Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30184
Influence of Biofertilizers on Flower Yield and Essential Oil of Chamomile ( Matricaria chamomile L.)

Authors: M. Haj Seyed Hadi, M. Taghi Darzi, Z. Ghandeharialavijeh, GH. Riazi


The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of vermicompost and amino acids on the qualitative and quantitative yield of chamomile. The experiment was conducted during the growing season of 2010 at the Alborz Medical Research Center. The Treatment groups consisted of vermicompost (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 tons/ha) and the sprays of amino acids (budding stag, flowering stage, and budding + flowering stage). The experimental design was a factorial experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The present results have shown that the highest plant height, flower head diameter, fresh and dry flower yield and significant essential oil content were obtained by using 20- ton vermicompost per hectare. Effects of amino acids were similar to those seen in vermicompost treatment and all measured traits were seen to be significant after the spray of amino acids at the budding + flowering stage).

Keywords: Vermicompost, amino acids, chamomile, yield

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1871


[1] Alaa, S., Tantawy, A. S., Abdel-Mawgoud, A. M. R., El-Nemr, M. A., Ghorra Chamoun, Y., 2009. Alleviation of Salinity Effects on Tomato Plants by Application of Amino Acids and Growth Regulators. Eur. J. Sci. Res. 30(3), 484-494.
[2] Applequist, W. L., 2002. A reassessment of the nomenclature of Matricaria L. and Tripleurospermum Sch Bip. Taxon. 51, 757-761.
[3] Arancon, N. Q., Edwards, C. A., Bierman, P., Welch, C., Metzger, J. D., 2004. Influences of vermicompost on field strawberries: 1. Effects on growth and yields. Bioresource Technol. 93, 145-153.
[4] Atiyeh, R. M., Arancon, N. Q., Edwards, C. A., Metzger, J. D., Shuster, W., 2000a. Effect of vermicomposts and composts on plant growth in horticulture container media and soil. Pedobiologia. 44, 579-590.
[5] Atiyeh, R. M., Arancon, N. Q., Edwards, C. A., Metzger, J. D., 2000b. Influence of earthworms-processed pig manure on the growth and yield of greenhouse tomatoes. Bioresource Technol. 75, 175-180.
[6] Atiyeh, R. M., Lee, S. S., Edwards, C. A., Arancon, N. Q., Metzger, J. D., 2002. The influence of humic acid derived from earthworm processed organic wastes on plant growth. Bioresource Technol. 84, 7- 14.
[7] Awad, El-M.M., Abd El-Hameed, A. M., Shall, Z. S., 2007. Effect of glycine, lysine and nitrogen fertilizer rates on growth, yield and chemical composition of potato. J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ. 32(10), 8541 - 8551.
[8] Azizi, M., Rezvani, F., Hassan Zadeh Khayat, M., Lekzian, A., Nemati, A., 2009. Effects of vermicompost and irrigation on morphological traits and essential oil of chamomile. Iran. J. Med. Plants. Spices. Res. 24(1), 82-93.
[9] Baghalian, K., 2000. Recent advances of medicinal and aromatic plants in Iran. Chronica Hortic. 40, 13-14.
[10] Darzi, M. T., Ghalavand, A., Rejali, F., Sephidkon, F., 2007. Effects of Biofertilizers Application on yield and yield components in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Iran. J. Med. Aroma. Plants. 22(4), 276- 292.
[11] Edwards, C.A., 1995. Historical overview of vermicomposting. Biocycle. 36, 56 - 58.
[12] Edwards, C. A., 1998. The use of earthworms in the breakdown and management of organic wastes. In: Earthworm Ecology. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, pp. 327-354.
[13] El-Shabasi, M. S., Mohamed, S. M., Mahfouz, S. A., 2005. Effect of foliar spray with amino acids on growth, yield and chemical composition of garlic plants. The sixth Arabian Conference for Horticulture, Ismailia, Egypt.
[14] Follet, R., Donahue, R., Murphy, L., 1981. Soil and soil amendments. Prentice-Hall, Inc., New Jersey.
[15] Franke, R., Schilcher, H., 2007. Relevance and use of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.). Acta Hort. 749, 29-43.
[16] Frederickson, J., Butt, K. R., Morris, M. R., Daniel, C., 1997. Combining vermiculture with green waste composting system. Soil. Biol. Biochem. 29 (3/4), 725-730.
[17] Goswami, B., Kalita, M. C., Talukdar, S., 2001. Bioconversion of municipal solid waste through vermicomposting. Asian. J. Microb. Biotech. Environ. Sci. 3, 205-207.
[18] Hadj Seyed Hadi, M., Noormohamadi, G., Masoud Sinaki, J., Khodabandeh, N., Yasa, N., Darzi, M. T., 2004. Effects of planting time and plant density on flower yield and active substance of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). In: Fourth International Crop Science Congress, Brisbane, Australia.
[19] Kamar, M. E., Omar, A., 1987. Effect of nitrogen levels and spraying with aminal-forte (amino acids salvation) on yield of cucumber and potatoes. J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 12(4), 900 - 907.
[20] Karlen, D. L., Mausbach, M. J., Doran, J. W., Cline, R. G., Harries, R. F., Schuman, G. E., 1997. Soil quality: A concept, definition and framework for evaluation. Soil. Sci. Soc. America. J. 61, 4-10.
[21] Karuppaiah, P., Manivonnar, K., Sriramach Andrasakaron, M. V., Kuppusamy, G., 2000. Responses of cucumber to foliar application of nutrients on light mine spoil. J. Indian. Soc. Soil. Sci. 49(1), 150 - 153.
[22] Krishnamoorthy, R. V., Vajrabhiah, S. N., 1986. Biological activity of earthworm casts: an assessment of plant growth promoter levels in casts. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Science (Animal Science). 95, 341-351.
[23] Letchamo., W., Marquard, R., 1993. The pattern of active substances accumulation in chamomile genotypes under different growing conditions and harvesting frequencies. Acta Hort. 331, 357-364.
[24] Muscolo, A., Bovalo, F., Gionfriddo, F., Nardi, F., 1999. Earthworm humic matter produces auxin-like effects on Daucus carota cell growth and nitrate metabolism. Soil. Biol. Biochem.. 31, 1303-1311.
[25] Neeraja, G., Reddy, I. P., Gautham, B., 2005. Effect of growth promoters on growth and yield of tomato cv. Marutham. J. Res. ANGRAU. 33(3), 68-70
[26] Pashanasi, B., Lavelle, P., Alegre, J., Charpentier, F., 1996. Effect of the endogeic earthworm, Pontoscolex corethrurus on soil chemical characteristics and plant growth in a low-input tropical agroecosystem. Soil. Biol. Biochem. 28 (6), 801 - 808.
[27] Pourohit, S. S., Vyas, S. P., 2004. Medicinal Plants Cultivation. Agrobios. India.
[28] Reichinger, K. H., 1977. Flora Iranica. 22(158), 82-88.
[29] Roy, S., Arunachalam, K., Kumar Dutta, B., Arunachalam, A., 2010. Effect of organic amendments of soil on growth and productivity of three common crops viz. Zea mays, Phaseolus vulgaris and Abelmoschus esculentus. Appl. Soil. Ecol. 45, 78-84.
[30] Saha, S., Mina, B. L., Gopinath, K. L., Kundu, S., Gupta, H. S., 2008. Relative changes in phosphatase activities as influenced by source and application rate of organic composts in field crops. Bioresource Technol. 99, 1750-1757.
[31] Salmon, I., 2007. Effect of the internal and external factors on yield and qualitative-quantitative characteristics of chamomile essential oil. In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Chamomile Research, Development and Production. Presov, Slovakia, pp.45-64.
[32] SAS Inc., 2002. SAS Procedure guide. SAS Institute, Cary, NC.
[33] Tomati, U., Grappelli, A., Galli, E., 1983. Fertility factors in earthworm humus. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Agricultural Environment. Prospects in Earthworm Farming. Publication Ministero della Ricerca Scientifica e Technologia, Rome, pp. 49-56.
[34] Tomati, U., Galli, E., Grappelli, A., Hard, J. S., 1994. Plant metabolism as influenced by earthworm casts. Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum and Institute. 89 (2), 179 - 185.
[35] Wagner, C., Friedt, W., Marquard, R. A., Ordon, F., 2005. Molecular analysis on the genetic diversity and inheritance of (-)-alpha-bisabolol and chamazulene content in tetraploid chamomile (Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert). Plant. Sci. 169, 917-927.