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were applied for the results. The Langmuir isotherms were best fitted by the equilibrium data. The maximum adsorption was found to 146mg/g in waste water at a temperature of 30°C which is in agreement as comparable to the adsorption capacity of different adsorbents reported in literature. Pseudo second order model best fitted the adsorption of both ferrous and ferric ions.

Keywords: Adsorption, Adsorption isotherms, Heavy metals, Industrial effluents.

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1311 Solar-Powered Adsorption Cooling System: A Case Study on the Climatic Conditions of Al Minya

Authors: El-Sadek H. Nour El-deen, K. Harby

Abstract:

Energy saving and environment friendly applications are turning out to be one of the most important topics nowadays. In this work, a simulation analysis using TRNSYS software has been carried out to study the benefit of employing a solar adsorption cooling system under the climatic conditions of Al-Minya city, Egypt. A theoretical model was carried out on a two bed adsorption cooling system employing granular activated carbon-HFC-404A as working pair. Temporal and averaged history of solar collector, adsorbent beds, evaporator and condenser has been shown. System performance in terms of daily average cooling capacity and average coefficient of performance around the year has been investigated. The results showed that maximum yearly average coefficient of performance (COP) and cooling capacity are about 0.26 and 8 kW respectively. The maximum value of the both average cooling capacity and COP cyclic is directly proportional to the maximum solar radiation. The system performance was found to be increased with the average ambient temperature. Finally, the proposed solar powered adsorption cooling systems can be used effectively under Al-Minya climatic conditions.

Keywords: Adsorption, solar energy, environment, cooling, Egypt.

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1310 Adsorption Capacity of Chitosan Beads in Toxic Solutions

Authors: P. Setthamongkol, J. Salaenoi

Abstract:

The efficiency of chitosan beads processed from 4 marine animal shells; white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), mud crab (Scylla sp.), horseshoe crab (Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda), and cuttlefish bone (Sepia sp.), for the adsorption experiments of ammonia and formaldehyde were investigated. The porosities of chitosan from the shells looked like beads were distinctly examined under SEM. The original pores of those shells on the surface areas compose of evenly fine pores. The shell beads of cuttlefish bone and horseshoe crab show the larger probably even porosity, while on those white leg shrimp and mud crab contain various large and fine pores. The best adsorption at pH 9 in 18 mg/l ammonia at 2 hours yield on cuttlefish bone, horseshoe crab, mud crab and white leg shrimp with the average percent of 59.12, 51.45, 45.66 and 43.52, respectively. Within 30 minutes the formaldehyde absorbers (at pH 5 in 8 μg/ml) revealed 46.27, 26.56, and 18.04 percent capacities in cuttlefish bone, mud crab and white leg shrimp beads; while 22.44 percent in the horseshoe crab at pH 7. The adsorption capacities and the amounts of beads showed a positive correlation. The adsorption capacity relationship between pH and the gas concentrations were affected by these qualities of chitosan beads.

Keywords: chitosan, adsorption, ammonia, formaldehyde

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1309 Adsorption Studies on the Removal of Pesticides(Carbofuran) using Activated Carbon from Rice Straw Agricultural Waste

Authors: Ken-Lin Chang, Jun-Hong Lin, Shui-Tein Chen

Abstract:

In this study, we used a two-stage process and potassium hydroxide (KOH) to transform waste biomass (rice straw) into activated carbon and then evaluated the adsorption capacity of the waste for removing carbofuran from an aqueous solution. Activated carbon was fast and effective for the removal of carbofuran because of its high surface area. The native and carbofuran-loaded adsorbents were characterized by elemental analysis. Different adsorption parameters, such as the initial carbofuran concentration, contact time, temperature and pH for carbofuran adsorption, were studied using a batch system. This study demonstrates that rice straw can be very effective in the adsorption of carbofuran from bodies of water.

Keywords: Rice straw, Carbofuran, Activated carbon

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1308 Experimental Evaluation of Methane Adsorptionon Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) and Determination of Model Isotherm

Authors: M. Delavar, A.A. Ghoreyshi, M. Jahanshahi, M. Irannejad

Abstract:

This study investigates the capacity of granular activated carbon (GAC) for the storage of methane through the equilibrium adsorption. An experimental apparatus consist of a dual adsorption vessel was set up for the measurement of equilibrium adsorption of methane on GAC using volumetric technique (pressure decay). Experimental isotherms of methane adsorption were determined by the measurement of equilibrium uptake of methane in different pressures (0-50 bar) and temperatures (285.15-328.15°K). The experimental data was fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir equations to determine the model isotherm. The results show that the experimental data is equally well fitted by the both model isotherms. Using the experimental data obtained in different temperatures the isosteric heat of methane adsorption was also calculated by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation from the Sips isotherm model. Results of isosteric heat of adsorption show that decreasing temperature or increasing methane uptake by GAC decrease the isosteric heat of methane adsorption.

Keywords: Methane adsorption, Activated carbon, Modelisotherm, Isosteric heat

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1307 Adsorption of Acetone Vapors by SBA-16 and MCM-48 Synthesized from Rice Husk Ash

Authors: Wanting Zeng, Hsunling Bai

Abstract:

Silica was extracted from agriculture waste rice husk ash (RHA) and was used as the silica source for synthesis of RMCM-48 and RSBA-16. An alkali fusion process was utilized to separate silicate supernatant and the sediment effectively. The CTAB/Si and F127/Si molar ratio was employed to control the structure properties of the obtained RMCM-48 and RSBA-16 materials. The N2 adsorption-desorption results showed the micro-mesoporous RSBA-16 possessed high specific surface areas (662-1001 m2/g). All the obtained RSBA-16 materials were applied as the adsorbents for acetone adsorption. And the breakthrough tests clearly revealed that the RSBA-16(0.004) materials could achieve the highest acetone adsorption capacity of 181 mg/g under 1000 ppmv acetone vapor concentration at 25oC, which was also superior to ZSM-5 (71mg/g) and MCM-41 (157mg/g) under same test conditions. This can help to reduce the solid waste and the high adsorption performance of the obtained materials could consider as potential adsorbents for acetone adsorption.

Keywords: Acetone, adsorption, micro-mesoporous material, rice husk ash (RHA), RSBA-16.

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1306 Effects of the Coagulation Bath and Reduction Process on SO2 Adsorption Capacity of Graphene Oxide Fiber

Authors: Özge Alptoğa, Nuray Uçar, Nilgün Karatepe Yavuz, Ayşen Önen

Abstract:

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a very toxic air pollutant gas and it causes the greenhouse effect, photochemical smog, and acid rain, which threaten human health severely. Thus, the capture of SO2 gas is very important for the environment. Graphene which is two-dimensional material has excellent mechanical, chemical, thermal properties, and many application areas such as energy storage devices, gas adsorption, sensing devices, and optical electronics. Further, graphene oxide (GO) is examined as a good adsorbent because of its important features such as functional groups (epoxy, carboxyl and hydroxyl) on the surface and layered structure. The SO2 adsorption properties of the fibers are usually investigated on carbon fibers. In this study, potential adsorption capacity of GO fibers was researched. GO dispersion was first obtained with Hummers’ method from graphite, and then GO fibers were obtained via wet spinning process. These fibers were converted into a disc shape, dried, and then subjected to SO2 gas adsorption test. The SO2 gas adsorption capacity of GO fiber discs was investigated in the fields of utilization of different coagulation baths and reduction by hydrazine hydrate. As coagulation baths, single and triple baths were used. In single bath, only ethanol and CaCl2 (calcium chloride) salt were added. In triple bath, each bath has a different concentration of water/ethanol and CaCl2 salt, and the disc obtained from triple bath has been called as reference disk. The fibers which were produced with single bath were flexible and rough, and the analyses show that they had higher SO2 adsorption capacity than triple bath fibers (reference disk). However, the reduction process did not increase the adsorption capacity, because the SEM images showed that the layers and uniform structure in the fiber form were damaged, and reduction decreased the functional groups which SO2 will be attached. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyzes were performed on the fibers and discs, and the effects on the results were interpreted. In the future applications of the study, it is aimed that subjects such as pH and additives will be examined.

Keywords: Coagulation bath, graphene oxide fiber, reduction, SO2 gas adsorption.

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1305 Continuous Fixed Bed Reactor Application for Decolourization of Textile Effluent by Adsorption on NaOH Treated Eggshell

Authors: M. Chafi, S. Akazdam, C. Asrir, L. Sebbahi, B. Gourich, N. Barka, M. Essahli

Abstract:

Fixed bed adsorption has become a frequently used industrial application in wastewater treatment processes. Various low cost adsorbents have been studied for their applicability in treatment of different types of effluents. In this work, the intention of the study was to explore the efficacy and feasibility for azo dye, Acid Orange 7 (AO7) adsorption onto fixed bed column of NaOH Treated eggshell (TES). The effect of various parameters like flow rate, initial dye concentration, and bed height were exploited in this study. The studies confirmed that the breakthrough curves were dependent on flow rate, initial dye concentration solution of AO7 and bed depth. The Thomas, Yoon–Nelson, and Adams and Bohart models were analysed to evaluate the column adsorption performance. The adsorption capacity, rate constant and correlation coefficient associated to each model for column adsorption was calculated and mentioned. The column experimental data were fitted well with Thomas model with coefficients of correlation R2 ≥0.93 at different conditions but the Yoon–Nelson, BDST and Bohart–Adams model (R2=0.911), predicted poor performance of fixed-bed column. The (TES) was shown to be suitable adsorbent for adsorption of AO7 using fixed-bed adsorption column.

Keywords: Adsorption models, acid orange 7, bed depth, breakthrough, dye adsorption, fixed-bed column, treated eggshell.

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1304 Adsorption of Crystal Violet onto BTEA- and CTMA-bentonite from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Ren Jian-min, Wu Si-wei, Jin Wei

Abstract:

CTMA-bentonite and BTEA-Bentonite prepared by Na-bentonite cation exchanged with cetyltrimethylammonium(CTMA) and benzyltriethylammonium (BTEA). Products were characterized by XRD and IR techniques.The d001 spacing value of CTMA-bentonite and BTEA-bentonite are 7.54Å and 3.50Å larger than that of Na-bentonite at 100% cation exchange capacity, respectively. The IR spectrum showed that the intensities of OH stretching and bending vibrations of the two organoclays decreased greatly comparing to untreated Na-bentonite. Batch experiments were carried out at 303 K, 318 K and 333 K to obtain the sorption isotherms of Crystal violet onto the two organoclays. The results show that the sorption isothermal data could be well described by Freundlich model. The dynamical data for the two organoclays fit well with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption capacity of CTMA-bentonite was found higher than that of BTEA-Bentonite. Thermodynamic parameters such as changes in the free energy (ΔG°), the enthalpy (ΔH°) and the entropy (ΔS°) were also evaluated. The overall adsorption process of Crystal violet onto the two organoclays were spontaneous, endothermic physisorption. The CTMA-bentonite and BTEA-Bentonite could be employed as low-cost alternatives to activated carbon in wastewater treatment for the removal of color which comes from textile dyes.

Keywords: Characterization, Adsorption, Crystal violet, Bentonite, BTEA, CTMA

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1303 Sustainable Hydrogel Nanocomposites Based on Grafted Chitosan and Clay for Effective Adsorption of Cationic Dye

Authors: H. Ferfera-Harrar, T. Benhalima, D. Lerari

Abstract:

Contamination of water, due to the discharge of untreated industrial wastewaters into the ecosystem, has become a serious problem for many countries. In this study, bioadsorbents based on chitosan-g-poly(acrylamide) and montmorillonite (MMt) clay (CTS-g-PAAm/MMt) hydrogel nanocomposites were prepared via free‐radical grafting copolymerization and crosslinking of acrylamide monomer (AAm) onto natural polysaccharide chitosan (CTS) as backbone, in presence of various contents of MMt clay as nanofiller. Then, they were hydrolyzed to obtain highly functionalized pH‐sensitive nanomaterials with uppermost swelling properties. Their structure characterization was conducted by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses. The adsorption performances of the developed nanohybrids were examined for removal of methylene blue (MB) cationic dye from aqueous solutions. The factors affecting the removal of MB, such as clay content, pH medium, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration and temperature were explored. The adsorption process was found to be highly pH dependent. From adsorption kinetic results, the prepared adsorbents showed remarkable adsorption capacity and fast adsorption rate, mainly more than 88% of MB removal efficiency was reached after 50 min in 200 mg L-1 of dye solution. In addition, the incorporating of various content of clay has enhanced adsorption capacity of CTS-g-PAAm matrix from 1685 to a highest value of 1749 mg g-1 for the optimized nanocomposite containing 2 wt.% of MMt. The experimental kinetic data were well described by the pseudo-second-order model, while the equilibrium data were represented perfectly by Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum Langmuir equilibrium adsorption capacity (qm) was found to increase from 2173 mg g−1 until 2221 mg g−1 by adding 2 wt.% of clay nanofiller. Thermodynamic parameters revealed the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the process. In addition, the reusability study revealed that these bioadsorbents could be well regenerated with desorption efficiency overhead 87% and without any obvious decrease of removal efficiency as compared to starting ones even after four consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles, which exceeded 64%. These results suggest that the optimized nanocomposites are promising as low cost bioadsorbents.

Keywords: Chitosan, clay, dye adsorption, hydrogels nanocomposites.

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1302 Effect of Medium Capacity on the Relationship between Chemical Heterogeneity and Linearly Adsorbed Solute Dispersion into Fixed Beds

Authors: K. Kaabeche-Djerafi, N. Bendjaballah-Lalaoui, S. Semra

Abstract:

The paper aims at investigating influence of medium capacity on linear adsorbed solute dispersion into chemically heterogeneous fixed beds. A discrete chemical heterogeneity distribution is considered in the one-dimensional advectivedispersive equation. The partial differential equation is solved using finite volumes method based on the Adam-Bashforth algorithm. Increased dispersion is estimated by comparing breakthrough curves second order moments and keeping identical hydrodynamic properties. As a result, dispersion increase due to chemical heterogeneity depends on the column size and surprisingly on the solid capacity. The more intense capacity is, the more important solute dispersion is. Medium length which is known to favour this effect vanishing according to the linear adsorption in fixed bed seems to create nonmonotonous variation of dispersion because of the heterogeneity. This nonmonotonous behaviour is also favoured by high capacities.

Keywords: linear adsorption; chemical heterogeneity;dispersion; fixed bed; porous media

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1301 Adsorption of Inorganic Salt by Granular Activated Carbon and Related Prediction Models

Authors: Kai-Lin Hsu, Jie-Chung Lou, Jia-Yun Han

Abstract:

In recent years, the underground water sources in southern Taiwan have become salinized because of saltwater intrusions. This study explores the adsorption characteristics of activated carbon on salinizing inorganic salts using isothermal adsorption experiments and provides a model analysis. The temperature range for the isothermal adsorption experiments ranged between 5 to 45 ℃, and the amount adsorbed varied between 28.21 to 33.87 mg/g. All experimental data of adsorption can be fitted to both the Langmuir and the Freundlich models. The thermodynamic parameters for per chlorate onto granular activated carbon were calculated as -0.99 to -1.11 kcal/mol for DG°, -0.6 kcal/mol for DH°, and 1.21 to 1.84 kcal/mol for DS°. This shows that the adsorption process of granular activated carbon is spontaneously exothermic. The observation of adsorption behaviors under low ionic strength, low pH values, and low temperatures is beneficial to the adsorption removal of perchlorate with granular activated carbon.

Keywords: Water Treatment, Per Chlorate, Adsorption, Granular Activated Carbon

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1300 Mercury Removing Capacity of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes as Detected by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: Kinetic & Equilibrium Studies

Authors: Yasser M. Moustafa, Rania E. Morsi, Mohammed Fathy

Abstract:

Multiwall carbon nanotubes, prepared by chemical vapor deposition, have an average diameter of 60-100 nm as shown by High Resolution Transmittance Electron Microscope, HR-TEM. The Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were further characterized using X-ray Diffraction and Raman Spectroscopy. Mercury uptake capacity of MWCNTs was studied using batch adsorption method at different concentration ranges up to 150 ppm. Mercury concentration (before and after the treatment) was measured using cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. The effect of time, concentration, pH and adsorbent dose were studied. MWCNT were found to perform complete absorption in the sub-ppm concentrations (parts per billion levels) while for high concentrations, the adsorption efficiency was 92% at the optimum conditions; 0.1 g of the adsorbent at 150 ppm mercury (II) solution. The adsorption of mercury on MWCNTs was found to follow the Freundlich adsorption isotherm and the pseudo-second order kinetic model.

Keywords: Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Hydride System, Mercury Removing, Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes.

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1299 Synthesis of Activated Carbon Using Agricultural Wastes from Biodiesel Production

Authors: A. Buasri, N. Chaiyut, V. Loryuenyong, E. Phakdeepataraphan, S. Watpathomsub, V. Kunakemakorn

Abstract:

In this research, the optimum conditions for the synthesis of activated carbon from biodiesel wastes such as palm shells (PS) and Jatropha curcas fruit shells (JS) by chemical activation method using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as an activating agent under nitrogen atmosphere were investigated. The effects of soaking in hydrofluoric acid (HF), impregnation ratio, activation temperature and activation time on adsorption capacity of methylene blue (MB) and iodine (I2) solution were examined. The results showed that HF-treated activated carbons exhibited higher adsorption capacities by eliminating ash residues, which might fill up the pores. In addition, the adsorption capacities of methylene blue and iodine solution were also significantly influenced by the types of raw materials, the activation temperature and the activation time. The highest adsorption capacity of methylene blue 257.07mg/g and iodine 847.58mg/g were obtained from Jatropha curcas wastes.

Keywords: Activated Carbon, Palm Shells (PS), Jatropha Curcas Fruit Shells (JS), Agricultural Wastes, Biodiesel Wastes, Optimum Conditions.

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