Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 82

Search results for: Anxiety

82 Evaluation of Internet Anxiety in SRBIAU Higher Education Students in Research Process

Authors: Nima Babazadeh Gashti, Nazanin Pilevari

Abstract:

Increase in using internet makes some problems that one of them is "internet anxiety". Internet anxiety is a type of anxious that people may feel during surfing internet or using internet for their educational purpose, blogging or streaming to digital libraries. The goal of this study is evaluating of internet anxiety among the management students. In this research Ealy's internet anxiety questionnaire, consists of positive and negative items, is completed by 310 participants. According to the findings, about 64.7% of them were equal or below to mean anxiety score (50). The distribution of internet anxiety scores was normal and there was no meaningful difference between men-s and women's anxiety level in this sample. Results also showed that there is no meaningful difference of internet anxiety level between different fields of study in Management. This evaluation will help managers to perform gap analysis between the existent level and the desired one. Future work would be providing techniques for abating human anxiety while using internet via human computer interaction techniques.

Keywords: Internet, anxiety, research process, internet identification, human computer interaction.

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81 Effect of Trataka on Anxiety among Adolescents

Authors: Pushp Lata Rajpoot, Pushpa Vaishnav

Abstract:

Anxiety is a common psychological problem and also implicated as a contributor to many chronic diseases which decreased quality of life even with pharmacological treatment. At the present time several yogic practices- meditation, pranayama, and mantra, etcetera are playing important role in treating physiological and psychological problems. Hence, the present investigation is aimed to see the effect of Trataka on the level of anxiety among adolescents. For the present study, a sample of 30 adolescents belonging to the age range 20-30 years was selected from Devsanskriti Vishwa Vidyalaya Haridwar through random sampling. In this investigation, Sinha’s Comprehensive anxiety test has been used to measure the level of anxiety. Statistical analysis has been done by using t-test. Findings of this study reveal that Trataka significantly decreases the level of anxiety among adolescents.

Keywords: Adolescents, Anxiety, Trataka.

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80 A Quantitative Study Identifying the Prevalence of Anxiety in Dyslexic Students in Higher Education

Authors: Amanda Abbott-Jones

Abstract:

Adult students with dyslexia in higher education can receive support for their cognitive needs but may also experience negative emotion such as anxiety due to their dyslexia in connection with their studies. This paper aims to test the hypothesis that adult dyslexic learners have a higher prevalence of academic and social anxiety than their non-dyslexic peers. A quantitative approach was used to measure differences in academic and social anxiety between 102 students with a formal diagnosis of dyslexia compared to 72 students with no history of learning difficulties. Academic and social anxiety was measured in a questionnaire based on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Findings showed that dyslexic students showed statistically significant higher levels of academic, but not social anxiety in comparison to the non-dyslexic sample. Dyslexic students in higher education show academic anxiety levels that are well above what is shown by students without dyslexia. The implications of this for the dyslexia practitioner is that delivery of strategies to deal with anxiety should be seen equally as important, if not more so, than interventions to deal with cognitive difficulties.

Keywords: Academic, anxiety, dyslexia, quantitative, students, university.

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79 Mathematics Anxiety among Male and Female Students

Authors: Wern Lin Yeo, Choo Kim Tan, Sook Ling Lew

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship of anxiety level between male and female undergraduates at a private university in Malaysia. Convenient sampling method used in this study in which the students were selected based on the grouping assigned by the faculty. There were 214 undergraduates who registered the probability courses had participated in this study. Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS) was the instrument used in study which used to determine students’ anxiety level towards probability. Reliability and validity of instrument was done before the major study was conducted. In the major study, students were given briefing about the study conducted. Participation of this study was voluntary. Students were given consent form to determine whether they agree to participate in the study. Duration of two weeks was given for students to complete the given online questionnaire. The data collected will be analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to determine the level of anxiety. There were three anxiety level, i.e., low, average and high. Students’ anxiety level was determined based on their scores obtained compared with the mean and standard deviation. If the scores obtained were below mean and standard deviation, the anxiety level was low. If the scores were at below and above the mean and between one standard deviation, the anxiety level was average. If the scores were above the mean and greater than one standard deviation, the anxiety level was high. Results showed that both of genders were having average anxiety level. Among low, average and high anxiety level, frequency of males were found to be higher as compared to females. Hence, the mean values obtained for males (M = 3.62) was higher than females (M = 3.42). In order to be significant of anxiety level among the gender, the p-value should be less than .05. The p-value obtained in this study was .117. However, this value was greater than .05. Thus, there was no significant difference of anxiety level among the gender. In other words, there was no relationship of anxiety level with the gender.

Keywords: Anxiety level, gender, mathematics anxiety, probability and statistics.

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78 Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, and Performance in the English Language among Middle-School Students in English Language Program in Satri Si Suriyothai School, Bangkok

Authors: Christopher C. Anyadubalu

Abstract:

This study investigated students- perception of self efficacy and anxiety in acquiring English language, and consequently examined the relationship existing among the independent variables, confounding variables and students- performances in the English language. The researcher tested the research hypotheses using a sample group of 318 respondents out of the population size of 400 students. The results obtained revealed that there was a significant moderate negative relationship between English language anxiety and performance in English language, but no significant relationship between self-efficacy and English language performance, among the middle-school students. There was a significant moderate negative relationship between English language anxiety and self-efficacy. It was discovered that general self-efficacy and English language anxiety represented a significantly more powerful set of predictors than the set of confounding variables. Thus, the study concluded that English language anxiety and general self-efficacy were significant predictors of English language performance among middle-school students in Satri Si Suriyothai School.

Keywords: Anxiety, English Language Anxiety, Performance inEnglish Language, Self Efficacy.

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77 Meaning in Life, Hope, and Mental Health: Relation between Meaning in Life, Hope, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Afghan Refugees in Iran

Authors: Mustafa Jahanara

Abstract:

The present research was carried out in order to investigate the relationship between meaning in life and hope with depression, anxiety and stress in Afghan Refugees in Alborz province in Iran. In this research, method of study is a descriptive correlation type. One hundred and fifty-eight Afghan refugees (64 male, 94 female) participated in this study. All participants completed the Meaning in Life Questionnaires (MLQ), Hope Scale (HS), and The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). The results revealed that Meaning in Life was positively associated with hope, presence of meaning, search of meaning, and negatively associated with depression and anxiety. Hope was positively associated with presence of meaning and search of meaning, and hope was negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. Depression, anxiety, and stress were positively correlated with each other. Meaning in life and hope could influence on mental health.

Keywords: Afghan refugees, meaning of life, hope, depression, anxiety and stress.

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76 Gender Differences of Elementary Prospective Teachers in Mathematical Beliefs and Mathematics Teaching Anxiety

Authors: Ersen Yazıcı, Erhan Ertekin

Abstract:

In this study, any possible differences between mathematics beliefs and anxiety of prospective elementary mathematics teachers have been investigated according to their gender. In this purpose, 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th grade students from a Government University in Turkey were selected as a sample. Mathematics Teaching Anxiety Scale (MATAS) and Beliefs About Mathematics Survey (BAMS) has been used as data collection tools. As a result of the study, it has been observed that prospective male teachers have more instrumentalist approach in learning mathematics than females according to their mathematical beliefs. On the other hand, females have more mathematics teaching anxiety than males especially, for subject knowledge in mathematics and selfconfidence.

Keywords: Mathematical beliefs, mathematics teaching anxiety, gender, prospective elementary mathematics teachers.

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75 Depression and Anxiety Levels in Armenian Crohn's Disease Patients

Authors: Astghik Z. Pepoyan, Elya S. Pepoyan

Abstract:

The Zung self-depression scale and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used to study the depression and anxiety levels of Armenian Crohn's disease patients, as well as to reveal the relation between emotional status and placebo effect of these patients. Despite of registered high levels of depression and anxiety, the high placebo rate during investigations was described. The importance of use of psychotherapies for optimal outcomes during treatments of Crohn's disease is obvious.

Keywords: Crohn's disease, emotional disorders, placebo, psychotherapy.

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74 EEG Correlates of Trait and Mathematical Anxiety during Lexical and Numerical Error-Recognition Tasks

Authors: Alexander N. Savostyanov, Tatiana A. Dolgorukova, Elena A. Esipenko, Mikhail S. Zaleshin, Margherita Malanchini, Anna V. Budakova, Alexander E. Saprygin, Tatiana A. Golovko, Yulia V. Kovas

Abstract:

EEG correlates of mathematical and trait anxiety level were studied in 52 healthy Russian-speakers during execution of error-recognition tasks with lexical, arithmetic and algebraic conditions. Event-related spectral perturbations were used as a measure of brain activity. The ERSP plots revealed alpha/beta desynchronizations within a 500-3000 ms interval after task onset and slow-wave synchronization within an interval of 150-350 ms. Amplitudes of these intervals reflected the accuracy of error recognition, and were differently associated with the three conditions. The correlates of anxiety were found in theta (4-8 Hz) and beta2 (16- 20 Hz) frequency bands. In theta band the effects of mathematical anxiety were stronger expressed in lexical, than in arithmetic and algebraic condition. The mathematical anxiety effects in theta band were associated with differences between anterior and posterior cortical areas, whereas the effects of trait anxiety were associated with inter-hemispherical differences. In beta1 and beta2 bands effects of trait and mathematical anxiety were directed oppositely. The trait anxiety was associated with increase of amplitude of desynchronization, whereas the mathematical anxiety was associated with decrease of this amplitude. The effect of mathematical anxiety in beta2 band was insignificant for lexical condition but was the strongest in algebraic condition. EEG correlates of anxiety in theta band could be interpreted as indexes of task emotionality, whereas the reaction in beta2 band is related to tension of intellectual resources.

Keywords: EEG, brain activity, lexical and numerical error-recognition tasks, mathematical and trait anxiety.

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73 Cultural Anxiety and Its Impact on Students- Life: A Case Study of International Students in Wuhan University

Authors: Nadeem Akhtar, Shan Bo

Abstract:

This article illustrates that how non similar culture become a cause of constant anxiety among international students in China. For that, a survey was carried out among international students of Wuhan University, China. The association among non similar culture, non familiarity of Chinese culture, self finance students and food problem is looked at through a regression line, and in the light of empirical results, a model is anticipated which elucidates these results. Some suggestions were directed at the end which will help to mitigate the anxiety among prospective students in Chinese universities.

Keywords: Anxiety, international students, non similar culture, Wuhan University

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72 Modality and Redundancy Effects on Music Theory Learning Among Pupils of Different Anxiety Levels

Authors: Soon Fook Fong, Aldalalah, M. Osamah

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of modality and redundancy principles on music theory learning among pupils of different anxiety levels. The lesson of music theory was developed in three different modes, audio and image (AI), text with image (TI) and audio with image and text (AIT). The independent variables were the three modes of courseware. The moderator variable was the anxiety level, while the dependent variable was the post test score. The study sample consisted of 405 third-grade pupils. Descriptive and inferential statistics were conducted to analyze the collected data. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) and Post hoc were carried out to examine the main effects as well as the interaction effects of the independent variables on the dependent variable. The findings of this study showed that medium anxiety pupils performed significantly better than low and high anxiety pupils in all the three treatment modes. The AI mode was found to help pupils with high anxiety significantly more than the TI and AIT modes.

Keywords: Modality, Redundancy, Music theory, Cognitivetheory of multimedia learning, Cognitive load theory, Anxiety.

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71 A Comparative Study on Achievement Motivation and Sports Competition Anxiety among the Students of Different Tier of Academic Hierarchy

Authors: Nitai Biswas, Prasenjit Kapas, Arumay Jana, Asish Paul

Abstract:

Introduction: Motivation is basic drive for all kinds of action. It has direct influence on academic achievement and sports performance that builds urge to incentive values of success. In other words, it can be defined as the need for success to attain excellence. Anxiety in pre competition especially in sports formulates positive inward settings in mind to overcome the challenge. There is a tendency to perceive competitive situations as some threatening issues and to respond them with feelings of apprehension and tension. Aim: Aim of the study was to compare the achievement motivation and competition anxiety among three different classes of students. Methods and Materials: To conduct the study the researcher has taken 131 male subjects from three different classes as Extra Department, Bachelor of Physical Education-I and Master of Physical EducationII, aged 19-28 years. Achievement motivation and sports competition anxiety were measured by the questionnaire. To analyze the data mean, standard deviation for each parameter as descriptive statistics and one way analysis of variance as inferential statistics were employed. Results: From the result of the study in achievement motivation (p ≥ 0.05) and competition anxiety (p ≥ 0.05) no significant differences were found among the said three groups. Conclusion: The study concluded that all three groups had almost the same state of achievement motivation and sports competition anxiety.

Keywords: Anxiety, sports psychology, sports competition anxiety, achievement motivation, academic hierarchy.

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70 The Comparison of Parental Childrearing Styles and Anxiety in Children with Stuttering and Normal Population

Authors: Pegah Farokhzad

Abstract:

Family has a crucial role in maintaining the physical, social and mental health of the children. Most of the mental and anxiety problems of children reflect the complex interpersonal situations among family members, especially parents. In other words, anxiety problems of the children are correlated with deficit relationships of family members and improper childrearing styles. The parental child rearing styles leads to positive and negative consequences which affect the children’s mental health. Therefore, the present research was aimed to compare the parental childrearing styles and anxiety of children with stuttering and normal population. It was also aimed to study the relationship between parental child rearing styles and anxiety of children. The research sample included 54 boys with stuttering and 54 normal boys who were selected from the children (boys) of Tehran, Iran in the age range of 5 to 8 years in 2013. In order to collect data, Baum-rind Childrearing Styles Inventory and Spence Parental Anxiety Inventory were used. Appropriate descriptive statistical methods and multivariate variance analysis and t test for independent groups were used to test the study hypotheses. Statistical data analyses demonstrated that there was a significant difference between stuttering boys and normal boys in anxiety (t = 7.601, p< 0.01); but there was no significant difference between stuttering boys and normal boys in parental childrearing styles (F = 0.129). There was also not found significant relationship between parental childrearing styles and children anxiety (F = 0.135, p< 0.05). It can be concluded that the influential factors of children’s society are parents, school, teachers, peers and media. So, parental childrearing styles are not the only influential factors on anxiety of children, and other factors including genetic, environment and child experiences are effective in anxiety as well. Details are discussed.

Keywords: Anxiety, Childrearing Styles, Stuttering.

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69 The Effect of Relaxation Training on First Year Nursing Students Anxiety in Clinical Setting

Authors: S. Ahmadnejad, Z. Monjamed, M. Pakravannejad, A. Malekian

Abstract:

The investigating and assessing the effects of relaxation training on the levels of state anxiety concerning first year female nursing students at their initial experience in clinical setting. This research is a quasi experimental study that was carried out in nursing and midwifery faculty of Tehran university of medical sciences .The sample of research consists 60 first term female nursing students were selected through convenience and random sampling. 30 of them were the experimental group and 30 of them were in control group. The Instruments of data-collection has been a questionnaire which consists of 3 parts. The first part includes 10 questions about demographic characteristics .the second part includes 20 question about anxiety (test 'Spielberg' ). The 3rd part includes physiological indicators of anxiety (BP, P, R, body temperature). The statistical tests included t-test and  and fisher test, Data were analyzed by SPSS software.

Keywords: Anxiety, Nursing students, Relaxation

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68 Cognitive Behaviour Therapy to Treat Social Anxiety Disorder: A Psychology Case

Authors: Yasmin Binti Othman Mydin, Mohd. Fadzillah Abdul Razak

Abstract:

Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy is the first cognitive behavior therapy which was introduced by Albert Ellis. This is a systematic and structured psychotherapy which is effective in treating various psychological problems. A patient, 25 years old male, experienced intense fear and situational panic attack to return to his faculty and to face his class-mates after a long absence (2 years). This social anxiety disorder was a major factor that impeded the progress of his study. He was treated with the use of behavioural technique such as relaxation breathing technique and cognitive techniques such as imagery, cognitive restructuring, rationalization technique and systematic desensitization. The patient reported positive improvement in the anxiety disorder, able to progress well in studies and lead a better quality of life as a student.

Keywords: Anxiety, behaviour, cognitive, therapy

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67 Case Study of the Exercise Habits and Aging Anxiety of Taiwanese Insurance Agents

Authors: W. T. Hsu, H. L. Tsai

Abstract:

The rapid aging of the population is a common trend in the world. However, the progress of modern medical technology has increased the average life expectancy. The global population structure has changed dramatically, and the elderly population has risen rapidly. In the face of rapid population growth, it must be noted issues of the aging population must face up to, which are the physiological, psychological, and social problems associated with aging. This study aims to investigate how insurance agents are actively dealing with an aging society, their own aging anxiety, and their exercise habits. Purposive sampling was the sampling method of this study, a total of 204 respondents were surveyed and 204 valid surveys were returned. The returned valid ratio was 100%. Statistical method included descriptive statistics, t-test, and one-way ANOVA. The results of the study found that the insurance agent’s age, seniority, exercise habits to aging anxiety are significantly different.

Keywords: Insurance agent, aging anxiety, exercise habits, elderly.

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66 Prevalence, Associated Factors, and Help-Seeking Behavior of Psychological Distress among International Students at the National University of Malaysia

Authors: Khadiga Kahwa, Aniza Ismail

Abstract:

Depression, anxiety, and stress are associated with decreased role functioning, productivity, and quality of life. International students are more prone to psychological distress as they face many stressors while studying abroad. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence and associated factors of depression, anxiety, and stress among international students, their help-seeking behavior, and their awareness of the available on-campus mental support services. A cross-sectional study with a purposive sampling method was performed on 280 international students at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) between the age of 18 and 35 years. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) questionnaire was used anonymously to assess the mental health of students. Socio-demographic, help-seeking behavior, and awareness data were obtained. Independent sample t-test, one-way ANOVA test, and multiple linear regression were used to explore associated factors. The overall prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among international students were 58.9%, 71.8%, and 53.9%, respectively. Age was significantly associated with depression and anxiety. Ethnicity showed a significant association with depression and stress. No other factors were found to be significantly associated with psychological distress. Only 9.6% of the international students had sought help from on-campus mental support services. Students who were aware of the presence of such services were only 21.4% of the participants. In conclusion, this study addressed the gap in the literature on the mental health of international students and provided data that could be used in intervention programs to improve the mental health of the increasing number of international students in Malaysia.

Keywords: Anxiety, depression, stress, help-seeking behavior, students.

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65 Assessing Pre-Service Teachers' Computer PhobiaLevels in terms of Gender and Experience, Turkish Sample

Authors: Ö.F. Ursavas, H. Karal

Abstract:

In this study it is aimed to determine the level of preservice teachers- computer phobia. Whether or not computer phobia meaningfully varies statistically according to gender and computer experience has been tested in the study. The study was performed on 430 pre-service teachers at the Education Faculty in Rize/Turkey. Data in the study were collected through the Computer Phobia Scale consisting of the “Personal Knowledge Questionnaire", “Computer Anxiety Rating Scale", and “Computer Thought Survey". In this study, data were analyzed with statistical processes such as t test, and correlation analysis. According to results of statistical analyses, computer phobia of male pre-service teachers does not statistically vary depending on their gender. Although male preservice teachers have higher computer anxiety scores, they have lower computer thought scores. It was also observed that there is a negative and intensive relation between computer experience and computer anxiety. Meanwhile it was found out that pre-service teachers using computer regularly indicated lower computer anxiety. Obtained results were tried to be discussed in terms of the number of computer classes in the Education Faculty curriculum, hours of computer class and the computer availability of student teachers.

Keywords: Computer phobia, computer anxiety, computer thought, pre-service teachers.

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64 A Comparison of Transdiagnostic Components in Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Unipolar Mood Disorder and Nonclinical Population

Authors: I. Abasi, L. Fata, M. Sadeghi, S. Banihashemi, A. Mohammadee

Abstract:

Background: Dimensional and transdiagnostic approaches as a result of high comorbidity among mental disorders have captured researchers and clinicians interests for exploring the latent factors to development and maintenance of some psychological disorders. The goal of present study is comparing some of these common factors between generalized anxiety disorder and unipolar mood disorder. Methods: 27 patients with generalized anxiety disorder, 29 patients with depression disorder were recruited by using SCID-I and 69 non-clinical populations were selected by using GHQ cut off point. MANCOVA was used for analyzing data. Results: The results show that worry, rumination, intolerance of uncertainty, maladaptive metacognitive beliefs, and experiential avoidance were all significantly different between GAD and unipolar mood disorder groups. However, there weren’t any significant differences in difficulties in emotion regulation and neuroticism between GAD and unipolar mood disorder groups. Discussion: Results indicate that although there are some transdiagnostic and common factors in GAD and unipolar mood disorder, there may be some specific vulnerability factors for each disorder. Further study is needed for answering these questions.

Keywords: Depression, emotion regulation, generalized anxiety disorder, transdiagnostic.

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63 Influence of Social-Psychological Training on Selected Features of University Students

Authors: Anežka Hamranová, Blandína Šramová, Katarína Fichnová

Abstract:

We presented results of research aimed on findings influence of social - psychological training (realized with students of Constantine the Philosopher University- future teachers within their undergraduate preparation) on the choice of intrapersonal and interpersonal features. After social- psychological training using Interpersonal Check List (ICL) we found out shift of behavior to more adaptive forms in categories, which are characterized by extroversive friendly behavior, willingness to cooperation, conformity regard to social situation, responsible and regardful behavior. Using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) we found out the cut down of state anxiety and of trait anxiety. The report was processed within grants KEGA 3/5269/07 and VEGA 1/3675/06.

Keywords: Intrapersonal and interpersonal features, social -psychological training, social competences.

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62 The Emotional Language and Temperamental Traits

Authors: Barbara Gawda, Ewa Szepietowska, Agnieszka Gawda

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to describe the associations between the temperamental traits and the narrative emotional expression. The Temperament Questionnaire was used: The FCB-TI of Zawadzki & Strelau. A sample of 85 persons described three emotional situations: love. hate, and anxiety. This study analyzes the verbal form of expression by means of a written account of emotions. The relationship between the narratives of love, hate and anxiety and temperament characteristics were studied. Results indicate that vigorousness (VI), perseverance (PE), sensory sensitivity (SS), emotional reactivity (ER), endurance (EN) and activeness (AC) have a significant impact on the emotional expression in narratives. The temperamental traits are linked to the form of emotional language. It means that temperament has an impact on cognitive representations of emotions.

Keywords: Emotional narratives, Cognitive representation, Love, Hate, Anxiety, Temperament.

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61 Analysis of Scientific Attitude, Computer Anxiety, Educational Internet Use, Problematic Internet Use, and Academic Achievement of Middle School Students According to Demographic Variables

Authors: Mehmet Bekmezci, Ismail Celik, Ismail Sahin, Ahmet Kiray, A. Oguz Akturk

Abstract:

In this research, students’ scientific attitude, computer anxiety, educational use of the Internet, academic achievement, and problematic use of the Internet are analyzed based on different variables (gender, parents’ educational level and daily access to the Internet). The research group involves 361 students from two middle schools which are located in the center of Konya. The “general survey method” is adopted in the research. In accordance with the purpose of the study, percentage, mean, standard deviation, independent samples t--‐test, ANOVA (variance) are employed in the study. A total of four scales are implemented. These four scales include a total of 13 sub-dimensions. The scores from these scales and their subscales are studied in terms of various variables. In the research, students’ scientific attitude, computer anxiety, educational use of the Internet, the problematic Internet use and academic achievement (gender, parent educational level, and daily access to the Internet) are investigated based on various variables and some significant relations are found.

Keywords: Scientific Attitude, Educational use of the Internet, Computer Anxiety, Problematic use of the Internet, Academic Achievement.

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60 Placebo Effect on Psychoemotional Status and Clinical Analyses of Armenian Crohn's Disease Patients

Authors: Elya S. Pepoyan, Astghik Z. Pepoyan

Abstract:

The Zung self-depression scale and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used both to study the depression and anxiety levels of Armenian Crohn’s disease patients, and to reveal the relation between emotional status and placebo effect of these patients. On the other hand, the blood cell analyses and gut bacteria investigations were used to assess the placebo effect on ESR, and haemoglobin-s and leukocyte-s levels as well as gut commensal E. coli quantities of these patients. Despite of registered high levels of depression and anxiety, the high placebo effect on psychoemotional status for investigated patients during the investigations was described. On the other hand, no positive effect of placebo on measurements of ESP and hemoglobin-s levels of Crohn’s disease patients was revealed. The importance of use of psychotherapies for optimal outcomes during treatments of Crohn’s disease is discussed.

Keywords: Crohn's disease, emotional disorders, placebo, gut microflora and blood composition.

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59 Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Psychosocial Consequences of Sickle Cell Disease: The Case of Patients in a Public Hospital in Ghana

Authors: Vincent A. Adzika, Franklin N. Glozah, Collins S. K. Ahorlu

Abstract:

Background: Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is of major public-health concern globally, with majority of patients living in Africa. Despite its relevance, there is a dearth of research to determine the socio-demographic distribution and psychosocial impact of SCD in Africa. The objective of this study therefore was to examine the socio-demographic distribution and psychosocial consequences of SCD among patients in Ghana and to assess their quality of life and coping mechanisms. Methods: A cross-sectional research design was used, involving the completion of questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics, quality of life of individuals, anxiety and depression. Participants were 387 male and female patients attending a sickle cell clinic in a public hospital. Results: Results showed no gender and marital status differences in anxiety and depression. However, there were age and level of education variances in depression but not in anxiety. In terms of quality of life, patients were more satisfied by the presence of love, friends, relatives as well as home, community and neighbourhood environment. While pains of varied nature and severity were the major reasons for attending hospital in SCD condition, going to the hospital as well as having Faith in God was the frequently reported mechanisms for coping with an unbearable SCD attacks. Multiple regression analysis showed that some socio-demographic and quality of life indicators had strong associations with anxiety and/or depression. Conclusion: It is recommended that a multi-dimensional intervention strategy incorporating psychosocial dimensions should be considered in the treatment and management of SCD.

Keywords: Sickle cell disease, quality of life, anxiety, depression, socio-demographic characteristics, Ghana.

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58 Impact of Preksha Meditation on Academic Anxiety of Female Teenagers

Authors: Neelam Vats, Madhvi Pathak Pillai, Rajender Lal, Indu Dabas

Abstract:

The pressure of scoring higher marks to be able to get admission in a higher ranked institution has become a social stigma for school students. It leads to various social and academic pressures on them, causing psychological anxiety. This undue stress on students sometimes may even steer to aggressive behavior or suicidal tendencies. Human mind is always surrounded by the some desires, emotions and passions, which usually disturbs our mental peace. In such a scenario, we look for a solution that helps in removing all the obstacles of mind and make us mentally peaceful and strong enough to be able to deal with all kind of pressure. Preksha meditation is one such technique which aims at bringing the positive changes for overall transformation of personality. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the impact of Preksha Meditation on the academic anxiety on female teenagers. The study was conducted on 120 high school students from the capital city of India. All students were in the age group of 13-15 years. They also belonged to similar social as well as economic status. The sample was equally divided into two groups i.e. experimental group (N = 60) and control group (N = 60). Subjects of the experimental group were given the intervention of Preksha Meditation practice by the trained instructor for one hour per day, six days a week, for three months for the first experimental stage and another three months for the second experimental stage. The subjects of the control group were not assigned any specific type of activity rather they continued doing their normal official activities as usual. The Academic Anxiety Scale was used to collect data during multi-level stages i.e. pre-experimental stage, post-experimental stage phase-I, and post-experimental stage phase-II. The data were statistically analyzed by computing the two-tailed-‘t’ test for inter group comparison and Sandler’s ‘A’ test with alpha = or p < 0.05 for intra-group comparisons. The study concluded that the practice for longer duration of Preksha Meditation practice brings about very significant and beneficial changes in the pattern of academic anxiety.

Keywords: Academic anxiety, academic pressure, Preksha, meditation.

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57 Measuring the Cognitive Abilities of Teenage Basketball Players in Singapore

Authors: Stella Y. Ng, John B. Peacock, Kay Chuan Tan

Abstract:

This paper discusses the use of a computerized test to measure the decision-making abilities of teenage basketball players in Singapore. There are five sections in this test – Competitive state anxiety inventory-2 (CSAI-2) questionnaire (measures player’s cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence), Corsi block-tapping task (measures player’s short-term spatial memory), situation awareness global assessment technique (SAGAT) (measures players’ situation awareness in a basketball game), multiple choice questions on basketball knowledge (measures players’ knowledge of basketball rules and concepts), and lastly, a learning test that requires participants to recall and recognize basketball set plays (measures player’s ability to learn and recognize set plays). A total of 25 basketball players, aged 14 to 16 years old, from three secondary school teams participated in this experiment. The results that these basketball players obtained from this cognitive test were then used to compare with their physical fitness and basketball performance.

Keywords: Basketball, cognitive abilities, computerized test, decision-making.

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56 A Linear Regression Model for Estimating Anxiety Index Using Wide Area Frontal Lobe Brain Blood Volume

Authors: Takashi Kaburagi, Masashi Takenaka, Yosuke Kurihara, Takashi Matsumoto

Abstract:

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common mental illnesses today. It is believed to be caused by a combination of several factors, including stress. Stress can be quantitatively evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), one of the best indices to evaluate anxiety. Although STAI scores are widely used in applications ranging from clinical diagnosis to basic research, the scores are calculated based on a self-reported questionnaire. An objective evaluation is required because the subject may intentionally change his/her answers if multiple tests are carried out. In this article, we present a modified index called the “multi-channel Laterality Index at Rest (mc-LIR)” by recording the brain activity from a wider area of the frontal lobe using multi-channel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The presented index aims to measure multiple positions near the Fpz defined by the international 10-20 system positioning. Using 24 subjects, the dependencies on the number of measuring points used to calculate the mc-LIR and its correlation coefficients with the STAI scores are reported. Furthermore, a simple linear regression was performed to estimate the STAI scores from mc-LIR. The cross-validation error is also reported. The experimental results show that using multiple positions near the Fpz will improve the correlation coefficients and estimation than those using only two positions.

Keywords: Stress, functional near-infrared spectroscopy, frontal lobe, state-trait anxiety inventory score.

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55 An Investigation on Students’ Reticence in Iranian University EFL Classrooms

Authors: Azizeh Chalak, Firouzeh Baktash

Abstract:

Reticence is a prominent and complex phenomenon which occurs in foreign language classrooms and influences students’ oral passivity. The present study investigated the extent in which students experience reticence in the EFL classrooms and explored the underlying factors triggering reticence. The participants were 104 Iranian freshmen undergraduate male and female EFL students, who enrolled in listening and speaking courses, all majoring in English studying at Islamic Azad University Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch and University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran. To collect the data, the Reticence Scale-12 (RS-12) questionnaire which measures the level of reticence consisting of six dimensions (anxiety, knowledge, timing, organization, skills, and memory) was administered to the participants. The statistical analyses showed that the reticent level was high among the Iranian EFL undergraduate students, and their major problems were feelings of anxiety and delivery skills. Moreover, the results revealed that factors such as low English proficiency, the teaching method, and lack of confidence contributed to the students’ reticence in Iranian EFL classrooms. It can be implied that language teachers’ awareness of learners’ reticence can help them choose more appropriate activities and provide a friendly environment enhancing hopefully more effective participation of EFL learners. The findings can have implications for EFL teachers, learners and policy makers.

Keywords: Reticence, reticence scale, anxiety, Iranian EFL learners.

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54 The Effects of Physical Activity and Serotonin on Depression, Anxiety, Body Image and Mental Health

Authors: Sh. Khoshemehry, M. E. Bahram, M. J. Pourvaghar

Abstract:

Sport has found a special place as an effective phenomenon in all societies of the contemporary world. The relationship between physical activity and exercise with different sciences has provided new fields for human study. The range of issues related to exercise and physical education is such that it requires specialized sciences and special studies. In this article, the psychological and social sections of exercise have been investigated for children and adults. It can be used for anyone in different age groups. Exercise and regular physical movements have a great impact on the mental and social health of the individual in addition to body health. It affects the individual's adaptability in society and his/her personality. Exercise affects the treatment of diseases such as depression, anxiety, stress, body image, and memory. Exercise is a safe haven for young people to achieve the optimum human development in its shelter. The effects of sensorimotor skills on mental actions and mental development are such a way that many psychologists and sports science experts believe these activities should be included in training programs in the first place. Familiarity of students and scholars with different programs and methods of sensorimotor activities not only causes their mental actions; but also increases mental health and vitality, enhances self-confidence and, therefore, mental health.

Keywords: Anxiety, mental health, physical activity, serotonin.

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53 Anxiolytic-like Effects of Dichloromethane Extracts of Valerian (DEV) in Adult Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Hadjikhani R.

Abstract:

Anxiety is a common disorder that attacks many people in society and often accompanied by physiological sensations such as tachycardia, chest pain, shortness of breath, insensitivity and etc. The purpose of this study is to characterize the putative anxiolytic-like effects of DEV (dichloromethane extracts of valerian) using the elevated plus maze (EPM) in rats. DEV was dissolved in DMSO and orally administered at different doses to adult male wistar rats, 0.5, 1.5 and 3 hours before behavioral evaluation in an EPM respectively. Control rats were treated with an equal volume of DMSO. Single treatment of DEV (at 0.1,0.2. 0.3, and 0.4 g/kg) significantly increased time-spent and arm entries into open arms of EPM versus control groups (p<0.05).However, no changes in the locomotor activity ccured. This result suggests that DEV might prove to be an effective anxiolytic agent.

Keywords: Anxiety, Dichloromethane extracts, Valerian, Rat

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