Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 57

Search results for: milling

57 Availability Analysis of Milling System in a Rice Milling Plant

Authors: P. C. Tewari, Parveen Kumar

Abstract:

The paper describes the availability analysis of milling system of a rice milling plant using probabilistic approach. The subsystems under study are special purpose machines. The availability analysis of the system is carried out to determine the effect of failure and repair rates of each subsystem on overall performance (i.e. steady state availability) of system concerned. Further, on the basis of effect of repair rates on the system availability, maintenance repair priorities have been suggested. The problem is formulated using Markov Birth-Death process taking exponential distribution for probable failures and repair rates. The first order differential equations associated with transition diagram are developed by using mnemonic rule. These equations are solved using normalizing conditions and recursive method to drive out the steady state availability expression of the system. The findings of the paper are presented and discussed with the plant personnel to adopt a suitable maintenance policy to increase the productivity of the rice milling plant.

Keywords: Markov process, milling system, availability modeling, rice milling plant.

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56 Surface Roughness Optimization in End Milling Operation with Damper Inserted End Milling Cutters

Authors: Krishna Mohana Rao, G. Ravi Kumar, P. Sowmya

Abstract:

This paper presents a study of the Taguchi design application to optimize surface quality in damper inserted end milling operation. Maintaining good surface quality usually involves additional manufacturing cost or loss of productivity. The Taguchi design is an efficient and effective experimental method in which a response variable can be optimized, given various factors, using fewer resources than a factorial design. This Study included spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut as control factors, usage of different tools in the same specification, which introduced tool condition and dimensional variability. An orthogonal array of L9(3^4)was used; ANOVA analyses were carried out to identify the significant factors affecting surface roughness, and the optimal cutting combination was determined by seeking the best surface roughness (response) and signal-to-noise ratio. Finally, confirmation tests verified that the Taguchi design was successful in optimizing milling parameters for surface roughness.

Keywords: ANOVA, Damper, End Milling, Optimization, Surface roughness, Taguchi design.

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55 Behavior of Cu-WC-Ti Metal Composite Afterusing Planetary Ball Milling

Authors: A.T.Z. Mahamat, A.M. A Rani, Patthi Husain

Abstract:

Copper based composites reinforced with WC and Ti particles were prepared using planetary ball-mill. The experiment was designed by using Taguchi technique and milling was carried out in an air for several hours. The powder was characterized before and after milling using the SEM, TEM and X-ray for microstructure and for possible new phases. Microstructures show that milled particles size and reduction in particle size depend on many parameters. The distance d between planes of atoms estimated from X-ray powder diffraction data and TEM image. X-ray diffraction patterns of the milled powder did not show clearly any new peak or energy shift, but the TEM images show a significant change in crystalline structure of corporate on titanium in the composites.

Keywords: ball milling, microstructures, titanium, tungstencarbides, X-ray

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54 The Performance of PVD Coated Grade in Milling of ADI 800

Authors: M. Ibrahim Sadik, Toril Myrtveit

Abstract:

The aim of this investigation is to study the performance of the new generation of the PVD coated grade and to map the influence of cutting conditions on the tool life in milling of ADI (Austempered Ductile Iron). The results show that chipping is the main wear mechanism which determines the tool life in dry condition and notch wear in wet condition for this application. This due to the different stress mechanisms and preexisting cracks in the coating. The wear development shows clearly that the new PVD coating (C20) has the best ability to delay the chipping growth. It was also found that a high content of Al in the new coating (C20) was especially favorable compared to a TiAlN multilayer with lower Al content (C30) or CVD coating. This is due to fine grains and low compressive stress level in the coating which increase the coating ability to withstand the mechanical and thermal impact. It was also found that the use of coolant decreases the tool life with 70-80% compare to dry milling.

Keywords: Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI), coating, chipping, milling, tool performance.

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53 Determining the Width and Depths of Cut in Milling on the Basis of a Multi-Dexel Model

Authors: Jens Friedrich, Matthias A. Gebele, Armin Lechler, Alexander Verl

Abstract:

Chatter vibrations and process instabilities are the most important factors limiting the productivity of the milling process. Chatter can leads to damage of the tool, the part or the machine tool. Therefore, the estimation and prediction of the process stability is very important. The process stability depends on the spindle speed, the depth of cut and the width of cut. In milling, the process conditions are defined in the NC-program. While the spindle speed is directly coded in the NC-program, the depth and width of cut are unknown. This paper presents a new simulation based approach for the prediction of the depth and width of cut of a milling process. The prediction is based on a material removal simulation with an analytically represented tool shape and a multi-dexel approach for the workpiece. The new calculation method allows the direct estimation of the depth and width of cut, which are the influencing parameters of the process stability, instead of the removed volume as existing approaches do. The knowledge can be used to predict the stability of new, unknown parts. Moreover with an additional vibration sensor, the stability lobe diagram of a milling process can be estimated and improved based on the estimated depth and width of cut.

Keywords: Dexel, process stability, material removal, milling.

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52 Degree of Milling Effects on the Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Flours, Physicochemical Properties and Kinetics of Starch Digestion

Authors: Brou K., Guéhi T., Konan A. G., Gbakayoro J. B., Gnakri D.

Abstract:

Two types of crushing were applied to grains of red sorghum: manual crushing using a mortar and pestle of kitchen and mechanical crushing using a hammer mill. The flours obtained at the end of these various crushing were filtered and subdivided in different fractions according to the diameters of the mesh of the sieves (0.16mm; 0.25mm; 0.315mm; 0.4mm, and 0.63mm…). Some physical, chemical and nutritional traits of these flours were evaluated using Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). In vitro digestibility of these flours was also studied with freezing of flour 1% like substrate and α-amylase from B. licheniformis (E.C.3.2.1.1; Megazyme, Wicklow, Ireland). The results revealed that the batches of flours which have the finest diameters as 0.16mm; 0.25mm are the richest one in nutrients and are also the most digestible. Also mechanical crushing is the best mean to obtain significant amount of flours. In conclusion, the type of crushing and the size of the particles have an impact on the final concentration of some nutrients of the flours obtained. Indeed, the finest particles (0.16mm – 0.25mm 0.315mm) obtained after sifting of the flours are more nutritive and have a better digestibility than others size. So the finest particles could be advised for management of cereals namely the sorghum for the production of the infantile foods.

Keywords: Nutrients, digestibility, crush, flour, milling, granulometry.

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51 Deriving Generic Transformation Matrices for Multi-Axis Milling Machine

Authors: Alan C. Lin, Tzu-Kuan Lin, Tsong Der Lin

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new method to find the equations of transformation matrix for the rotation angles of the two rotational axes and the coordinates of the three linear axes of an orthogonal multi-axis milling machine. This approach provides intuitive physical meanings for rotation angles of multi-axis machines, which can be used to evaluate the accuracy of the conversion from CL data to NC data.

Keywords: CAM, multi-axis milling machining.

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50 Investigation of the Effect of Milling Time on the Mechanochemical Synthesis of Fe3Al/ Al2O3 Nanocomposite

Authors: B. Ghasemi, A. A. Najafzadeh Khoee

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of mechanical activation on the synthesis of Fe3Al/Al2O3 nanocomposite has been investigated by using mechanochemical method. For this purpose, Aluminum powder and hematite as precursors, with stoichiometric ratio, have been utilized and other effective parameters in milling process were kept constant. Phase formation analysis, crystallite size measurement and lattice strain were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) by using Williamson-Hall method as well as microstructure and morphology were explored by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Also, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis was used in order to probe the particle distribution. The results showed that after 30-hour milling, the reaction was started, combustibly done and completed.

Keywords: hematite, mechanochemical, milling, nanocomposite

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49 New Approach in Diagnostics Method for Milling Process using Envelope Analysis

Authors: C. Bisu, M. Zapciu, A. Gérard

Abstract:

This paper proposes a method to vibration analysis in order to on-line monitoring and predictive maintenance during the milling process. Adapting envelope method to diagnostics and the analysis for milling tool materials is an important contribution to the qualitative and quantitative characterization of milling capacity and a step by modeling the three-dimensional cutting process. An experimental protocol was designed and developed for the acquisition, processing and analyzing three-dimensional signal. The vibration envelope analysis is proposed to detect the cutting capacity of the tool with the optimization application of cutting parameters. The research is focused on Hilbert transform optimization to evaluate the dynamic behavior of the machine/ tool/workpiece.

Keywords: diagnostics, envelope, milling, vibration

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48 Efficient CNC Milling by Adjusting Material Removal Rate

Authors: Majid Tolouei-Rad

Abstract:

This paper describes a combined mathematicalgraphical approach for optimum tool path planning in order to improve machining efficiency. A methodology has been used that stabilizes machining operations by adjusting material removal rate in pocket milling operations while keeping cutting forces within limits. This increases the life of cutting tool and reduces the risk of tool breakage, machining vibration, and chatter. Case studies reveal the fact that application of this approach could result in a slight increase of machining time, however, a considerable reduction of tooling cost, machining vibration, noise and chatter can be achieved in addition to producing a better surface finish.

Keywords: CNC machines, milling, optimization, removal rate.

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47 Generating High-Accuracy Tool Path for 5-axis Flank Milling of Globoidal Spatial Cam

Authors: Li Chen, ZhouLong Li, Qing-zhen Bi, LiMin Zhu

Abstract:

A new tool path planning method for 5-axis flank milling of a globoidal indexing cam is developed in this paper. The globoidal indexing cam is a practical transmission mechanism due to its high transmission speed, accuracy and dynamic performance. Machining the cam profile is a complex and precise task. The profile surface of the globoidal cam is generated by the conjugate contact motion of the roller. The generated complex profile surface is usually machined by 5-axis point-milling method. The point-milling method is time-consuming compared with flank milling. The tool path for 5-axis flank milling of globoidal cam is developed to improve the cutting efficiency. The flank milling tool path is globally optimized according to the minimum zone criterion, and high accuracy is guaranteed. The computational example and cutting simulation finally validate the developed method.

Keywords: Globoidal cam, flank milling, LSQR, MINIMAX.

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46 Analytical Modelling of Surface Roughness during Compacted Graphite Iron Milling Using Ceramic Inserts

Authors: S. Karabulut, A. Güllü, A. Güldas, R. Gürbüz

Abstract:

This study investigates the effects of the lead angle and chip thickness variation on surface roughness during the machining of compacted graphite iron using ceramic cutting tools under dry cutting conditions. Analytical models were developed for predicting the surface roughness values of the specimens after the face milling process. Experimental data was collected and imported to the artificial neural network model. A multilayer perceptron model was used with the back propagation algorithm employing the input parameters of lead angle, cutting speed and feed rate in connection with chip thickness. Furthermore, analysis of variance was employed to determine the effects of the cutting parameters on surface roughness. Artificial neural network and regression analysis were used to predict surface roughness. The values thus predicted were compared with the collected experimental data, and the corresponding percentage error was computed. Analysis results revealed that the lead angle is the dominant factor affecting surface roughness. Experimental results indicated an improvement in the surface roughness value with decreasing lead angle value from 88° to 45°.

Keywords: CGI, milling, surface roughness, ANN, regression, modeling, analysis.

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45 Off-Line Detection of “Pannon Wheat” Milling Fractions by Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Methods

Authors: E. Izsó, M. Bartalné-Berceli, Sz. Gergely, A. Salgó

Abstract:

The aim of this investigation is to elaborate nearinfrared methods for testing and recognition of chemical components and quality in “Pannon wheat” allied (i.e. true to variety or variety identified) milling fractions as well as to develop spectroscopic methods following the milling processes and evaluate the stability of the milling technology by different types of milling products and according to sampling times, respectively. These wheat categories produced under industrial conditions where samples were collected versus sampling time and maximum or minimum yields. The changes of the main chemical components (such as starch, protein, lipid) and physical properties of fractions (particle size) were analysed by dispersive spectrophotometers using visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) regions of the electromagnetic radiation. Close correlation were obtained between the data of spectroscopic measurement techniques processed by various chemometric methods (e.g. principal component analysis [PCA], cluster analysis [CA]) and operation condition of milling technology. It is obvious that NIR methods are able to detect the deviation of the yield parameters and differences of the sampling times by a wide variety of fractions, respectively. NIR technology can be used in the sensitive monitoring of milling technology.

Keywords: Allied wheat fractions, CA, milling process, nearinfrared spectroscopy, PCA.

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44 Automatic Generating CNC-Code for Milling Machine

Authors: Chalakorn Chitsaart, Suchada Rianmora, Mann Rattana-Areeyagon, Wutichai Namjaiprasert

Abstract:

G-code is the main factor in computer numerical control (CNC) machine for controlling the toolpaths and generating the profile of the object’s features. For obtaining high surface accuracy of the surface finish, non-stop operation is required for CNC machine. Recently, to design a new product, the strategy that concerns about a change that has low impact on business and does not consume lot of resources has been introduced. Cost and time for designing minor changes can be reduced since the traditional geometric details of the existing models are applied. In order to support this strategy as the alternative channel for machining operation, this research proposes the automatic generating codes for CNC milling operation. Using this technique can assist the manufacturer to easily change the size and the geometric shape of the product during the operation where the time spent for setting up or processing the machine are reduced. The algorithm implemented on MATLAB platform is developed by analyzing and evaluating the geometric information of the part. Codes are created rapidly to control the operations of the machine. Comparing to the codes obtained from CAM, this developed algorithm can shortly generate and simulate the cutting profile of the part.

Keywords: Geometric shapes, Milling operation, Minor changes, CNC Machine, G-code, and Cutting parameters.

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43 Effect of High-Energy Ball Milling on the Electrical and Piezoelectric Properties of (K0.5Na0.5)(Nb0.9Ta0.1)O3 Lead-Free Piezoceramics

Authors: Chongtham Jiten, K. Chandramani Singh, Radhapiyari Laishram

Abstract:

Nanocrystalline powders of the lead-free piezoelectric material, tantalum-substituted potassium sodium niobate (K0.5Na0.5)(Nb0.9Ta0.1)O3 (KNNT), were produced using a Retsch PM100 planetary ball mill by setting the milling time to 15h, 20h, 25h, 30h, 35h and 40h, at a fixed speed of 250rpm. The average particle size of the milled powders was found to decrease from 12nm to 3nm as the milling time increases from 15h to 25h, which is in agreement with the existing theoretical model. An anomalous increase to 98nm and then a drop to 3nm in the particle size were observed as the milling time further increases to 30h and 40h respectively. Various sizes of these starting KNNT powders were used to investigate the effect of milling time on the microstructure, dielectric properties, phase transitions and piezoelectric properties of the resulting KNNT ceramics. The particle size of starting KNNT was somewhat proportional to the grain size. As the milling time increases from 15h to 25h, the resulting ceramics exhibit enhancement in the values of relative density from 94.8% to 95.8%, room temperature dielectric constant (εRT) from 878 to 1213, and piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33) from 108pC/N to 128pC/N. For this range of ceramic samples, grain size refinement suppresses the maximum dielectric constant (εmax), shifts the Curie temperature (Tc) to a lower temperature and the orthorhombic-tetragonal phase transition (Tot) to a higher temperature. Further increase of milling time from 25h to 40h produces a gradual degradation in the values of relative density, εRT, and d33 of the resulting ceramics.

Keywords: Ceramics, Dielectric, High-energy milling, Perovskite.

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42 Finite Element Prediction on the Machining Stability of Milling Machine with Experimental Verification

Authors: Jui P. Hung, Yuan L. Lai, Hui T. You

Abstract:

Chatter vibration has been a troublesome problem for a machine tool toward the high precision and high speed machining. Essentially, the machining performance is determined by the dynamic characteristics of the machine tool structure and dynamics of cutting process, which can further be identified in terms of the stability lobe diagram. Therefore, realization on the machine tool dynamic behavior can help to enhance the cutting stability. To assess the dynamic characteristics and machining stability of a vertical milling system under the influence of a linear guide, this study developed a finite element model integrated the modeling of linear components with the implementation of contact stiffness at the rolling interface. Both the finite element simulations and experimental measurements reveal that the linear guide with different preload greatly affects the vibration behavior and milling stability of the vertical column spindle head system, which also clearly indicate that the predictions of the machining stability agree well with the cutting tests. It is believed that the proposed model can be successfully applied to evaluate the dynamics performance of machine tool systems of various configurations.

Keywords: Machining stability, Vertical milling machine, Linearguide, Contact stiffness.

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41 The Effect of Tool Path Strategy on Surface and Dimension in High Speed Milling

Authors: A. Razavykia, A. Esmaeilzadeh, S. Iranmanesh

Abstract:

Many orthopedic implants like proximal humerus cases require lower surface roughness and almost immediate/short lead time surgery. Thus, rapid response from the manufacturer is very crucial. Tool path strategy of milling process has a direct influence on the surface roughness and lead time of medical implant. High-speed milling as promised process would improve the machined surface quality, but conventional or super-abrasive grinding still required which imposes some drawbacks such as additional costs and time. Currently, many CAD/CAM software offers some different tool path strategies to milling free form surfaces. Nevertheless, the users must identify how to choose the strategies according to cutting tool geometry, geometry complexity, and their effects on the machined surface. This study investigates the effect of different tool path strategies for milling a proximal humerus head during finishing operation on stainless steel 316L. Experiments have been performed using MAHO MH700 S vertical milling machine and four machining strategies, namely, spiral outward, spiral inward, and radial as well as zig-zag. In all cases, the obtained surfaces were analyzed in terms of roughness and dimension accuracy compared with those obtained by simulation. The findings provide evidence that surface roughness, dimensional accuracy, and machining time have been affected by the considered tool path strategy.

Keywords: CAD/CAM software, milling, orthopedic implants, tool path strategy.

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40 Minimization of Non-Productive Time during 2.5D Milling

Authors: Satish Kumar, Arun Kumar Gupta, Pankaj Chandna

Abstract:

In the modern manufacturing systems, the use of thermal cutting techniques using oxyfuel, plasma and laser have become indispensable for the shape forming of high quality complex components; however, the conventional chip removal production techniques still have its widespread space in the manufacturing industry. Both these types of machining operations require the positioning of end effector tool at the edge where the cutting process commences. This repositioning of the cutting tool in every machining operation is repeated several times and is termed as non-productive time or airtime motion. Minimization of this non-productive machining time plays an important role in mass production with high speed machining. As, the tool moves from one region to the other by rapid movement and visits a meticulous region once in the whole operation, hence the non-productive time can be minimized by synchronizing the tool movements. In this work, this problem is being formulated as a general travelling salesman problem (TSP) and a genetic algorithm approach has been applied to solve the same. For improving the efficiency of the algorithm, the GA has been hybridized with a noble special heuristic and simulating annealing (SA). In the present work a novel heuristic in the combination of GA has been developed for synchronization of toolpath movements during repositioning of the tool. A comparative analysis of new Meta heuristic techniques with simple genetic algorithm has been performed. The proposed metaheuristic approach shows better performance than simple genetic algorithm for minimization of nonproductive toolpath length. Also, the results obtained with the help of hybrid simulated annealing genetic algorithm (HSAGA) are also found better than the results using simple genetic algorithm only.

Keywords: Non-productive time, Airtime, 2.5 D milling, Laser cutting, Metaheuristic, Genetic Algorithm, Simulated Annealing.

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39 Optimum Surface Roughness Prediction in Face Milling of High Silicon Stainless Steel

Authors: M. Farahnakian, M.R. Razfar, S. Elhami-Joosheghan

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach for the determination of the optimal cutting parameters (spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut and engagement) leading to minimum surface roughness in face milling of high silicon stainless steel by coupling neural network (NN) and Electromagnetism-like Algorithm (EM). In this regard, the advantages of statistical experimental design technique, experimental measurements, artificial neural network, and Electromagnetism-like optimization method are exploited in an integrated manner. To this end, numerous experiments on this stainless steel were conducted to obtain surface roughness values. A predictive model for surface roughness is created by using a back propogation neural network, then the optimization problem was solved by using EM optimization. Additional experiments were performed to validate optimum surface roughness value predicted by EM algorithm. It is clearly seen that a good agreement is observed between the predicted values by EM coupled with feed forward neural network and experimental measurements. The obtained results show that the EM algorithm coupled with back propogation neural network is an efficient and accurate method in approaching the global minimum of surface roughness in face milling.

Keywords: cutting parameters, face milling, surface roughness, artificial neural network, Electromagnetism-like algorithm,

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38 Influence of Ball Milling Time on Mechanical Properties of Porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag Alloy

Authors: M. J. Shivaram, Shashi Bhushan Arya, Jagannath Nayak, Bharat Bhooshan Panigrahi

Abstract:

Titanium and its alloys have become more significant implant materials due to their mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility and high corrosion resistance. Biomaterials can be produce by using the powder metallurgy (PM) methods and required properties can tailored by varying the processing parameters, such as ball milling time, space holder particles, and sintering temperature. The desired properties such as, structural and mechanical properties can be obtained by powder metallurgy method.  In the present study, deals with fabrication of solid and porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag alloy using high energy ball milling for different times (5 and 20 h). The resultant powder particles were used to fabricate solid and porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag alloy by adding space holder particles (NH4HCO3). The resultant powder particles, fabricated solid and porous samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compressive strength, elastic modulus and microhardness properties were investigated. Solid and porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag alloy samples showed good mechanical properties for 20 h ball milling time as compare to 5 h ball milling.

Keywords: Ball Milling, compressive strengths, microstructure, porous Titanium alloy.

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37 Analytical Cutting Forces Model of Helical Milling Operations

Authors: Changyi Liu, Gui Wang, Matthew Dargusch

Abstract:

Helical milling operations are used to generate or enlarge boreholes by means of a milling tool. The bore diameter can be adjusted through the diameter of the helical path. The kinematics of helical milling on a three axis machine tool is analysed firstly. The relationships between processing parameters, cutting tool geometry characters with machined hole feature are formulated. The feed motion of the cutting tool has been decomposed to plane circular feed and axial linear motion. In this paper, the time varying cutting forces acted on the side cutting edges and end cutting edges of the flat end cylinder miller is analysed using a discrete method separately. These two components then are combined to produce the cutting force model considering the complicated interaction between the cutters and workpiece. The time varying cutting force model describes the instantaneous cutting force during processing. This model could be used to predict cutting force, calculate statics deflection of cutter and workpiece, and also could be the foundation of dynamics model and predicting chatter limitation of the helical milling operations.

Keywords: Helical milling, Hole machining, Cutting force, Analytical model, Time domain

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36 Taguchi-Based Surface Roughness Optimization for Slotted and Tapered Cylindrical Products in Milling and Turning Operations

Authors: Vineeth G. Kuriakose, Joseph C. Chen, Ye Li

Abstract:

The research follows a systematic approach to optimize the parameters for parts machined by turning and milling processes. The quality characteristic chosen is surface roughness since the surface finish plays an important role for parts that require surface contact. A tapered cylindrical surface is designed as a test specimen for the research. The material chosen for machining is aluminum alloy 6061 due to its wide variety of industrial and engineering applications. HAAS VF-2 TR computer numerical control (CNC) vertical machining center is used for milling and HAAS ST-20 CNC machine is used for turning in this research. Taguchi analysis is used to optimize the surface roughness of the machined parts. The L9 Orthogonal Array is designed for four controllable factors with three different levels each, resulting in 18 experimental runs. Signal to Noise (S/N) Ratio is calculated for achieving the specific target value of 75 ± 15 µin. The controllable parameters chosen for turning process are feed rate, depth of cut, coolant flow and finish cut and for milling process are feed rate, spindle speed, step over and coolant flow. The uncontrollable factors are tool geometry for turning process and tool material for milling process. Hypothesis testing is conducted to study the significance of different uncontrollable factors on the surface roughnesses. The optimal parameter settings were identified from the Taguchi analysis and the process capability Cp and the process capability index Cpk were improved from 1.76 and 0.02 to 3.70 and 2.10 respectively for turning process and from 0.87 and 0.19 to 3.85 and 2.70 respectively for the milling process. The surface roughnesses were improved from 60.17 µin to 68.50 µin, reducing the defect rate from 52.39% to 0% for the turning process and from 93.18 µin to 79.49 µin, reducing the defect rate from 71.23% to 0% for the milling process. The purpose of this study is to efficiently utilize the Taguchi design analysis to improve the surface roughness.

Keywords: CNC milling, CNC turning, surface roughness, Taguchi analysis.

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35 Progressive Strategy of Milling by means of Tool Axis Inclination Angle

Authors: Sadílek M., Čep R.

Abstract:

This work deals with problems of tool axis inclination angles in ball-end milling. Tool axis inclination angle contributes to improvement of functional surface properties (surface integrity - surface roughness, residual stress, micro hardness, etc.), decreasing cutting forces and improving production. By milling with ball-end milling tool, using standard way of cutting, when work piece and cutting tool contain right angle, we have zero cutting speed on edge. At this point cutting tool only pushes material into the work piece. Here we can observe the following undesirable effects - chip contraction, increasing of cutting temperature, increasing vibrations or creation of built-up edge. These effects have negative results – low quality of surface and decreasing of tool life (in the worse case even it is pinching out). These effects can be eliminated with the tilt of cutting tool or tilt of work piece.

Keywords: CAD/CAM system, tool axis inclination angle, ballend milling, surface roughness, cutting forces.

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34 Prediction of Optimum Cutting Parameters to obtain Desired Surface in Finish Pass end Milling of Aluminium Alloy with Carbide Tool using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Anjan Kumar Kakati, M. Chandrasekaran, Amitava Mandal, Amit Kumar Singh

Abstract:

End milling process is one of the common metal cutting operations used for machining parts in manufacturing industry. It is usually performed at the final stage in manufacturing a product and surface roughness of the produced job plays an important role. In general, the surface roughness affects wear resistance, ductility, tensile, fatigue strength, etc., for machined parts and cannot be neglected in design. In the present work an experimental investigation of end milling of aluminium alloy with carbide tool is carried out and the effect of different cutting parameters on the response are studied with three-dimensional surface plots. An artificial neural network (ANN) is used to establish the relationship between the surface roughness and the input cutting parameters (i.e., spindle speed, feed, and depth of cut). The Matlab ANN toolbox works on feed forward back propagation algorithm is used for modeling purpose. 3-12-1 network structure having minimum average prediction error found as best network architecture for predicting surface roughness value. The network predicts surface roughness for unseen data and found that the result/prediction is better. For desired surface finish of the component to be produced there are many different combination of cutting parameters are available. The optimum cutting parameter for obtaining desired surface finish, to maximize tool life is predicted. The methodology is demonstrated, number of problems are solved and algorithm is coded in Matlab®.

Keywords: End milling, Surface roughness, Neural networks.

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33 Prediction of the Dynamic Characteristics of a Milling Machine Using the Integrated Model of Machine Frame and Spindle Unit

Authors: Jui P. Hung, Yuan L. Lai, Tzuo L. Luo, Hsi H. Hsiao

Abstract:

The machining performance is determined by the frequency characteristics of the machine-tool structure and the dynamics of the cutting process. Therefore, the prediction of dynamic vibration behavior of spindle tool system is of great importance for the design of a machine tool capable of high-precision and high-speed machining. The aim of this study is to develop a finite element model to predict the dynamic characteristics of milling machine tool and hence evaluate the influence of the preload of the spindle bearings. To this purpose, a three dimensional spindle bearing model of a high speed engraving spindle tool was created. In this model, the rolling interfaces with contact stiffness defined by Harris model were used to simulate the spindle bearing components. Then a full finite element model of a vertical milling machine was established by coupling the spindle tool unit with the machine frame structure. Using this model, the vibration mode that had a dominant influence on the dynamic stiffness was determined. The results of the finite element simulations reveal that spindle bearing with different preloads greatly affect the dynamic behavior of the spindle tool unit and hence the dynamic responses of the vertical column milling system. These results were validated by performing vibration on the individual spindle tool unit and the milling machine prototype, respectively. We conclude that preload of the spindle bearings is an important component affecting the dynamic characteristics and machining performance of the entire vertical column structure of the milling machine.

Keywords: Dynamic compliance, Milling machine, Spindle unit, Bearing preload.

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32 A Systematic Approach for Identifying Turning Center Capabilities with Vertical Machining Center in Milling Operation

Authors: J. Chen, N. Hundal

Abstract:

Conventional machining is a form of subtractive manufacturing, in which a collection of material-working processes utilizing power-driven machine tools are used to remove undesired material to achieve a desired geometry. This paper presents an approach for comparison between turning center and vertical machining center by optimization of cutting parameters at cylindrical workpieces leading to minimum surface roughness by using taguchi methodology. Aluminum alloy was taken to conduct experiments due to its unique high strength-weight ratio that is maintained at elevated temperatures and their exceptional corrosion resistance. During testing, the effects of the cutting parameters on the surface roughness were investigated. Additionally, by using taguchi methodology for each of the cutting parameters (spindle speed, depth of cut, insert diameter, and feed rate) minimum surface roughness for the process of turn-milling was determined according to the cutting parameters. A confirmation experiment demonstrates the effectiveness of taguchi method.

Keywords: Surface roughness, taguchi parameter design, turning center, turn-milling operations, vertical machining center.

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31 A Flute Tracking System for Monitoring the Wear of Cutting Tools in Milling Operations

Authors: Hatim Laalej, Salvador Sumohano-Verdeja, Thomas McLeay

Abstract:

Monitoring of tool wear in milling operations is essential for achieving the desired dimensional accuracy and surface finish of a machined workpiece. Although there are numerous statistical models and artificial intelligence techniques available for monitoring the wear of cutting tools, these techniques cannot pin point which cutting edge of the tool, or which insert in the case of indexable tooling, is worn or broken. Currently, the task of monitoring the wear on the tool cutting edges is carried out by the operator who performs a manual inspection, causing undesirable stoppages of machine tools and consequently resulting in costs incurred from lost productivity. The present study is concerned with the development of a flute tracking system to segment signals related to each physical flute of a cutter with three flutes used in an end milling operation. The purpose of the system is to monitor the cutting condition for individual flutes separately in order to determine their progressive wear rates and to predict imminent tool failure. The results of this study clearly show that signals associated with each flute can be effectively segmented using the proposed flute tracking system. Furthermore, the results illustrate that by segmenting the sensor signal by flutes it is possible to investigate the wear in each physical cutting edge of the cutting tool. These findings are significant in that they facilitate the online condition monitoring of a cutting tool for each specific flute without the need for operators/engineers to perform manual inspections of the tool.

Keywords: Tool condition monitoring, tool wear prediction, milling operation, flute tracking.

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30 An Innovative Green Cooling Approach Using Peltier Chip in Milling Operation for Surface Roughness Improvement

Authors: Md. Anayet U. Patwari, Mohammad Ahsan Habib, Md. Tanzib Ehsan, Md Golam Ahnaf, Md. S. I. Chowdhury

Abstract:

Surface roughness is one of the key quality parameters of the finished product. During any machining operation, high temperatures are generated at the tool-chip interface impairing surface quality and dimensional accuracy of products. Cutting fluids are generally applied during machining to reduce temperature at the tool-chip interface. However, usages of cutting fluids give rise to problems such as waste disposal, pollution, high cost, and human health hazard. Researchers, now-a-days, are opting towards dry machining and other cooling techniques to minimize use of coolants during machining while keeping surface roughness of products within desirable limits. In this paper, a concept of using peltier cooling effects during aluminium milling operation has been presented and adopted with an aim to improve surface roughness of the machined surface. Experimental evidence shows that peltier cooling effect provides better surface roughness of the machined surface compared to dry machining.

Keywords: Aluminium, surface roughness, Peltier cooling effect, milling operation.

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29 CAD-Based Modelling of Surface Roughness in Face Milling

Authors: C. Felho, J. Kundrak

Abstract:

The quality of machined surfaces is an important characteristic of cutting processes and surface roughness has strong effects on the performance of sliding, moving components. The ability to forecast these values for a given process has been of great interests among researchers for a long time. Different modeling procedures and algorithms have been worked-out, and each has its own advantages and drawbacks. A new method will be introduced in this paper which will make it possible to calculate both the profile (2D) and surface (3D) parameters of theoretical roughness in the face milling of plain surfaces. This new method is based on an expediently developed CAD model, and uses a professional program for the roughness evaluation. Cutting experiments were performed on 42CrMo4 specimens in order to validate the accuracy of the model. The results have revealed that the method is able to predict surface roughness with good accuracy.

Keywords: CAD-based modeling, face milling, surface roughness, theoretical roughness.

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28 Neural Network Monitoring Strategy of Cutting Tool Wear of Horizontal High Speed Milling

Authors: Kious Mecheri, Hadjadj Abdechafik, Ameur Aissa

Abstract:

The wear of cutting tool degrades the quality of the product in the manufacturing processes. The on line monitoring of the cutting tool wear level is very necessary to prevent the deterioration of the quality of machining. Unfortunately there is not a direct manner to measure the cutting tool wear on line. Consequently we must adopt an indirect method where wear will be estimated from the measurement of one or more physical parameters appearing during the machining process such as the cutting force, the vibrations, or the acoustic emission etc…. In this work, a neural network system is elaborated in order to estimate the flank wear from the cutting force measurement and the cutting conditions.

Keywords: Flank wear, cutting forces, high speed milling, signal processing, neural network.

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