Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 111

Search results for: Bur-Deul Yoon

111 Two Undetectable On-line Dictionary Attacks on Debiao et al.’s S-3PAKE Protocol

Authors: Sung-Bae Choi, Sang-Yoon Yoon, Eun-Jun Yoon

Abstract:

In 2011, Debiao et al. pointed out that S-3PAKE protocol proposed by Lu and Cao for password-authenticated key exchange in the three-party setting is vulnerable to an off-line dictionary attack. Then, they proposed some countermeasures to eliminate the security vulnerability of the S-3PAKE. Nevertheless, this paper points out their enhanced S-3PAKE protocol is still vulnerable to undetectable on-line dictionary attacks unlike their claim.

Keywords: Authentication, 3PAKE, password, three-party key exchange, network security, dictionary attacks.

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110 Bit-Error-Rate Performance Analysis of an Overlap-based CSS System

Authors: Taeung Yoon, Dahae Chong, Sangho Ahn, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

In a chirp spread spectrum (CSS) system, the overlap technique is used for increasing bit rate. More overlaps can offer higher data throughput; however, they may cause more intersymbol interference (ISI) at the same time, resulting in serious bit error rate (BER) performance degradation. In this paper, we perform the BER analysis and derive a closed form BER expression for the overlap-based CSS system. The derived BER expression includes the number of overlaps as a parameter, and thus, would be very useful in determining the number of overlaps for a specified BER. The numerical results demonstrate that the BER derived in a closed form closely agrees with the simulated BER.

Keywords: CSS, DM, chirp, overlap.

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109 A Study on the Non-Destructive Test Characterization of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Using Thermo-Graphic Camera

Authors: Hee Jae Shin, In Pyo Cha, Min Sang Lee, Hyun Kyung Yoon, Tae Ho Kim, Yoon Sun Lee, Lee Ku Kwac, Hong Gun Kim

Abstract:

Non-destructive testing and evaluation techniques for assessing the integrity of composite structures are essential to both reduce manufacturing costs and out of service time of transport means due to maintenance. In this study, Analyze into non-destructive test characterization of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) internal and external defects using thermo-graphic camera and transient thermography method. non-destructive testing were characterized by defect size (Ø8, Ø10, Ø12, Ø14) and depth (1.2mm, 2.4mm).

Keywords: Non Destructive test (NDT), Thermal characteristic, Thermo graphic Camera, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP).

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108 A Novel Estimation Method for Integer Frequency Offset in Wireless OFDM Systems

Authors: Taeung Yoon, Youngpo Lee, Chonghan Song, Na Young Ha, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

Ren et al. presented an efficient carrier frequency offset (CFO) estimation method for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), which has an estimation range as large as the bandwidth of the OFDM signal and achieves high accuracy without any constraint on the structure of the training sequence. However, its detection probability of the integer frequency offset (IFO) rapidly varies according to the fractional frequency offset (FFO) change. In this paper, we first analyze the Ren-s method and define two criteria suitable for detection of IFO. Then, we propose a novel method for the IFO estimation based on the maximum-likelihood (ML) principle and the detection criteria defined in this paper. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the Ren-s method in terms of the IFO detection probability irrespective of a value of the FFO.

Keywords: Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, integer frequency offset, estimation, training symbol

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107 Issues and Architecture for Supporting Data Warehouse Queries in Web Portals

Authors: Minsoo Lee, Yoon-kyung Lee, Hyejung Yoon, Soo-kyung Song, Sujeong Cheong

Abstract:

Data Warehousing tools have become very popular and currently many of them have moved to Web-based user interfaces to make it easier to access and use the tools. The next step is to enable these tools to be used within a portal framework. The portal framework consists of pages having several small windows that contain individual data warehouse query results. There are several issues that need to be considered when designing the architecture for a portal enabled data warehouse query tool. Some issues need special techniques that can overcome the limitations that are imposed by the nature of data warehouse queries. Issues such as single sign-on, query result caching and sharing, customization, scheduling and authorization need to be considered. This paper discusses such issues and suggests an architecture to support data warehouse queries within Web portal frameworks.

Keywords: Data Warehousing tools, data warehousing queries, web portal frameworks.

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106 Comparative Study of View Point Types on Landscape Evaluation

Authors: Yoon Jung Sik, Bur-Deul Yoon, Ki Hun Kim, Chang Hoon

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine the viewpoints in terms of changing distances and levels and thereby, comparatively analyze the visual sensitivity to the elements of the natural views. The questionnaire survey was conducted separately for experts and non-experts. Summing up, it was confirmed that the visual sensitivity to the elements of the same natural views differed significantly depending on subjects' professionalism, changes of the viewpoint levels and distances, while the visual sensitivity to 'openness of visual/view axes' did not differ significantly when only the distances of the viewpoints were varied. In addition, the visual sensitivity to visual/view axes differed between experts and ordinary people when the levels of the viewpoints were varied, while the visual sensitivity to 'damaged natural view resources' differed between two groups when the distances of the viewpoints were varied.

Keywords: Landscape Evaluation, Visual Sensitivity, Viewpoint.

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105 An Ant-based Clustering System for Knowledge Discovery in DNA Chip Analysis Data

Authors: Minsoo Lee, Yun-mi Kim, Yearn Jeong Kim, Yoon-kyung Lee, Hyejung Yoon

Abstract:

Biological data has several characteristics that strongly differentiate it from typical business data. It is much more complex, usually large in size, and continuously changes. Until recently business data has been the main target for discovering trends, patterns or future expectations. However, with the recent rise in biotechnology, the powerful technology that was used for analyzing business data is now being applied to biological data. With the advanced technology at hand, the main trend in biological research is rapidly changing from structural DNA analysis to understanding cellular functions of the DNA sequences. DNA chips are now being used to perform experiments and DNA analysis processes are being used by researchers. Clustering is one of the important processes used for grouping together similar entities. There are many clustering algorithms such as hierarchical clustering, self-organizing maps, K-means clustering and so on. In this paper, we propose a clustering algorithm that imitates the ecosystem taking into account the features of biological data. We implemented the system using an Ant-Colony clustering algorithm. The system decides the number of clusters automatically. The system processes the input biological data, runs the Ant-Colony algorithm, draws the Topic Map, assigns clusters to the genes and displays the output. We tested the algorithm with a test data of 100 to1000 genes and 24 samples and show promising results for applying this algorithm to clustering DNA chip data.

Keywords: Ant colony system, biological data, clustering, DNA chip.

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104 Continuous Fixed Bed Reactor Application for Decolourization of Textile Effluent by Adsorption on NaOH Treated Eggshell

Authors: M. Chafi, S. Akazdam, C. Asrir, L. Sebbahi, B. Gourich, N. Barka, M. Essahli

Abstract:

Fixed bed adsorption has become a frequently used industrial application in wastewater treatment processes. Various low cost adsorbents have been studied for their applicability in treatment of different types of effluents. In this work, the intention of the study was to explore the efficacy and feasibility for azo dye, Acid Orange 7 (AO7) adsorption onto fixed bed column of NaOH Treated eggshell (TES). The effect of various parameters like flow rate, initial dye concentration, and bed height were exploited in this study. The studies confirmed that the breakthrough curves were dependent on flow rate, initial dye concentration solution of AO7 and bed depth. The Thomas, Yoon–Nelson, and Adams and Bohart models were analysed to evaluate the column adsorption performance. The adsorption capacity, rate constant and correlation coefficient associated to each model for column adsorption was calculated and mentioned. The column experimental data were fitted well with Thomas model with coefficients of correlation R2 ≥0.93 at different conditions but the Yoon–Nelson, BDST and Bohart–Adams model (R2=0.911), predicted poor performance of fixed-bed column. The (TES) was shown to be suitable adsorbent for adsorption of AO7 using fixed-bed adsorption column.

Keywords: Adsorption models, acid orange 7, bed depth, breakthrough, dye adsorption, fixed-bed column, treated eggshell.

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103 Analyses for Primary Coolant Pump Coastdown Phenomena for Jordan Research and Training Reactor

Authors: Yazan M. Alatrash, Han-ok Kang, Hyun-gi Yoon, Shen Zhang, Juhyeon Yoon

Abstract:

Flow coastdown phenomena are very important to secure nuclear fuel integrity during loss of off-site power accidents. In this study, primary coolant flow coastdown phenomena are investigated for the Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) using a simulation software package, Modular Modeling System (MMS). Two MMS models are built. The first one is a simple model to investigate the characteristics of the primary coolant pump only. The second one is a model for a simulation of the Primary Coolant System (PCS) loop, in which all the detailed design data of the JRTR PCS system are modeled, including the geometrical arrangement data. The same design data for a PCS pump are used for both models. Coastdown curves obtained from the two models are compared to study the PCS loop coolant inertia effect on a flow coastdown. Results showed that the loop coolant inertia effect is found to be small in the JRTR PCS loop, i.e., about one second increases in a coastdown half time required to halve the coolant flow rate. The effects of different flywheel inertia on the flow coastdown are also investigated. It is demonstrated that the coastdown half time increases with the flywheel inertia linearly. The designed coastdown half time is proved to be well above the design requirement for the fuel integrity.

Keywords: Flow Coastdown, Loop Coolant Inertia, Modeling, Research Reactor.

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102 Specialized Web Robot for Objectionable Web Content Classification

Authors: SuGil Choi, SeungWan Han, Chi-Yoon Jeong, TaekYong Nam

Abstract:

This paper proposes a specialized Web robot to automatically collect objectionable Web contents for use in an objectionable Web content classification system, which creates the URL database of objectionable Web contents. It aims at shortening the update period of the DB, increasing the number of URLs in the DB, and enhancing the accuracy of the information in the DB.

Keywords: Web robot, objectionable Web content classification, URL database, URL rating

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101 Comparison of Adsorbents for Ammonia Removal from Mining Wastewater

Authors: Farooq A. Al-Sheikh, Carol Moralejo, Mark Pritzker, William A. Anderson, Ali Elkamel

Abstract:

Ammonia in mining wastewater is a significant problem, and treatment can be especially difficult in cold climates where biological treatment is not feasible. An adsorption process is one of the alternative processes that can be used to reduce ammonia concentrations to acceptable limits, and therefore a LEWATIT resin strongly acidic H+ form ion exchange resin and a Bowie Chabazite Na form AZLB-Na zeolite were tested to assess their effectiveness. For these adsorption tests, two packed bed columns (a mini-column constructed from a 32-cm long x 1-cm diameter piece of glass tubing, and a 60-cm long x 2.5-cm diameter Ace Glass chromatography column) were used containing varying quantities of the adsorbents. A mining wastewater with ammonia concentrations of 22.7 mg/L was fed through the columns at controlled flowrates. In the experimental work, maximum capacities of the LEWATIT ion exchange resin were 0.438, 0.448, and 1.472 mg/g for 3, 6, and 9 g respectively in a mini column and 1.739 mg/g for 141.5 g in a larger Ace column while the capacities for the AZLB-Na zeolite were 0.424, and 0.784 mg/g for 3, and 6 g respectively in the mini column and 1.1636 mg/g for 38.5 g in the Ace column. In the theoretical work, Thomas, Adams-Bohart, and Yoon-Nelson models were constructed to describe a breakthrough curve of the adsorption process and find the constants of the above-mentioned models. In the regeneration tests, 5% hydrochloric acid, HCl (v/v) and 10% sodium hydroxide, NaOH (w/v) were used to regenerate the LEWATIT resin and AZLB-Na zeolite with 44 and 63.8% recovery, respectively. In conclusion, continuous flow adsorption using a LEWATIT ion exchange resin and an AZLB-Na zeolite is efficient when using a co-flow technique for removal of the ammonia from wastewater. Thomas, Adams-Bohart, and Yoon-Nelson models satisfactorily fit the data with R2 closer to 1 in all cases.

Keywords: AZLB-Na zeolite, continuous adsorption, LEWATIT resin, models, regeneration.

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100 Production of As Isotopes in the Interaction of natGe with 14-30 MeV Protons

Authors: Yong H. Chung, Eun J. Han, Seil Lee, Sun Y. Park, Eun H. Yoon, Eun J. Cho, Jang H. Lee, Young J. Chu, Jang H. Ha, Jongseo Chai, Yu S. Kim, Min Y. Lee, Hyeyoung Lee

Abstract:

Cross sections of As radionuclides in the interaction of natGe with 14-30 MeV protons have been deduced by off-line y-ray spectroscopy to find optimal reaction channels leading to radiotracers for positron emission tomography. The experimental results were compared with the previous results and those estimated by the compound nucleus reaction model.

Keywords: Compound nucleus reaction model, off-line g-ray spectroscopy, radionuclide.

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99 A Transfer Function Representation of Thermo-Acoustic Dynamics for Combustors

Authors: Myunggon Yoon, Jung-Ho Moon

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a transfer function representation of a general one-dimensional combustor. The input of the transfer function is a heat rate perturbation of a burner and the output is a flow velocity perturbation at the burner. This paper considers a general combustor model composed of multiple cans with different cross sectional areas, along with a non-zero flow rate.

Keywords: Thermoacoustics, dynamics, combustor, transfer function.

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98 Algorithm for Bleeding Determination Based On Object Recognition and Local Color Features in Capsule Endoscopy

Authors: Yong-Gyu Lee, Jin Hee Park, Youngdae Seo, Gilwon Yoon

Abstract:

Automatic determination of blood in less bright or noisy capsule endoscopic images is difficult due to low S/N ratio. Especially it may not be accurate to analyze these images due to the influence of external disturbance. Therefore, we proposed detection methods that are not dependent only on color bands. In locating bleeding regions, the identification of object outlines in the frame and features of their local colors were taken into consideration. The results showed that the capability of detecting bleeding was much improved.

Keywords: Endoscopy, object recognition, bleeding, image processing, RGB.

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97 A Fast Code Acquisition Scheme for O-CDMA Systems

Authors: Youngpo Lee, Jaewoo Lee, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

This paper proposes a fast code acquisition scheme for optical code division multiple access (O-CDMA) systems. Unlike the conventional scheme, the proposed scheme employs multiple thresholds providing a shorter mean acquisition time (MAT) performance. The simulation results show that the MAT of the proposed scheme is shorter than that of the conventional scheme.

Keywords: Optical CDMA, acquisition, MAT, multiple-shift

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96 SystemC Modeling of Adaptive Least Mean Square Filter

Authors: Kyu Han Kim, Soon Kyu Kwon, Heung Sun Yoon, Jong Tae Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, we demonstrate the adaptive least-mean-square (LMS) filter modeling using SystemC. SystemC is a modeling language that allows designer to model both hardware and software component and makes it possible to design from high level system of abstraction to low level system of abstraction. We produced five adaptive least-mean-square filter models that are classed as five abstraction levels using SystemC proceeding from the abstract model to the more concrete model.

Keywords: Adaptive Filter, Least-Mean-Square Algorithm, SystemC, Transversal Fir Filter.

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95 Average Current Estimation Technique for Reliability Analysis of Multiple Semiconductor Interconnects

Authors: Ki-Young Kim, Jae-Ho Lim, Deok-Min Kim, Seok-Yoon Kim

Abstract:

Average current analysis checking the impact of current flow is very important to guarantee the reliability of semiconductor systems. As semiconductor process technologies improve, the coupling capacitance often become bigger than self capacitances. In this paper, we propose an analytic technique for analyzing average current on interconnects in multi-conductor structures. The proposed technique has shown to yield the acceptable errors compared to HSPICE results while providing computational efficiency.

Keywords: current moment, interconnect modeling, reliability analysis, worst-case switching

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94 Distance Estimation for Radar Systems Using DS-UWB Signals

Authors: Youngpo Lee, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a distance estimation scheme for radar systems using direct sequence ultra wideband (DS-UWB) signals. The proposed distance estimation scheme averages out the noise by accumulating the correlator outputs of the radar, and thus, helps the radar to employ a short-length DS-UWB signal reducing the correlation processing time. Numerical results confirm that the proposed distance estimation scheme provides a better estimation performance and a reduced correlation processing time compared with those of the conventional DS-UWB radars.

Keywords: Radar, DS-UWB, distance estimation, correlation accumulation.

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93 Bleeding Detection Algorithm for Capsule Endoscopy

Authors: Yong-Gyu Lee, Gilwon Yoon

Abstract:

Automatic detection of bleeding is of practical importance since capsule endoscopy produces an extremely large number of images. Algorithm development of bleeding detection in the digestive tract is difficult due to different contrasts among the images, food dregs, secretion and others. In this study, were assigned weighting factors derived from the independent features of the contrast and brightness between bleeding and normality. Spectral analysis based on weighting factors was fast and accurate. Results were a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 90% when the accuracy was determined for each pixel out of 42 endoscope images.

Keywords: bleeding, capsule endoscopy, image analysis, weighted spectrum

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92 A New IFO Estimation Scheme for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Systems

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

We address a new integer frequency offset (IFO) estimation scheme with an aid of a pilot for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing systems. After correlating each continual pilot with a predetermined scattered pilot, the correlation value is again correlated to alleviate the influence of the timing offset. From numerical results, it is demonstrated that the influence of the timing offset on the IFO estimation is significantly decreased.

Keywords: Estimation, integer frequency offset, OFDM, timing offset.

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91 The Performance Analysis of CSS-based Communication Systems in the Jamming Environment

Authors: Youngpo Lee, Sanghun Kim, Youngyoon Lee, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

Due to its capability to resist jamming signals, chirp spread spectrum (CSS) technique has attracted much attention in the area of wireless communications. However, there has been little rigorous analysis for the performance of the CSS communication system in jamming environments. In this paper, we present analytic results on the performance of a CSS system by deriving symbol error rate (SER) expressions for a CSS M-ary phase shift keying (MPSK) system in the presence of broadband and tone jamming signals, respectively. The numerical results show that the empirical SER closely agrees with the analytic result.

Keywords: CSS, DM, jamming, broadband jamming, tone jamming.

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90 A Cooperative Space-Time Transmission Scheme Based On Symbol Combinations

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

This paper proposes a cooperative Alamouti space time transmission scheme with low relay complexity for the cooperative communication systems. In the proposed scheme, the source node combines the data symbols to construct the Alamouti-coded form at the destination node, while the conventional scheme performs the corresponding operations at the relay nodes. In simulation results, it is shown that the proposed scheme achieves the second order cooperative diversity while maintaining the same bit error rate (BER) performance as that of the conventional scheme.

Keywords: Space-time transmission, cooperative communication system, MIMO.

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89 Development of a Portable Welding Robot with EtherCAT Interface

Authors: Juyi Park, Sang-Bum Lee, Jin-Wook Kim, Ji-Yoon Kim, Jung-Min Kim, Hee-Hwan Park, Jae-Won Seo, Gye-Hyung Kang, Soo-Ho Kim

Abstract:

This paper presents a portable robot that is to use for welding process in shipbuilding yard. It has six degree of freedom and 3kg payload capability. Its weight is 21.5kg so that human workers can carry it to the work place. Its body mainly made of magnesium alloy and aluminum alloy for few parts that require high strength. Since the distance between robot and controller should be 50m at most, the robot controller controls the robot through EtherCAT. RTX and KPA are used for real time EtherCAT control on Windows XP. The performance of the developed robot was satisfactory, in welding of U type cell in shipbuilding yard.

Keywords: Portable welding robot, Shipbuilding, EtherCAT

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88 Cryptanalysis of Chang-Chang-s EC-PAKA Protocol for Wireless Mobile Networks

Authors: Hae-Soon Ahn, Eun-Jun Yoon

Abstract:

With the rapid development of wireless mobile communication, applications for mobile devices must focus on network security. In 2008, Chang-Chang proposed security improvements on the Lu et al.-s elliptic curve authentication key agreement protocol for wireless mobile networks. However, this paper shows that Chang- Chang-s improved protocol is still vulnerable to off-line password guessing attacks unlike their claims.

Keywords: Authentication, key agreement, wireless mobile networks, elliptic curve, password guessing attacks.

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87 A Side-Peak Cancellation Scheme for CBOC Code Acquisition

Authors: Youngpo Lee, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a side-peak cancellation scheme for code acquisition of composite binary offset carrier (CBOC) signals. We first model the family of CBOC signals in a generic form, and then, propose a side-peak cancellation scheme by combining correlation functions between the divided sub-carrier and received signals. From numerical results, it is shown that the proposed scheme removes the side-peak completely, and moreover, the resulting correlation function demonstrates the better power ratio performance than the CBOC autocorrelation.

Keywords: CBOC, side-peak, ambiguity problem, synchronization

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86 Analysis on Fun Elements of the SNG in ANIPANG

Authors: Jangwon Lee, Joonsung Yoon

Abstract:

This study analyzes on the Social Network Game (SNG), ANIPANG, in order to discover its unique fun elements, so that suggest new methodologies for development of SNGs. ANIPANG is the most popular SNG in the South Korea on 2012. Recently, the game industry is paying close attention to mobile-based SNGs due to the rapid prevalence of smart-phones and social network services. However, SNGs are not online games simply. Although the fun of most online games is the victory through competition with other players or the game system, the fun of SNG is the communication through the collaboration with other players. Thus, features of users and environments of game should be considered for the game industry and for the fun of SNG to users.

Keywords: Social Network Game, Casual user, Fun, ANIPANG.

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85 Broadcasting Stabilization for Dynamical Multi-Agent Systems

Authors: Myung-Gon Yoon, Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

This paper deals with a stabilization problem for multi-agent systems, when all agents in a multi-agent system receive the same broadcasting control signal and the controller can measure not each agent output but the sum of all agent outputs. It is analytically shown that when the sum of all agent outputs is bounded with a certain broadcasting controller for a given reference, each agent output is separately bounded: stabilization of the sum of agent outputs always results in the stability of every agent output. A numerical example is presented to illustrate our theoretic findings in this paper.

Keywords: Broadcasting Control, Multi-agent System, Transfer Function

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84 Reliable Face Alignment Using Two-Stage AAM

Authors: Sunho Ki, Daehwan Kim, Seongwon Cho, Sun-Tae Chung, Jaemin Kim, Yun-Kwang Hong, Chang Joon Park, Dongmin Kwon, Minhee Kang, Yusung Kim, Younghan Yoon

Abstract:

AAM (active appearance model) has been successfully applied to face and facial feature localization. However, its performance is sensitive to initial parameter values. In this paper, we propose a two-stage AAM for robust face alignment, which first fits an inner face-AAM model to the inner facial feature points of the face and then localizes the whole face and facial features by optimizing the whole face-AAM model parameters. Experiments show that the proposed face alignment method using two-stage AAM is more reliable to the background and the head pose than the standard AAM-based face alignment method.

Keywords: AAM, Face Alignment, Feature Extraction, PCA

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83 A Rapid Code Acquisition Scheme in OOC-Based CDMA Systems

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

We propose a code acquisition scheme called improved multiple-shift (IMS) for optical code division multiple access systems, where the optical orthogonal code is used instead of the pseudo noise code. Although the IMS algorithm has a similar process to that of the conventional MS algorithm, it has a better code acquisition performance than the conventional MS algorithm. We analyze the code acquisition performance of the IMS algorithm and compare the code acquisition performances of the MS and the IMS algorithms in single-user and multi-user environments.

Keywords: Code acquisition, optical CDMA, optical orthogonal code, serial algorithm.

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82 Determination of the Concentrated State Using Multiple EEG Channels

Authors: Tae Jin Choi, Jong Ok Kim, Sang Min Jin, Gilwon Yoon

Abstract:

Analysis of EEG brainwave provides information on mental or emotional states. One of the particular states that can have various applications in human machine interface (HMI) is concentration. 8-channel EEG signals were measured and analyzed. The concentration index was compared during resting and concentrating periods. Among eight channels, locations the frontal lobe (Fp1 and Fp2) showed a clear increase of the concentration index during concentration regardless of subjects. The rest six channels produced conflicting observations depending on subjects. At this time, it is not clear whether individual difference or how to concentrate made these results for the rest six channels. Nevertheless, it is expected that Fp1 and Fp2 are promising locations for extracting control signal for HMI applications.

Keywords: Concentration, EEG, human machine interface.

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