Search results for: N. Hedayat
27 Thermodynamic Study of Seed Oil Extraction by Organic Solvents
Authors: Zhila Safari, Ali Ashrafizadeh, Najaf Hedayat
Abstract:Thermodynamics characterization Sesame oil extraction by Acetone, Hexane and Benzene has been evaluated. The 120 hours experimental Data were described by a simple mathematical model. According to the simulation results and the essential criteria, Acetone is superior to other solvents but under certain conditions where oil extraction takes place Hexane is superior catalyst.
Keywords: Liquid-solid extraction, seed oil, ThermodynamicStudy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1930
26 Experimental Study of Frequency Behavior for a Circular Cylinder behind an Airfoil
Authors: S. Bajalan, A. Shadaram, N. Hedayat, A. Shams Taleghani
Abstract:The interaction between wakes of bluff body and airfoil have profound influences on system performance in many industrial applications, e.g., turbo-machinery and cooling fan. The present work investigates the effect of configuration include; airfoil-s angle of attack, transverse and inline spacing of the models, on frequency behavior of the cylinder-s near-wake. The experiments carried on under subcritical flow regime, using the hot-wire anemometry (HWA). The relationship between the Strouhal numbers and arrangements provide an insight into the global physical processes of wake interaction and vortex shedding.
Keywords: Airfoil, Cylinder, Strouhal, Wake interactionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1648
25 Review Risk and Threats Due to Dam Break
Authors: A.Roshandel, N.Hedayat, H.kiamanesh
Abstract:The one of most important objects in implementation of damage analysis observations is manner of dam break wave propagation. In this paper velocity and wave height due dam break in with and without tailwater states for appointment hazardous lands and flood radius are investigate. In order to modeling above phenomenon finite volume method of Roe type for solving shallow water equations is used. Results indicated that in the dry bed state risk radius due to dam break is too high. While in the wet bed risk radius has a less wide. Therefore in the first state constructions and storage facilities are encountered with destruction risk. Further velocity due to dam break in the second state is more comparing to the first state. Hence erosion and scour the river bed in the dry bed is too more compare to the wet bed.
Keywords: Dam break, finite volume method, tailwater, risk radius, scourProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1508
24 Energy and Exergy Analysis of Dual Purpose Solar Collector
Authors: I. Jafari, A. Ershadi, E. Najafpour, N. Hedayat
Energy and exergy study of air-water combined solar collector which is called dual purpose solar collector (DPSC) is investigated. The method of ε - NTU is used. Analysis is performed for triangle channels. Parameters like the air flow rate and water inlet temperature are studied. Results are shown that DPSC has better energy and exergy efficiency than single collector. In addition, the triangle passage with water inlet temperature of 60O C has shown better exergy and energy efficiency.
Keywords: Efficiency, Exergy, Irreversibility, Solar collector.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2148
23 Simulation of Dam Break using Finite Volume Method
Authors: A.Roshandel, N.Hedayat, H.kiamanesh
Abstract:Today, numerical simulation is a powerful tool to solve various hydraulic engineering problems. The aim of this research is numerical solutions of shallow water equations using finite volume method for Simulations of dam break over wet and dry bed. In order to solve Riemann problem, Roe-s approximate solver is used. To evaluate numerical model, simulation was done in 1D and 2D states. In 1D state, two dam break test over dry bed (with and without friction) were studied. The results showed that Structural failure around the dam and damage to the downstream constructions in bed without friction is more than friction bed. In 2D state, two tests for wet and dry beds were done. Generally in wet bed case, waves are propagated to canal sides but in dry bed it is not significant. Therefore, damage to the storage facilities and agricultural lands in wet bed case is more than in dry bed.
Keywords: dam break, dry bed, finite volume method, shallow water equations.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2381
22 Studying Effects of Alternative Biodiesel Fuel in Performance and Pollutants of Diesel Engines
Authors: Shakila Motamedi, Seyed Azizollah Ghotb, Fatemeh Torfi, Najaf Hedayat
Abstract:Since injection engines have a considerable portion, in consumption of energy and environmental pollution, using an alternative source of energy with lower pollutant effects in this regard is necessary. Biodiesel fuel is a suitable alternative for gasoline in diesel engines. In this research the property of biodiesel, the function and the pollution effects of diesel engine, when using 100% biodiesel, using 100% gasoline and mixing ratio of both fuels for comparing them, have been investigated. The researches have shown, using biodiesel fuel in prevalent diesel engine, will reduce the pollutants such as Co, half burned carbohydrate and suspended particles and a little increase in oxidation will achieve while power consumption, particularly fuel and thermal efficiency of diesel fuel has the same.
Keywords: Biodiesel, Diesel Engine, Environment, GasolineProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1453
21 Daily Global Solar Radiation Modeling Using Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) Neural Networks
Authors: Seyed Fazel Ziaei Asl, Ali Karami, Gholamreza Ashari, Azam Behrang, Arezoo Assareh, N.Hedayat
Predict daily global solar radiation (GSR) based on meteorological variables, using Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural networks is the main objective of this study. Daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation, wind speed, and soil temperature values between 2002 and 2006 for Dezful city in Iran (32° 16' N, 48° 25' E), are used in this study. The measured data between 2002 and 2005 are used to train the neural networks while the data for 214 days from 2006 are used as testing data.
Keywords: Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP) Neural Networks;Global Solar Radiation (GSR), Meteorological Parameters, Prediction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2867
20 Capacitor Placement in Distribution Systems Using Simulating Annealing (SA)
Authors: Esmail Limouzade, Mahmood.Joorabian, Najaf Hedayat
Abstract:This paper undertakes the problem of optimal capacitor placement in a distribution system. The problem is how to optimally determine the locations to install capacitors, the types and sizes of capacitors to he installed and, during each load level,the control settings of these capacitors in order that a desired objective function is minimized while the load constraints,network constraints and operational constraints (e.g. voltage profile) at different load levels are satisfied. The problem is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem with a nondifferentiable objective function. Four solution mythologies based on algorithms (GA),tabu search (TS), and hybrid GA-SA algorithms are presented.The solution methodologies are preceded by a sensitivity analysis to select the candidate capacitor installation locations.
Keywords: Genetic Algorithm (GA) , capacitor placement, voltage profile, network losses, Simulated Annealing, distribution network.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1650
19 Simulation of 3D Flow using Numerical Model at Open-channel Confluences
Authors: R.Goudarzizadeh, S.H.Mousavi Jahromi, N.Hedayat
Abstract:This paper analytically investigates the 3D flow pattern at the confluences of two rectangular channels having 900 angles using Navier-Stokes equations based on Reynolds Stress Turbulence Model (RSM). The equations are solved by the Finite- Volume Method (FVM) and the flow is analyzed in terms of steadystate (single-phased) conditions. The Shumate experimental findings were used to test the validity of data. Comparison of the simulation model with the experimental ones indicated a close proximity between the flow patterns of the two sets. Effects of the discharge ratio on separation zone dimensions created in the main-channel downstream of the confluence indicated an inverse relation, where a decrease in discharge ratio, will entail an increase in the length and width of the separation zone. The study also found the model as a powerful analytical tool in the feasibility study of hydraulic engineering projects.
Keywords: 900 confluence angle, flow separation zone, numerical modeling, turbulent flow.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1729
18 Three-dimensional Simulation of Flow Pattern at the Lateral Intake in Straight Path, using Finite-Volume Method
Authors: R.Goudarzizadeh, N.Hedayat, S.H.Mousavi Jahromi
Abstract:Channel junctions can be analyzed in two ways of division (lateral intake) and combined flows (confluence). The present paper investigates 3D flow pattern at lateral intake using Navier-Stokes equation and κ -ε (RNG) turbulent model. The equations are solved by Finite-Volume Method (FVM) and results are compared with the experimental data of (Barkdoll, B.D., 1997) to test the validity of the findings. Comparison of the results with the experimental data indicated a close proximity between the two sets of data which suggest a very close simulation. Results further indicated an inverse relation between the effects of discharge ratio ( r Q ) on the length and width of the separation zone. In other words, as the discharge ration increases, the length and width of separation zone decreases.
Keywords: 900 junction, flow division, turbulent flow, numerical modeling, flow separation zone.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1607
17 New Hybrid Algorithm for Task Scheduling in Grid Computing to Decrease missed Task
Authors: Z. Pooranian, A. Harounabadi, M. Shojafar, N. Hedayat
Abstract:The purpose of Grid computing is to utilize computational power of idle resources which are distributed in different areas. Given the grid dynamism and its decentralize resources, there is a need for an efficient scheduler for scheduling applications. Since task scheduling includes in the NP-hard problems various researches have focused on invented algorithms especially the genetic ones. But since genetic is an inherent algorithm which searches the problem space globally and does not have the efficiency required for local searching, therefore, its combination with local searching algorithms can compensate for this shortcomings. The aim of this paper is to combine the genetic algorithm and GELS (GAGELS) as a method to solve scheduling problem by which simultaneously pay attention to two factors of time and number of missed tasks. Results show that the proposed algorithm can decrease makespan while minimizing the number of missed tasks compared with the traditional methods.
Keywords: Grid Computing, Genetic Algorithm, Gravitational Emulation Local Search (GELS), missed taskProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1836
16 Probe of Crack Initiate at the Toe of Concrete Gravity Dam using Numerical Analysis
Authors: M. S. Salimi, H. Kiamanesh, N. Hedayat
Abstract:In this survey the process of crack propagation at the toe of concrete gravity dam is investigated by applying principals and criteria of linear elastic fracture mechanic. Simulating process of earthquake conditions for three models of dam with different geometrical condition, in empty reservoir under plain stress is calculated through special fracture mechanic software FRANNC2D  for determining fracture mechanic criteria. The outcomes showed that in spite of the primary expectations, the simultaneous existence of fillet in both toe and heel area (model 3), the rate of maximum principal stress has not been decreased; however, even the maximum principal stress has increased, so it caused stress intensity factors increase which is undesirable. On the other hand, the dam with heel fillet has shown the best attitude and it is because of items like decreasing the rates of maximum and minimum principal stresses and also is related to decreasing the rates of stress intensity factors for 1st & 2nd modes of the model.
Keywords: Stress intensity factor, concrete gravity dam, numerical analysis, geometry of toe.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1613
15 Application of Vortex Tubes for Extracting Sediments Using SHARC Software - A Case Study of the Western Canal in the Dez Diversion Weir
Authors: A. H. Sajedi Pour, N. Hedayat, Z. Yazdi
Sediment loads transfer in hydraulic installations and their consequences for the O&M of modern canal systems is emerging as one of the most important considerations in hydraulic engineering projects apriticularly those which are inteded to feed the irrigation and draiange schemes of large command areas such as the Dez and Mogahn in Iran.. The aim of this paper is to investigate the applicability of the vortex tube as a viable means of extracting sediment loads entering the canal systems in general and the water inatke structures in particulars. The Western conveyance canal of the Dez Diversion weir which feeds the Karkheh Flood Plain in Sothwestern Dezful has been used as the case study using the data from the Dastmashan Hydrometric Station. The SHARC software has been used as an analytical framework to interprete the data. Results show that given the grain size D50 and the canal turbulence the adaption length from the beginning of the canal and after the diversion dam is estimated at 477 m, a point which is suitable for laying the vortex tube.
Keywords: Vortex tube, sediments, western canal, SHARCmodelProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1935
14 Global Electricity Consumption Estimation Using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)
Authors: E.Assareh, M.A. Behrang, R. Assareh, N. Hedayat
An integrated Artificial Neural Network- Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is presented for analyzing global electricity consumption. To aim this purpose, following steps are done: STEP 1: in the first step, PSO is applied in order to determine world-s oil, natural gas, coal and primary energy demand equations based on socio-economic indicators. World-s population, Gross domestic product (GDP), oil trade movement and natural gas trade movement are used as socio-economic indicators in this study. For each socio-economic indicator, a feed-forward back propagation artificial neural network is trained and projected for future time domain. STEP 2: in the second step, global electricity consumption is projected based on the oil, natural gas, coal and primary energy consumption using PSO. global electricity consumption is forecasted up to year 2040.
Keywords: Particle Swarm Optimization, Artificial NeuralNetworks, Fossil Fuels, Electricity, Forecasting.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1401
13 Effects of Stream Tube Numbers on Flow and Sediments using GSTARS-3-A Case Study of the Karkheh Reservoir Dam in Western Dezful
Authors: M. H. Ayazi, M. Qamari, N.Hedayat, A. Rohani
Abstract:Simulation of the flow and sedimentation process in the reservoir dams can be made by two methods of physical and mathematical modeling. The study area was within a region which ranged from the Jelogir hydrometric station to the Karkheh reservoir dam aimed at investigating the effects of stream tubes on the GSTARS-3 model behavior. The methodologies was to run the model based on 5 stream tubes in order to observe the influence of each scenario on longitudinal profiles, cross-section, flow velocity and bed load sediment size. Results further suggest that the use of two stream tubes or more which result in the semi-two-dimensional model will yield relatively closer results to the observational data than a singular stream tube modeling. Moreover, the results of modeling with three stream tubes shown to yield a relatively close results with the observational data. The overall conclusion of the paper is with applying various stream tubes; it would be possible to yield a significant influence on the modeling behavior Vis-a Vis the bed load sediment size.
Keywords: Karkheh, stream tubes, GSTARS-3 Model, Jelogir hydrometric station.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1405
12 Selection and Exergy Analysis of Fuel Cell System to Meet all Energy Needs of Residential Buildings
Authors: G.R. Ashari, N.Hedayat, S. Shalbaf, E.Hajidavalloo
Abstract:In this paper a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell power system including burner, steam reformer, heat exchanger and water heater has been considered to meet the electrical, heating, cooling and domestic hot water loads of residential building which in Tehran. The system uses natural gas as fuel and works in CHP mode. Design and operating conditions of a PEM fuel cell system is considered in this study. The energy requirements of residential building and the number of fuel cell stacks to meet them have been estimated. The method involved exergy analysis and entropy generation thorough the months of the year. Results show that all the energy needs of the building can be met with 12 fuel cell stacks at a nominal capacity of 8.5 kW. Exergy analysis of the CHP system shows that the increase in the ambient air temperature from 1oC to 40oC, will have an increase of entropy generation by 5.73%.Maximum entropy generates for 15 hour in 15th of June and 15th of July is estimated to amount at 12624 (kW/K). Entropy generation of this system through a year is estimated to amount to 1004.54 GJ/k.year.
Keywords: CHP mode, entropy, exergy, no of fuel cell stacks.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1780
11 Estimating the Runoff Using the Simple Tank Model and Comparing it with the SCS-CN Model - A Case Study of the Dez River Basin
Authors: H. Alaleh, N. Hedayat, A. Alaleh, H. Ayazi, A. Ruhani
Run-offs are considered as important hydrological factors in feasibility studies of river engineering and irrigation-related projects under arid and semi-arid condition. Flood control is one of the crucial factor, the management of which while mitigates its destructive consequences, abstracts considerable volume of renewable water resources. The methodology applied here was based on Mizumura, which applied a mathematical model for simple tank to simulate the rainfall-run-off process in a particular water basin using the data from the observational hydrograph. The model was applied in the Dez River water basin adjacent to Greater Dezful region, Iran in order to simulate and estimate the floods. Results indicated that the calculated hydrographs using the simple tank method, SCS-CN model and the observation hydrographs had a close proximity. It was also found that on average the flood time and discharge peaks in the simple tank were closer to the observational data than the CN method. On the other hand, the calculated flood volume in the CN model was significantly closer to the observational data than the simple tank model.
Keywords: Simple tank, Dez River, run-off, lag time, excess rainfall.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2493
10 Efficiency of Post-Tensioning Method for Seismic Retrofitting of Pre-Cast Cylindrical Concrete Reservoirs
Authors: M.E.Karbaschi, R.Goudarzizadeh, N.Hedayat
Abstract:Cylindrical concrete reservoirs are appropriate choice for storing liquids as water, oil and etc. By using of the pre-cast concrete reservoirs instead of the in-situ constructed reservoirs, the speed and precision of the construction would considerably increase. In this construction method, wall and roof panels would make in factory with high quality materials and precise controlling. Then, pre-cast wall and roof panels would carry out to the construction site for assembling. This method has a few faults such as: the existing weeks in connection of wall panels together and wall panels to foundation. Therefore, these have to be resisted under applied loads such as seismic load. One of the innovative methods which was successfully applied for seismic retrofitting of numerous pre-cast cylindrical water reservoirs in New Zealand, using of the high tensile cables around the reservoirs and post-tensioning them. In this paper, analytical modeling of wall and roof panels and post-tensioned cables are carried out with finite element method and the effect of height to diameter ratio, post-tensioning force value, liquid level in reservoir, installing position of tendons on seismic response of reservoirs are investigated.
Keywords: Seismic Retrofit, Pre-Cast, Concrete Reservoir, Post-Tensioning.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1891
9 A Hybrid Neural Network and Gravitational Search Algorithm (HNNGSA) Method to Solve well known Wessinger's Equation
Authors: M. Ghalambaz, A.R. Noghrehabadi, M.A. Behrang, E. Assareh, A. Ghanbarzadeh, N.Hedayat
This study presents a hybrid neural network and Gravitational Search Algorithm (HNGSA) method to solve well known Wessinger's equation. To aim this purpose, gravitational search algorithm (GSA) technique is applied to train a multi-layer perceptron neural network, which is used as approximation solution of the Wessinger's equation. A trial solution of the differential equation is written as sum of two parts. The first part satisfies the initial/ boundary conditions and does not contain any adjustable parameters and the second part which is constructed so as not to affect the initial/boundary conditions. The second part involves adjustable parameters (the weights and biases) for a multi-layer perceptron neural network. In order to demonstrate the presented method, the obtained results of the proposed method are compared with some known numerical methods. The given results show that presented method can introduce a closer form to the analytic solution than other numerical methods. Present method can be easily extended to solve a wide range of problems.
Keywords: Neural Networks, Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSR), Wessinger's Equation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2277
8 Sedimentation and its Challenges for Operation and Maintenance of Hydraulic Structures using SHARC Software- A Case Study of Eastern Intake in Dez Diversion Dam in Iran
Authors: M.R. Mansoujian, N. Hedayat, M. Mashal, H, Kiamanesh
Abstract:Analytical investigation of the sedimentation processes in the river engineering and hydraulic structures is of vital importance as this can affect water supply for the cultivating lands in the command area. The reason being that gradual sediment formation behind the reservoir can reduce the nominal capacity of these dams. The aim of the present paper is to analytically investigate sedimentation process along the river course and behind the storage reservoirs in general and the Eastern Intake of the Dez Diversion weir in particular using the SHARC software. Results of the model indicated the water level at 115.97m whereas the real time measurement from the river cross section was 115.98 m which suggests a significantly close relation between them. The average transported sediment load in the river was measured at 0.25mm , from which it can be concluded that nearly 100% of the suspended loads in river are moving which suggests no sediment settling but indicates that almost all sediment loads enters into the intake. It was further showed the average sediment diameter entering the intake to be 0.293 mm which in turn suggests that about 85% of suspended sediments in the river entre the intake. Comparison of the results from the SHARC model with those obtained form the SSIIM software suggests quite similar outputs but distinguishing the SHARC model as more appropriate for the analysis of simpler problems than other model.
Keywords: SHARC, Eastern Intake, Dez Diversion Weir.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1484
7 Sensitivity of the SHARC Model to Variations of Manning Coefficient and Effect of “n“ on the Sediment Materials Entry into the Eastern Water intake- A Case in the Dez Diversion Weir in Iran
Authors: M.R.Mansoujian, A.Rohani, N.Hedayat , M.Qamari, M. Osroosh
Abstract:Permanent rivers are the main sources of renewable water supply for the croplands under the irrigation and drainage schemes. They are also the major source of sediment loads transport into the storage reservoirs of the hydro-electrical dams, diversion weirs and regulating dams. Sedimentation process results from soil erosion which is related to poor watershed management and human intervention ion in the hydraulic regime of the rivers. These could change the hydraulic behavior and as such, leads to riverbed and river bank scouring, the consequences of which would be sediment load transport into the dams and therefore reducing the flow discharge in water intakes. The present paper investigate sedimentation process by varying the Manning coefficient "n" by using the SHARC software along the watercourse in the Dez River. Results indicated that the optimum "n" within that river range is 0.0315 at which quantity minimum sediment loads are transported into the Eastern intake. Comparison of the model results with those obtained by those from the SSIIM software within the same river reach showed a very close proximity between them. This suggests a relative accuracy with which the model can simulate the hydraulic flow characteristics and therefore its suitability as a powerful analytical tool for project feasibility studies and project implementation.
Keywords: Sediment transport, Manning coefficient, Eastern Intake, SHARC, Dez River.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1556
6 Analytical Investigation of Sediment Formation and Transport in the Vicinity of the Water Intake Structures - A Case Study of the Dez Diversion Weir in Greater Dezful
Authors: M.karavanmasjedi, N.Hedayat , A.Rohani, H.Shirin
Abstract:Sedimentation process resulting from soil erosion in the water basin especially in arid and semi-arid where poor vegetation cover in the slope of the mountains upstream could contribute to sediment formation. The consequence of sedimentation not only makes considerable change in the morphology of the river and the hydraulic characteristics but would also have a major challenge for the operation and maintenance of the canal network which depend on water flow to meet the stakeholder-s requirements. For this reason mathematical modeling can be used to simulate the effective factors on scouring, sediment transport and their settling along the waterways. This is particularly important behind the reservoirs which enable the operators to estimate the useful life of these hydraulic structures. The aim of this paper is to simulate the sedimentation and erosion in the eastern and western water intake structures of the Dez Diversion weir using GSTARS-3 software. This is done to estimate the sedimentation and investigate the ways in which to optimize the process and minimize the operational problems. Results indicated that the at the furthest point upstream of the diversion weir, the coarser sediment grains tended to settle. The reason for this is the construction of the phantom bridge and the outstanding rocks just upstream of the structure. The construction of these along the river course has reduced the momentum energy require to push the sediment loads and make it possible for them to settle wherever the river regime allows it. Results further indicated a trend for the sediment size in such a way that as the focus of study shifts downstream the size of grains get smaller and vice versa. It was also found that the finding of the GSTARS-3 had a close proximity with the sets of the observed data. This suggests that the software is a powerful analytical tool which can be applied in the river engineering project with a minimum of costs and relatively accurate results.
Keywords: Erosion, sedimentation, Dez Diversion weir, GSTARS-3Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1517
5 Challenges of Irrigation Water Supply in Croplands of Arid Regions and their Environmental Consequences – A Case Study in the Dez and Moghan Command Areas of Iran
Authors: Lobat Taghavi, Najaf Hedayat
Abstract:Renewable water resources are crucial production variables in arid and semi-arid regions where intensive agriculture is practiced to meet ever-increasing demand for food and fiber. This is crucial for the Dez and Moghan command areas where water delivery problems and adverse environmental issues are widespread. This paper aims to identify major problems areas using on-farm surveys of 200 farmers, agricultural extensionists and water suppliers which was complemented by secondary data and field observations during 2010- 2011 cultivating season. The SPSS package was used to analyze and synthesis data. Results indicated inappropriate canal operations in both schemes, though there was no unanimity about the underlying causes. Inequitable and inflexible distribution was found to be rooted in deficient hydraulic structures particularly in the main and secondary canals. The inadequacy and inflexibility of water scheduling regime was the underlying causes of recurring pest and disease spread which often led to the decline of crop yield and quality, although these were not disputed, the water suppliers were not prepared to link with the deficiencies in the operation of the main and secondary canals. They rather attributed these to the prevailing salinity; alkalinity, water table fluctuations and leaching of the valuable agro-chemical inputs from the plants- route zone with farreaching consequences. Examples of these include the pollution of ground and surface resources due to over-irrigation at the farm level which falls under the growers- own responsibility. Poor irrigation efficiency and adverse environmental problems were attributed to deficient and outdated farming practices that were in turn rooted in poor extension programs and irrational water charges.
Keywords: water delivery, inequity, inflexibility, conflicts, environmental impact, Dez and MoghanProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1417
4 Analytical Study of Sedimentation Formation in Lined Canals using the SHARC Software- A Case Study of the Western Intake Structure in Dez Diversion Weir in Dezful, Iran
Authors: A.H. Sajedipoor, N. Hedayat, M. Mashal
Abstract:Sedimentation is a hydraulic phenomenon that is emerging as a serious challenge in river engineering. When the flow reaches a certain state that gather potential energy, it shifts the sediment load along channel bed. The transport of such materials can be in the form of suspended and bed loads. The movement of these along the river course and channels and the ways in which this could influence the water intakes is considered as the major challenges for sustainable O&M of hydraulic structures. This could be very serious in arid and semi-arid regions like Iran, where inappropriate watershed management could lead to shifting a great deal of sediments into the reservoirs and irrigation systems. This paper aims to investigate sedimentation in the Western Canal of Dez Diversion Weir in Iran, identifying factors which influence the process and provide ways in which to mitigate its detrimental effects by using the SHARC Software. For the purpose of this paper, data from the Dezful water authority and Dezful Hydrometric Station pertinent to a river course of about 6 Km were used. Results estimated sand and silt bed loads concentrations to be 193 ppm and 827ppm respectively. Given the available data on average annual bed loads and average suspended sediment loads of 165ppm and 837ppm, there was a significant statistical difference (16%) between the sand grains, whereas no significant difference (1.2%) was find in the silt grain sizes. One explanation for such finding being that along the 6 Km river course there was considerable meandering effects which explains recent shift in the hydraulic behavior along the stream course under investigation. The sand concentration in downstream relative to present state of the canal showed a steep descending curve. Sediment trapping on the other hand indicated a steep ascending curve. These occurred because the diversion weir was not considered in the simulation model.
Keywords: SHARC model, sedimentation, Western canal, Dezdiversion weirProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1540
3 Comparative Study of Sedimentation in Hydraulic Structures using Sharc and Ssiim Soft Wares - A Case of the Dez and Hamidieh Intake Structures in Iran
Authors: A.H. Sajedipoor, N. Hedayat , M. Mashal, R. Nazarzadeh
Sedimentation formation is a complex hydraulic phenomenon that has emerged as a major operational and maintenance consideration in modern hydraulic engineering in general and river engineering in particular. Sediments accumulation along the river course and their eventual storage in a form of islands affect water intake in the canal systems that are fed by the storage reservoirs. Without proper management, sediment transport can lead to major operational challenges in water distribution system of arid regions like the Dez and Hamidieh command areas. The paper aims to investigate sedimentation in the Western Canal of Dez Diversion Weir using the SHARC model and compare the results with the two intake structures of the Hamidieh dam in Iran using SSIIM model. The objective was to identify the factors which influence the process, check reliability of outcome and provide ways in which to mitigate the implications on operation and maintenance of the structures. Results estimated sand and silt bed loads concentrations to be 193 ppm and 827ppm respectively. This followed ,ore or less similar pattern in Hamidieh where the sediment formation impeded water intake in the canal system. Given the available data on average annual bed loads and average suspended sediment loads of 165ppm and 837ppm in the Dez, there was a significant statistical difference (16%) between the sand grains, whereas no significant difference (1.2%) was find in the silt grain sizes. One explanation for such finding being that along the 6 Km river course there was considerable meandering effects which explains recent shift in the hydraulic behavior along the stream course under investigation. The sand concentration in downstream relative to present state of the canal showed a steep descending curve. Sediment trapping on the other hand indicated a steep ascending curve. These occurred because the diversion weir was not considered in the simulation model. The comparative study showed very close similarities in the results which explains the fact that both software can be used as accurate and reliable analytical tools for simulation of the sedimentation in hydraulic engineering.
Keywords: SHARC, SSIIM, sedimentation, Dez diversion weir, Hamidieh dam, Intake structuresProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1628
2 Complexity of Operation and Maintenance in Irrigation Network Management-A Case of the Dez Scheme in the Greater Dezful, Iran
Authors: Najaf Hedayat
Food and fibre production in arid and semi-arid regions has emerged as one of the major challenges for various socio-economic and political reasons such as the food security and self-sufficiency. Productive use of the renewable water resources has risen on top ofthe decision-making agenda. For this reason, efficient operation and maintenance of modern irrigation and drainage schemes become part and parcel and indispensible reality in agricultural policy making arena. The aim of this paper is to investigate the complexity of operating and maintaining such schemes, mainly focussing on challenges which enhance and opportunities that impedsustainable food and fibre production. The methodology involved using secondary data complemented byroutine observations and stakeholders views on issues that influence the O&M in the Dez command area. The SPSS program was used as an analytical framework for data analysis and interpretation.Results indicate poor application efficiency in most croplands, much of which is attributed to deficient operation of conveyance and distribution canals. These in turn, are reportedly linked to inadequate maintenance of the pumping stations and hydraulic structures like turnouts,flumes and other control systems particularly in the secondary and tertiary canals. Results show that the aforementioned deficiencies have been the major impediment to establishing regular flow toward the farm gates which subsequently undermine application efficiency and tillage operationsat farm level. Results further show that accumulative impact of such deficiencies has been the major causes of poorcrop yield and quality that deem production system in these croplands uneconomic. Results further show that the present state might undermine the sustainability of agricultural system in the command area. The overall conclusion being that present water management is unlikely to be responsive to challenges that the sector faces. And in the absence of coherent measures to shift the status quo situation in favour of more productive resource use, it would be hard to fulfil the objectives of the National Economic and Socio-cultural Development Plans.
Keywords: renewable water resources, Dez scheme, irrigationand drainage, sustainable crop production, O&MProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1480
1 Analytical Study of Sedimentation Formation in Lined Canals using the SHARC Software- A Case Study of the Sabilli Canal in Dezful, Iran
Authors: A.H. Sajedipoor, N. Hedayat, A.Rohani, Z.Yazdi
Sediment formation and its transport along the river course is considered as important hydraulic consideration in river engineering. Their impact on the morphology of rivers on one hand and important considerations of which in the design and construction of the hydraulic structures on the other has attracted the attention of experts in arid and semi-arid regions. Under certain conditions where the momentum energy of the flow stream reaches a specific rate, the sediment materials start to be transported with the flow. This can usually be analyzed in two different categories of suspended and bed load materials. Sedimentation phenomenon along the waterways and the conveyance of vast volume of materials into the canal networks can potentially influence water abstraction in the intake structures. This can pose a serious threat to operational sustainability and water delivery performance in the canal networks. The situation is serious where ineffective watershed management (poor vegetation cover in the water basin) is the underlying cause of soil erosion which feeds the materials into the waterways that intern would necessitate comprehensive study. The present paper aims to present an analytical investigation of the sediment process in the waterways on one hand and estimation of the sediment load transport into the lined canals using the SHARC software on the other. For this reason, the paper focuses on the comparative analysis of the hydraulic behaviors of the Sabilli main canal that feeds the pumping station with that of the Western canal in the Greater Dezful region to identify effective factors in sedimentation and ways of mitigating their impact on water abstraction in the canal systems. The method involved use of observational data available in the Dezful Dastmashoon hydrometric station along a 6 km waterway of the Sabilli main canal using the SHARC software to estimate the suspended load concentration and bed load materials. Results showed the transport of a significant volume of sediment loads from the waterways into the canal system which is assumed to have arisen from the absence of stilling basin on one hand and the gravity flow on the other has caused serious challenges. This is contrary to what occurs in the Sabilli canal, where the design feature which incorporates a settling basin just before the pumping station is the major cause of reduced sediment load transport into the canal system.Results showed that modification of the present design features by constructing a settling basin just upstream of the western intake structure can considerably reduce the entry of sediment materials into the canal system. Not only this can result in the sustainability of the hydraulic structures but can also improve operational performance of water conveyance and distribution system, all of which are the pre-requisite to secure reliable and equitable water delivery regime for the command area.
Keywords: Sedimentation, main canal, Sabilli, western canal, dez diversion weir.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1675