Search results for: Reflectance photoplethysmograph
42 Analysis of Reflectance Photoplethysmograph Sensors
Authors: Fu-Hsuan Huang, Po-Jung Yuan, Kang-Ping Lin, Hen-Hong Chang, Cheng-Lun Tsai
Abstract:Photoplethysmography is a simple measurement of the variation in blood volume in tissue. It detects the pulse signal of heart beat as well as the low frequency signal of vasoconstriction and vasodilation. The transmission type measurement is limited to only a few specific positions for example the index finger that have a short path length for light. The reflectance type measurement can be conveniently applied on most parts of the body surface. This study analyzed the factors that determine the quality of reflectance photoplethysmograph signal including the emitter-detector distance, wavelength, light intensity, and optical properties of skin tissue. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) with four different visible wavelengths were used as the light emitters. A phototransistor was used as the light detector. A micro translation stage adjusts the emitter-detector distance from 2 mm to 15 mm. The reflective photoplethysmograph signals were measured on different sites. The optimal emitter-detector distance was chosen to have a large dynamic range for low frequency drifting without signal saturation and a high perfusion index. Among these four wavelengths, a yellowish green (571nm) light with a proper emitter-detection distance of 2mm is the most suitable for obtaining a steady and reliable reflectance photoplethysmograph signal
Keywords: Reflectance photoplethysmograph, Perfusion index, Signal-to-noise ratioProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1988
41 Optimal Estimation of Surface Reflectance from Landsat TM Visible and Mid Infrared Data over Penang Island
Authors: H. S. Lim, M. Z. MatJafri, K. Abdullah, N. Mohd. Saleh
Abstract:Retrieval of the surface reflectance is important in the remotely sensed data analysis to obtain the atmospheric reflectance or atmospheric correction. The relationship between visible and mid infrared reflectance over land was investigated and developed in this study. The surface reflectances of the two visible bands were measured using a handheld spectroradiometer collected around Penang Island. In this study, we use the assumption that the 2.1 μm band is not affected by aerosol and it is transparent to most aerosol types (except dust). Therefore the satellite observed signal is the same as the surface signal in 2.1 μm band. The correlation between the surface reflectance measured by the spectroradiometer in the blue and red region and the 2.1 μm observed by the satellite has been established. We investigate five dates of Landsat TM scenes in this study. The finding obtained by this study indicates that the surface reflectance can be retrieved from the 2.1 μm band.
Keywords: Surface Reflectance, Landsat TM, Aerosol, Spectroradiometer.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1090
40 Assessment of Photodynamic Therapy for Staphylococcus Aureus Infected Wounds using Diffuse Reflectance Spectrometry
Authors: M.A. Calin, D. Voicu, M.R. Calin, D. Savastru, D. Manea
Abstract:In this paper we evaluated the efficacy of photodynamic treatment of infected wounds on pig animal model by diffuse reflectance spectrometry. The study was conducted on fifteen wounds contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that were incubated for 30 min with methylene blue solution (c = 3.3 x 10-3 M) and exposed to laser radiations (λ = 670 nm, P = 15 mW) for 15 min. The efficiency of photodynamic inactivation of bacteria was evaluated by microbiological exams and diffuse reflectance spectrometry. The results of the microbiological exams showed that the bacterial concentration has decreased from 6.93±0.138 logCFU/ml to 3.12±0.108 logCFU/ml. The spectral examination showed that the diffuse reflectance of wounds contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus has decreased from 5.06±0.036 % to 3.36±0.025 %. In conclusion, photodynamic therapy is an effective method for the treatment of infected wounds and there is a correlation between the CFU count and diffuse reflectance.
Keywords: photodynamic inactivation, bacteria, pigs, woundsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1146
39 Reﬂectance Imaging Spectroscopy Data (Hyperspectral) for Mineral Mapping in the Orientale Basin Region on the Moon Surface
Authors: V. Sivakumar, R. Neelakantan
Abstract:Mineral mapping on the Moon surface provides the clue to understand the origin, evolution, stratigraphy and geological history of the Moon. Recently, reflectance imaging spectroscopy plays a significant role in identifying minerals on the planetary surface in the Visible to NIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) onboard Chandrayaan-1 provides unprecedented spectral data of lunar surface to study about the Moon surface. Here we used the M3 sensor data (hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy) for analysing mineralogy of Orientale basin region on the Moon surface. Reflectance spectrums were sampled from different locations of the basin and continuum was removed using ENvironment for Visualizing Images (ENVI) software. Reflectance spectra of unknown mineral composition were compared with known Reflectance Experiment Laboratory (RELAB) spectra for discriminating mineralogy. Minerals like olivine, Low-Ca Pyroxene (LCP), High-Ca Pyroxene (HCP) and plagioclase were identified. In addition to these minerals, an unusual type of spectral signature was identified, which indicates the probable Fe-Mg-spinel lithology in the basin region.
Keywords: Chandrayaan-1, moon mineralogy mapper, orientale basin, moon, spectroscopy, hyperspectral.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2655
38 Optical Reflectance of Pure and Doped Tin Oxide: From Thin Films to Poly-Crystalline Silicon/Thin Film Device
Authors: Smaali Assia, Outemzabet Ratiba, Media El Mahdi, Kadi Mohamed
Abstract:Films of pure tin oxide SnO2 and in presence of antimony atoms (SnO2-Sb) deposited onto glass substrates have shown a sufficiently high energy gap to be transparent in the visible region, a high electrical mobility and a carrier concentration which displays a good electrical conductivity . In this work, the effects of polycrystalline silicon substrate on the optical properties of pure and Sb doped tin oxide is investigated. We used the APCVD (atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition) technique, which is a low-cost and simple technique, under nitrogen ambient, for growing this material. A series of SnO2 and SnO2-Sb have been deposited onto polycrystalline silicon substrates with different contents of antimony atoms at the same conditions of deposition (substrate temperature, flow oxygen, duration and nitrogen atmosphere of the reactor). The effect of the substrate in terms of morphology and nonlinear optical properties, mainly the reflectance, was studied. The reflectance intensity of the device, compared to the reflectance of tin oxide films deposited directly on glass substrate, is clearly reduced on the overall wavelength range. It is obvious that the roughness of the poly-c silicon plays an important role by improving the reflectance and hence the optical parameters. A clear shift in the minimum of the reflectance upon doping level is observed. This minimum corresponds to strong free carrier absorption, resulting in different plasma frequency. This effect is followed by an increase in the reflectance depending of the antimony doping. Applying the extended Drude theory to the combining optical and electrical obtained results these effects are discussed.
Keywords: Doping, oxide, reflectance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2766
37 Arterial Stiffness Detection Depending on Neural Network Classification of the Multi- Input Parameters
Authors: Firas Salih, Luban Hameed, Afaf Kamil, Armin Bolz
Abstract:Diagnostic and detection of the arterial stiffness is very important; which gives indication of the associated increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. To make a cheap and easy method for general screening technique to avoid the future cardiovascular complexes , due to the rising of the arterial stiffness ; a proposed algorithm depending on photoplethysmogram to be used. The photoplethysmograph signals would be processed in MATLAB. The signal will be filtered, baseline wandering removed, peaks and valleys detected and normalization of the signals should be achieved .The area under the catacrotic phase of the photoplethysmogram pulse curve is calculated using trapezoidal algorithm ; then will used in cooperation with other parameters such as age, height, blood pressure in neural network for arterial stiffness detection. The Neural network were implemented with sensitivity of 80%, accuracy 85% and specificity of 90% were got from the patients data. It is concluded that neural network can detect the arterial STIFFNESS depending on risk factor parameters.
Keywords: Arterial stiffness, area under the catacrotic phase of the photoplethysmograph pulse, neural networkProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1538
36 Identification and Classification of Plastic Resins using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy
Authors: Hamed Masoumi, Seyed Mohsen Safavi, Zahra Khani
Abstract:In this paper, an automated system is presented for identification and separation of plastic resins based on near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy. For identification and separation among resins, a "Two-Filter" identification method is proposed that is capable to distinguish among polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high density polyethylene (HDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS). Through surveying effects of parameters such as surface contamination, sample thickness, label and cap existence, it was obvious that the "Two-Filter" method has a high efficiency in identification of resins. It is shown that accurate identification and separation of five major resins can be obtained through calculating the relative reflectance at two wavelengths in the NIR region.
Keywords: Identification, Near Infrared, Plastic, Separation, SpectroscopyProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 9752
35 Design and Fabrication of a Low Cost Heart Monitor using Reflectance Photoplethysmogram
Authors: Nur Ilyani Ramli, Mansour Youseffi, Peter Widdop
This paper presents a low cost design of heart beat monitoring device using reflectance mode PhotoPlethysmography (PPG). PPG is known for its simple construction, ease of use and cost effectiveness and can provide information about the changes in cardiac activity as well as aid in earlier non-invasive diagnostics. The proposed device is divided into three phases. First is the detection of pulses through the fingertip. The signal is then passed to the signal processing unit for the purpose of amplification, filtering and digitizing. Finally the heart rate is calculated and displayed on the computer using parallel port interface. The paper is concluded with prototyping of the device followed by verification procedure of the heartbeat signal obtained in laboratory setting.
Keywords: Reflectance mode PPG, Heart beat detection, Circuitdesign, PCB designProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4403
34 Investigation into Black Oxide Coating of 410 Grade Surgical Stainless Steel Using Alkaline Bath Treatment
Authors: K. K. Saju, A. R. Reghuraj
Abstract:High reflectance of surgical instruments under bright light hinders the visual clarity during laparoscopic surgical procedures leading to loss of precision and device control and creates strain and undesired difficulties to surgeons. Majority of the surgical instruments are made of surgical grade steel. Instruments with a non reflective surface can enhance the visual clarity during precision surgeries. A conversion coating of black oxide has been successfully developed 410 grade surgical stainless steel .The characteristics of the developed coating suggests the application of this technique for developing 410 grade surgical instruments with minimal reflectance.
Keywords: Conversion coatings, 410 stainless steel, black oxide, reflectance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2165
33 Modeling of Silicon Solar Cell with Anti-Reflecting Coating
Authors: Ankita Gaur, Mouli Karmakar, Shyam
In this study, a silicon solar cell has been modeled and analyzed to enhance its performance by improving the optical properties using an anti-reflecting coating (ARC). The dynamic optical reflectance, transmittance along with the net transmissivity absorptivity product of each layer are assessed as per the diurnal variation of the angle of incidence using MATLAB 2019. The model is tested with various anti-reflective coatings and the performance has also been compared with uncoated cells. ARC improves the optical transmittance of the photon. Higher transmittance of ⁓96.57% with lowest reflectance of ⁓ 1.74% at 12.00 hours was obtained with MgF2 coated silicon cells. The electrical efficiency of the configured solar cell was evaluated for a composite climate of New Delhi, India, for all weather conditions. The annual electricity generation for anti-reflective coated and uncoated crystalline silicon PV Module was observed to be 103.14 KWh and 99.51 KWh, respectively.
Keywords: Anti-reflecting coating, electrical efficiency, reflectance, solar cell, transmittance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 307
32 Effects of Dopant Concentrations on Radiative Properties of Nanoscale Multilayer with Coherent Formulation for Visible Wavelengths
Authors: S. A. A. Oloomi , M. Omidpanah
Semiconductor materials with coatings have a wide range of applications in MEMS and NEMS. This work uses transfermatrix method for calculating the radiative properties. Dopped silicon is used and the coherent formulation is applied. The Drude model for the optical constants of doped silicon is employed. Results showed that for the visible wavelengths, more emittance occurs in greater concentrations and the reflectance decreases as the concentration increases. In these wavelengths, transmittance is negligible. Donars and acceptors act similar in visible wavelengths. The effect of wave interference can be understood by plotting the spectral properties such as reflectance or transmittance of a thin dielectric film versus the film thickness and analyzing the oscillations of properties due to constructive and destructive interferences. But this effect has not been shown at visible wavelengths. At room temperature, the scattering process is dominated by lattice scattering for lightly doped silicon, and the impurity scattering becomes important for heavily doped silicon when the dopant concentration exceeds1018cm-3 .
Keywords: Dopant Concentrations, Radiative Properties, Nanoscale Multilayer, Coherent Formulation, Visible WavelengthsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1313
31 Design of Coherent Thermal Emission Source by Excitation of Magnetic Polaritons between Metallic Gratings and an Opaque Metallic Film
Authors: Samah G. Babiker, Yong Shuai, Mohamed Osman Sid-Ahmed, Ming Xie, Mu Lei
The present paper studies a structure consisting of a periodic metallic grating, coated on a dielectric spacer atop an opaque metal substrate, using coherent thermal emission source in the infrared region. It has been theoretically demonstrated that by exciting surface magnetic polaritons between metallic gratings and an opaque metallic film, separated by a dielectric spacer, large emissivity peaks are almost independent of the emission angle and they can be achieved at the resonance frequencies. The reflectance spectrum of the proposed structure shows two resonances dip, which leads to a sharp emissivity peak. The relations of the reflection and absorption properties and the influence of geometric parameters on the radiative properties are investigated by rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA). The proposed structure can be easily constructed, using micro/nanofabrication and can be used as the coherent thermal emission source.
Keywords: Coherent thermal emission, Polartons, Reflectance, Resonance frequency, Rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2054
30 Feasibility Investigation of Near Infrared Spectrometry for Particle Size Estimation of Nano Structures
Authors: A. Bagheri Garmarudi, M. Khanmohammadi, N. Khoddami, K. Shabani
Abstract:Determination of nano particle size is substantial since the nano particle size exerts a significant effect on various properties of nano materials. Accordingly, proposing non-destructive, accurate and rapid techniques for this aim is of high interest. There are some conventional techniques to investigate the morphology and grain size of nano particles such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Vibrational spectroscopy is utilized to characterize different compounds and applied for evaluation of the average particle size based on relationship between particle size and near infrared spectra [1,4] , but it has never been applied in quantitative morphological analysis of nano materials. So far, the potential application of nearinfrared (NIR) spectroscopy with its ability in rapid analysis of powdered materials with minimal sample preparation, has been suggested for particle size determination of powdered pharmaceuticals. The relationship between particle size and diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra in near infrared region has been applied to introduce a method for estimation of particle size. Back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) as a nonlinear model was applied to estimate average particle size based on near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra. Thirty five different nano TiO2 samples with different particle size were analyzed by DR-FTNIR spectrometry and the obtained data were processed by BP- ANN.
Keywords: near infrared, particle size, chemometrics, neuralnetwork, nano structure.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1712
29 Highly-Efficient Photoreaction Using Microfluidic Device
Authors: Shigenori Togashi, Yukako Asano
We developed an effective microfluidic device for photoreactions with low reflectance and good heat conductance. The performance of this microfluidic device was tested by carrying out a photoreactive synthesis of benzopinacol and acetone from benzophenone and 2-propanol. The yield reached 36% with an irradiation time of 469.2 s and was improved by more than 30% when compared to the values obtained by the batch method. Therefore, the microfluidic device was found to be effective for improving the yields of photoreactions.
Keywords: Microfluidic device, Photoreaction, Benzophenone, Black Aluminum Oxide, Detection, Yield Improvement.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1715
28 In-Flight Radiometric Performances Analysis of an Airborne Optical Payload
Authors: Caixia Gao, Chuanrong Li, Lingli Tang, Lingling Ma, Yaokai Liu, Xinhong Wang, Yongsheng Zhou
Performances analysis of remote sensing sensor is required to pursue a range of scientific research and application objectives. Laboratory analysis of any remote sensing instrument is essential, but not sufficient to establish a valid inflight one. In this study, with the aid of the in situ measurements and corresponding image of three-gray scale permanent artificial target, the in-flight radiometric performances analyses (in-flight radiometric calibration, dynamic range and response linearity, signal-noise-ratio (SNR), radiometric resolution) of self-developed short-wave infrared (SWIR) camera are performed. To acquire the inflight calibration coefficients of the SWIR camera, the at-sensor radiances (Li) for the artificial targets are firstly simulated with in situ measurements (atmosphere parameter and spectral reflectance of the target) and viewing geometries using MODTRAN model. With these radiances and the corresponding digital numbers (DN) in the image, a straight line with a formulation of L = G × DN + B is fitted by a minimization regression method, and the fitted coefficients, G and B, are inflight calibration coefficients. And then the high point (LH) and the low point (LL) of dynamic range can be described as LH= (G × DNH + B) and LL= B, respectively, where DNH is equal to 2n − 1 (n is the quantization number of the payload). Meanwhile, the sensor’s response linearity (δ) is described as the correlation coefficient of the regressed line. The results show that the calibration coefficients (G and B) are 0.0083 W·sr−1m−2µm−1 and −3.5 W·sr−1m−2µm−1; the low point of dynamic range is −3.5 W·sr−1m−2µm−1 and the high point is 30.5 W·sr−1m−2µm−1; the response linearity is approximately 99%. Furthermore, a SNR normalization method is used to assess the sensor’s SNR, and the normalized SNR is about 59.6 when the mean value of radiance is equal to 11.0 W·sr−1m−2µm−1; subsequently, the radiometric resolution is calculated about 0.1845 W•sr-1m-2μm-1. Moreover, in order to validate the result, a comparison of the measured radiance with a radiative-transfer-code-predicted over four portable artificial targets with reflectance of 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% respectively, is performed. It is noted that relative error for the calibration is within 6.6%.
Keywords: Calibration, dynamic range, radiometric resolution, SNR.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1230
27 Metal-Dielectric Antireflection Coating on Metallic Substrate for Solar Selective Absorbers of Concentrating Solar Power Systems
Authors: Chien-Cheng Kuo
We design and discuss metal-dielectric antireflection coating on metallic substrates for Solar Selective Absorbers of Concentrating Solar Power Systems. The average reflectance is 8.5% at 400-3000nm and 84.4% at 3000nm-10000nm of the metal-dielectric structure.
Keywords: Concentrating solar power systems, solar thermal, solar selective absorber, absorptance, emittance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1680
26 The Effects of Tissue Optical Parameters and Interface Reflectivity on Light Diffusion in Biological Tissues
Authors: MA. Ansari
Abstract:In cancer progress, the optical properties of tissues like absorption and scattering coefficient change, so by these changes, we can trace the progress of cancer, even it can be applied for pre-detection of cancer. In this paper, we investigate the effects of changes of optical properties on light penetrated into tissues. The diffusion equation is widely used to simulate light propagation into biological tissues. In this study, the boundary integral method (BIM) is used to solve the diffusion equation. We illustrate that the changes of optical properties can modified the reflectance or penetrating light.
Keywords: Diffusion equation, boundary element method, refractive indexProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1860
25 Study of a Fabry-Perot Resonator
Authors: F. Hadjaj, A. Belghachi, A. Halmaoui, M. Belhadj, H. Mazouz
A laser is essentially an optical oscillator consisting of a resonant cavity, an amplifying medium and a pumping source. In semiconductor diode lasers, the cavity is created by the boundary between the cleaved face of the semiconductor crystal and air, and has reflective properties as a result of the differing refractive indices of the two media. For a GaAs-air interface a reflectance of 0.3 is typical and therefore the length of the semiconductor junction forms the resonant cavity. To prevent light being emitted in unwanted directions from the junction, sides perpendicular to the required direction are roughened. The objective of this work is to simulate the optical resonator Fabry-Perot and explore its main characteristics, such as FSR, finesse, linewidth, transmission and so on, that describe the performance of resonator.
Keywords: Fabry-Perot Resonator, laser diode.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 8828
24 Broad-Band Chiral Reflectors based on Nano-Structured Biological Materials
Authors: D.J. Brink, N.G. van der Berg, L.C. Prinsloo, A. Botha
Abstract:In this work we study the reflection of circularly polarised light from a nano-structured biological material found in the exocuticle of scarabus beetles. This material is made of a stack of ultra-thin (~5 nm) uniaxial layers arranged in a left-handed helicoidal stack, which resonantly reflects circularly polarized light. A chirp in the layer thickness combined with a finite absorption coefficient produce a broad smooth reflectance spectrum. By comparing model calculations and electron microscopy with measured spectra we can explain our observations and quantify most relevant structural parameters.
Keywords: Chiral reflectors, circularly polarised light, helicoidal structures, nano photonics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 968
23 A Fiber Optic Interferometric Sensor for Dynamic Measurement
Authors: N. Sathitanon, S. Pullteap
Abstract:An optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI) is proposed and demonstrated for dynamic measurements in a mechanical vibrating target. A polishing metal with a low reflectance value adhered to a mechanical vibrator was excited via a function generator at various excitation frequencies. Output interference fringes were generated by modulating the reference and sensing signal at the output arm. A fringe-counting technique was used for interpreting the displacement information on the dedicated computer. The fiber interferometer has been found the capability of the displacement measurements of 1.28 μm – 96.01 μm. A commercial displacement sensor was employed as a reference sensor for investigating the measurement errors from the fiber sensor. A maximum percentage measurement error of approximately 1.59 % was obtained.
Keywords: Optical fiber sensors, dynamic displacement, fringe counting, reference displacement sensor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2094
22 Effects of Irradiation to Morphological, Physicochemical and Biocompatibility Properties of Carrageenan
Authors: Jhalique Jane R. Fojas, Rizalinda L. De Leon, Lucille V. Abad
Abstract:The characterization of κ-carrageenan could provide a better understanding of its functions in biological, medical and industrial applications. Chemical and physical analyses of carrageenan from seaweeds, Euchema cottonii L., were done to offer information on its properties and the effects of Co-60 γ-irradiation on its thermochemical characteristics. The structural and morphological characteristics of κ-carrageenan were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) while the composition, molecular weight and thermal properties were determined using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Further chemical analysis was done using hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and functional characteristics in terms of biocompatibility were evaluated using cytotoxicity test.
Keywords: Biocompatibility, carrageenan, DSC, FTIR, GPC, irradiation, NMR, physicochemical, SEM, TGA.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2406
21 Microwave Shielding of Magnetized Hydrogen Plasma in Carbon Nanotubes
Authors: Afshin Moradi, Mohammad Hosain Teimourpour
We derive simple sets of equations to describe the microwave response of a thin film of magnetized hydrogen plasma in the presence of carbon nanotubes, which were grown by ironcatalyzed high-pressure disproportionation (HiPco). By considering the interference effects due to multiple reflections between thin plasma film interfaces, we present the effects of the continuously changing external magnetic field and plasma parameters on the reflected power, absorbed power, and transmitted power in the system. The simulation results show that the interference effects play an important role in the reflectance, transmittance and absorptance of microwave radiation at the magnetized plasma slab. As a consequence, the interference effects lead to a sinusoidal variation of the reflected intensity and can greatly reduce the amount of reflection power, but the absorption power increases.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1276
20 Radiation Stability of Pigment ZnO Modified by Nanopowder
Authors: Chundong Li, V. V. Neshchimenko, M. M. Mikhailov
The effect of the modification of ZnO powders by ZrO2, Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, CeO2 and Y2O3 nanoparticles with a concentration of 1-30 wt % is investigated by diffuse reflectance spectra within the wavelength range 200 to 2500 nm before and after 100 keV proton and electron irradiation. It has been established that the introduction of nanoparticles ZrO2, Al2O3 enhances the optical stability of the pigments under proton irradiation, but reduces it under electron irradiation. Modifying with TiO2, SiO2, CeO2, Y2O3 nanopowders leads to decrease radiation stability in both types of irradiation. Samples modified by 5 wt. % of ZrO2 nanoparticles have the highest stability of optical properties after proton exposure. The degradation of optical properties under electron irradiation is not high for this concentration of nanoparticles. A decrease in the absorption of pigments modified with nanoparticles proton exposure is determined by a decrease in the intensity of bands located in the UV and visible regions. After electron exposure the absorption bands have in the whole spectrum range.
Keywords: Irradiation, nanopowders, radiation stability, zinc oxide.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2092
19 Sensing Characteristics to Acid Vapors of a TPPS Coated Fiber Optic: A Preliminary Analysis
Authors: A. Bahrampour, A. Iadicicco, G. De Luca, M. Giordano, A. Cutolo, L. Monsù Scolaro, A. Cusano
In this work we report on preliminary analysis of a novel optoelectronic gas sensor based on an optical fiber integrated with a tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TPPS) thin film. The sensitive materials are selectively deposited on the core region of a fiber tip by UV light induced deposition technique. A simple and cheap process which can be easily extended to different porphyrin derivatives. When the TPPS film on the fiber tip is exposed to acid and/or base vapors, dramatic changes occur in the aggregation structure of the dye molecules in the film, from J- to H-type, resulting in a profound modification of their corresponding reflectance spectra. From the achieved experimental results it is evident that the presence of intense and narrow band peaks in the reflected spectra could be monitored to detect hazardous vapors.
Keywords: Optical fiber sensor, Porphyrins, Thin films UV induced deposition, TPPS.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1428
18 Using Ultrasonic and Infrared Sensors for Distance Measurement
Authors: Tarek Mohammad
Abstract:The amplitude response of infrared (IR) sensors depends on the reflectance properties of the target. Therefore, in order to use IR sensor for measuring distances accurately, prior knowledge of the surface must be known. This paper describes the Phong Illumination Model for determining the properties of a surface and subsequently calculating the distance to the surface. The angular position of the IR sensor is computed as normal to the surface for simplifying the calculation. Ultrasonic (US) sensor can provide the initial information on distance to obtain the parameters for this method. In addition, the experimental results obtained by using LabView are discussed. More care should be taken when placing the objects from the sensors during acquiring data since the small change in angle could show very different distance than the actual one. Since stereo camera vision systems do not perform well under some environmental conditions such as plain wall, glass surfaces, or poor lighting conditions, the IR and US sensors can be used additionally to improve the overall vision systems of mobile robots.
Keywords: Distance Measurement, Infrared sensor, Surface properties, Ultrasonic sensor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 14806
17 A New Design of Permanent Magnets Reluctance Generator
Authors: Andi Pawawoi, Syafii
Instantaneous electromagnetic torque of simple reflectance generator can be positive at a time and negative at other time. It is utilized to design a permanent magnet reluctance generator specifically. Generator is designed by combining two simple reluctance generators, consists of two rotors mounted on the same shaft, two output-windings and a field source of the permanent magnet. By this design, the electromagnetic torque on both rotor will be eliminated each other, so the input torque generator can be smaller. Rotor is expected only to regulate the flux flow to both output windings alternately, until the magnetic energy is converted into electrical energy, such as occurs in the transformer energy conversion. The prototype trials have been made to test this design. The test result show that the new design of permanent magnets reluctance generator able to convert energy from permanent magnets into electrical energy, this is proven by the existence 167% power output compared to the shaft input power.
Keywords: Energy, Magnet permanent, Reluctance generator.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2734
16 Development of a Non-invasive System to Measure the Thickness of the Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Layer for Human
Authors: Hyuck Ki Hong, Young Chang Jo, Yeon Shik Choi, Beom Joon Kim, Hyo Derk Park
Abstract:To measure the thickness of the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, a non-invasive optical measurement system (λ=1300 nm) is introduced. Animal and human subjects are used for the experiments. The results of human subjects are compared with the data of ultrasound device measurements, and a high correlation (r=0.94 for n=11) is observed. There are two modes in the corresponding signals measured by the optical system, which can be explained by two-layered and three-layered tissue models. If the target tissue is thinner than the critical thickness, detected data using diffuse reflectance method follow the three-layered tissue model, so the data increase as the thickness increases. On the other hand, if the target tissue is thicker than the critical thickness, the data follow the two-layered tissue model, so they decrease as the thickness increases.
Keywords: Subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, non-invasive measurement system, two-layered and three-layered tissue models.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1724
15 The Effect of the Deposition Parameters on the Microstructural and Optical Properties of Mn-Doped GeTe Chalcogenide Materials
Authors: Adam Abdalla Elbashir Adam, Xiaomin Cheng, Xiang Shui Miao
In this work, the effect of the magnetron sputtering system parameters on the optical properties of the Mn doped GeTe were investigated. The optical properties of the Ge1-xMnxTe thin films with different thicknesses are determined by analyzing the transmittance and reflectance data. The energy band gaps of the amorphous Mn-doped GeTe thin films with different thicknesses were calculated. The obtained results demonstrated that the energy band gap values of the amorphous films are quite different and they are dependent on the films thicknesses. The extinction coefficients of amorphous Mn-doped GeTe thin films as function of wavelength for different thicknesses were measured. The results showed that the extinction coefficients of all films are varying inversely with their optical transmission. Moreover, the results emphasis that, not only the microstructure, electrical and magnetic properties of Mn doped GeTe thin films vary with the films thicknesses but also the optical properties differ with the film thickness.
Keywords: Phase change magnetic materials, transmittance, absorbance, extinction coefficients.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1043
14 Endothelial-Cell-Mediated Displacement of Extracellular Matrix during Angiogenesis
Authors: Yue Du, Sahan C. B. Herath, Qing-Guo Wang, Harry Asada, Peter C. Y. Chen
Mechanical interaction between endothelial cells (ECs) and the extracellular matrix (or collagen gel) is known to influence the sprouting response of endothelial cells during angiogenesis. This influence is believed to impact on the capability of endothelial cells to sense soluble chemical cues. Quantitative analysis of endothelial-cell-mediated displacement of the collagen gel provides a means to explore this mechanical interaction. Existing analysis in this context is generally limited to 2D settings. In this paper, we investigate the mechanical interaction between endothelial cells and the extracellular matrix in terms of the endothelial-cellmediated displacement of the collagen gel in both 2D and 3D. Digital image correlation and Digital volume correlation are applied on confocal reflectance image stacks to analyze cell-mediated displacement of the gel. The skeleton of the sprout is extracted from phase contrast images and superimposed on the displacement field to further investigate the link between the development of the sprout and the displacement of the gel.
Keywords: Angiogenesis, digital image correlation, digital volume correlation, interaction between ECs and ECM.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1592
13 Cavity-Type Periodically-Poled LiNbO3 Device for Highly-Efficient Third-Harmonic Generation
Authors: Isao Tomita
Abstract:We develop a periodically-poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) device for highly-efficient third-harmonic generation (THG), where the THG efficiency is enhanced with a cavity. THG can usually be produced via χ(3)-nonlinear materials by optical pumping with very high pump-power. Instead, we here propose THG by moderate-power pumping through a specially-designed PPLN device containing only χ(2)-nonlinearity, where sum-frequency generation in the χ(2) process is employed for the mixing of a pump beam and a second-harmonic-generation (SHG) beam produced from the pump beam. The cavity is designed to increase the SHG power with dichroic mirrors attached to both ends of the device that perfectly reflect the SHG beam back to the device and yet let the pump and THG beams pass through the mirrors. This brings about a THG-power enhancement because of THG power proportional to the enhanced SHG power. We examine the THG-efficiency dependence on the mirror reflectance and show that very high THG-efficiency is obtained at moderate pump-power when compared with that of a cavity-free PPLN device.
Keywords: Cavity, periodically-poled LiNbO3, sum-frequency generation, third-harmonic generation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 524