**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**3463

# Search results for: least squares algorithm

##### 3463 An Iterative Method for the Least-squares Symmetric Solution of AXB+CYD=F and its Application

**Authors:**
Minghui Wang

**Abstract:**

Based on the classical algorithm LSQR for solving (unconstrained) LS problem, an iterative method is proposed for the least-squares like-minimum-norm symmetric solution of AXB+CYD=E. As the application of this algorithm, an iterative method for the least-squares like-minimum-norm biymmetric solution of AXB=E is also obtained. Numerical results are reported that show the efficiency of the proposed methods.

**Keywords:**
Matrix equation,
bisymmetric matrix,
least squares problem,
like-minimum norm,
iterative algorithm.

##### 3462 Recursive Least Squares Adaptive Filter a better ISI Compensator

**Authors:**
O. P. Sharma,
V. Janyani,
S. Sancheti

**Abstract:**

Inter-symbol interference if not taken care off may cause severe error at the receiver and the detection of signal becomes difficult. An adaptive equalizer employing Recursive Least Squares algorithm can be a good compensation for the ISI problem. In this paper performance of communication link in presence of Least Mean Square and Recursive Least Squares equalizer algorithm is analyzed. A Model of communication system having Quadrature amplitude modulation and Rician fading channel is implemented using MATLAB communication block set. Bit error rate and number of errors is evaluated for RLS and LMS equalizer algorithm, due to change in Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and fading component gain in Rician fading Channel.

**Keywords:**
Least mean square (LMS),
Recursive least squares(RLS),
Adaptive equalization,
Bit error rate (BER),
Rician fading channel,
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM),
Signal to noiseratio (SNR).

##### 3461 Short Time Identification of Feed Drive Systems using Nonlinear Least Squares Method

**Authors:**
M.G.A. Nassef,
Linghan Li,
C. Schenck,
B. Kuhfuss

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
feed drive systems,
least squares algorithm,
onlineparameter identification,
short time window

##### 3460 A Modified Genetic Based Technique for Solving the Power System State Estimation Problem

**Authors:**
A. A. Hossam-Eldin,
E. N. Abdallah,
M. S. El-Nozahy

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Genetic algorithms,
ill-conditioning,
state
estimation,
weighted least squares.

##### 3459 An Accurate Method for Phylogeny Tree Reconstruction Based on a Modified Wild Dog Algorithm

**Authors:**
Essam Al Daoud

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Least squares,
neighbor joining,
phylogenetic tree,
wild dogpack.

##### 3458 Short-Term Electric Load Forecasting Using Multiple Gaussian Process Models

**Authors:**
Tomohiro Hachino,
Hitoshi Takata,
Seiji Fukushima,
Yasutaka Igarashi

**Abstract:**

This paper presents a Gaussian process model-based short-term electric load forecasting. The Gaussian process model is a nonparametric model and the output of the model has Gaussian distribution with mean and variance. The multiple Gaussian process models as every hour ahead predictors are used to forecast future electric load demands up to 24 hours ahead in accordance with the direct forecasting approach. The separable least-squares approach that combines the linear least-squares method and genetic algorithm is applied to train these Gaussian process models. Simulation results are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed electric load forecasting.

**Keywords:**
Direct method,
electric load forecasting,
Gaussian process model,
genetic algorithm,
separable least-squares method.

##### 3457 An Iterative Method for the Symmetric Arrowhead Solution of Matrix Equation

**Authors:**
Minghui Wang,
Luping Xu,
Juntao Zhang

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Symmetric arrowhead matrix,
iterative method,
like-minimum norm,
minimum norm,
Algorithm LSQR.

##### 3456 Model Predictive Fuzzy Control of Air-ratio for Automotive Engines

**Authors:**
Hang-cheong Wong,
Pak-kin Wong,
Chi-man Vong,
Zhengchao Xie,
Shaojia Huang

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Air-ratio,
Fuzzy logic,
online least-squares support
vector machine,
model predictive control.

##### 3455 Electric Load Forecasting Using Genetic Based Algorithm, Optimal Filter Estimator and Least Error Squares Technique: Comparative Study

**Authors:**
Khaled M. EL-Naggar,
Khaled A. AL-Rumaih

**Abstract:**

This paper presents performance comparison of three estimation techniques used for peak load forecasting in power systems. The three optimum estimation techniques are, genetic algorithms (GA), least error squares (LS) and, least absolute value filtering (LAVF). The problem is formulated as an estimation problem. Different forecasting models are considered. Actual recorded data is used to perform the study. The performance of the above three optimal estimation techniques is examined. Advantages of each algorithms are reported and discussed.

**Keywords:**
Forecasting,
Least error squares,
Least absolute Value,
Genetic algorithms

##### 3454 An Incomplete Factorization Preconditioner for LMS Adaptive Filter

**Authors:**
Shazia Javed,
Noor Atinah Ahmad

**Abstract:**

In this paper an efficient incomplete factorization preconditioner is proposed for the Least Mean Squares (LMS) adaptive filter. The proposed preconditioner is approximated from a priori knowledge of the factors of input correlation matrix with an incomplete strategy, motivated by the sparsity patter of the upper triangular factor in the QRD-RLS algorithm. The convergence properties of IPLMS algorithm are comparable with those of transform domain LMS(TDLMS) algorithm. Simulation results show efficiency and robustness of the proposed algorithm with reduced computational complexity.

**Keywords:**
Autocorrelation matrix,
Cholesky's factor,
eigenvalue
spread,
Markov input.

##### 3453 A Comparison of the Sum of Squares in Linear and Partial Linear Regression Models

**Authors:**
Dursun Aydın

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Partial Linear Regression Model,
Linear RegressionModel,
Residuals,
Deviance,
Smoothing Spline.

##### 3452 Least Squares Method Identification of Corona Current-Voltage Characteristics and Electromagnetic Field in Electrostatic Precipitator

**Authors:**
H. Nouri,
I. E. Achouri,
A. Grimes,
H. Ait Said,
M. Aissou,
Y. Zebboudj

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Electrostatic precipitator,
current-voltage
characteristics,
Least Squares method,
electric field,
magnetic field.

##### 3451 An Adaptive Least-squares Mixed Finite Element Method for Pseudo-parabolic Integro-differential Equations

**Authors:**
Zilong Feng,
Hong Li,
Yang Liu,
Siriguleng He

**Abstract:**

In this article, an adaptive least-squares mixed finite element method is studied for pseudo-parabolic integro-differential equations. The solutions of least-squares mixed weak formulation and mixed finite element are proved. A posteriori error estimator is constructed based on the least-squares functional and the posteriori errors are obtained.

**Keywords:**
Pseudo-parabolic integro-differential equation,
least squares mixed finite element method,
adaptive method,
a posteriori error estimates.

##### 3450 Hybrid Algorithm for Hammerstein System Identification Using Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization

**Authors:**
Tomohiro Hachino,
Kenji Shimoda,
Hitoshi Takata

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Hammerstein system,
identification,
automatic choosing
function model,
genetic algorithm,
particle swarm optimization.

##### 3449 Wavelet Based Identification of Second Order Linear System

**Authors:**
Sudipta Majumdar,
Harish Parthasarathy

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Least squares method,
linear system,
system identification,
wavelet transform.

##### 3448 Some Constructions of Non-Commutative Latin Squares of Order n

**Authors:**
H. V. Chen,
A. Y. M. Chin,
S. Sharmini

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
group,
Latin square,
embedding.

##### 3447 Order Reduction by Least-Squares Methods about General Point ''a''

**Authors:**
Integral square error,
Least-squares,
Markovparameters,
Moment matching,
Order reduction.

**Abstract:**

The concept of order reduction by least-squares moment matching and generalised least-squares methods has been extended about a general point ?a?, to obtain the reduced order models for linear, time-invariant dynamic systems. Some heuristic criteria have been employed for selecting the linear shift point ?a?, based upon the means (arithmetic, harmonic and geometric) of real parts of the poles of high order system. It is shown that the resultant model depends critically on the choice of linear shift point ?a?. The validity of the criteria is illustrated by solving a numerical example and the results are compared with the other existing techniques.

**Keywords:**
Integral square error,
Least-squares,
Markovparameters,
Moment matching,
Order reduction.

##### 3446 Accurate Visualization of Graphs of Functions of Two Real Variables

**Authors:**
Zeitoun D. G.,
Thierry Dana-Picard

**Abstract:**

The study of a real function of two real variables can be supported by visualization using a Computer Algebra System (CAS). One type of constraints of the system is due to the algorithms implemented, yielding continuous approximations of the given function by interpolation. This often masks discontinuities of the function and can provide strange plots, not compatible with the mathematics. In recent years, point based geometry has gained increasing attention as an alternative surface representation, both for efficient rendering and for flexible geometry processing of complex surfaces. In this paper we present different artifacts created by mesh surfaces near discontinuities and propose a point based method that controls and reduces these artifacts. A least squares penalty method for an automatic generation of the mesh that controls the behavior of the chosen function is presented. The special feature of this method is the ability to improve the accuracy of the surface visualization near a set of interior points where the function may be discontinuous. The present method is formulated as a minimax problem and the non uniform mesh is generated using an iterative algorithm. Results show that for large poorly conditioned matrices, the new algorithm gives more accurate results than the classical preconditioned conjugate algorithm.

**Keywords:**
Function singularities,
mesh generation,
point allocation,
visualization,
collocation least squares method,
Augmented Lagrangian method,
Uzawa's Algorithm,
Preconditioned Conjugate Gradien

##### 3445 Extended Least Squares LS–SVM

**Authors:**
József Valyon,
Gábor Horváth

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Function estimation,
Least–Squares Support VectorMachines,
Regression,
System Modeling

##### 3444 Relationship between Sums of Squares in Linear Regression and Semi-parametric Regression

**Authors:**
Dursun Aydın,
Bilgin Senel

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Semi-parametric regression,
Penalized LeastSquares,
Residuals,
Deviance,
Smoothing Spline.

##### 3443 An Improved Learning Algorithm based on the Conjugate Gradient Method for Back Propagation Neural Networks

**Authors:**
N. M. Nawi,
M. R. Ransing,
R. S. Ransing

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Back-propagation,
activation function,
conjugategradient,
search direction,
gain variation.

##### 3442 Fractional Delay FIR Filters Design with Enhanced Differential Evolution

**Authors:**
Krzysztof Walczak

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Fractional Delay Filters,
Farrow Structure,
Evolutionary Computation,
Differential Evolution

##### 3441 Blind Identification and Equalization of CDMA Signals Using the Levenvberg-Marquardt Algorithm

**Authors:**
Mohammed Boutalline,
Imad Badi,
Belaid Bouikhalene,
Said Safi

**Abstract:**

In this paper we describe the Levenvberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm for identification and equalization of CDMA signals received by an antenna array in communication channels. The synthesis explains the digital separation and equalization of signals after propagation through multipath generating intersymbol interference (ISI). Exploiting discrete data transmitted and three diversities induced at the reception, the problem can be composed by the Block Component Decomposition (BCD) of a tensor of order 3 which is a new tensor decomposition generalizing the PARAFAC decomposition. We optimize the BCD decomposition by Levenvberg-Marquardt method gives encouraging results compared to classical alternating least squares algorithm (ALS). In the equalization part, we use the Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) to perform the presented method. The simulation results using the LM algorithm are important.

**Keywords:**
Identification and equalization,
communication
channel,
Levenvberg-Marquardt,
tensor decomposition

##### 3440 Public Squares and Their Potential for Social Interactions: A Case Study of Historical Public Squares in Tehran

**Authors:**
Asma Mehan

**Abstract:**

Under the thrust of technological changes, population growth and vehicular traffic, Iranian historical squares have lost their significance and they are no longer the main social nodes of the society. This research focuses on how historical public squares can inspire designers to enhance social interactions among citizens in Iranian urban context. Moreover, the recent master plan of Tehran demonstrates the lack of public spaces designed for the purpose of people’s social gatherings. For filling this gap, first the current situation of 7 selected primary historical public squares in Tehran including Sabze Meydan, Arg, Topkhaneh, Baherstan, Mokhber-al-dole, Rah Ahan and Hassan Abad have been compared. Later, the influencing elements on social interactions of the public squares such as subjective factors (human relationships and memories) and objective factors (natural and built environment) have been investigated. As a conclusion, some strategies are proposed for improving social interactions in historical public squares like; holding cultural, national, athletic and religious events, defining different and new functions in public squares’ surrounding, increasing pedestrian routs, reviving the collective memory, demonstrating the historical importance of square, eliminating visual obstacles across the square, organization the natural elements of the square, appropriate pavement for social activities. Finally, it is argued that the combination of all influencing factors which are: human interactions, natural elements and built environment criteria will lead to enhance the historical public squares’ potential for social interaction.

**Keywords:**
Historical Square,
Iranian Public Square,
Social Interaction,
Tehran.

##### 3439 Minimal Residual Method for Adaptive Filtering with Finite Termination

**Authors:**
Noor Atinah Ahmad,
Shazia Javed

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Adaptive filtering,
minimal residual method,
projection
method.

##### 3438 A Self Adaptive Genetic Based Algorithm for the Identification and Elimination of Bad Data

**Authors:**
A. A. Hossam-Eldin,
E. N. Abdallah,
M. S. El-Nozahy

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bad Data,
Genetic Algorithms,
Linearized Normal
residuals,
Observability,
Power System State Estimation.

##### 3437 A Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization-Nelder- Mead Algorithm (PSO-NM) for Nelson-Siegel- Svensson Calibration

**Authors:**
Sofia Ayouche,
Rachid Ellaia,
Rajae Aboulaich

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Optimization,
zero-coupon curve,
Nelson-Siegel-
Svensson,
Particle Swarm Optimization,
Nelder-Mead Algorithm.

##### 3436 Optimal Design of Two-Channel Recursive Parallelogram Quadrature Mirror Filter Banks

**Authors:**
Ju-Hong Lee,
Yi-Lin Shieh

**Abstract:**

This paper deals with the optimal design of two-channel recursive parallelogram quadrature mirror filter (PQMF) banks. The analysis and synthesis filters of the PQMF bank are composed of two-dimensional (2-D) recursive digital all-pass filters (DAFs) with nonsymmetric half-plane (NSHP) support region. The design problem can be facilitated by using the 2-D doubly complementary half-band (DC-HB) property possessed by the analysis and synthesis filters. For finding the coefficients of the 2-D recursive NSHP DAFs, we appropriately formulate the design problem to result in an optimization problem that can be solved by using a weighted least-squares (WLS) algorithm in the minimax (*L _{∞}*) optimal sense. The designed 2-D recursive PQMF bank achieves perfect magnitude response and possesses satisfactory phase response without requiring extra phase equalizer. Simulation results are also provided for illustration and comparison.

**Keywords:**
Parallelogram Quadrature Mirror Filter Bank,
Doubly Complementary Filter,
Nonsymmetric Half-Plane Filter,
Weighted Least Squares Algorithm,
Digital All-Pass Filter.

##### 3435 On-line Identification of Continuous-time Hammerstein Systems via RBF Networks and Immune Algorithm

**Authors:**
Tomohiro Hachino,
Kengo Nagatomo,
Hitoshi Takata

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Continuous-time System,
Hammerstein System,
OnlineIdentification,
Immune Algorithm,
RBF network.

##### 3434 Equity Risk Premiums and Risk Free Rates in Modelling and Prediction of Financial Markets

**Authors:**
Mohammad Ghavami,
Reza S. Dilmaghani

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Prediction of financial markets,
Adaptive methods,
MSE,
LSE.