Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 65

Search results for: 3G

65 A Constitutional Approach to the Rights to Water and Energy

Authors: Antonios Maniatis

Abstract:

The present paper focuses on human rights to the water and to the energy and has a scope to promote the legal status on sustainable construction. The right to water constitutes a typical example of 3G fundamental rights, like the right to enjoyment of energy, particularly of electricity, whilst the right to energy efficiency is a right of fourth generation. Both rights to water and energy are examined through their consecration in the framework of the above-mentioned generations. It results that not only decision-makers but also citizens should fight for the further consecration and adequate use of these crucial rights, having to do with the urgent problem of climate change and the sustainable development. The time for the principle of water and energy “rule of law” has come.

Keywords: Climate change law, energy (en + ergon) efficiency, fundamental rights, prosumer, water.

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64 A Multiple Beam LTE Base Station Antenna with Simultaneous Vertical and Horizontal Sectorization

Authors: Mohamed Sanad, Noha Hassan

Abstract:

A low wind-load light-weight broad-band multi-beam base station antenna has been developed. It can generate any required number of beams with the required beamwidths. It can have horizontal and vertical sectorization at the same time. Vertical sectorization doubles the overall number of beams. It will be very valuable in LTE-A and 5G. It can be used to serve vertically split inner and outer cells, which improves system performance. The intersection between the beams of the proposed multi-beam antenna can be controlled by optimizing the design parameters of the antenna. The gain at the points of intersection between the beams, the null filling and the overlap between the beams can all be modified. The proposed multi-beam base station antenna can cover an unlimited number of wireless applications, regardless of their frequency bands. It can simultaneously cover all, current and future, wireless technology generations such as 2G, 3G, 4G (LTE), --- etc. For example, in LTE, it covers the bands 450-470 MHz, 690-960 MHz, 1.4-2.7 GHz and 3.3-3.8 GHz. It has at least 2 ports for each band in each beam for ±45° polarizations. It can include up to 72 ports or even more, which could facilitate any further needed capacity expansions.

Keywords: Base station antenna, multi-beam antenna, smart antenna, vertical sectorization.

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63 12x12 MIMO Terminal Antennas Covering the Whole LTE and WiFi Spectrum

Authors: Mohamed Sanad, Noha Hassan

Abstract:

A broadband resonant terminal antenna has been developed. It can be used in different MIMO arrangements such as 2x2, 4x4, 8x8, or even 12x12 MIMO configurations. The antenna covers the whole LTE and WiFi bands besides the existing 2G/3G bands (700-5800 MHz), without using any matching/tuning circuits. Matching circuits significantly reduce the efficiency of any antenna and reduce the battery life. They also reduce the bandwidth because they are frequency dependent. The antenna can be implemented in smartphone handsets, tablets, laptops, notebooks or any other terminal. It is also suitable for different IoT and vehicle applications. The antenna is manufactured from a flexible material and can be bent or folded and shaped in any form to fit any available space in any terminal. It is self-contained and does not need to use the ground plane, the chassis or any other component of the terminal. Hence, it can be mounted on any terminal at different positions and configurations. Its performance does not get affected by the terminal, regardless of its type, shape or size. Moreover, its performance does not get affected by the human body of the terminal’s users. Because of all these unique features of the antenna, multiples of them can be simultaneously used for MIMO diversity coverage in any terminal device with a high isolation and a low correlation factor between them.

Keywords: IOT, LTE, MIMO, terminal antenna, WiFi.

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62 Displaying of GnRH Peptides on Bacteriophage T7 and Its Immunogenicity in Mice Model

Authors: Hai Xu, Yiwei Wang, Xi Bao, Bihua Deng, Pengcheng Li, Yu Lu

Abstract:

T7 phage could be used as a perfect vector for peptides expression and haptens presentation. T7-3GnRH recombinant phage was constructed by inserting three copies of Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) gene into the multiple cloning site of T7 Select 415-1b phage genome. The positive T7-3GnRH phage was selected by using polymerase chain reaction amplification, and the p10B-3GnRH fusion protein was verified by SDS-PAGE and Western-blotting assay. T7-3GnRH vaccine was made and immunized with 1010 pfu in 0.2 ml per dose in mice. Blood samples were collected at an interval in weeks, and anti-GnRH antibody and testosterone concentrations were detected by ELISA and radioimmunoassay, respectively. The results show that T7-3GnRH phage particles confer a high immunogenicity to the GnRH-derived epitope. Moreover, the T7-3GnRH vaccine induced higher level of anti-GnRH antibody than ImproVac®. However, the testosterone concentrations in both immunized groups were at a similar level, and the testis developments were significantly inhibited compared to controls. These findings demonstrated that the anti-GnRH antibody could neutralize the endogenous GnRH to down regulate testosterone level and limit testis development, highlighting the potential value of T7-3GnRH in the immunocastration vaccine research.

Keywords: Gonadotrophin releasing hormone, GnRH, immunocastration, T7 phage, phage vaccine.

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61 Human Rights in Armed Conflicts and Constitutional Law

Authors: Antonios Maniatis

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to determine the impact of both International Humanitarian Law and anti-piracy International Law on Constitutional Law. International Law is endowed with a rich set of norms on the protection of private individuals in armed conflicts and copes with the diachronic crime of maritime piracy, which may be considered as a private war in the high seas. Constitutional Law has been traditionally geared at two generations of fundamental rights. The paper will aim at answering the question “Which is the profile of 3G constitutional rights, particularly in the light of International Humanitarian Law?”

Keywords: Constitution, Humanitarian International Law, Piracy, 3G fundamental rights.

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60 A Low-Area Fully-Reconfigurable Hardware Design of Fast Fourier Transform System for 3GPP-LTE Standard

Authors: Xin-Yu Shih, Yue-Qu Liu, Hong-Ru Chou

Abstract:

This paper presents a low-area and fully-reconfigurable Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) hardware design for 3GPP-LTE communication standard. It can fully support 32 different FFT sizes, up to 2048 FFT points. Besides, a special processing element is developed for making reconfigurable computing characteristics possible, while first-in first-out (FIFO) scheduling scheme design technique is proposed for hardware-friendly FIFO resource arranging. In a synthesis chip realization via TSMC 40 nm CMOS technology, the hardware circuit only occupies core area of 0.2325 mm2 and dissipates 233.5 mW at maximal operating frequency of 250 MHz.

Keywords: Reconfigurable, fast Fourier transform, single-path delay feedback, 3GPP-LTE.

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59 Impact of Hard Limited Clipping Crest Factor Reduction Technique on Bit Error Rate in OFDM Based Systems

Authors: Theodore Grosch, Felipe Koji Godinho Hoshino

Abstract:

In wireless communications, 3GPP LTE is one of the solutions to meet the greater transmission data rate demand. One issue inherent to this technology is the PAPR (Peak-to-Average Power Ratio) of OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) modulation. This high PAPR affects the efficiency of power amplifiers. One approach to mitigate this effect is the Crest Factor Reduction (CFR) technique. In this work, we simulate the impact of Hard Limited Clipping Crest Factor Reduction technique on BER (Bit Error Rate) in OFDM based Systems. In general, the results showed that CFR has more effects on higher digital modulation schemes, as expected. More importantly, we show the worst-case degradation due to CFR on QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM signals in a linear system. For example, hard clipping of 9 dB results in a 2 dB increase in signal to noise energy at a 1% BER for 64-QAM modulation.

Keywords: Bit error rate, crest factor reduction, OFDM, physical layer simulation.

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58 Porous Carbon Nanoparticles Co-Doped with Nitrogen and Iron as an Efficient Catalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

Authors: Bita Bayatsarmadi, Shi-Zhang Qiao

Abstract:

Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) performance of iron and nitrogen co-doped porous carbon nanoparticles (Fe-NPC) with various physical and (electro) chemical properties have been investigated. Fe-NPC nanoparticles are synthesized via a facile soft-templating procedure by using Iron (III) chloride hexa-hydrate as iron precursor and aminophenol-formaldehyde resin as both carbon and nitrogen precursor. Fe-NPC nanoparticles shows high surface area (443.83 m2g-1), high pore volume (0.52 m3g-1), narrow mesopore size distribution (ca. 3.8 nm), high conductivity (IG/ID=1.04), high kinetic limiting current (11.71 mAcm-2) and more positive onset potential (-0.106 V) compared to metal-free NPC nanoparticles (-0.295V) which make it high efficient ORR metal-free catalysts in alkaline solution. This study may pave the way of feasibly designing iron and nitrogen containing carbon materials (Fe-N-C) for highly efficient oxygen reduction electro-catalysis.

Keywords: Electro-catalyst, mesopore structure, oxygen reduction reaction, soft-template.

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57 The Impact of Geophagia on the Iron Status of Black South African Women

Authors: A. van Onselen, C. M. Walsh, F. J. Veldman, C. Brand

Abstract:

Objectives: To determine the nutritional status and risk factors associated with women practicing geophagia in QwaQwa, South Africa. Materials and Methods: An observational epidemiological study design was adopted which included an exposed (geophagia) and nonexposed (control) group. A food frequency questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and blood sampling were applied to determine nutritional status of participants. Logistic regression analysis was performed in order to identify factors that were likely to be associated with the practice of geophagia. Results: The mean total energy intake for the geophagia group (G) and control group (C) were 10324.31 ± 2755.00 kJ and 10763.94 ± 2556.30 kJ respectively. Both groups fell within the overweight category according to the mean Body Mass Index (BMI) of each group (G= 25.59 kg/m2; C= 25.14 kg/m2). The mean serum iron levels of the geophagia group (6.929 μmol/l) were significantly lower than that of the control group (13.75 μmol/l) (p = 0.000). Serum transferrin (G=3.23g/l; C=2.7054g/l) and serum transferrin saturation (G=8.05%; C=18.74%) levels also differed significantly between groups (p=0.00). Factors that were associated with the practice of geophagia included haemoglobin (Odds ratio (OR):14.50), serumiron (OR: 9.80), serum-ferritin (OR: 3.75), serum-transferrin (OR: 6.92) and transferrin saturation (OR: 14.50). A significant negative association (p=0.014) was found between women who were wageearners and those who were not wage-earners and the practice of geophagia (OR: 0.143; CI: 0.027; 0.755). These findings seem to indicate that a permanent income may decrease the likelihood of practising geophagia. Key Findings: Geophagia was confirmed to be a risk factor for iron deficiency in this community. The significantly strong association between geophagia and iron deficiency emphasizes the importance of identifying the practice of geophagia in women, especially during their child bearing years.

Keywords: Anaemia, anthropometry, dietary intake, geophagia, iron deficiency.

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56 Statistical Modeling of Local Area Fading Channels Based on Triply Stochastic Filtered Marked Poisson Point Processes

Authors: Jihad S. Daba, J. P. Dubois

Abstract:

Fading noise degrades the performance of cellular communication, most notably in femto- and pico-cells in 3G and 4G systems. When the wireless channel consists of a small number of scattering paths, the statistics of fading noise is not analytically tractable and poses a serious challenge to developing closed canonical forms that can be analysed and used in the design of efficient and optimal receivers. In this context, noise is multiplicative and is referred to as stochastically local fading. In many analytical investigation of multiplicative noise, the exponential or Gamma statistics are invoked. More recent advances by the author of this paper utilized a Poisson modulated-weighted generalized Laguerre polynomials with controlling parameters and uncorrelated noise assumptions. In this paper, we investigate the statistics of multidiversity stochastically local area fading channel when the channel consists of randomly distributed Rayleigh and Rician scattering centers with a coherent Nakagami-distributed line of sight component and an underlying doubly stochastic Poisson process driven by a lognormal intensity. These combined statistics form a unifying triply stochastic filtered marked Poisson point process model.

Keywords: Cellular communication, femto- and pico-cells, stochastically local area fading channel, triply stochastic filtered marked Poisson point process.

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55 The Effects of Wood Ash on Ignition Point of Wood

Authors: Kenneth A. Ibe, Justina I. Mbonu, Godgift K. Umukoro

Abstract:

The effects of wood ash from five common tropical woods on the ignition point of four common tropical woods in Nigeria were investigated. The ash and moisture contents of the wood sawdust from Mahogany (Khaya ivorensis), Opepe (Sarcocephalus latifolius), Abura (Mitragyna ciliata), Rubber (Heavea brasilensis) and Poroporo (Sorghum bicolour) used, were determined using a furnace (Vecstar furnaces, model ECF2, serial no. f3077) and oven (Genlab laboratory oven, model MINO/040) respectively. The metal contents of the five wood sawdust ash samples were determined using a Perkin Elmer optima 3000 dv atomic absorption spectrometer while the ignition points were determined using Vecstar furnaces model ECF2. Poroporo had the highest ash content, 2.263g while rubber had the least, 0.710g. The results for the moisture content range from 2.971g to 0.903g. Magnesium metal had the highest concentration of all the metals, in all the wood ash samples; with mahogany ash having the highest concentration, 9.196ppm while rubber ash had the least concentration of magnesium metal, 2.196 ppm. The ignition point results showed that the wood ashes from mahogany and opepe increased the ignition points of the test wood samples, Danta (Nesogordonia papaverifera), Ekpaya, Akomu (Pycnanthus angolensis) and Oleku when coated on them while the ashes from poroporo, rubber and abura decreased the ignition points of the test wood samples when coated on them. However, Opepe saw dust ash decreased the ignition point in one of the test wood samples, suggesting that the metal content of the test wood sample was more than that of the Opepe saw dust ash. Therefore, Mahogany and Opepe saw dust ashes could be used in the surface treatment of wood to enhance their fire resistance or retardancy. However, the caution to be exercised in this application is that the metal content of the test wood samples should be evaluated as well.

Keywords: Ash, fire, ignition point, retardant, wood saw dust.

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54 Comparison of Processing Conditions for Plasticized PVC and PVB

Authors: Michael Tupý, Jaroslav Císař, Pavel Mokrejš, Dagmar Měřínská, Alice Tesaříková-Svobodová

Abstract:

It is the worldwide problem that the recycled PVB is not recycled and it is wildly stored in landfills. However, PVB has similar chemical properties such as PVC. Moreover, both of these polymers are plasticized. Therefore, the study of thermal properties of plasticized PVC and the recycled PVB obtained by recycling of windshields is carried out. This work has done in order to find nondegradable processing conditions applicable for both polymers. Tested PVC contained 38% of plasticizer diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and PVB was plasticized with 28% of triethylene glycol, bis(2-ethylhexanoate) (3GO). The thermal and thermo-oxidative decomposition of both vinyl polymers are compared by calorimetric analysis and by tensile strength analysis.

Keywords: Poly(vinyl chloride), Poly(vinyl butyral), Recycling, Reprocessing, Thermal analysis, Decomposition.

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53 Evaluation of Bioactive Phenols in Blueberries from Different Cultivars

Authors: Christophe Gonçalves, Raquel P. F. Guiné, Daniela Teixeira, Fernando J. Gonçalves

Abstract:

Blueberries are widely valued for their high content in phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity, and hence beneficial for the human health. In this way, a study was done to determine the phenolic composition (total phenols, anthocyanins and tannins) and antioxidant activity of blueberries from three cultivars (Duke, Bluecrop, and Ozarkblue) grown in two different Portuguese farms. Initially two successive extractions were done with methanol followed by two extractions with aqueous acetone solutions. These extracts obtained were then used to evaluate the amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity. The total phenols were observed to vary from 4.9 to 8.2 mg GAE/g fresh weight, with anthocyanin’s contents in the range 1.5-2.8 mg EMv3G/g and tannins contents in the range 1.5- 3.8 mg/g. The results for antioxidant activity ranged from 9.3 to 23.2 molTE/g and from 24.7 to 53.4molTE/g, when measured, respectively, by DPPH and ABTS methods. In conclusion it was observed that, in general, the cultivar had a visible effect on the phenols present, and furthermore, the geographical origin showed relevance either in the phenols contents or the antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, blueberry cultivar, geographical origin, phenolic compounds.

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52 Problems of Innovation Development of Wireless Data Transfer Branch in the Cellular Market of Kazakhstan

Authors: Yessengeldy Kuanyshpayev

Abstract:

Now in some countries of the world the cellular market is on the point of saturation, in others - positive dynamics of development kept on. The reasons for it are also different, but there are united by their general susceptibility to innovation changes, if they are really innovative. If to take as an example the cellular market of Kazakhstan it is defined by the low percent of smart phones at consumers, the low population density, undercapacity of the 3G channel, and absence of universal access to the LTE technology that limits dynamical growth of this branch. These moments are aggravated by failures of starting commercial projects by private companies which prevent to be implemented and widely adopted to a new product among consumers. The object of the research is possible integration of wireless and program technologies at which introduction the idea can regenerate in an innovation. The analysis of existing projects in the market and the possible union of the technologies through a prism of theoretical bases of innovative activity shows that efficiency of the company by development and introduction of innovations is possible only thanks to strict observance of all terms and conditions of the innovative process which main term is profit. Despite that fact that on a global scale the innovativeness issue of companies is very popular, there are no researches about possibility of innovative breaks in the field of wireless access to the Internet in the cellular market of Kazakhstan.

Keywords: Cellular market, commercialization, innovation, the effectiveness of company.

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51 Studying the Effect of Ethanol and Operating Temperature on Purification of Lactulose Syrup Containing Lactose

Authors: N. Zanganeh, M. Zabet

Abstract:

Lactulose is a synthetic disaccharide which has remarkable applications in food and pharmaceutical fields. Lactulose is not found in nature and it is produced by isomerization reaction of lactose in an alkaline environment. It should be noted that this reaction has a very low yield since significant amount of lactose stays un-reacted in the system. Basically, purification of lactulose is difficult and costly. Previous studies have revealed that solubility of lactose and lactulose are significantly different in ethanol. Considering the fact that solubility is also affected by temperature itself, we investigated the effect of ethanol and temperature on separation process of lactose from the syrup containing lactose and lactulose. For this purpose, a saturated solution containing lactulose and lactose was made at three different temperatures; 25⁰C (room temperature), 31⁰C, and 37⁰C first.  Five samples containing 2g saturated solution was taken and then 2g, 3g, 4g, 5g, and 6g ethanol separately was added to the sampling tubes. Sampling tubes were kept at respective temperatures afterward. The concentration of lactose and lactulose after separation process measured and analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that ethanol has such a greater impact than operating temperature on purification process. Also, it was observed that the maximum rate of separation occurred at initial amount of added ethanol.

Keywords: Ethanol, lactose, lactulose syrup, purification.

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50 Genome-Wide Analysis of BES1/BZR1 Gene Family in Five Plant Species

Authors: Jafar Ahmadi, Zhohreh Asiaban, Sedigheh Fabriki Ourang

Abstract:

Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate cell elongation, vascular differentiation, senescence, and stress responses. BRs signal through the BES1/BZR1 family of transcription factors, which regulate hundreds of target genes involved in this pathway. In this research a comprehensive genome-wide analysis was carried out in BES1/BZR1 gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana, Cucumis sativus, Vitis vinifera, Glycin max and Brachypodium distachyon. Specifications of the desired sequences, dot plot and hydropathy plot were analyzed in the protein and genome sequences of five plant species. The maximum amino acid length was attributed to protein sequence Brdic3g with 374aa and the minimum amino acid length was attributed to protein sequence Gm7g with 163aa. The maximum Instability index was attributed to protein sequence AT1G19350 equal with 79.99 and the minimum Instability index was attributed to protein sequence Gm5g equal with 33.22. Aliphatic index of these protein sequences ranged from 47.82 to 78.79 in Arabidopsis thaliana, 49.91 to 57.50 in Vitis vinifera, 55.09 to 82.43 in Glycin max, 54.09 to 54.28 in Brachypodium distachyon 55.36 to 56.83 in Cucumis sativus. Overall, data obtained from our investigation contributes a better understanding of the complexity of the BES1/BZR1 gene family and provides the first step towards directing future experimental designs to perform systematic analysis of the functions of the BES1/BZR1 gene family.

Keywords: BES1/BZR1, Brassinosteroids, Phylogenetic analysis, Transcription factor.

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49 Characterization of the In0.53Ga0.47As n+nn+ Photodetectors

Authors: Fatima Zohra Mahi, Luca Varani

Abstract:

We present an analytical model for the calculation of the sensitivity, the spectral current noise and the detective parameter for an optically illuminated In0.53Ga0.47As n+nn+ diode. The photocurrent due to the excess carrier is obtained by solving the continuity equation. Moreover, the current noise level is evaluated at room temperature and under a constant voltage applied between the diode terminals. The analytical calculation of the current noise in the n+nn+ structure is developed by considering the free carries fluctuations. The responsivity and the detection parameter are discussed as functions of the doping concentrations and the emitter layer thickness in one-dimensional homogeneous n+nn+ structure.

Keywords: Responsivity, detection parameter, photo-detectors, continuity equation, current noise.

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48 Estimation of Vertical Handover Probability in an Integrated UMTS and WLAN Networks

Authors: Diganta Kumar Pathak, Manashjyoti Bhuyan, Vaskar Deka

Abstract:

Vertical Handover(VHO) among different communication technologies ensuring uninterruption and service continuity is one of the most important performance parameter in Heterogenous networks environment. In an integrated Universal Mobile Telecommunicatin System(UMTS) and Wireless Local Area Network(WLAN), WLAN is given an inherent priority over UMTS because of its high data rates with low cost. Therefore mobile users want to be associated with WLAN maximum of the time while roaming, to enjoy best possible services with low cost. That encourages reduction of number of VHO. In this work the reduction of number of VHO with respect to varying number of WLAN Access Points(APs) in an integrated UMTS and WLAN network is investigated through simulation to provide best possible cost effective service to the users. The simulation has been carried out for an area (7800 × 9006)m2 where COST-231 Hata model and 3GPP (TR 101 112 V 3.1.0) specified models are used for WLAN and UMTS path loss models respectively. The handover decision is triggered based on the received signal level as compared to the fade margin. Fade margin gives a probabilistic measure of the reliability of the communication link. A relationship between number of WLAN APs and the number of VHO is also established in this work.

Keywords: VHO, UMTS, WLAN, MT, AP, BS.

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47 Mechanical Properties of Recycled Plasticized PVB/PVC Blends

Authors: Michael Tupý, Dagmar Měřínská, Alice Tesaříková-Svobodová, Christian Carrot, Caroline Pillon, Vít Petránek

Abstract:

The mechanical properties of blends consisting of plasticized poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) and plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) are studied, in order to evaluate the possibility of using recycled PVB waste derived from windshields. PVC was plasticized with 38% of diisononyl phthalate (DINP), while PVB was plasticized with 28% of triethylene glycol, bis(2-ethylhexanoate) (3GO). The optimal process conditions for the PVB/PVC blend in 1:1 ratio were determined. Entropy was used in order to theoretically predict the blends miscibility. The PVB content of each blend composition used was ranging from zero to 100%. Tensile strength and strain were tested. In addition, a comparison between recycled and original PVB, used as constituents of the blend, was performed.

Keywords: Poly(vinyl butyral), poly(vinyl chloride), windshield, polymer waste, mechanical properties.

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46 Investigation of Roll off Factor in Pulse Shaping Filter on Maximal Ratio Combining for CDMA 2000 System

Authors: G. S. Walia, H. P. Singh, Padma D.

Abstract:

The integration of wide variety of communication services is made possible with invention of 3G technology. Code Division Multiple Access 2000 operates on various RF channel bandwidths 1.2288 or 3.6864 Mcps (1x or 3x systems). It is a 3G system which offers high bandwidth and wireless broadband services but its efficiency is lowered due to various factors like fading, interference, scattering, absorption etc. This paper investigates the effect of diversity (MRC), roll off factor in Root Raised Cosine (RRC) filter for the BPSK and QPSK modulation schemes. It is possible to transmit data with minimum Inter symbol Interference and within limited bandwidth with proper pulse shaping technique. Bit error rate (BER) performance is analyzed by applying diversity technique by varying the roll off factor for BPSK and QPSK. Roll off factor reduces the ISI and diversity reduces the Fading.

Keywords: CDMA2000, Diversity, Root Raised Cosine, Roll off factor.

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45 Microstrip Slot Antenna for Triple Band Application in Wireless Communication

Authors: Biplab Bag

Abstract:

In this paper, the design of a coaxial feed single layer rectangular microstrip patch antenna for three different wireless communication band applications is presented. The proposed antenna is designed by using substrate Roger RT/duroid 5880 having permittivity of about 2.2 and tangent loss of 0.0009. The characteristics of the substrate are designed and to evaluate the performance of modeled antenna using HFSS v.11 EM simulator, from Ansoft. The proposed antenna has small in size and operates at 2.25GHz, 3.76GHz and 5.23GHz suitable for mobile satellite service (MSS) network, WiMAX and WLAN applications. The dimension of the patch and slots are optimized to obtain these desired functional frequency ranges. The simulation results with frequency response, radiation pattern and return loss, VSWR, Input Impedance are presented with appropriate table and graph.

Keywords: Microstrip, Tangent Loss, MSS, WiMAX, WLAN, Radiation Pattern, Return Loss, VSWR.

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44 Augmentation Opportunity of Transmission Control Protocol Performance in Wireless Networks and Cellular Systems

Authors: Ghassan A. Abed, Samir I. Badrawi

Abstract:

The advancement in wireless technology with the wide use of mobile devices have drawn the attention of the research and technological communities towards wireless environments, such as Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs), Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWANs), and mobile systems and ad-hoc networks. Unfortunately, wired and wireless networks are expressively different in terms of link reliability, bandwidth, and time of propagation delay and by adapting new solutions for these enhanced telecommunications, superior quality, efficiency, and opportunities will be provided where wireless communications were otherwise unfeasible. Some researchers define 4G as a significant improvement of 3G, where current cellular network’s issues will be solved and data transfer will play a more significant role. For others, 4G unifies cellular and wireless local area networks, and introduces new routing techniques, efficient solutions for sharing dedicated frequency bands, and an increased mobility and bandwidth capacity. This paper discusses the possible solutions and enhancements probabilities that proposed to improve the performance of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) over different wireless networks and also the paper investigated each approach in term of advantages and disadvantages.

Keywords: TCP, Wireless Networks, Cellular Systems, WLAN.

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43 Significant Role Analysis of Transmission Control Protocols in 4G Cellular Systems

Authors: Ghassan A. Abed, Bayan M. Sabbar

Abstract:

The society of 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is completed developing Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-Advanced) systems as a standard 4G cellular system. This generation goals to produce conditions for a new radio-access technology geared to higher data rates, low latency, and better spectral efficiency. LTE-Advanced is an evolutionary step in the continuing development of LTE where the description in this article is based on LTE release 10. This paper provides a model of the traffic links of 4G system represented by LTE-Advanced system with the effect of the Transmission Control Protocols (TCP) and Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) in term of throughput and packet loss. Furthermore, the article presents the investigation and the analysis the behavior of SCTP and TCP variants over the 4G cellular systems. The traffic model and the scenario of the simulation developed using the network simulator NS-2 using different TCP source variants.

Keywords: LTE-Advanced, LTE, SCTP, TCP, 4G, NS-2.

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42 Functionalized PU Foam for Water Filtration

Authors: Nidal H. Abu-Zahra, Subhashini Gunashekar

Abstract:

Polyurethane foam is functionalized with Sulfonic acid groups to remove lead ions (Pb2+) from drinking water through a cation exchange process. The synthesis is based on addition polymerization of the -NCO groups of an isocyanate with the –OH groups of a polyol to form the urethane. Toluene-diisocyanateis reacted with Polypropylene glycol to form a linear pre-polymer, which is further polymerized using a chain extender, N, N-bis(2-hydorxyethyl)-2-aminoethane-sulfonic acid (BES). BES acts as a functional group site to exchange Pb2+ ions. A set of experiments was designed to study the effect of various processing parameters on the performance of the synthesized foam. The maximum Pb2+ ion exchange capacity of the foam was found to be 47ppb/g from a 100ppb Pb2+ solution over a period of 60 minutes. A multistage batch filtration process increased the lead removal to 50-54ppb/3g of foam over a period of 90 minutes.

Keywords: Adsorption, Functionalized, Ion exchange, Polyurethane, Sulfonic.

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41 An Analysis of Eco-efficiency and GHG Emission of Olive Oil Production in Northeast of Portugal

Authors: M. Feliciano, F. Maia, A. Gonçalves

Abstract:

Olive oil production sector plays an important role in Portuguese economy. It had a major growth over the last decade, increasing its weight in the overall national exports. International market penetration for Mediterranean traditional products is increasingly more demanding, especially in the Northern European markets, where consumers are looking for more sustainable products. Trying to support this growing demand this study addresses olive oil production under the environmental and eco-efficiency perspectives. The analysis considers two consecutive product life cycle stages: olive trees farming; and olive oil extraction in mills. Addressing olive farming, data collection covered two different organizations: a middle-size farm (~12ha) (F1) and a large-size farm (~100ha) (F2). Results from both farms show that olive collection activities are responsible for the largest amounts of Green House Gases (GHG) emissions. In this activities, estimate for the Carbon Footprint per olive was higher in F2 (188g CO2e/kgolive) than in F1 (148g CO2e/kgolive). Considering olive oil extraction, two different mills were considered: one using a two-phase system (2P) and other with a three-phase system (3P). Results from the study of two mills show that there is a much higher use of water in 3P. Energy intensity (EI) is similar in both mills. When evaluating the GHG generated, two conditions are evaluated: a biomass neutral condition resulting on a carbon footprint higher in 3P (184g CO2e/Lolive oil) than in 2P (92g CO2e/Lolive oil); and a non-neutral biomass condition in which 2P increase its carbon footprint to 273g CO2e/Lolive oil. When addressing the carbon footprint of possible combinations among studied subsystems, results suggest that olive harvesting is the major source for GHG.

Keywords: Carbon footprint, environmental indicators, farming subsystem, industrial subsystem, olive oil.

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40 Effect of Nitrogen and Carbon Sources on Growth and Lipid Production from Mixotrophic Growth of Chlorella sp. KKU-S2

Authors: Ratanaporn Leesing, Thidarat Papone, Mutiyaporn Puangbut

Abstract:

Mixotrophic cultivation of the isolated freshwater microalgae Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 in batch shake flask for biomass and lipid productions, different concentration of glucose as carbon substrate, different nitrogen source and concentrations were investigated. Using 1.0g/L of NaNO3 as nitrogen source, the maximum biomass yield of 10.04g/L with biomass productivity of 1.673g/L d was obtained using 40g/L glucose, while a biomass of 7.09, 8.55 and 9.45g/L with biomass productivity of 1.182, 1.425 and 1.575g/L d were found at 20, 30 and 50g/L glucose, respectively. The maximum lipid yield of 3.99g/L with lipid productivity of 0.665g/L d was obtained when 40g/L glucose was used. Lipid yield of 1.50, 3.34 and 3.66g/L with lipid productivity of 0.250, 0.557 and 0.610g/L d were found when using the initial concentration of glucose at 20, 30 and 50g/L, respectively. Process product yield (YP/S) of 0.078, 0.119, 0.158 and 0.094 were observed when glucose concentration was 20, 30, 40 and 50 g/L, respectively. The results obtained from the study shows that mixotrophic culture of Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 is a desirable cultivation process for microbial lipid and biomass production. 

Keywords: Mixotrophic cultivation, microalgal lipid, Chlorella sp. KKU-S2.

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39 Mobile Cloud Middleware: A New Service for Mobile Users

Authors: K. Akherfi, H. Harroud

Abstract:

Cloud computing (CC) and mobile cloud computing (MCC) have advanced rapidly the last few years. Today, MCC undergoes fast improvement and progress in terms of hardware (memory, embedded sensors, power consumption, touch screen, etc.) software (more and more sophisticated mobile applications) and transmission (higher data transmission rates achieved with different technologies such as 3Gs). This paper presents a review on the concept of CC and MCC. Then, it discusses what has been done regarding middleware in cloud and mobile cloud computing. Later, it shows the architecture of our proposed middleware along with its functionalities which will be provided to mobile clients in order to overcome the well known problems (such as low battery power, slow CPU speed and little memory…).

Keywords: Context-aware, cloud computing, middleware, mobile cloud.

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38 Physical-Chemical Parameters of Latvian Apple Juices and Their Suitability for Cider Production

Authors: Rita Riekstina-Dolge, Zanda Kruma, Daina Karklina, Fredijs Dimins

Abstract:

Apple juice is the main raw material for cider production. In this study apple juices obtained from 14 dessert and crab variety apples grown in Latvia were investigated. For all samples soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH and sugar content were determined. Crab apples produce more dry matter, total sugar and acid content compared to the dessert apples but it depends on the apple variety. Total sugar content of crab apple juices was 1.3 to 1.8 times larger than in dessert apple juices. Titratable acidity of dessert apple juices is in the range of 4.1g L-1 to 10.83g L-1 and in crab apple juices titratable acidity is from 7.87g L-1 to 19.6g L-1. Fructose was detected as the main sugar whereas glucose level varied depending on the variety. The highest titratable acidity and content of sugars was detected in ‘Cornelia’ apples juice.

Keywords: Apple juice, hierarchical cluster analysis, sugars, titratable acidity.

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37 Morphological Characteristics and Pollination Requirement in Red Pitaya (Hylocereus spp.)

Authors: Dinh - Ha Tran, Chung - Ruey Yen

Abstract:

This study explored the morphological characteristics and effects of pollination methods on fruit set and characteristics in 4 red pitaya (Hylocereus spp.) clones. The distinctive morphological recognition and classification among pitaya clones were confirmed by the stem, flower and fruit features. The fruit production season was indicated from the beginning of May to the end of August – the beginning of September with 6-7 flowering cycles per year. The floral stage took from 15-19 days and fruit duration spent 30–32 days. VN White, fully self-compatible, obtained high fruit set rates (80.0–90.5%) in all pollination treatments and the maximum fruit weight (402.6g) in hand self- and (403.4g) in open-pollination. Chaozhou 5 was partially self-compatible while Orejona and F11 were completely self-incompatible. Hand cross-pollination increased significantly fruit set (95.8; 88.4 and 90.2%) and fruit weight (374.2; 281.8 and 416.3g) in Chaozhou 5, Orejona and F11, respectively. TSS contents were not much influcenced by pollination methods.

Keywords: Hylocereus spp., morphology, floral phenology, pollination requirement.

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36 TNFRSF11B Gene Polymorphisms A163G and G11811C in Prediction of Osteoporosis Risk

Authors: Boroňová I., Bernasovská J., Kľoc J., Tomková Z., Petrejčíková E., Gabriková D., Mačeková S.

Abstract:

Osteoporosis is a complex health disease characterized by low bone mineral density, which is determined by an interaction of genetics with metabolic and environmental factors. Current research in genetics of osteoporosis is focused on identification of responsible genes and polymorphisms. TNFRSF11B gene plays a key role in bone remodeling. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype and allele distribution of A163G (rs3102735) osteoprotegerin gene promoter and G1181C (rs2073618) osteoprotegerin first exon polymorphisms in the group of 180 unrelated postmenopausal women with diagnosed osteoporosis and 180 normal controls. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes using standard methodology. Genotyping for presence of different polymorphisms was performed using the Custom Taqman®SNP Genotyping assays. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested for each SNP in the groups of participants using the chi-square (χ2) test. The distribution of investigated genotypes in the group of patients with osteoporosis were as follows: AA (66.7%), AG (32.2%), GG (1.1%) for A163G polymorphism; GG (19.4%), CG (44.4%), CC (36.1%) for G1181C polymorphism. The distribution of genotypes in normal controls were follows: AA (71.1%), AG (26.1%), GG (2.8%) for A163G polymorphism; GG (22.2%), CG (48.9%), CC (28.9%) for G1181C polymorphism. In A163G polymorphism the variant G allele was more common among patients with osteoporosis: 17.2% versus 15.8% in normal controls. Also, in G1181C polymorphism the phenomenon of more frequent occurrence of C allele in the group of patients with osteoporosis was observed (58.3% versus 53.3%). Genotype and allele distributions showed no significant differences (A163G: χ2=0.270, p=0.605; χ2=0.250, p=0.616; G1181C: χ2= 1.730, p=0.188; χ2=1.820, p=0.177). Our results represents an initial study, further studies of more numerous file and associations studies will be carried out. Knowing the distribution of genotypes is important for assessing the impact of these polymorphisms on various parameters associated with osteoporosis. Screening for identification of “at-risk” women likely to develop osteoporosis and initiating subsequent early intervention appears to be most effective strategy to substantially reduce the risks of osteoporosis.

Keywords: Osteoporosis, Real-time PCR method, SNP polymorphisms.

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