Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8505

Search results for: Method of Auxiliary Sources

8505 On the Study of the Electromagnetic Scattering by Large Obstacle Based on the Method of Auxiliary Sources

Authors: Sami Hidouri, Taoufik Aguili

Abstract:

We consider fast and accurate solutions of scattering problems by large perfectly conducting objects (PEC) formulated by an optimization of the Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS). We present various techniques used to reduce the total computational cost of the scattering problem. The first technique is based on replacing the object by an array of finite number of small (PEC) object with the same shape. The second solution reduces the problem on considering only the half of the object.These t

Keywords: Method of Auxiliary Sources, Scattering, large object, RCS, computational resources.

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8504 Efficient Electromagnetic Modeling of Dual-GateTransistor with Iterative Method using Auxiliary Sources

Authors: Z. Harouni, L. Osman, M. Yeddes, A. Gharsallah, H. Baudrand

Abstract:

In this paper, an efficient wave concept iterative process (WCIP) with auxiliary Sources is presented for full wave investigation of an active microwave structure on micro strip technology. Good agreement between the experimental and simulation results is observed.

Keywords: WCIP, Dual-Gate Transistor, Auxiliary source.

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8503 MAS Simulations of Optical Antenna Structures

Authors: K.Tavzarashvili, G.Ghvedashili

Abstract:

A semi-analytic boundary discretization method, the Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) is used to analyze Optical Antennas consisting of metallic parts. In addition to standard dipoletype antennas, consisting of two pieces of metal, a new structure consisting of a single metal piece with a tiny groove in the center is analyzed. It is demonstrated that difficult numerical problems are caused because optical antennas exhibit strong material dispersion, loss, and plasmon-polariton effects that require a very accurate numerical simulation. This structure takes advantage of the Channel Plasmon-Polariton (CPP) effect and exhibits a strong enhancement of the electric field in the groove. Also primitive 3D antenna model with spherical nano particles is analyzed.

Keywords: optical antenna, channel plasmon-polariton, computational physics, Method of Auxiliary Sources

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8502 Mathematical Programming on Multivariate Calibration Estimation in Stratified Sampling

Authors: Dinesh Rao, M.G.M. Khan, Sabiha Khan

Abstract:

Calibration estimation is a method of adjusting the original design weights to improve the survey estimates by using auxiliary information such as the known population total (or mean) of the auxiliary variables. A calibration estimator uses calibrated weights that are determined to minimize a given distance measure to the original design weights while satisfying a set of constraints related to the auxiliary information. In this paper, we propose a new multivariate calibration estimator for the population mean in the stratified sampling design, which incorporates information available for more than one auxiliary variable. The problem of determining the optimum calibrated weights is formulated as a Mathematical Programming Problem (MPP) that is solved using the Lagrange multiplier technique.

Keywords: Calibration estimation, Stratified sampling, Multivariate auxiliary information, Mathematical programming problem, Lagrange multiplier technique.

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8501 A New Method for Estimation of the Source Coherency Structure of Wideband Sources

Authors: Yong-jun Zhao, Heng-li Zhang, Zong-yun Hu

Abstract:

Based on the sources- smoothed rank profile (SRP) and modified minimum description length (MMDL) principle, a method for estimation of the source coherency structure (SCS) and the number of wideband sources is proposed in this paper. Instead of focusing, we first use a spatial smoothing technique to pre-process the array covariance matrix of each frequency for de-correlating the sources and then use smoothed rank profile to determine the SCS and the number of wideband sources. We demonstrate the availability of the method by numerical simulations.

Keywords: Wideband sources, source coherency structure (SCS), smoothed rank profile (SRP).

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8500 Solitary Wave Solutions for Burgers-Fisher type Equations with Variable Coefficients

Authors: Amit Goyal, Alka, Rama Gupta, C. Nagaraja Kumar

Abstract:

We have solved the Burgers-Fisher (BF) type equations, with time-dependent coefficients of convection and reaction terms, by using the auxiliary equation method. A class of solitary wave solutions are obtained, and some of which are derived for the first time. We have studied the effect of variable coefficients on physical parameters (amplitude and velocity) of solitary wave solutions. In some cases, the BF equations could be solved for arbitrary timedependent coefficient of convection term.

Keywords: Solitary wave solution, Variable coefficient Burgers- Fisher equation, Auxiliary equation method.

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8499 An Experimental Study on Clothes Drying Using Waste Heat from Split Type Air Conditioner

Authors: P. Suntivarakorn, S. Satmarong, C. Benjapiyaporn, S. Theerakulpisut

Abstract:

This paper was to study the clothes dryer using waste heat from a split type air conditioner with a capacity of 12,648 btu/h. The drying chamber had a minimum cross section area with the size of 0.5 x 1.0 m2. The chamber was constructed by sailcloth and was inside folded with aluminium foil. Then, it was connected to the condensing unit of an air conditioner. The experiment was carried out in two aspects which were the clothes drying with and without auxiliary fan unit. The results showed that the drying rate of clothes in the chamber installed with and without auxiliary fan unit were 2.26 and 1.1 kg/h, respectively. In case of the chamber installed with a auxiliary fan unit, the additional power of 0.011 kWh was consumed and the drying rate was higher than that of clothes drying without auxiliary fan unit. Without auxiliary fan unit installation, no energy was required but there was a portion of hot air leaks away through the punctured holes at the wall of the drying chamber, hence the drying rate was dropped below. The drying rate of clothes drying using waste heat was higher than natural indoor drying and commercial dryer which their drying rate were 0.17 and 1.9 kg/h, respectively. It was noted that the COP of the air conditioner did not change during the operating of clothes drying.

Keywords: Drying Rate, Clothes Dryer, COP, Air Conditioner.

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8498 On Optimum Stratification

Authors: M. G. M. Khan, V. D. Prasad, D. K. Rao

Abstract:

In this manuscript, we discuss the problem of determining the optimum stratification of a study (or main) variable based on the auxiliary variable that follows a uniform distribution. If the stratification of survey variable is made using the auxiliary variable it may lead to substantial gains in precision of the estimates. This problem is formulated as a Nonlinear Programming Problem (NLPP), which turn out to multistage decision problem and is solved using dynamic programming technique.

Keywords: Auxiliary variable, Dynamic programming technique, Nonlinear programming problem, Optimum stratification, Uniform distribution.

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8497 New Product-Type Estimators for the Population Mean Using Quartiles of the Auxiliary Variable

Authors: Amer Ibrahim Falah Al-Omari

Abstract:

In this paper, we suggest new product-type estimators for the population mean of the variable of interest exploiting the first or the third quartile of the auxiliary variable. We obtain mean square error equations and the bias for the estimators. We study the properties of these estimators using simple random sampling (SRS) and ranked set sampling (RSS) methods. It is found that, SRS and RSS produce approximately unbiased estimators of the population mean. However, the RSS estimators are more efficient than those obtained using SRS based on the same number of measured units for all values of the correlation coefficient.

Keywords: Product estimator, auxiliary variable, simple random sampling, extreme ranked set sampling

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8496 Blind Source Separation based on the Estimation for the Number of the Blind Sources under a Dynamic Acoustic Environment

Authors: Takaaki Ishibashi

Abstract:

Independent component analysis can estimate unknown source signals from their mixtures under the assumption that the source signals are statistically independent. However, in a real environment, the separation performance is often deteriorated because the number of the source signals is different from that of the sensors. In this paper, we propose an estimation method for the number of the sources based on the joint distribution of the observed signals under two-sensor configuration. From several simulation results, it is found that the number of the sources is coincident to that of peaks in the histogram of the distribution. The proposed method can estimate the number of the sources even if it is larger than that of the observed signals. The proposed methods have been verified by several experiments.

Keywords: blind source separation, independent component analysys, estimation for the number of the blind sources, voice activity detection, target extraction.

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8495 Simplex Method for Fuzzy Variable Linear Programming Problems

Authors: S.H. Nasseri, E. Ardil

Abstract:

Fuzzy linear programming is an application of fuzzy set theory in linear decision making problems and most of these problems are related to linear programming with fuzzy variables. A convenient method for solving these problems is based on using of auxiliary problem. In this paper a new method for solving fuzzy variable linear programming problems directly using linear ranking functions is proposed. This method uses simplex tableau which is used for solving linear programming problems in crisp environment before.

Keywords: Fuzzy variable linear programming, fuzzy number, ranking function, simplex method.

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8494 A Novel In-Place Sorting Algorithm with O(n log z) Comparisons and O(n log z) Moves

Authors: Hanan Ahmed-Hosni Mahmoud, Nadia Al-Ghreimil

Abstract:

In-place sorting algorithms play an important role in many fields such as very large database systems, data warehouses, data mining, etc. Such algorithms maximize the size of data that can be processed in main memory without input/output operations. In this paper, a novel in-place sorting algorithm is presented. The algorithm comprises two phases; rearranging the input unsorted array in place, resulting segments that are ordered relative to each other but whose elements are yet to be sorted. The first phase requires linear time, while, in the second phase, elements of each segment are sorted inplace in the order of z log (z), where z is the size of the segment, and O(1) auxiliary storage. The algorithm performs, in the worst case, for an array of size n, an O(n log z) element comparisons and O(n log z) element moves. Further, no auxiliary arithmetic operations with indices are required. Besides these theoretical achievements of this algorithm, it is of practical interest, because of its simplicity. Experimental results also show that it outperforms other in-place sorting algorithms. Finally, the analysis of time and space complexity, and required number of moves are presented, along with the auxiliary storage requirements of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Auxiliary storage sorting, in-place sorting, sorting.

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8493 Self-protection Method for Flying Robots to Avoid Collision

Authors: Guosheng Wu, Luning Wang, Changyuan Fan, Xi Zhu

Abstract:

This paper provides a new approach to solve the motion planning problems of flying robots in uncertain 3D dynamic environments. The robots controlled by this method can adaptively choose the fast way to avoid collision without information about the shapes and trajectories of obstacles. Based on sphere coordinates the new method accomplishes collision avoidance of flying robots without any other auxiliary positioning systems. The Self-protection System gives robots self-protection abilities to work in uncertain 3D dynamic environments. Simulations illustrate the validity of the proposed method.

Keywords: Collision avoidance, Mobile robots, Motion-planning, Sphere coordinates, Self-protection.

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8492 Identification of Wideband Sources Using Higher Order Statistics in Noisy Environment

Authors: S. Bourennane, A. Bendjama

Abstract:

This paper deals with the localization of the wideband sources. We develop a new approach for estimating the wide band sources parameters. This method is based on the high order statistics of the recorded data in order to eliminate the Gaussian components from the signals received on the various hydrophones.In fact the noise of sea bottom is regarded as being Gaussian. Thanks to the coherent signal subspace algorithm based on the cumulant matrix of the received data instead of the cross-spectral matrix the wideband correlated sources are perfectly located in the very noisy environment. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm on the real data recorded during an underwater acoustics experiments.

Keywords: Higher-order statistics, high resolution array processing techniques, localization of acoustics sources, wide band sources.

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8491 Image Dehazing Using Dark Channel Prior and Fast Guided Filter in Daubechies Lifting Wavelet Transform Domain

Authors: Harpreet Kaur, Sudipta Majumdar

Abstract:

In this paper a method for image dehazing is proposed in lifting wavelet transform domain. Lifting Daubechies (D4) wavelet has been used to obtain the approximate image and detail images.  As the haze is contained in low frequency part, only the approximate image is used for further processing. This region is processed by dehazing algorithm based on dark channel prior (DCP). The dehazed approximate image is then recombined with the detail images using inverse lifting wavelet transform. Implementation of lifting wavelet transform has the advantage of auxiliary memory saving, fast implementation and simplicity. Also, the proposed method deals with near white scene problem, blue horizon issue and localized light sources in a way to enhance image quality and makes the algorithm robust. Simulation results present improvement in terms of visual quality, parameters such as root mean square (RMS) contrast, structural similarity index (SSIM), entropy and execution time.

Keywords: Dark channel prior, image dehazing, lifting wavelet transform.

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8490 Generalized Maximum Entropy Method for Cosmic Source Localization

Authors: Youssef Khmou, Said Safi, Miloud Frikel

Abstract:

The Maximum entropy principle in spectral analysis was used as an estimator of Direction of Arrival (DoA) of electromagnetic or acoustic sources impinging on an array of sensors, indeed the maximum entropy operator is very efficient when the signals of the radiating sources are ergodic and complex zero mean random processes which is the case for cosmic sources. In this paper, we present basic review of the maximum entropy method (MEM) which consists of rank one operator but not a projector, and we elaborate a new operator which is full rank and sum of all possible projectors. Two dimensional Simulation results based on Monte Carlo trials prove the resolution power of the new operator where the MEM presents some erroneous fluctuations.

Keywords: Maximum entropy, Cosmic source, Localization, operator, projector, azimuth, elevation, DoA, circular array.

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8489 Study of EEGs from Somatosensory Cortex and Alzheimer's Disease Sources

Authors: Md R. Bashar, Yan Li, Peng Wen

Abstract:

This study is to investigate the electroencephalogram (EEG) differences generated from a normal and Alzheimer-s disease (AD) sources. We also investigate the effects of brain tissue distortions due to AD on EEG. We develop a realistic head model from T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using finite element method (FEM) for normal source (somatosensory cortex (SC) in parietal lobe) and AD sources (right amygdala (RA) and left amygdala (LA) in medial temporal lobe). Then, we compare the AD sourced EEGs to the SC sourced EEG for studying the nature of potential changes due to sources and 5% to 20% brain tissue distortions. We find an average of 0.15 magnification errors produced by AD sourced EEGs. Different brain tissue distortion models also generate the maximum 0.07 magnification. EEGs obtained from AD sources and different brain tissue distortion levels vary scalp potentials from normal source, and the electrodes residing in parietal and temporal lobes are more sensitive than other electrodes for AD sourced EEG.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease (AD), brain tissue distortion, electroencephalogram, finite element method.

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8488 Optimal Analysis of Grounding System Design for Distribution Substation

Authors: T. Lantharthong, N. Rugthaicharoencheep, A. Phayomhom

Abstract:

This paper presents the electrical effect of two neighboring distribution substation during the construction phase. The size of auxiliary grounding grid have an effect on entire grounding system. The bigger the size of auxiliary grounding grid, the lower the GPR and maximum touch voltage, with the exception that when the two grids are unconnected, i.e. the bigger the size of auxiliary grounding grid, the higher the maximum step voltage. The results in this paper could be served as design guideline of grounding system, and perhaps remedy of some troublesome grounding grids in power distribution’s system. Modeling and simulation is carried out on the Current Distribution Electromagnetic interference Grounding and Soil structure (CDEGS) program. The simulation results exhibit the design and analysis of power system grounding and perhaps could be set as a standard in grounding system design and modification in distribution substations.

Keywords: Grounding System, Touch Voltage, Step Voltage, Safety Criteria.

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8487 Research on Load Balancing Technology for Web Service Mobile Host

Authors: Yao Lu, Xiuguo Zhang, Zhiying Cao

Abstract:

In this paper, Load Balancing idea is used in the Web service mobile host. The main idea of Load Balancing is to establish a one-to-many mapping mechanism: An entrance-mapping request to plurality of processing node in order to realize the dividing and assignment processing. Because the mobile host is a resource constrained environment, there are some Web services which cannot be completed on the mobile host. When the mobile host resource is not enough to complete the request, Load Balancing scheduler will divide the request into a plurality of sub-requests and transfer them to different auxiliary mobile hosts. Auxiliary mobile host executes sub-requests, and then, the results will be returned to the mobile host. Service request integrator receives results of sub-requests from the auxiliary mobile host, and integrates the sub-requests. In the end, the complete request is returned to the client. Experimental results show that this technology adopted in this paper can complete requests and have a higher efficiency.

Keywords: Dinic, load balancing, mobile host, web service.

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8486 Analytical Solutions for Corotational Maxwell Model Fluid Arising in Wire Coating inside a Canonical Die

Authors: Muhammad Sohail Khan, Rehan Ali Shah

Abstract:

The present paper applies the optimal homotopy perturbation method (OHPM) and the optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM) introduced recently to obtain analytic approximations of the non-linear equations modeling the flow of polymer in case of wire coating of a corotational Maxwell fluid. Expression for the velocity field is obtained in non-dimensional form. Comparison of the results obtained by the two methods at different values of non-dimensional parameter l10, reveal that the OHPM is more effective and easy to use. The OHPM solution can be improved even working in the same order of approximation depends on the choices of the auxiliary functions.

Keywords: Wire coating die, Corotational Maxwell model, optimal homotopy asymptotic method, optimal homotopy perturbation method.

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8485 Time Series Forecasting Using Independent Component Analysis

Authors: Theodor D. Popescu

Abstract:

The paper presents a method for multivariate time series forecasting using Independent Component Analysis (ICA), as a preprocessing tool. The idea of this approach is to do the forecasting in the space of independent components (sources), and then to transform back the results to the original time series space. The forecasting can be done separately and with a different method for each component, depending on its time structure. The paper gives also a review of the main algorithms for independent component analysis in the case of instantaneous mixture models, using second and high-order statistics. The method has been applied in simulation to an artificial multivariate time series with five components, generated from three sources and a mixing matrix, randomly generated.

Keywords: Independent Component Analysis, second order statistics, simulation, time series forecasting

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8484 A Finite Element Solution of the Mathematical Model for Smoke Dispersion from Two Sources

Authors: Nopparat Pochai

Abstract:

Smoke discharging is a main reason of air pollution problem from industrial plants. The obstacle of a building has an affect with the air pollutant discharge. In this research, a mathematical model of the smoke dispersion from two sources and one source with a structural obstacle is considered. The governing equation of the model is an isothermal mass transfer model in a viscous fluid. The finite element method is used to approximate the solutions of the model. The triangular linear elements have been used for discretising the domain, and time integration has been carried out by semi-implicit finite difference method. The simulations of smoke dispersion in cases of one chimney and two chimneys are presented. The maximum calculated smoke concentration of both cases are compared. It is then used to make the decision for smoke discharging and air pollutant control problems on industrial area.

Keywords: Air pollution, Smoke dispersion, Finite element method, Stream function, Vorticity equation, Convection-diffusion equation, Semi-implicit method

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8483 Post Mining- Discovering Valid Rules from Different Sized Data Sources

Authors: R. Nedunchezhian, K. Anbumani

Abstract:

A big organization may have multiple branches spread across different locations. Processing of data from these branches becomes a huge task when innumerable transactions take place. Also, branches may be reluctant to forward their data for centralized processing but are ready to pass their association rules. Local mining may also generate a large amount of rules. Further, it is not practically possible for all local data sources to be of the same size. A model is proposed for discovering valid rules from different sized data sources where the valid rules are high weighted rules. These rules can be obtained from the high frequency rules generated from each of the data sources. A data source selection procedure is considered in order to efficiently synthesize rules. Support Equalization is another method proposed which focuses on eliminating low frequency rules at the local sites itself thus reducing the rules by a significant amount.

Keywords: Association rules, multiple data stores, synthesizing, valid rules.

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8482 Optimum Time Coordination of Overcurrent Relays using Two Phase Simplex Method

Authors: Prashant P. Bedekar, Sudhir R. Bhide, Vijay S. Kale

Abstract:

Overcurrent (OC) relays are the major protection devices in a distribution system. The operating time of the OC relays are to be coordinated properly to avoid the mal-operation of the backup relays. The OC relay time coordination in ring fed distribution networks is a highly constrained optimization problem which can be stated as a linear programming problem (LPP). The purpose is to find an optimum relay setting to minimize the time of operation of relays and at the same time, to keep the relays properly coordinated to avoid the mal-operation of relays. This paper presents two phase simplex method for optimum time coordination of OC relays. The method is based on the simplex algorithm which is used to find optimum solution of LPP. The method introduces artificial variables to get an initial basic feasible solution (IBFS). Artificial variables are removed using iterative process of first phase which minimizes the auxiliary objective function. The second phase minimizes the original objective function and gives the optimum time coordination of OC relays.

Keywords: Constrained optimization, LPP, Overcurrent relaycoordination, Two-phase simplex method.

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8481 Automatic Recognition of an Unknown and Time-Varying Number of Simultaneous Environmental Sound Sources

Authors: S. Ntalampiras, I. Potamitis, N. Fakotakis, S. Kouzoupis

Abstract:

The present work faces the problem of automatic enumeration and recognition of an unknown and time-varying number of environmental sound sources while using a single microphone. The assumption that is made is that the sound recorded is a realization of sound sources belonging to a group of audio classes which is known a-priori. We describe two variations of the same principle which is to calculate the distance between the current unknown audio frame and all possible combinations of the classes that are assumed to span the soundscene. We concentrate on categorizing environmental sound sources, such as birds, insects etc. in the task of monitoring the biodiversity of a specific habitat.

Keywords: automatic recognition of multiple sound sources, enumeration of sound sources, computational ecology.

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8480 Tagging by Combining Rules- Based Method and Memory-Based Learning

Authors: Tlili-Guiassa Yamina

Abstract:

Many natural language expressions are ambiguous, and need to draw on other sources of information to be interpreted. Interpretation of the e word تعاون to be considered as a noun or a verb depends on the presence of contextual cues. To interpret words we need to be able to discriminate between different usages. This paper proposes a hybrid of based- rules and a machine learning method for tagging Arabic words. The particularity of Arabic word that may be composed of stem, plus affixes and clitics, a small number of rules dominate the performance (affixes include inflexional markers for tense, gender and number/ clitics include some prepositions, conjunctions and others). Tagging is closely related to the notion of word class used in syntax. This method is based firstly on rules (that considered the post-position, ending of a word, and patterns), and then the anomaly are corrected by adopting a memory-based learning method (MBL). The memory_based learning is an efficient method to integrate various sources of information, and handling exceptional data in natural language processing tasks. Secondly checking the exceptional cases of rules and more information is made available to the learner for treating those exceptional cases. To evaluate the proposed method a number of experiments has been run, and in order, to improve the importance of the various information in learning.

Keywords: Arabic language, Based-rules, exceptions, Memorybased learning, Tagging.

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8479 Analysis of Aiming Performance for Games Using Mapping Method of Corneal Reflections Based on Two Different Light Sources

Authors: Yoshikazu Onuki, Itsuo Kumazawa

Abstract:

Fundamental motivation of this paper is how gaze estimation can be utilized effectively regarding an application to games. In games, precise estimation is not always important in aiming targets but an ability to move a cursor to an aiming target accurately is also significant. Incidentally, from a game producing point of view, a separate expression of a head movement and gaze movement sometimes becomes advantageous to expressing sense of presence. A case that panning a background image associated with a head movement and moving a cursor according to gaze movement can be a representative example. On the other hand, widely used technique of POG estimation is based on a relative position between a center of corneal reflection of infrared light sources and a center of pupil. However, a calculation of a center of pupil requires relatively complicated image processing, and therefore, a calculation delay is a concern, since to minimize a delay of inputting data is one of the most significant requirements in games. In this paper, a method to estimate a head movement by only using corneal reflections of two infrared light sources in different locations is proposed. Furthermore, a method to control a cursor using gaze movement as well as a head movement is proposed. By using game-like-applications, proposed methods are evaluated and, as a result, a similar performance to conventional methods is confirmed and an aiming control with lower computation power and stressless intuitive operation is obtained.

Keywords: Point-of-gaze, gaze estimation, head movement, corneal reflections, two infrared light sources, game.

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8478 The Guaranteed Detection of the Seismoacoustic Emission Source in the C-OTDR Systems

Authors: Andrey V. Timofeev

Abstract:

A method is proposed for stable detection of seismoacoustic sources in C-OTDR systems that guarantee given upper bounds for probabilities of type I and type II errors. Properties of the proposed method are rigorously proved. The results of practical applications of the proposed method in a real C-OTDRsystem are presented.

Keywords: Guaranteed detection, C-OTDR systems, change point, interval estimation.

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8477 A Conservative Multi-block Algorithm for Two-dimensional Numerical Model

Authors: Yaoxin Zhang, Yafei Jia, Sam S.Y. Wang

Abstract:

A multi-block algorithm and its implementation in two-dimensional finite element numerical model CCHE2D are presented. In addition to a conventional Lagrangian Interpolation Method (LIM), a novel interpolation method, called Consistent Interpolation Method (CIM), is proposed for more accurate information transfer across the interfaces. The consistent interpolation solves the governing equations over the auxiliary elements constructed around the interpolation nodes using the same numerical scheme used for the internal computational nodes. With the CIM, the momentum conservation can be maintained as well as the mass conservation. An imbalance correction scheme is used to enforce the conservation laws (mass and momentum) across the interfaces. Comparisons of the LIM and the CIM are made using several flow simulation examples. It is shown that the proposed CIM is physically more accurate and produces satisfactory results efficiently.

Keywords: Multi-block algorithm, conservation, interpolation, numerical model, flow simulation.

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8476 GIS-based Non-point Sources of Pollution Simulation in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

Authors: M. Eisakhani, A. Pauzi, O. Karim, A. Malakahmad, S.R. Mohamed Kutty, M. H. Isa

Abstract:

Cameron Highlands is a mountainous area subjected to torrential tropical showers. It extracts 5.8 million liters of water per day for drinking supply from its rivers at several intake points. The water quality of rivers in Cameron Highlands, however, has deteriorated significantly due to land clearing for agriculture, excessive usage of pesticides and fertilizers as well as construction activities in rapidly developing urban areas. On the other hand, these pollution sources known as non-point pollution sources are diverse and hard to identify and therefore they are difficult to estimate. Hence, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) was used to provide an extensive approach to evaluate landuse and other mapping characteristics to explain the spatial distribution of non-point sources of contamination in Cameron Highlands. The method to assess pollution sources has been developed by using Cameron Highlands Master Plan (2006-2010) for integrating GIS, databases, as well as pollution loads in the area of study. The results show highest annual runoff is created by forest, 3.56 × 108 m3/yr followed by urban development, 1.46 × 108 m3/yr. Furthermore, urban development causes highest BOD load (1.31 × 106 kgBOD/yr) while agricultural activities and forest contribute the highest annual loads for phosphorus (6.91 × 104 kgP/yr) and nitrogen (2.50 × 105 kgN/yr), respectively. Therefore, best management practices (BMPs) are suggested to be applied to reduce pollution level in the area.

Keywords: Cameron Highlands, Land use, Non-point Sources of Pollution

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