Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 287

Search results for: kinetic sorption

287 Sorption of Congo Red from Aqueous Solution by Surfactant-Modified Bentonite: Kinetic and Factorial Design Study

Authors: B. Guezzen, M. A. Didi, B. Medjahed

Abstract:

An organoclay (HDTMA-B) was prepared from sodium bentonite (Na-B). The starting material was modified using the hexadecyltrimethylammonium ion (HDTMA+) in the amounts corresponding to 100 % of the CEC value. Batch experiments were carried out in order to model and optimize the sorption of Congo red dye from aqueous solution. The pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models have been developed to predict the rate constant and the sorption capacity at equilibrium with the effect of temperature, the solid/solution ratio and the initial dye concentration. The equilibrium time was reached within 60 min. At room temperature (20 °C), optimum dye sorption of 49.4 mg/g (98.9%) was achieved at pH 6.6, sorbent dosage of 1g/L and initial dye concentration of 50 mg/L, using surfactant modified bentonite. The optimization of adsorption parameters mentioned above on dye removal was carried out using Box-Behnken design. The sorption parameters were analyzed statistically by means of variance analysis by using the Statgraphics Centurion XVI software.

Keywords: Adsorption, dye, factorial design, kinetic, organo-bentonite.

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286 Removal of Basic Blue 3 from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption Onto Durio Ziberthinus

Authors: Siew-Teng

Abstract:

Durian husk (DH), a fruit waste, was studied for its ability to remove Basic blue 3 (BB3) from aqueous solutions. Batch kinetic studies were carried out to study the sorption characteristics under various experimental conditions. The optimum pH for the dye removal occurred in the pH range of 3-10. Sorption was found to be concentration and agitation dependent. The kinetics of dye sorption fitted a pseudo-second order rate expression. Both Langmuir and Freundlich models appeared to provide reasonable fittings for the sorption data of BB3 on durian husk. Maximum sorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir model is 49.50 mg g-1.

Keywords: Durian husk, Batch study, Sorption, Basic Blue 3

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285 Removal of Malachite Green from Aqueous Solution using Hydrilla verticillata -Optimization, Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies

Authors: R. Rajeshkannan, M. Rajasimman, N. Rajamohan

Abstract:

In this study, the sorption of Malachite green (MG) on Hydrilla verticillata biomass, a submerged aquatic plant, was investigated in a batch system. The effects of operating parameters such as temperature, adsorbent dosage, contact time, adsorbent size, and agitation speed on the sorption of Malachite green were analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM). The proposed quadratic model for central composite design (CCD) fitted very well to the experimental data that it could be used to navigate the design space according to ANOVA results. The optimum sorption conditions were determined as temperature - 43.5oC, adsorbent dosage - 0.26g, contact time - 200min, adsorbent size - 0.205mm (65mesh), and agitation speed - 230rpm. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to the equilibrium data. The maximum monolayer coverage capacity of Hydrilla verticillata biomass for MG was found to be 91.97 mg/g at an initial pH 8.0 indicating that the optimum sorption initial pH. The external and intra particle diffusion models were also applied to sorption data of Hydrilla verticillata biomass with MG, and it was found that both the external diffusion as well as intra particle diffusion contributes to the actual sorption process. The pseudo-second order kinetic model described the MG sorption process with a good fitting.

Keywords: Response surface methodology, Hydrilla verticillata, malachite green, adsorption, central composite design

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284 Dependence of Equilibrium, Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Zn (II) Ions Sorption from Water on Particle Size of Natural Hydroxyapatite Extracted from Bone Ash

Authors: Reza Bazargan-Lari, Mohammad Ebrahim Bahrololoom, Afshin Nemati

Abstract:

Heavy metals have bad effects on environment and soils and it can uptake by natural HAP .natural Hap is an inexpensive material that uptake large amounts of various heavy metals like Zn (II) .Natural HAP (N-HAP), extracted from bovine cortical bone ash, is a good choice for substitution of commercial HAP. Several experiments were done to investigate the sorption capacity of Zn (II) to N-HAP in various particles sizes, temperatures, initial concentrations, pH and reaction times. In this study, the sorption of Zinc ions from a Zn solution onto HAP particles with sizes of 1537.6 nm and 47.6 nm at three initial pH values of 4.50, 6.00 and 7.50 was studied. The results showed that better performance was obtained through a 47.6 nm particle size and higher pH values. The experimental data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Arrhenius equations for equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. The analysis showed a maximum adsorption capacity of NHAP as being 1.562 mmol/g at a pH of 7.5 and small particle size. Kinetically, the prepared N-HAP is a feasible sorbent that retains Zn (II) ions through a favorable and spontaneous sorption process.

Keywords: Natural Hydroxyapatite, Heavy metal ions, Adsorption, Zn removal, kinetic model, bone ash

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283 Recycling Poultry Feathers for Pb Removal from Wastewater: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies

Authors: G. de la Rosa, H. E. Reynel-Avila, A. Bonilla-Petriciolet, I. Cano-Rodríguez, C. Velasco-Santos, and A. L. Martínez-Hernández

Abstract:

Chicken feathers were used as biosorbent for Pb removal from aqueous solution. In this paper, the kinetics and equilibrium studies at several pH, temperature, and metal concentration values are reported. For tested conditions, the Pb sorption capacity of this poultry waste ranged from 0.8 to 8.3 mg/g. Optimal conditions for Pb removal by chicken feathers have been identified. Pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order equations were used to analyze the experimental data. In addition, the sorption isotherms were fitted to classical Langmuir and Freundlich models. Finally, thermodynamic parameters for the sorption process have been determined. In summary, the results showed that chicken feathers are an alternative and promising sorbent for the treatment of effluents polluted by Pb ions.

Keywords: Sorption, chicken feathers, Pb, water treatment.

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282 The Removal of Cu (II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions on Synthetic Zeolite NaA

Authors: Dimitar Georgiev, Bogdan Bogdanov, Yancho Hristov, Irena Markovska

Abstract:

In this study the adsorption of Cu (II) ions from aqueous solutions on synthetic zeolite NaA was evaluated. The effect of solution temperature and the determination of the kinetic parameters of adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution on zeolite NaA is important in understanding the adsorption mechanism. Variables of the system include adsorption time, temperature (293- 328K), initial solution concentration and pH for the system. The sorption kinetics of the copper ions were found to be strongly dependent on pH (the optimum pH 3-5), solute ion concentration and temperature (293 – 328 K). It was found, the pseudo-second-order model was the best choice among all the kinetic models to describe the adsorption behavior of Cu(II) onto ziolite NaA, suggesting that the adsorption mechanism might be a chemisorptions process The activation energy of adsorption (Ea) was determined as Cu(II) 13.5 kJ mol-1. The low value of Ea shows that Cu(II) adsorption process by zeolite NaA may be an activated chemical adsorption. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0) were also determined from the temperature dependence. The results show that the process of adsorption Cu(II) is spontaneous and endothermic process and rise in temperature favors the adsorption.

Keywords: Zeolite NaA, adsorption, adsorption capacity, kinetic sorption

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281 Removal of Cibacron Brilliant Yellow 3G-P Dye from Aqueous Solutions Using Coffee Husks as Non-Conventional Low-Cost Sorbent

Authors: Ismail I. Fasfous, Nedal Abu Farha

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to establish the experimental conditions for removal of Cibacron Brilliant Yellow 3G-P dye (CBY) from aqueous solutions by sorption onto coffee husks as a low-cost sorbent. The effects of various experimental parameters (e.g. initial CBY dye concentration, sorbent mass, pH, temperature) were examined and the optimal experimental conditions were determined. The results indicated that the removal of the dye was pH dependent and at initial pH of 2, the dye was removed effectively. The CBY dye sorption data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich equilibrium models. The maximum sorption capacity of CBY dye ions onto coffee husks increased from 24.04 to 35.04 mg g-1 when the temperature was increased from 293 to 313 K. The calculated sorption thermodynamic parameters including ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS° indicated that the CBY dye sorption onto coffee husks is a spontaneous, endothermic and mainly physical in nature.

Keywords: Coffee husks, equilibrium, reactive dyes, sorption.

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280 The Gasoil Hydrofining Kinetics Constants Identification

Authors: C. Patrascioiu, V. Matei, N. Nicolae

Abstract:

The paper describes the experiments and the kinetic parameters calculus of the gasoil hydrofining. They are presented experimental results of gasoil hidrofining using Mo and promoted with Ni on aluminum support catalyst. The authors have adapted a kinetic model gasoil hydrofining. Using this proposed kinetic model and the experimental data they have calculated the parameters of the model. The numerical calculus is based on minimizing the difference between the experimental sulf concentration and kinetic model estimation.

Keywords: Hydrofining, kinetic, modeling, optimization.

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279 Effect of Ionic Strength on Mercury Adsorption on Contaminated Soil

Authors: G. Petruzzelli, F. Pedron, I. Rosellini, E. Tassi, F. Gorini, B. Pezzarossa, M. Barbafieri

Abstract:

Mercury adsorption on soil was investigated at different ionic strengths using Ca(NO3)2 as a background electrolyte. Results fitted the Langmuir equation and the adsorption isotherms reached a plateau at higher equilibrium concentrations. Increasing ionic strength decreased the sorption of mercury, due to the competition of Ca ions for the sorption sites in the soils. The influence of ionic strength was related to the mechanisms of heavy metal sorption by the soil. These results can be of practical importance both in the agriculture and contaminated soils since the solubility of mercury in soils are strictly dependent on the adsorption and release process.

Keywords: Heavy metals, bioavailability, remediation, competitive sorption.

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278 Cd2+ Ions Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Alginite

Authors: Vladimír Frišták, Martin Pipíška, Juraj Lesný

Abstract:

Alginite has been evaluated as an efficient pollution control material. In this paper, alginite from maar Pinciná (SR) for removal of Cd2+ ions from aqueous solution was studied. The potential sorbent was characterized by X-ray fluorescence analysis (RFA) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis (FT-IR) and specific surface area (SSA) was also determined. The sorption process was optimized from the point of initial cadmium concentration effect and effect of pH value. The Freundlich and Langmuir models were used to interpret the sorption behavior of Cd2+ ions, and the results showed that experimental data were well fitted by the Langmuir equation. Alginite maximal sorption capacity (Qmax) for Cd2+ ions calculated from Langmuir isotherm was 34 mg/g. Sorption process was significantly affected by initial pH value in the range from 4.0-7.0. Alginite is a comparable sorbent with other materials for toxic metals removal. 

Keywords: Alginites, Cd2+, sorption, Qmax

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277 Impregnation of Cupper into Kanuma Volcanic Ash Soil to Improve Mercury Sorption Capacity

Authors: Jatindra N. Bhakta, Yukihiro Munekage

Abstract:

The present study attempted to improve the Mercury (Hg) sorption capacity of kanuma volcanic ash soil (KVAS) by impregnating the cupper (Cu). Impregnation was executed by 1 and 5% Cu powder and sorption characterization of optimum Hg removing Cu impregnated KVAS was performed under different operational conditions, contact time, solution pH, sorbent dosage and Hg concentration using the batch operation studies. The 1% Cu impregnated KVAS pronounced optimum improvement (79%) in removing Hg from water compare to control. The present investigation determined the equilibrium state of maximum Hg adsorption at 6 h contact period. The adsorption revealed a pH dependent response and pH 3.5 showed maximum sorption capacity of Hg. Freundlich isotherm model is well fitted with the experimental data than that of Langmuir isotherm. It can be concluded that the Cu impregnation improves the Hg sorption capacity of KVAS and 1% Cu impregnated KVAS could be employed as cost-effective adsorbent media for treating Hg contaminated water.

Keywords: Cupper, impregnation, isotherm, kanuma volcanic ash soil, mercury, sorption

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276 A Kinetic Study on the Adsorption of Cd(II) and Zn(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions on Zeolite NaA

Authors: Dimitar Georgiev, Bogdan Bogdanov, Irena Markovska, Yancho Hristov, Dencho Stanev

Abstract:

The present paper reports the removal of Cd(II) and Zn(II) ions using synthetic Zeolit NaA. The adsorption capacity of the sorbent (Zeolite NaA) strongly depends on simultaneous or not simultaneous (concurrent) presence of Cd(II) and Zn(II) in the sorbate. When Cd(II) and Zn(II) are present simultaneously (concurrently) in the sorbate, Zn(II) ions were sorbed at higher rate. Equilibrium data fitted Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isotherms well. The applicability of the isotherm equation to describe the adsorption process was judged by the correlation coefficients R2. The Langmuir model yielded the best fit with R2 values equal to or higher than 0.970, as compared to the Freundlich and Tempkin models. The fact that 1/n values range from 0.322 to 0.755 indicates that the adsorption of Cd(II) and Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions also favored by the Freundlich model.

Keywords: Adsorption, adsorption capacity, kinetic sorption, Zeolite NaA

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275 Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies on Biosorption of Cd (II) and Pb (II) from Aqueous Solution Using a Spore Forming Bacillus Isolated from Wastewater of a Leather Factory

Authors: Sh. Kianfar, A. Moheb, H. Ghaforian

Abstract:

The equilibrium, thermodynamics and kinetics of the biosorption of Cd (II) and Pb(II) by a Spore Forming Bacillus (MGL 75) were investigated at different experimental conditions. The Langmuir and Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equilibrium adsorption models were applied to describe the biosorption of the metal ions by MGL 75 biomass. The Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better than the other models. Maximum adsorption capacities q max for lead (II) and cadmium (II) were found equal to 158.73mg/g and 91.74 mg/g by Langmuir model. The values of the mean free energy determined with the D-R equation showed that adsorption process is a physiosorption process. The thermodynamic parameters Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°), and entropy (ΔS°) changes were also calculated, and the values indicated that the biosorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Experiment data were also used to study biosorption kinetics using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Kinetic parameters, rate constants, equilibrium sorption capacities and related correlation coefficients were calculated and discussed. The results showed that the biosorption processes of both metal ions followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics.

Keywords: biosorption, kinetics, Metal ion removal, thermodynamics

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274 Effect of Fly Ash Fineness on Sorption Properties of Geopolymers Based On Liquid Glass

Authors: M. Zelinkova, M. Ondova

Abstract:

Fly ash (FA) thanks to the significant presence of SiO2 and Al2O3 as the main components is a potential raw material for geopolymers production. Mechanical activation is a method for improving FA reactivity and also the porosity of final mixture; those parameters can be analysed through sorption properties. They have direct impact on the durability of fly ash based geopolymer mortars. In the paper, effect of FA fineness on sorption properties of geopolymers based on sodium silicate, as well as relationship between fly ash fineness and apparent density, compressive and flexural strength of geopolymers are presented. The best results in the evaluated area reached the sample H1, which contents the highest portion of particle under 20μm (100% of GFA). The interdependence of individual tested properties was confirmed for geopolymer mixtures corresponding to those in the cement based mixtures: higher is portion of fine particles < 20μm, higher is strength, density and lower are sorption properties. The compressive strength as well as sorption parameters of the geopolymer can be reasonably controlled by grinding process and also ensured by the higher share of fine particle (to 20μm) in total mass of the material.

Keywords: Alkali activation, geopolymers, fly ash, particle fineness.

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273 A Biomimetic Approach for the Multi-Objective Optimization of Kinetic Façade Design

Authors: Do-Jin Jang, Sung-Ah Kim

Abstract:

A kinetic façade responds to user requirements and environmental conditions.  In designing a kinetic façade, kinetic patterns play a key role in determining its performance. This paper proposes a biomimetic method for the multi-objective optimization for kinetic façade design. The autonomous decentralized control system is combined with flocking algorithm. The flocking agents are autonomously reacting to sensor values and bring about kinetic patterns changing over time. A series of experiments were conducted to verify the potential and limitations of the flocking based decentralized control. As a result, it could show the highest performance balancing multiple objectives such as solar radiation and openness among the comparison group.

Keywords: Biomimicry, flocking algorithm, autonomous decentralized control, multi-objective optimization.

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272 Binary Mixture of Copper-Cobalt Ions Uptake by Zeolite using Neural Network

Authors: John Kabuba, Antoine Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Kim Battle

Abstract:

In this study a neural network (NN) was proposed to predict the sorption of binary mixture of copper-cobalt ions into clinoptilolite as ion-exchanger. The configuration of the backpropagation neural network giving the smallest mean square error was three-layer NN with tangent sigmoid transfer function at hidden layer with 10 neurons, linear transfer function at output layer and Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation training algorithm. Experiments have been carried out in the batch reactor to obtain equilibrium data of the individual sorption and the mixture of coppercobalt ions. The obtained modeling results have shown that the used of neural network has better adjusted the equilibrium data of the binary system when compared with the conventional sorption isotherm models.

Keywords: Adsorption isotherm, binary system, neural network; sorption

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271 Kinetic Study of Gluconic Acid Batch Fermentation by Aspergillus niger

Authors: Akbarningrum Fatmawati, Rudy Agustriyanto, Lindawati

Abstract:

Gluconic acid is one of interesting chemical products in industries such as detergents, leather, photographic, textile, and especially in food and pharmaceutical industries. Fermentation is an advantageous process to produce gluconic acid. Mathematical modeling is important in the design and operation of fermentation process. In fact, kinetic data must be available for modeling. The kinetic parameters of gluconic acid production by Aspergillus niger in batch culture was studied in this research at initial substrate concentration of 150, 200 and 250 g/l. The kinetic models used were logistic equation for growth, Luedeking-Piret equation for gluconic acid formation, and Luedeking-Piret-like equation for glucose consumption. The Kinetic parameters in the model were obtained by minimizing non linear least squares curve fitting.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, fermentation, gluconic acid, kinetic.

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270 Reduction of Content of Lead and Zinc from Wastewater by Using of Metallurgical Waste

Authors: L. Rozumová, J. Seidlerová

Abstract:

The aim of this paper was to study the sorption properties of a blast furnace sludge used as the sorbent. The sorbent was utilized for reduction of content of lead and zinc ions. Sorbent utilized in this work was obtained from metallurgical industry from process of wet gas treatment in iron production. The blast furnace sludge was characterized by X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and XRFS spectroscopy. Sorption experiments were conducted in batch mode. The sorption of metal ions in the sludge was determined by correlation of adsorption isotherm models. The adsorption of lead and zinc ions was best fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacity of lead and zinc ions was 53.8 mg.g-1 and 10.7 mg.g-1, respectively. The results indicated that blast furnace sludge could be effectively used as secondary material and could be also employed as a low-cost alternative for the removal of heavy metals ions from wastewater.

Keywords: Blast furnace sludge, lead, zinc, sorption.

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269 Ocean Wave Kinetic Energy Harvesting System for Automated Sub Sea Sensors

Authors: Amir Anvar, Dong Yang Li

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of the Ocean wave kinetic energy harvesting system. Energy harvesting is a concept by which energy is captured, stored, and utilized using various sources by employing interfaces, storage devices, and other units. Ocean wave energy harvesting in which the kinetic and potential energy contained in the natural oscillations of Ocean waves are converted into electric power. The kinetic energy harvesting system could be used for a number of areas. The main applications that we have discussed in this paper are to how generate the energy from Ocean wave energy (kinetic energy) to electric energy that is to eliminate the requirement for continual battery replacement.

Keywords: Energy harvesting, power system, oceanic, sensors, autonomous.

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268 Adsorption of Crystal Violet onto BTEA- and CTMA-bentonite from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Ren Jian-min, Wu Si-wei, Jin Wei

Abstract:

CTMA-bentonite and BTEA-Bentonite prepared by Na-bentonite cation exchanged with cetyltrimethylammonium(CTMA) and benzyltriethylammonium (BTEA). Products were characterized by XRD and IR techniques.The d001 spacing value of CTMA-bentonite and BTEA-bentonite are 7.54Å and 3.50Å larger than that of Na-bentonite at 100% cation exchange capacity, respectively. The IR spectrum showed that the intensities of OH stretching and bending vibrations of the two organoclays decreased greatly comparing to untreated Na-bentonite. Batch experiments were carried out at 303 K, 318 K and 333 K to obtain the sorption isotherms of Crystal violet onto the two organoclays. The results show that the sorption isothermal data could be well described by Freundlich model. The dynamical data for the two organoclays fit well with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption capacity of CTMA-bentonite was found higher than that of BTEA-Bentonite. Thermodynamic parameters such as changes in the free energy (ΔG°), the enthalpy (ΔH°) and the entropy (ΔS°) were also evaluated. The overall adsorption process of Crystal violet onto the two organoclays were spontaneous, endothermic physisorption. The CTMA-bentonite and BTEA-Bentonite could be employed as low-cost alternatives to activated carbon in wastewater treatment for the removal of color which comes from textile dyes.

Keywords: Characterization, Adsorption, Crystal violet, Bentonite, BTEA, CTMA

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267 Zinc Sorption by Six Agricultural Soils Amended with Municipal Biosolids

Authors: Antoine Karam, Lotfi Khiari, Bruno Breton, Alfred Jaouich

Abstract:

Anthropogenic sources of zinc (Zn), including industrial emissions and effluents, Zn–rich fertilizer materials and pesticides containing Zn, can contribute to increasing the concentration of soluble Zn at levels toxic to plants in acid sandy soils. The application of municipal sewage sludge or biosolids (MBS) which contain metal immobilizing agents on coarse-textured soils could improve the metal sorption capacity of the low-CEC soils. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the sorption of Zn in surface samples (0-15 cm) of six Quebec (Canada) soils amended with MBS (pH 6.9) from Val d’Or (Quebec, Canada). Soil samples amended with increasing amounts (0 to 20%) of MBS were equilibrated with various amounts of Zn as ZnCl2 in 0.01 M CaCl2 for 48 hours at room temperature. Sorbed Zn was calculated from the difference between the initial and final Zn concentration in solution. Zn sorption data conformed to the linear form of Freundlich equation. The amount of sorbed Zn increased considerably with increasing MBS rate. Analysis of variance revealed a highly significant effect (p ≤ 0.001) of soil texture and MBS rate on the amount of sorbed Zn. The average values of the Zn-sorption capacity of MBS-amended coarse-textured soils were lower than those of MBS-amended fine textured soils. The two sandy soils (86-99% sand) amended with MBS retained 2- to 5-fold Zn than those without MBS (control). Significant Pearson correlation coefficients between the Zn sorption isotherm parameter, i.e. the Freundlich sorption isotherm (KF), and commonly measured physical and chemical entities were obtained. Among all the soil properties measured, soil pH gave the best significant correlation coefficients (p ≤ 0.001) for soils receiving 0, 5 and 10% MBS. Furthermore, KF values were positively correlated with soil clay content, exchangeable basic cations (Ca, Mg or K), CEC and clay content to CEC ratio. From these results, it can be concluded that (i) municipal biosolids provide sorption sites that have a strong affinity for Zn, (ii) both soil texture, especially clay content, and soil pH are the main factors controlling anthropogenic Zn sorption in the municipal biosolids-amended soils, and (iii) the effect of municipal biosolids on Zn sorption will be more pronounced for a sandy soil than for a clay soil.

Keywords: Metal, recycling, sewage sludge, trace element.

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266 Equilibrium Modeling of Cu and Ni Removal from Aqueous Solutions: Influence of Salinity

Authors: Tomáš Bakalár, Milan Búgel, Henrieta Pavolová

Abstract:

This study deals with evaluation of influence of salinity (NaCl) onto equilibrium of Cu and Ni removal from aqueous solutions by natural sorbent – zeolite. Equilibrium data were obtained by batch experiments. The salinity of the aqueous solution was influenced by dissolving NaCl in distilled water. It was studied in the range of NaCl concentrations from 1 g.l-1 to 100g.l-1. For Cu sorption there is a significant influence of salinity. The maximum capacity of zeolite for Cu was decreasing with growing concentration of NaCl. For Ni sorption there is not so significant influence of salinity as for Cu. The maximum capacity of zeolite for Ni was slightly decreasing with growing concentration of NaCl.

Keywords: Cu, Ni, sorption, zeolite.

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265 The Effect of Raindrop Kinetic Energy on Soil Erodibility

Authors: A. Moussouni, L. Mouzai, M. Bouhadef

Abstract:

Soil erosion is a very complex phenomenon, resulting from detachment and transport of soil particles by erosion agents. The kinetic energy of raindrop is the energy available for detachment and transport by splashing rain. The soil erodibility is defined as the ability of soil to resist to erosion. For this purpose, an experimental study was conducted in the laboratory using rainfall simulator to study the effect of the kinetic energy of rain (Ec) on the soil erodibility (K). The soil used was a sandy agricultural soil of 62.08% coarse sand, 19.14% fine sand, 6.39% fine silt, 5.18% coarse silt and 7.21% clay. The obtained results show that the kinetic energy of raindrops evolves as a power law with soil erodibility.

Keywords: Erosion, runoff, raindrop kinetic energy, soil erodibility, rainfall intensity, raindrop fall velocity.

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264 Amberlite XAD-4 Functionalized with 1-amino-2-naphthole for Determination and Preconcentration of Copper (II) in Aqueous Solution by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

Authors: Elham Moniri, Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Mahshid Nikpour Nezhati, Faranak Mahmoudi, Meghdad Karimi

Abstract:

A new chelating resin is prepared by coupling Amberlite XAD-4 with 1-amino-2-naphthole through an azo spacer. The resulting sorbent has been characterized by FT-IR, elemental analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and studied for preconcentrating of Cu (II) using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for metal monitoring. The optimum pH value for sorption of the copper ions was 6.5. The resin was subjected to evaluation through batch binding of mentioned metal ion. Quantitative desorption occurs instantaneously with 0.5 M HNO3. The sorption capacity was found 4.8 mmol.g-1 of resin for Cu (II) in the aqueous solution. The chelating resin can be reused for 10 cycles of sorption-desorption without any significant change in sorption capacity. A recovery of 99% was obtained the metal ions with 0.5 M HNO3 as eluting agent. The method was applied for metal ions determination from industrial waste water sample.

Keywords: Amberlite XAD-4; Copper (II); Flame atomicabsorption; Chelator; 1-amino-2- naphthole

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263 Determination and Preconcentration of Iron (II) in Aqueous Solution with Amberlite XAD-4 Functionalized with 1-amino-2-naphthole by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

Authors: Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Mahshid Nikpour Nezhati, Faranak Mahmoudi, Elham Moniri, Meghdad Karimi

Abstract:

A new chelating resin is prepared by coupling Amberlite XAD-4 with 1-amino-2-naphthole through an azo spacer. The resulting sorbent has been characterized by FT-IR, elemental analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and studied for preconcentrating of Fe (II) using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for metal monitoring. The optimum pH value for sorption of the iron ions was 6.5. The resin was subjected to evaluation through batch binding of mentioned metal ion. Quantitative desorption occurs instantaneously with 0.5 M HNO3. The sorption capacity was found 4.1 mmol.g-1 of resin for Fe (II) in the aqueous solution. The chelating resin can be reused for 10 cycles of sorption-desorption without any significant change in sorption capacity. A recovery of 97% was obtained the metal ions with 0.5 M HNO3 as eluting agent. The method was applied for metal ions determination from industrial waste water sample.

Keywords: Amberlite XAD-4, Iron (II), Flame atomic absorption, Chelator, 1-amino-2- naphthole

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262 Study of the Sorption of Biosurfactants from l. Pentosus on Sediments

Authors: Devesa-Rey R., Vecino X., Barral M.T., Cruz J.M., Moldes A.B

Abstract:

Losses of surfactant due to sorption need to be considered when selecting surfactant doses for soil bioremediation. The degree of surfactant sorption onto soil depends primarily on the organic carbon fraction of soil and the chemical nature of the surfactant. The use of biosurfactants in the control of the bioavailability of toxicants in soils is an attractive option because of their biodegradability. In this work biosurfactants were produced from a cheap raw material, trimming vine shoots, employing Lactobacillus pentosus. When biosurfactants from L. pentosus was added to sediments the surface tensión of the water containing the sediments rapidly increase, the same behaviour was observed with the chemical surfactant Tween 20; whereas sodyum dodecyl sulphate (SDS) kept the surface tension of the water around 36 mN/m. It means, that the behaviour of biosurfactants from L. pentosus is more similar to non-ionic surfactatns than to anionic surfactants.

Keywords: Biosurfactants, L. pentous, sediments, surface tension

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261 Application of Nano-Zero Valent Iron for Treating Metolachlor in Aqueous Solution

Authors: P. Suntornchot, T. Satapanajaru, S.D. Comfort

Abstract:

Water, soil and sediment contaminated with metolachlor poses a threat to the environment and human health. We determined the effectiveness of nano-zerovalent iron (NZVI) to dechlorinate metolachlor [2-chloro-n-(2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenyl)-n- (1-methoxypropan-2-yl)acetamide] in pH solution and the presence of aluminium salt. The optimum dosage of degradation of 100 mlL-1 metolachlor was 1% (w/v) NZVI. The degradation kinetic rate (kobs) was 0.218×10-3 min-1 and specific first-order rates (kSA) was 8.72×10-7 L m-2min-1. By treating aqueous solutions of metolachlor with NZVI, metolachlor destruction rate were increased as the pH decrease from 10 to 4. Lowering solution pH removes Fe (III) passivating layers from the NZVI and makes it free for reductive transformations. Destruction kinetic rates were 20.8×10-3 min-1 for pH4, 18.9×10-3 min-1 for pH7, 13.8×10-3 min-1 for pH10. In addition, destruction kinetic of metolachlor by NZVI was enhanced when aluminium sulfate was added. The destruction kinetic rate were 20.4×10-3 min-1 for 0.05% Al(SO4)3 and 60×10-3 min-1 for 0.1% Al(SO4)3.

Keywords: destruction, kinetic rate, metolachlor, nano-zerovalent iron

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260 Modelling of Hydric Behaviour of Textiles

Authors: A. Marolleau, F. Salaun, D. Dupont, H. Gidik, S. Ducept.

Abstract:

The goal of this study is to analyze the hydric behaviour of textiles which can impact significantly the comfort of the wearer. Indeed, fabrics can be adapted for different climate if hydric and thermal behaviors are known. In this study, fabrics are only submitted to hydric variations. Sorption and desorption isotherms obtained from the dynamic vapour sorption apparatus (DVS) are fitted with the parallel exponential kinetics (PEK), the Hailwood-Horrobin (HH) and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) models. One of the major finding is the relationship existing between PEK and HH models. During slow and fast processes, the sorption of water molecules on the polymer can be in monolayer and multilayer form. According to the BET model, moisture regain, a physical property of textiles, show a linear correlation with the total amount of water taken in monolayer. This study provides potential information of the end uses of these fabrics according to the selected activity level.

Keywords: Comfort, hydric properties, modelling, underwear.

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259 Sorption of Nickel by Hypnea Valentiae: Application of Response Surface Methodology

Authors: M. Rajasimman, K. Murugaiyan

Abstract:

In this work, sorption of nickel from aqueous solution on hypnea valentiae, red macro algae, was investigated. Batch experiments have been carried out to find the effect of various parameters such as pH, temperature, sorbent dosage, metal concentration and contact time on the sorption of nickel using hypnea valentiae. Response surface methodology (RSM) is employed to optimize the process parameters. Based on the central composite design, quadratic model was developed to correlate the process variables to the response. The most influential factor on each experimental design response was identified from the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimum conditions for the sorption of nickel were found to be: pH – 5.1, temperature – 36.8oC, sorbent dosage – 5.1 g/L, metal concentration – 100 mg/L and contact time – 30 min. At these optimized conditions the maximum removal of nickel was found to be 91.97%. A coefficient of determination R2 value 0.9548 shows the fitness of response surface methodology in this work.

Keywords: Optimization, metal, Hypnea valentia, response surface methodology, red algae.

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258 Performance of Bio-Composite Carbonized Materials in Probiotic Applications

Authors: Irina S. Savitskaya, Aida S. Kistaubayeva, Nuraly S. Akimbekov, Ilya E. Digel, Azhar A. Zhubanova

Abstract:

A new composite sorbent based on carbonized rice husk (CRH) and immobilized on it living cells and inactivated cultural liquid containing antimicrobials metabolites of Bacillus subtilis CK-245 is developed. The sorption and antimicrobic activity of CRH concerning five species of Enterobacteriaceae is studied. Prospects of use of developed sorbent in medicine and veterinary science is shown.

Keywords: CRH, probiotic, concentrated fugate, sorption and antimicrobial activity.

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