Search results for: W ei-Yong Ying
141 Solution of Two-Point Nonlinear Boundary Problems Using Taylor Series Approximation and the Ying Buzu Shu Algorithm
Authors: U. C. Amadi, N. A. Udoh
One of the major challenges faced in solving initial and boundary problems is how to find approximate solutions with minimal deviation from the exact solution without so much rigor and complications. The Taylor series method provides a simple way of obtaining an infinite series which converges to the exact solution for initial value problems and this method of solution is somewhat limited for a two point boundary problem since the infinite series has to be truncated to include the boundary conditions. In this paper, the Ying Buzu Shu algorithm is used to solve a two point boundary nonlinear diffusion problem for the fourth and sixth order solution and compare their relative error and rate of convergence to the exact solution.
Keywords: Ying Buzu Shu, nonlinear boundary problem, Taylor series algorithm, infinite series.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 188
140 The Impact of the Type of Diversification of Listed Construction Enterprises in China on Corporation Performance
Authors: Yi-Hsin Lin, Ying-Ying Li
Abstract:The construction industry is the pillar industry in China, accounting for about 6% of the gross domestic product. Along with changes in the external environment of the construction industry in China, the construction firm faces fierce competition. The paper aims to investigate the relationship between diversified types of construction firm and its performance in China. Based on generalist and specialist strategy in organizational ecology, we think a generalist organization can be applied to an enterprise with diversified developments, while specialist groups are extended to professional enterprises .This study takes advantage of annual financial data of listed construction firm to empirically verify the relationship between diversification and corporation performance establishing a regression equation to econometric analysis. We find that: 1) Specialization can significantly improve the level of profitability of listed construction firms, and there is a significant positive relationship with corporate performance; 2) The level of operating performance of listed construction enterprises which engage in unrelated diversification is higher than those with related diversification; 3) The relationship between state-owned construction firms and corporate performance is negative. The more the year of foundation is, the higher performance will be; however, the more the year of being listed, the lower performance will be.
Keywords: Diversification, Specialization, Construction Firm, Performance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1646
139 Simulation of PM10 Source Apportionment at An Urban Site in Southern Taiwan by a Gaussian Trajectory Model
Authors: Chien-Lung Chen, Jeng-Lin Tsai, Feng-Chao Chung, Su-Ching Kuo, Kuo-Hsin Tseng, Pei-Hsuan Kuo, Li-Ying Hsieh, Ying I. Tsai
Abstract:This study applied the Gaussian trajectory transfer-coefficient model (GTx) to simulate the particulate matter concentrations and the source apportionments at Nanzih Air Quality Monitoring Station in southern Taiwan from November 2007 to February 2008. The correlation coefficient between the observed and the calculated daily PM10 concentrations is 0.5 and the absolute bias of the PM10 concentrations is 24%. The simulated PM10 concentrations matched well with the observed data. Although the emission rate of PM10 was dominated by area sources (58%), the results of source apportionments indicated that the primary sources for PM10 at Nanzih Station were point sources (42%), area sources (20%) and then upwind boundary concentration (14%). The obvious difference of PM10 source apportionment between episode and non-episode days was upwind boundary concentrations which contributed to 20% and 11% PM10 sources, respectively. The gas-particle conversion of secondary aerosol and long range transport played crucial roles on the PM10 contribution to a receptor.
Keywords: back trajectory model, particulate matter, sourceapportionmentProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1474
138 Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Vibration Control of an ERF Embedded Smart Structure
Authors: Chih-Jer Lin, Chun-Ying Lee, Ying Liu, Chiang-Ho Cheng
The main objective of this article is to present the semi-active vibration control using an electro-rheological fluid embedded sandwich structure for a cantilever beam. ER fluid is a smart material, which cause the suspended particles polarize and connect each other to form chain. The stiffness and damping coefficients of the ER fluid can be changed in 10 micro seconds; therefore, ERF is suitable to become the material embedded in the tunable vibration absorber to become a smart absorber. For the ERF smart material embedded structure, the fuzzy control law depends on the experimental expert database and the proposed self-tuning strategy. The electric field is controlled by a CRIO embedded system to implement the real application. This study investigates the different performances using the Type-1 fuzzy and interval Type-2 fuzzy controllers. The Interval type-2 fuzzy control is used to improve the modeling uncertainties for this ERF embedded shock absorber. The self-tuning vibration controllers using Type-1 and Interval Type-2 fuzzy law are implemented to the shock absorber system. Based on the resulting performance, Internal Type-2 fuzzy is better than the traditional Type-1 fuzzy control for this vibration control system.
Keywords: Electro-Rheological Fluid, Semi-active vibration control, shock absorber, type 2 fuzzy control.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2011
137 Remarks on Some Properties of Decision Rules
Authors: Songlin Yang, Ying Ge
Abstract:This paper shows that some properties of the decision rules in the literature do not hold by presenting a counterexample. We give sufficient and necessary conditions under which these properties are valid. These results will be helpful when one tries to choose the right decision rules in the research of rough set theory.
Keywords: set, Decision table, Decision rule, coverage factor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1276
136 Establishment and Evaluation of Information System for Chemotherapy Care
Authors: Yi-Ting Liu, Pei-Ying Wen
In order to improve the overall safety of chemotherapy, safety-protecting netwas established for the whole process from prescribing by physicians, transcribing by nurses, dispensing by pharmacists to administering by nurses. The information system was used to check and monitorwhole process of administration and related sheets were computerized to simplify the paperwork.
Keywords: Chemotherapy, Bar Code Medication Administration (BCMA), Medication Safety.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1746
135 Catalytic Cracking of Butene to Propylene over Modified HZSM-5 Zeolites
Authors: Jianwen Li, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Qiwen Sun, Weiyong Ying
Catalytic cracking of butene to propylene was carried out in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor over HZSM-5 catalysts modified by nickel and phosphorus. The structure and acidity of catalysts were measured by N2 adsorption, NH3-TPD and XPS. The results revealed that surface area and strong acid sites both decreased with increasing phosphorus loadings. The increment of phosphorus loadings reduced the butene conversion but enhanced the propylene selectivity and catalyst stability.
Keywords: Butene, catalytic cracking, HZSM-5, modification.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3046
134 Pedometer Development Utilizing an Accelerometer Sensor
Authors: Ling-Mei Wu, Jia-Shing Sheu, Wei-Cian Jheng, Ying-Tung Hsiao
This paper develops a pedometer with a three-axis acceleration sensor that can be placed with any angle. The proposed pedometer measures the number of steps while users walk, jog or run. It can be worn on users’ waistband or placed within pocket or backpack. The work address to improve on the general pedometers, which can only be used in a single direction or can only count of steps without the continuous exercise judgment mechanism. Finally, experimental results confirm the superior performance of the proposed pedometer.
Keywords: Accelerometer sensor, Angle estimation, Pedometer.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4596
133 State of the Art: A Study on Fall Detection
Authors: Goh Yongli, Ooi Shih Yin, Pang Ying Han
Abstract:Unintentional falls are rife throughout the ages and have been the common factor of serious or critical injuries especially for the elderly society. Fortunately, owing to the recent rapid advancement in technology, fall detection system is made possible, enabling detection of falling events for the elderly, monitoring the patient and consequently provides emergency support in the event of falling. This paper presents a review of 3 main categories of fall detection techniques, ranging from year 2005 to year 2010. This paper will be focusing on discussing the techniques alongside with summary and conclusion for them.
Keywords: State of the art, fall detection, wearable devices, ambient analyser, motion detection.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2010
132 Investors’ Misreaction to Subsequent Bad News
Authors: Liang-Chien Lee, Chih-Hsiang Chang, Ying-Shu Tseng
Abstract:Comparing with prior studies mainly focused on the effect of a certain event (it may be the initial announcement of bad news or the repeated announcements of identical bad news) on stock price, the aim of this study is to explore how investors react to subsequent bad news with identical content. Empirical results show that as a result of behavioral pitfalls, investors underreact to the initial announcement of the bad news (i.e., unknown bad news) and overreact to the repeated announcements of the identical bad news (i.e., known bad news).
Keywords: Subsequent bad news, Behavioral finance, Investors’ misreaction, Behavioral pitfalls.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1477
131 In-situ Observations Using SEM-EBSD for Bending Deformation in Single-Crystal Materials
Authors: Yuko Matayoshi, Takashi Sakai, Ying-jun Jin, Jun-ichi Koyama
To elucidate the material characteristics of single crystals of pure aluminum and copper, the respective relations between crystallographic orientations and microstructures were examined, along with bending and mechanical properties. The texture distribution was also analysed. Bending tests were performed in a SEM apparatus while its behaviors were observed. Some analytical results related to crystal direction maps, inverse pole figures, and textures were obtained from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses.
Keywords: Pure aluminum, Pure copper, Single crystal, Bending, SEM-EBSD analysis, Texture, Microstructure.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2115
130 Modeling and Control of a Quadrotor UAV with Aerodynamic Concepts
Authors: Wei Dong, Guo-Ying Gu, Xiangyang Zhu, Han Ding
Abstract:This paper presents preliminary results on modeling and control of a quadrotor UAV. With aerodynamic concepts, a mathematical model is firstly proposed to describe the dynamics of the quadrotor UAV. Parameters of this model are identified by experiments with Matlab Identify Toolbox. A group of PID controllers are then designed based on the developed model. To verify the developed model and controllers, simulations and experiments for altitude control, position control and trajectory tracking are carried out. The results show that the quadrotor UAV well follows the referenced commands, which clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Keywords: Quadrotor UAV, Modeling, Control, Aerodynamics, System Identification.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 6891
129 Applying Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process for Evaluating Service Quality of Online Auction
Authors: Chien-Hua Wang, Meng-Ying Chou, Chin-Tzong Pang
Abstract:This paper applies fuzzy AHP to evaluate the service quality of online auction. Service quality is a composition of various criteria. Among them many intangible attributes are difficult to measure. This characteristic introduces the obstacles for respondents on reply in the survey. So as to overcome this problem, we invite fuzzy set theory into the measurement of performance and use AHP in obtaining criteria. We found the most concerned dimension of service quality is Transaction Safety Mechanism and the least is Charge Item. Other criteria such as information security, accuracy and information are too vital.
Keywords: Fuzzy set theory, AHP, Online auction, Service qualityProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2044
128 Some Separations in Covering Approximation Spaces
Authors: Xun Ge, Jinjin Li, Ying Ge
Abstract:Adopting Zakowski-s upper approximation operator C and lower approximation operator C, this paper investigates granularity-wise separations in covering approximation spaces. Some characterizations of granularity-wise separations are obtained by means of Pawlak rough sets and some relations among granularitywise separations are established, which makes it possible to research covering approximation spaces by logical methods and mathematical methods in computer science. Results of this paper give further applications of Pawlak rough set theory in pattern recognition and artificial intelligence.
Keywords: Rough set, covering approximation space, granularitywise separation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1566
127 Investigation on Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Cobalt-Gadolinium Catalyst
Authors: Jian Huang, Weixin Qian, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying
Abstract:Cobalt-gadolinium catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was prepared by impregnation method with commercial silica gel, and its texture properties were characterized by BET, XRD, and TPR. The catalytic performance of the catalyst was tested in a fixed bed reactor. The results showed that the addition of gadolinium to the cobalt catalyst might decrease the size of cobalt particles, and increased the dispersion of catalytic active cobalt phases. The carbon number distributions for the catalysts was calculated by ASF equation.
Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, cobalt-based catalysts, gadolinium, carbon number distributions.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1325
126 Towards Security in Virtualization of SDN
Authors: Wanqing You, Kai Qian, Xi He, Ying Qian
In this paper, the potential security issues brought by the virtualization of a Software Defined Networks (SDN) would be analyzed. The virtualization of SDN is achieved by FlowVisor (FV). With FV, a physical network is divided into multiple isolated logical networks while the underlying resources are still shared by different slices (isolated logical networks). However, along with the benefits brought by network virtualization, it also presents some issues regarding security. By examining security issues existing in an OpenFlow network, which uses FlowVisor to slice it into multiple virtual networks, we hope we can get some significant results and also can get furtherdiscussions among the security of SDN virtualization.
Keywords: FlowVisor, Network virtualization, Potential threats, Possible solutions.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2055
125 Na Promoted Ni/γ-Al2O3 Catalysts Prepared by Solution Combustion Method for Syngas Methanation
Authors: Yan Zeng, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying
Ni-based catalysts with different amounts of Na as promoter from 2 to 6 wt % were prepared by solution combustion method. The catalytic activity was investigated in syngas methanation reaction. Carbon oxides conversion and methane selectivity are greatly influenced by sodium loading. Adding 2 wt% Na remarkably improves catalytic activity and long-term stability, attributed to its smaller mean NiO particle size, better distribution, and milder metal-support interaction. However, excess addition of Na results in deactivation distinctly due to the blockage of active sites.
Keywords: Nickel catalysts, Syngas methanation, Sodium, Solution combustion method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4153
124 Hydrogenation of Acetic Acid on Alumina-Supported Pt-Sn Catalysts
Authors: Ke Zhang, Fang Li, Haitao Zhang, Hongfang Ma, Weiyong Ying, Dingye Fang
Abstract:Three alumina-supported Pt-Sn catalysts have been prepared by means of co-impregnation and characterized by XRD and N2 adsorption. The influence of catalyst composition and reaction conditions on the conversion and selectivity were investigated in the hydrogenation of acetic acid in an isothermal integral fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed on the temperature interval 468-548 K, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) of 0.3-0.7h-1, pressures between 1.0 and 5.0Mpa. A good compromise of 0.75%Pt-1.5%Sn can act as an optimized acetic acid hydrogenation catalyst, and the conversion and selectivity can be tuned through the variation of reaction conditions.
Keywords: Acetic acid, hydrogenation, Pt-Sn catalysts, ethanol.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3030
123 Exploring the Factors of Inter-Organizational Knowledge Sharing
Authors: Ying-Hueih Chen, Jyh-Jeng Wu, Shu-Hua Chien, Yui-Chuin Shiah
Interorganizational knowledge sharing is the major driving force to maximize the operational benefits across supply chain. Trust is considered as the key to facilitate knowledge sharing. This research proposes shared values and relational embeddedness as antecedents of interorganizational trust. Survey based on managers in major industrial parks in Taiwan confirm that trust is enforced when organizations develop shared values and formed social relational embeddedness. Trust leads to interorganizational knowledge sharing. This research has theoretical and practical implications.
Keywords: Shared Goal, Relational Embeddedness, Trust, Knowledge Sharing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2336
122 A Design of Supply Chain Management System with Flexible Planning Capability
Authors: Chia-Hui Huang, Han-Ying Kao
Abstract:In production planning (PP) periods with excess capacity and growing demand, the manufacturers have two options to use the excess capacity. First, it could do more changeovers and thus reduce lot sizes, inventories, and inventory costs. Second, it could produce in excess of demand in the period and build additional inventory that can be used to satisfy future demand increments, thus delaying the purchase of the next machine that is required to meet the growth in demand. In this study we propose an enhanced supply chain planning model with flexible planning capability. In addition, a 3D supply chain planning system is illustrated.
Keywords: Supply chain, capacity expansion, inventory management, planning system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1453
121 Why Do People Abandon Mobile Social Games? Using Candy Crush Saga as an Example
Authors: Pei-Shan Wei, Szu-Ying Lee, Hsi-Peng Lu, Jen-Chuen Tzou, Chien-I Weng
Mobile social games recently become extremely popular, spawning a whole new entertainment culture. However, mobile game players are fickle, quickly and easily picking up and abandoning games. This pilot study seeks to identify factors that influence users to discontinuing playing mobile social games. We identified three sacrifices which can prompt users to abandon games: monetary sacrifice, time sacrifice and privacy sacrifice. The results showed that monetary sacrifice has a greater impact than the other two factors in causing players to discontinue usage intention.
Keywords: Abandon, Mobile devices, Mobile social games, Perceived sacrifice.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3287
120 The Flashbulb Memory of the Positive and Negative Events: Wenchuan Earthquake and Acceptance to College
Authors: Aiping Liu, Xiaoping Ying, Jing Luo
53 college students answered questions regarding the circumstances in which they first heard about the news of Wenchuan earthquake or the news of their acceptance to college which took place approximately one year ago, and answered again two years later. The number of details recalled about their circumstances for both events was high and didn-t decline two years later. However, consistency in reported details over two years was low. Participants were more likely to construct central (e.g., Where were you?) than peripheral information (What were you wearing?), and the confidence of the central information was higher than peripheral information, which indicated that they constructed more when they were more confident.
Keywords: flashbulb memory, consistency, reconstructive error, confidenceProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2132
119 An Enhanced Fault-Tolerant Conference Key Agreement Protocol
Authors: Cheng-Chi Lee, Chun-Ta Li, Chia-Ying Wu, Shiow-Yuan Huang
Abstract:Establishing a secure communication of Internet conferences for participants is very important. Before starting the conference, all the participants establish a common conference key to encrypt/decrypt communicated messages. It enables participants to exchange the secure messages. Nevertheless, in the conference, if there are any malicious participants who may try to upset the key generation process causing other legal participants to obtain a different conference key. In this article, we propose an improved conference key agreement with fault-tolerant capability. The proposed scheme can filter malicious participants at the beginning of the conference to ensure that all participants obtain the same conference key. Compare with other schemes, our scheme is more secure and efficient than others.
Keywords: Conference key, Diffie-Hellman protocol, key agreement, fault tolerance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1229
118 Accurate HLA Typing at High-Digit Resolution from NGS Data
Authors: Yazhi Huang, Jing Yang, Dingge Ying, Yan Zhang, Vorasuk Shotelersuk, Nattiya Hirankarn, Pak Chung Sham, Yu Lung Lau, Wanling Yang
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing from next generation sequencing (NGS) data has the potential for applications in clinical laboratories and population genetic studies. Here we introduce a novel technique for HLA typing from NGS data based on read-mapping using a comprehensive reference panel containing all known HLA alleles and de novo assembly of the gene-specific short reads. An accurate HLA typing at high-digit resolution was achieved when it was tested on publicly available NGS data, outperforming other newly-developed tools such as HLAminer and PHLAT.
Keywords: Human leukocyte antigens, next generation sequencing, whole exome sequencing, HLA typing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2270
117 A Design of Array Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Coil System
Authors: Sheng Ge, Jian-Peng Wang, Hai-Ying Tang, Xi Xiao, Wen Wu
Abstract:This research proposed a new design of helmet-shaped array transcranial magnetic stimulation coil system. It was constructed using several sagittal directional wires and several coronal directional wires. By varying the current direction and strength on each wire, this array coil system could be constructed into the circular coil and figure-eight coil of different size. Also, this proposed coil system can flexibly not only change the stimulation location, range, type and strength, but also change the shape and the channel number of coil dynamically.
Keywords: TMS, circular coils, figure-eight coil, array coilProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2609
116 Methanation Catalyst for Low CO Concentration
Authors: Hong-fang Ma, Cong-yi He, Hai-tao Zhang, Wei-yong Ying, Ding-ye Fang
A Ni-based catalyst supported by γ-Al2O3 was prepared by impregnation method, and the catalyst was used in a low CO and CO2 concentration methanation system. The effect of temperature, pressure and space velocity on the methanation reaction was investigated in an experimental fixed-bed reactor. The methanation reaction was operated at the conditions of 190-240°C, 3000-24000ml•g-1•h-1 and 1.5-3.5MPa. The results show that temperature and space velocity play important role on the reaction. With the increase of reaction temperature the CO and CO2 conversion increase and the selectivity of CH4 increase. And with the increase of the space velocity the conversion of CO and CO2 and the selectivity of CH4 decrease sharply.
Keywords: Coke oven gas, methanation, catalyst, fixed-bed.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3155
115 Intrinsic Kinetics of Methanol Dehydration over Al2O3 Catalyst
Authors: Liang Zhang, Hai-Tao Zhang, W ei-Yong Ying, Ding-Ye Fang
Abstract:Dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) over a commercial Al2O3 catalyst was studied in an isothermal integral fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed on the temperature interval 513-613 K, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) of 0.9-2.1h-1, pressures between 0.1 and 1.0 MPa. The effect of different operation conditions on the dehydration of methanol was investigated in a laboratory scale experiment. A new intrinsic kinetics equation based on the mechanism of Langmuir-Hinshelwood dissociation adsorption was developed for the dehydration reaction by fitting the expressions to the experimental data. An activation energy of 67.21 kJ/mol was obtained for the catalyst with the best performance. Statistic test showed that this new intrinsic kinetics equation was acceptable.
Keywords: catalyst, dimethyl ether, intrinsic kinetics, methanolProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4483
114 The Catalytic Properties of PtSn/Al2O3 for Acetic Acid Hydrogenation
Authors: Mingchuan Zhou, Haitao Zhang, Hongfang Ma, Weiyong Ying
Alumina supported platinum and tin catalysts with different loadings of Pt and Sn were prepared and characterized by low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption, H2-temperature programed reduction and CO pulse chemisorption. Pt and Sn below 1% loading were suitable for acetic acid hydrogenation. The best performance over 0.75Pt1Sn/Al2O3 can reach 87.55% conversion of acetic acid and 47.39% selectivity of ethanol. The operating conditions of acetic acid hydrogenation over 1Pt1Sn/Al2O3 were investigated. High reaction temperature can enhance the conversion of acetic acid, but it decreased total selectivity of ethanol and acetyl acetate. High pressure and low weight hourly space velocity were beneficial to both conversion of acetic acid and selectivity to ethanol.
Keywords: Acetic acid, hydrogenation, PtSn, operating condition.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1060
113 On an Open Problem for Definable Subsets of Covering Approximation Spaces
Authors: Mei He, Ying Ge, Jingyu Qian
Abstract:Let (U;D) be a Gr-covering approximation space (U; C) with covering lower approximation operator D and covering upper approximation operator D. For a subset X of U, this paper investigates the following three conditions: (1) X is a definable subset of (U;D); (2) X is an inner definable subset of (U;D); (3) X is an outer definable subset of (U;D). It is proved that if one of the above three conditions holds, then the others hold. These results give a positive answer of an open problem for definable subsets of covering approximation spaces.
Keywords: Covering approximation space, covering approximation operator, definable subset, inner definable subset, outer definable subset.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1028
112 A Dictionary Learning Method Based On EMD for Audio Sparse Representation
Authors: Yueming Wang, Zenghui Zhang, Rendong Ying, Peilin Liu
Sparse representation has long been studied and several dictionary learning methods have been proposed. The dictionary learning methods are widely used because they are adaptive. In this paper, a new dictionary learning method for audio is proposed. Signals are at first decomposed into different degrees of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) using Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) technique. Then these IMFs form a learned dictionary. To reduce the size of the dictionary, the K-means method is applied to the dictionary to generate a K-EMD dictionary. Compared to K-SVD algorithm, the K-EMD dictionary decomposes audio signals into structured components, thus the sparsity of the representation is increased by 34.4% and the SNR of the recovered audio signals is increased by 20.9%.
Keywords: Dictionary Learning, EMD, K-means Method, Sparse Representation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2475