Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 677

Search results for: median filter

677 Multi-stage Directional Median Filter

Authors: Zong Chen, Li Zhang

Abstract:

Median filter is widely used to remove impulse noise without blurring sharp edges. However, when noise level increased, or with thin edges, median filter may work poorly. This paper proposes a new filter, which will detect edges along four possible directions, and then replace noise corrupted pixel with estimated noise-free edge median value. Simulations show that the proposed multi-stage directional median filter can provide excellent performance of suppressing impulse noise in all situations.

Keywords: Impulse noise, Median filter, Multi-stage, Edgepreserving

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676 Image Enhancement using α-Trimmed Mean ε-Filters

Authors: Mahdi Shaneh, Arash Golibagh Mahyari

Abstract:

Image enhancement is the most important challenging preprocessing for almost all applications of Image Processing. By now, various methods such as Median filter, α-trimmed mean filter, etc. have been suggested. It was proved that the α-trimmed mean filter is the modification of median and mean filters. On the other hand, ε-filters have shown excellent performance in suppressing noise. In spite of their simplicity, they achieve good results. However, conventional ε-filter is based on moving average. In this paper, we suggested a new ε-filter which utilizes α-trimmed mean. We argue that this new method gives better outcomes compared to previous ones and the experimental results confirmed this claim.

Keywords: Image enhancement, median filter, ε-filter – α-trimmed mean filter.

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675 Robust Statistics Based Algorithm to Remove Salt and Pepper Noise in Images

Authors: V.R.Vijaykumar, P.T.Vanathi, P.Kanagasabapathy, D.Ebenezer

Abstract:

In this paper, a robust statistics based filter to remove salt and pepper noise in digital images is presented. The function of the algorithm is to detect the corrupted pixels first since the impulse noise only affect certain pixels in the image and the remaining pixels are uncorrupted. The corrupted pixels are replaced by an estimated value using the proposed robust statistics based filter. The proposed method perform well in removing low to medium density impulse noise with detail preservation upto a noise density of 70% compared to standard median filter, weighted median filter, recursive weighted median filter, progressive switching median filter, signal dependent rank ordered mean filter, adaptive median filter and recently proposed decision based algorithm. The visual and quantitative results show the proposed algorithm outperforms in restoring the original image with superior preservation of edges and better suppression of impulse noise

Keywords: Image denoising, Nonlinear filter, Robust Statistics, and Salt and Pepper Noise.

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674 Fast Algorithm of Infrared Point Target Detection in Fluctuant Background

Authors: Yang Weiping, Zhang Zhilong, Li Jicheng, Chen Zengping, He Jun

Abstract:

The background estimation approach using a small window median filter is presented on the bases of analyzing IR point target, noise and clutter model. After simplifying the two-dimensional filter, a simple method of adopting one-dimensional median filter is illustrated to make estimations of background according to the characteristics of IR scanning system. The adaptive threshold is used to segment canceled image in the background. Experimental results show that the algorithm achieved good performance and satisfy the requirement of big size image-s real-time processing.

Keywords: Point target, background estimation, median filter, adaptive threshold, target detection.

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673 An Improved Switching Median filter for Uniformly Distributed Impulse Noise Removal

Authors: Rajoo Pandey

Abstract:

The performance of an image filtering system depends on its ability to detect the presence of noisy pixels in the image. Most of the impulse detection schemes assume the presence of salt and pepper noise in the images and do not work satisfactorily in case of uniformly distributed impulse noise. In this paper, a new algorithm is presented to improve the performance of switching median filter in detection of uniformly distributed impulse noise. The performance of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by the results obtained from computer simulations on various images.

Keywords: Switching median filter, Impulse noise, Imagefiltering, Impulse detection.

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672 New Nonlinear Filtering Strategies for Eliminating Short and Long Tailed Noise in Images with Edge Preservation Properties

Authors: E. Srinivasan, D. Ebenezer

Abstract:

Midpoint filter is quite effective in recovering the images confounded by the short-tailed (uniform) noise. It, however, performs poorly in the presence of additive long-tailed (impulse) noise and it does not preserve the edge structures of the image signals. Median smoother discards outliers (impulses) effectively, but it fails to provide adequate smoothing for images corrupted with nonimpulse noise. In this paper, two nonlinear techniques for image filtering, namely, New Filter I and New Filter II are proposed based on a nonlinear high-pass filter algorithm. New Filter I is constructed using a midpoint filter, a highpass filter and a combiner. It suppresses uniform noise quite well. New Filter II is configured using an alpha trimmed midpoint filter, a median smoother of window size 3x3, the high pass filter and the combiner. It is robust against impulse noise and attenuates uniform noise satisfactorily. Both the filters are shown to exhibit good response at the image boundaries (edges). The proposed filters are evaluated for their performance on a test image and the results obtained are included.

Keywords: Image filters, Midpoint filter, Nonlinear filters, Nonlinear highpass filter, Order-statistic filters, Rank-order filters.

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671 De-noising Infrared Image Using OWA Based Filter

Authors: Ruchika, Munish Vashisht, S. Qamar

Abstract:

Detection of small ship is crucial task in many automatic surveillance systems which are employed for security of maritime boundaries of a country. To address this problem, image de-noising is technique to identify the target ship in between many other ships in the sea. Image de-noising technique needs to extract the ship’s image from sea background for the analysis as the ship’s image may submerge in the background and flooding waves. In this paper, a noise filter is presented that is based on fuzzy linguistic ‘most’ quantifier. Ordered weighted averaging (OWA) function is used to remove salt-pepper noise of ship’s image. Results obtained are in line with the results available by other well-known median filters and OWA based approach shows better performance.

Keywords: Linguistic quantifier, impulse noise, OWA filter, median filter.

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670 Image Restoration in Non-Linear Filtering Domain using MDB approach

Authors: S. K. Satpathy, S. Panda, K. K. Nagwanshi, C. Ardil

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new technique based on nonlinear Minmax Detector Based (MDB) filter for image restoration. The aim of image enhancement is to reconstruct the true image from the corrupted image. The process of image acquisition frequently leads to degradation and the quality of the digitized image becomes inferior to the original image. Image degradation can be due to the addition of different types of noise in the original image. Image noise can be modeled of many types and impulse noise is one of them. Impulse noise generates pixels with gray value not consistent with their local neighborhood. It appears as a sprinkle of both light and dark or only light spots in the image. Filtering is a technique for enhancing the image. Linear filter is the filtering in which the value of an output pixel is a linear combination of neighborhood values, which can produce blur in the image. Thus a variety of smoothing techniques have been developed that are non linear. Median filter is the one of the most popular non-linear filter. When considering a small neighborhood it is highly efficient but for large window and in case of high noise it gives rise to more blurring to image. The Centre Weighted Mean (CWM) filter has got a better average performance over the median filter. However the original pixel corrupted and noise reduction is substantial under high noise condition. Hence this technique has also blurring affect on the image. To illustrate the superiority of the proposed approach, the proposed new scheme has been simulated along with the standard ones and various restored performance measures have been compared.

Keywords: Filtering, Minmax Detector Based (MDB), noise, centre weighted mean filter, PSNR, restoration.

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669 Effect Comparison of Speckle Noise Reduction Filters on 2D-Echocardigraphic Images

Authors: Faten A. Dawood, Rahmita W. Rahmat, Suhaini B. Kadiman, Lili N. Abdullah, Mohd D. Zamrin

Abstract:

Echocardiography imaging is one of the most common diagnostic tests that are widely used for assessing the abnormalities of the regional heart ventricle function. The main goal of the image enhancement task in 2D-echocardiography (2DE) is to solve two major anatomical structure problems; speckle noise and low quality. Therefore, speckle noise reduction is one of the important steps that used as a pre-processing to reduce the distortion effects in 2DE image segmentation. In this paper, we present the common filters that based on some form of low-pass spatial smoothing filters such as Mean, Gaussian, and Median. The Laplacian filter was used as a high-pass sharpening filter. A comparative analysis was presented to test the effectiveness of these filters after being applied to original 2DE images of 4-chamber and 2-chamber views. Three statistical quantity measures: root mean square error (RMSE), peak signal-to-ratio (PSNR) and signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) are used to evaluate the filter performance quantitatively on the output enhanced image.

Keywords: Gaussian operator, median filter, speckle texture, peak signal-to-ratio

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668 Low Power Approach for Decimation Filter Hardware Realization

Authors: Kar Foo Chong, Pradeep K. Gopalakrishnan, T. Hui Teo

Abstract:

There are multiple ways to implement a decimator filter. This paper addresses usage of CIC (cascaded-integrator-comb) filter and HB (half band) filter as the decimator filter to reduce the frequency sample rate by factor of 64 and detail of the implementation step to realize this design in hardware. Low power design approach for CIC filter and half band filter will be discussed. The filter design is implemented through MATLAB system modeling, ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) design flow and verified using a FPGA (field programmable gate array) board and MATLAB analysis.

Keywords: CIC filter, decimation filter, half-band filter, lowpower.

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667 A New Particle Filter Inspired by Biological Evolution: Genetic Filter

Authors: S. Park, J. Hwang, K. Rou, E. Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a new particle filter inspired by biological evolution. In the standard particle filter, a resampling scheme is used to decrease the degeneracy phenomenon and improve estimation performance. Unfortunately, however, it could cause the undesired the particle deprivation problem, as well. In order to overcome this problem of the particle filter, we propose a novel filtering method called the genetic filter. In the proposed filter, we embed the genetic algorithm into the particle filter and overcome the problems of the standard particle filter. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by computer simulation.

Keywords: Particle filter, genetic algorithm, evolutionary algorithm.

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666 A Technique for Improving the Performance of Median Smoothers at the Corners Characterized by Low Order Polynomials

Authors: E. Srinivasan, D. Ebenezer

Abstract:

Median filters with larger windows offer greater smoothing and are more robust than the median filters of smaller windows. However, the larger median smoothers (the median filters with the larger windows) fail to track low order polynomial trends in the signals. Due to this, constant regions are produced at the signal corners, leading to the loss of fine details. In this paper, an algorithm, which combines the ability of the 3-point median smoother in preserving the low order polynomial trends and the superior noise filtering characteristics of the larger median smoother, is introduced. The proposed algorithm (called the combiner algorithm in this paper) is evaluated for its performance on a test image corrupted with different types of noise and the results obtained are included.

Keywords: Image filtering, detail preservation, median filters, nonlinear filters, order statistics filtering, Rank order filtering.

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665 Impulse Noise Reduction in Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Fuzzy Filters

Authors: Benjamin Y. M. Kwan, Hon Keung Kwan

Abstract:

Noise contamination in a magnetic resonance (MR) image could occur during acquisition, storage, and transmission in which effective filtering is required to avoid repeating the MR procedure. In this paper, an iterative asymmetrical triangle fuzzy filter with moving average center (ATMAVi filter) is used to reduce different levels of salt and pepper noise in a brain MR image. Besides visual inspection on filtered images, the mean squared error (MSE) is used as an objective measurement. When compared with the median filter, simulation results indicate that the ATMAVi filter is effective especially for filtering a higher level noise (such as noise density = 0.45) using a smaller window size (such as 3x3) when operated iteratively or using a larger window size (such as 5x5) when operated non-iteratively.

Keywords: Brain images, Fuzzy filters, Magnetic resonance imaging, Salt and pepper noise reduction.

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664 Active Power Filter dimensioning Using a Hysteresis Current Controller

Authors: Tarek A. Kasmieh, Hassan S. Omran

Abstract:

This paper aims to give a full study of the dynamic behavior of a mono-phase active power filter. First, the principle of the parallel active power filter will be introduced. Then, a dimensioning procedure for all its components will be explained in detail, such as the input filter, the current and voltage controllers. This active power filter is simulated using OrCAD program showing the validity of the theoretical study.

Keywords: Active power filter, Power Quality, Hysteresiscurrent controller.

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663 Kalman Filter Gain Elimination in Linear Estimation

Authors: Nicholas D. Assimakis

Abstract:

In linear estimation, the traditional Kalman filter uses the Kalman filter gain in order to produce estimation and prediction of the n-dimensional state vector using the m-dimensional measurement vector. The computation of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In this paper, a variation of the Kalman filter eliminating the Kalman filter gain is proposed. In the time varying case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix and the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In the time invariant case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix in every iteration. The proposed Kalman filter gain elimination algorithm may be faster than the conventional Kalman filter, depending on the model dimensions.

Keywords: Discrete time, linear estimation, Kalman filter, Kalman filter gain.

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662 On Reversal and Transposition Medians

Authors: Martin Bader

Abstract:

During the last years, the genomes of more and more species have been sequenced, providing data for phylogenetic recon- struction based on genome rearrangement measures. A main task in all phylogenetic reconstruction algorithms is to solve the median of three problem. Although this problem is NP-hard even for the sim- plest distance measures, there are exact algorithms for the breakpoint median and the reversal median that are fast enough for practical use. In this paper, this approach is extended to the transposition median as well as to the weighted reversal and transposition median. Although there is no exact polynomial algorithm known even for the pairwise distances, we will show that it is in most cases possible to solve these problems exactly within reasonable time by using a branch and bound algorithm.

Keywords: Comparative genomics, genome rearrangements, me-dian, reversals, transpositions.

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661 Robust Integrated Navigation of a Low Cost System

Authors: Saman M. Siddiqui, Fang Jiancheng

Abstract:

Robust nonlinear integrated navigation of GPS and low cost MEMS is a hot topic of research these days. A robust filter is required to cope up with the problem of unpredictable discontinuities and colored noises associated with low cost sensors. H∞ filter is previously used in Extended Kalman filter and Unscented Kalman filter frame. Unscented Kalman filter has a problem of Cholesky matrix factorization at each step which is a very unstable operation. To avoid this problem in this research H∞ filter is designed in Square root Unscented filter framework and found 50% more robust towards increased level of colored noises.

Keywords: H∞ filter, MEMS, GPS, Nonlinear system, robust system, Square root unscented filter.

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660 A Computationally Efficient Design for Prototype Filters of an M-Channel Cosine Modulated Filter Bank

Authors: Neela. R. Rayavarapu, Neelam Rup Prakash

Abstract:

The paper discusses a computationally efficient method for the design of prototype filters required for the implementation of an M-band cosine modulated filter bank. The prototype filter is formulated as an optimum interpolated FIR filter. The optimum interpolation factor requiring minimum number of multipliers is used. The model filter as well as the image suppressor will be designed using the Kaiser window. The method will seek to optimize a single parameter namely cutoff frequency to minimize the distortion in the overlapping passband.

Keywords: Cosine modulated filter bank, interpolated FIR filter, optimum interpolation factor, prototype filter.

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659 A New Version of Unscented Kalman Filter

Authors: S. A. Banani, M. A. Masnadi-Shirazi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new algorithm which yields a nonlinear state estimator called iterated unscented Kalman filter. This state estimator makes use of both statistical and analytical linearization techniques in different parts of the filtering process. It outperforms the other three nonlinear state estimators: unscented Kalman filter (UKF), extended Kalman filter (EKF) and iterated extended Kalman filter (IEKF) when there is severe nonlinearity in system equation and less nonlinearity in measurement equation. The algorithm performance has been verified by illustrating some simulation results.

Keywords: Extended Kalman Filter, Iterated EKF, Nonlinearstate estimator, Unscented Kalman Filter.

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658 Application of Hardware Efficient CIC Compensation Filter in Narrow Band Filtering

Authors: Vishal Awasthi, Krishna Raj

Abstract:

In many communication and signal processing systems, it is highly desirable to implement an efficient narrow-band filter that decimate or interpolate the incoming signals. This paper presents hardware efficient compensated CIC filter over a narrow band frequency that increases the speed of down sampling by using multiplierless decimation filters with polyphase FIR filter structure. The proposed work analyzed the performance of compensated CIC filter on the bases of the improvement of frequency response with reduced hardware complexity in terms of no. of adders and multipliers and produces the filtered results without any alterations. CIC compensator filter demonstrated that by using compensation with CIC filter improve the frequency response in passed of interest 26.57% with the reduction in hardware complexity 12.25% multiplications per input sample (MPIS) and 23.4% additions per input sample (APIS) w.r.t. FIR filter respectively.

Keywords: Multirate filtering, Narrow-band Signaling, Compensation Theory, CIC filter, Decimation, Compensation filter.

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657 Extended Study on Removing Gaussian Noise in Mechanical Engineering Drawing Images using Median Filters

Authors: Low Khong Teck, Hasan S. M. Al-Khaffaf, Abdullah Zawawi Talib, Tan Kian Lam

Abstract:

In this paper, an extended study is performed on the effect of different factors on the quality of vector data based on a previous study. In the noise factor, one kind of noise that appears in document images namely Gaussian noise is studied while the previous study involved only salt-and-pepper noise. High and low levels of noise are studied. For the noise cleaning methods, algorithms that were not covered in the previous study are used namely Median filters and its variants. For the vectorization factor, one of the best available commercial raster to vector software namely VPstudio is used to convert raster images into vector format. The performance of line detection will be judged based on objective performance evaluation method. The output of the performance evaluation is then analyzed statistically to highlight the factors that affect vector quality.

Keywords: Performance Evaluation, Vectorization, Median Filter, Gaussian Noise.

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656 Operation Parameters of Vacuum Cleaned Filters

Authors: Wilhelm Hoeflinger, Thomas Laminger, Johannes Wolfslehner

Abstract:

For vacuum cleaned dust filters there exist no calculation methods to determine design parameters (e.g. traverse velocity of the nozzle, filter area…). In this work a method to calculate the optimum traverse velocity of the nozzle of an industrial-size flat dust filter at a given mean pressure drop and filter face velocity was elaborated. Well-known equations for the design of a cleanable multi-chamber bag-house-filter were modified in order to take into account a continuously regeneration of a dust filter by a nozzle. Thereby, the specific filter medium resistance and the specific cake resistance values are needed which can be derived from filter tests under constant operation conditions.

A lab-scale filter test rig was used to derive the specific filter media resistance value and the specific cake resistance value for vacuum cleaned filter operation. Three different filter media were tested and the determined parameters were compared to each other.

Keywords: Design of dust filter, Dust removing, Filter regeneration, Operation parameters.

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655 A Low-Voltage Tunable Channel Selection Filter for WiMAX Applications

Authors: Kayvan Ahmadi, Hossein Shamsi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a low-voltage and low-power fully integrated digitally tuned continuous-time channel selection filter for WiMAX applications. A 5th-order elliptic low-pass filter is realized in a Gm-C topology. The bandwidth of the fully differential filter is reconfigurable from 2.5MHz to 20MHz (8x) for different requirements in WiMAX applications. The filter is simulated in a standard 90nm CMOS process. Simulation results show the THD (@Vout =100mVpp) is less than -66dB. The in-band ripple of the filter is about 0.15dB. The filter consumes 1.5mW from a supply voltage of 0.9V.

Keywords: Common-mode feedback, continuous-time, fully differential transconductor, Gm-C topology, low-voltage

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654 A New Current-mode Multifunction Filter with High Impedance Outputs Using Minimum Number of Passive Elements

Authors: Mehmet Sagbas, Kemal Fidanboylu, Mehmet C. Bayram

Abstract:

A new current-mode multifunction filter using minimum number of passive elements is proposed. The proposed filter has single-input and four high-impedance outputs. It uses four passive elements (two capacitors and two resistors) and four dual output second generation current conveyors. Each output provides a different filter response, namely, low-pass, high-pass, band-pass and band-reject. The sensitivity analysis is also carried out on both ideal and non-ideal filter configurations. The validity of the proposed filter is verified through PSPICE simulations.

Keywords: Active filter, Universal filter, Currentconveyors.

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653 Application of Hermite-Rodriguez Functions to Pulse Shaping Analog Filter Design

Authors: Mohd Amaluddin Yusoff

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the design of pulse shaping filter using orthogonal Hermite-Rodriguez basis functions. The pulse shaping filter design problem has been formulated and solved as a quadratic programming problem with linear inequality constraints. Compared with the existing approaches reported in the literature, the use of Hermite-Rodriguez functions offers an effective alternative to solve the constrained filter synthesis problem. This is demonstrated through a numerical example which is concerned with the design of an equalization filter for a digital transmission channel.

Keywords: channel equalization filter, Hermite-Rodriguez, pulseshaping filter, quadratic programming.

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652 UD Covariance Factorization for Unscented Kalman Filter using Sequential Measurements Update

Authors: H. Ghanbarpour Asl, S. H. Pourtakdoust

Abstract:

Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is probably the most widely used estimation algorithm for nonlinear systems. However, not only it has difficulties arising from linearization but also many times it becomes numerically unstable because of computer round off errors that occur in the process of its implementation. To overcome linearization limitations, the unscented transformation (UT) was developed as a method to propagate mean and covariance information through nonlinear transformations. Kalman filter that uses UT for calculation of the first two statistical moments is called Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF). Square-root form of UKF (SRUKF) developed by Rudolph van der Merwe and Eric Wan to achieve numerical stability and guarantee positive semi-definiteness of the Kalman filter covariances. This paper develops another implementation of SR-UKF for sequential update measurement equation, and also derives a new UD covariance factorization filter for the implementation of UKF. This filter is equivalent to UKF but is computationally more efficient.

Keywords: Unscented Kalman filter, Square-root unscentedKalman filter, UD covariance factorization, Target tracking.

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651 Tunable Photonic Microwave Bandpass Filter Based on EOPM and VPBS

Authors: R. Heydari, M. R. Salehi

Abstract:

A tunable photonic microwave bandpass filter with negative coefficient based on an electro-optic phase modulator (EOPM) and a variable polarization beamsplitter (VPBS) is demonstrated. A two-tap microwave bandpass filter with one negative coefficient is presented. The chromatic dispersion and optical coherence are not affected on this filter.

Keywords: Bandpass filter, EOPM, photonic microwave filter, polarization beamsplitter.

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650 Medical Image Segmentation Based On Vigorous Smoothing and Edge Detection Ideology

Authors: Jagadish H. Pujar, Pallavi S. Gurjal, Shambhavi D. S, Kiran S. Kunnur

Abstract:

Medical image segmentation based on image smoothing followed by edge detection assumes a great degree of importance in the field of Image Processing. In this regard, this paper proposes a novel algorithm for medical image segmentation based on vigorous smoothening by identifying the type of noise and edge diction ideology which seems to be a boom in medical image diagnosis. The main objective of this algorithm is to consider a particular medical image as input and make the preprocessing to remove the noise content by employing suitable filter after identifying the type of noise and finally carrying out edge detection for image segmentation. The algorithm consists of three parts. First, identifying the type of noise present in the medical image as additive, multiplicative or impulsive by analysis of local histograms and denoising it by employing Median, Gaussian or Frost filter. Second, edge detection of the filtered medical image is carried out using Canny edge detection technique. And third part is about the segmentation of edge detected medical image by the method of Normalized Cut Eigen Vectors. The method is validated through experiments on real images. The proposed algorithm has been simulated on MATLAB platform. The results obtained by the simulation shows that the proposed algorithm is very effective which can deal with low quality or marginal vague images which has high spatial redundancy, low contrast and biggish noise, and has a potential of certain practical use of medical image diagnosis.

Keywords: Image Segmentation, Image smoothing, Edge Detection, Impulsive noise, Gaussian noise, Median filter, Canny edge, Eigen values, Eigen vector.

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649 A new Configurable Decimation Filter using Pascal-s Triangle Theorem

Authors: A. Chahardah Cherik, E. Farshidi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new configurable decimation filter for sigma-delta modulators. The filter employs the Pascal-s triangle-s theorem for building the coefficients of non-recursive decimation filters. The filter can be connected to the back-end of various modulators with different output accuracy. In this work two methods are shown and then compared from area occupation viewpoint. First method uses the memory and the second one employs Pascal-s triangle-s method, aiming to reduce required gates. XILINX ISE v10 is used for implementation and confirmation the filter.

Keywords: Decimation filter, sigma delta, Pascal's triangle'stheorem, memory

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648 Adaptive Notch Filter for Harmonic Current Mitigation

Authors: T. Messikh, S. Mekhilef, N. A. Rahim

Abstract:

This paper presents an effective technique for harmonic current mitigation using an adaptive notch filter (ANF) to estimate current harmonics. The proposed filter consists of multiple units of ANF connected in parallel structure; each unit is governed by two ordinary differential equations. The frequency estimation is carried out based on the output of these units. The simulation and experimental results show the ability of the proposed tracking scheme to accurately estimate harmonics. The proposed filter was implemented digitally in TMS320F2808 and used in the control of hybrid active power filter (HAPF). The theoretical expectations are verified and demonstrated experimentally.

Keywords: Adaptive notch filter, Active power filter, harmonic filtering, Time varying frequency.

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