Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 199

Search results for: tolerance

199 Tolerance of Heavy Metals by Gram Positive Soil Bacteria

Authors: I. V. N. Rathnayake, Mallavarapu Megharaj, Nanthi Bolan, Ravi Naidu

Abstract:

With the intention of screening for heavy metal tolerance, a number of bacteria were isolated and characterized from a pristine soil. Two Gram positive isolates were identified as Paenibacillus sp. and Bacillus thuringeinsis. Tolerance of Cd2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ by these bacteria was studied and found that both bacteria were highly sensitive to Cu2+ compared to other two metals. Both bacteria showed the same pattern of metal tolerance in the order Zn+ > Cd2+ > Cu2+. When the metal tolerance in both bacteria was compared, Paenibacillus sp. showed the highest sensitivity to Cu2+ where as B. thuringiensis showed highest sensitivity to Cd2+ and Zn2+ .These findings revealed the potential of Paenibacillus sp. in developing a biosensor to detect Cu2+ in environmental samples.

Keywords: Heavy metals, bacteria, soil, tolerance.

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198 The Implicit Methods for the Study of Tolerance

Authors: M. Bambulyakа

Abstract:

Tolerance is a tool for achieving a social cohesion, particularly, among individuals and groups with different values. The aim is to study the characteristics of the ethnic tolerance, the inhabitants of Latvia. The ethnic tolerance is taught as a set of conscious and unconscious orientations of the individual in social interaction and inter-ethnic communication. It uses the tools of empirical studies of the ethnic tolerance which allows to identify the explicitly and implicitly levels of the emotional component of Latvia's residents. Explicit measurements were made using the techniques of self-report which revealed the index of the ethnic tolerance and the ethnic identity of the participants. The implicit component was studied using methods based on the effect of the emotional priming. During the processing of the results, there were calculated indicators of the positive and negative implicit attitudes towards members of their own and other ethnicity as well as the explicit parameters of the ethnic tolerance and the ethnic identity of Latvia-s residents. The implicit measurements of the ratio of neighboring ethnic groups against each other showed a mutual negative attitude whereas the explicit measurements indicate a neutral attitude. The data obtained contribute to a further study of the ethnic tolerance of Latvia's residents.

Keywords: ethnic tolerance, implicit measure, priming, ethnic attitudes

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197 How Herding Bias Could be Derived from Individual Investor Types and Risk Tolerance?

Authors: Huei-Wen Lin

Abstract:

This paper is to clarify the relationship of individual investor types, risk tolerance and herding bias. The questionnaire survey investigation is conducted to collect 389 valid and voluntary individual investors and to examine how the risk tolerance plays as a mediator between four types of personality and herding bias. Based on featuring BB&K model and reviewing the prior literature of psychology, a linear structural model are constructed and further used to evaluate the path of herding formation through the analysis of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The results showed that more impetuous investors would be prone to herding bias directly, but rather exhibit higher risk tolerance. However, risk tolerance would fully mediate between the level of confidence (i.e., confident or anxious) and herding bias, but not mediate between the method of action (careful or impetuous) for individual investors.

Keywords: Herding, investor types, risk tolerance.

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196 An Improved Limited Tolerance Rough Set Model

Authors: Chen Wu, Komal Narejo, Dandan Li

Abstract:

Some extended rough set models in incomplete information system cannot distinguish the two objects that have few known attributes and more unknown attributes; some cannot make a flexible and accurate discrimination. In order to solve this problem, this paper suggests an improved limited tolerance rough set model using two thresholds to control what two objects have a relationship between them in limited tolerance relation and to classify objects. Our practical study case shows the model can get fine and reasonable decision results.

Keywords: Decision rule, incomplete information system, limited tolerance relation, rough set model.

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195 The Relationship between Conceptual Organizational Culture and the Level of Tolerance in Employees

Authors: M. Sadoughi, R. Ehsani

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is examining the relationship between conceptual organizational culture and the level of tolerance in employees of Islamic Azad University of Shahre Ghods. This research is a correlational and analytic-descriptive one. The samples included 144 individuals. A 24-item standard questionnaire of organizational culture by Cameron and Queen was used in this study. This questionnaire has six criteria and each criterion includes four items that each item indicates one cultural dimension. Reliability coefficient of this questionnaire was normed using Cronbach's alpha of 0.91. Also, the 25-item questionnaire of tolerance by Conor and Davidson was used. This questionnaire is in a five-degree Likert scale form. It has seven criteria and is designed to measure the power of coping with pressure and threat. It has the needed content reliability and its reliability coefficient is normed using Cronbach's alpha of 0.87. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariable regression. The results showed among various dimensions of organizational culture, there is a positive significant relationship between three dimensions (family, adhocracy, bureaucracy) and tolerance, there is a negative significant relationship between dimension of market and tolerance and components of organizational culture have the power of prediction and explaining the tolerance. In this explanation, the component of family is the most effective and the best predictor of tolerance.

Keywords: Adhocracy, bureaucracy, organizational culture, tolerance.

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194 Shopping Cart System: Load Balancing and Fault Tolerance in the OSGi Service Platform

Authors: Irina Astrova, Arne Koschel, Thole Schneider, Johannes Westhuis, Jürgen Westerkamp

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper was to find a simple solution for load balancing and fault tolerance in OSGi. The challenge was to implement a highly available web application such as a shopping cart system with load balancing and fault tolerance, without having to change the core of OSGi.

Keywords: Fault tolerance, load balancing, OSGi, shopping cart system.

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193 Drought Stress Indices in Some Silage Maize Cultivars

Authors: Ehsan Shahrabian, Ali Soleymani

Abstract:

Several yield-based stress indices have been developed that may be more applicable to work on drought tolerance. In this study, we investigate possibility of using stress susceptibility index (SSI), tolerance index (TOL), yield stability index (YSI), yield index (YI), stress tolerance index (STI), geometric mean productivity (GMP), harmonic mean (HARM), mean productivity (MP) to identify genotypic performance of some maize cultivars under normal and stressed condition. The results indicate that it was possible to identify superior genotypes for drought tolerance based on their stress indices and generally SSI indices which showed the lowest negative correlation with dry matter yield can be used as the best index for maize breeding programs to introduce drought tolerant hybrids. It was found that SC 647 showed the best behavior under drought stress condition based on TOL and SSI. A higher STI, GMP, and HARM values were attained for ko6. It can be suggested that ko6 should be cultivated in moderate stressful environment of Iran.

Keywords: Index, productivity, stress, susceptibility tolerance, yield.

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192 Studies on Properties of Knowledge Dependency and Reduction Algorithm in Tolerance Rough Set Model

Authors: Chen Wu, Lijuan Wang

Abstract:

Relation between tolerance class and indispensable attribute and knowledge dependency in rough set model with tolerance relation is explored. After giving definitions and concepts of knowledge dependency and knowledge dependency degree for incomplete information system in tolerance rough set model by distinguishing decision attribute containing missing attribute value or not, the result of maintaining reflectivity, transitivity, augmentation, decomposition law and merge law for complete knowledge dependency is proved. Knowledge dependency degrees (not complete knowledge dependency degrees) only satisfy some laws after transitivity, augmentation and decomposition operations. An algorithm to solve attribute reduction in an incomplete decision table is designed. The correctness is checked by an example.

Keywords: Incomplete information system, rough set, tolerance relation, knowledge dependence, attribute reduction.

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191 Design for Reliability and Manufacturing Yield (Study and Modeling of Defects in Integrated Circuits for their Reliability Analysis)

Authors: G. Ait Abdelmalek, R. Ziani

Abstract:

In this document, we have proposed a robust conceptual strategy, in order to improve the robustness against the manufacturing defects and thus the reliability of logic CMOS circuits. However, in order to enable the use of future CMOS technology nodes this strategy combines various types of design: DFR (Design for Reliability), techniques of tolerance: hardware redundancy TMR (Triple Modular Redundancy) for hard error tolerance, the DFT (Design for Testability. The Results on largest ISCAS and ITC benchmark circuits show that our approach improves considerably the reliability, by reducing the key factors, the area costs and fault tolerance probability.

Keywords: Design for reliability, design for testability, fault tolerance, manufacturing yield.

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190 Implementing Fault Tolerance with Proxy Signature on the Improvement of RSA System

Authors: H. El-Kamchouchi, Heba Gaber, Fatma Ahmed, Dalia H. El-Kamchouchi

Abstract:

Fault tolerance and data security are two important issues in modern communication systems. During the transmission of data between the sender and receiver, errors may occur frequently. Therefore, the sender must re-transmit the data to the receiver in order to correct these errors, which makes the system very feeble. To improve the scalability of the scheme, we present a proxy signature scheme with fault tolerance over an efficient and secure authenticated key agreement protocol based on the improved RSA system. Authenticated key agreement protocols have an important role in building a secure communications network between the two parties.

Keywords: Proxy signature, fault tolerance, improved RSA, key agreement.

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189 A Secure Proxy Signature Scheme with Fault Tolerance Based on RSA System

Authors: H. El-Kamchouchi, Heba Gaber, Fatma Ahmed, Dalia H. El-Kamchouchi

Abstract:

Due to the rapid growth in modern communication systems, fault tolerance and data security are two important issues in a secure transaction. During the transmission of data between the sender and receiver, errors may occur frequently. Therefore, the sender must re-transmit the data to the receiver in order to correct these errors, which makes the system very feeble. To improve the scalability of the scheme, we present a secure proxy signature scheme with fault tolerance over an efficient and secure authenticated key agreement protocol based on RSA system. Authenticated key agreement protocols have an important role in building a secure communications network between the two parties.

Keywords: Proxy signature, fault tolerance, RSA, key agreement protocol.

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188 Surviving Abiotic Stress: The Relationship between High Light and High Salt Tolerance

Authors: Rutanachai Thaipratum

Abstract:

The mechanism of abiotic stress tolerance is crucial for plants to survive in harsh condition and the knowledge of this mechanism can be use to solve the problem of declining productivity of plants or crops around the world. However in-depth description is still unclear and it is argued, in particular that there is a relationship between high salinity tolerance and the ability to tolerate high light condition. In this study, Dunaliella salina, which can withstand high salt was used as a model. Chlorophyll fluorometer for nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) measurement and high-performance liquid chromatography for pigment determination was used. The results show that NPQ value and the amount of pigment were increased along with the levels of salinity. However, it establish a clear relationship between high salt and high light but the further study to optimized the solutions mentioned above is still required.

Keywords: Abiotic stress tolerance, Dunaliella salina, Nonphotochemical quenching, Zeaxanthin.

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187 Biplot Analysis for Evaluation of Tolerance in Some Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes to Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV)

Authors: S. Ghasemi, M. M. Kamelmanesh, A. Namayandeh, R. Biabanikhankahdani

Abstract:

The common bean is the most important grain legume for direct human consumption in the world and BCMV is one of the world's most serious bean diseases that can reduce yield and quality of harvested product. To determine the best tolerance index to BCMV and recognize tolerant genotypes, 2 experiments were conducted in field conditions. Twenty five common bean genotypes were sown in 2 separate RCB design with 3 replications under contamination and non-contamination conditions. On the basis of the results of indices correlations GMP, MP and HARM were determined as the most suitable tolerance indices. The results of principle components analysis indicated 2 first components totally explained 98.52% of variations among data. The first and second components were named potential yield and stress susceptible respectively. Based on the results of BCMV tolerance indices assessment and biplot analysis WA8563-4, WA8563-2 and Cardinal were the genotypes that exhibited potential seed yield under contamination and noncontamination conditions.

Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris, BCMV, principle components analysis, bi-plot analysis, tolerance.

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186 Tolerance and Perspective towards Disability: A Mixed Methods Study

Authors: L. Koštić, P. Karaman

Abstract:

Society has a lot of diversities according to sex, age, religion, abilities or disabilities, education, etc. According to differences, everybody needs to be tolerated and equally included in society. In order to provide quality inclusion, society needs to tolerate differences. This study relates to the differences in disability. To examine tolerance towards disability and inclusion, this study was conducted with students attending regular elementary and high school. The main goal was to examine their attitudes towards their classmates and elderly people with disabilities. The study begins with the hypothesis that the environment has a highly developed tolerance towards people with disabilities, regardless of age. The sample was divided according to tasks and methodology analysis. Students attending regular elementary school were asked to make drawings of their classmates with disabilities. The drawings were analyzed using quantitative methodology according to the colors children used and the position of character on the paper. Students attending high school and members of general population were asked to complete a questionnaire designed for this study during a workshop held on the International Day for Tolerance. Responses were analyzed using qualitative methodology. The hypothesis was confirmed.

Keywords: Classmates, disability, students, tolerance.

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185 A Contribution to 3D Modeling of Manufacturing Tolerance Optimization

Authors: F. Sebaa, A. Cheikh, M. Rahou

Abstract:

The study of the generated defects on manufactured parts shows the difficulty to maintain parts in their positions during the machining process and to estimate them during the pre-process plan. This work presents a contribution to the development of 3D models for the optimization of the manufacturing tolerances. An experimental study allows the measurement of the defects of part positioning for the determination of ε and the choice of an optimal setup of the part. An approach of 3D tolerance based on the small displacements method permits the determination of the manufacturing errors upstream. A developed tool, allows an automatic generation of the tolerance intervals along the three axes.

Keywords: Manufacturing tolerances, 3D modeling, optimization, errors.

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184 Optimization of Tolerance Grades of a Bearing and Shaft Assembly in a Washing Machine with Regard to Fatigue Life

Authors: M. Cangi, T. Dolar, C. Ersoy, Y. E. Aydogdu, A. I. Aydeniz, A. Mugan

Abstract:

The drum is one of the critical parts in a washing machine in which the clothes are washed and spin by the rotational movement. It is activated by the drum shaft which is attached to an electric motor and subjected to dynamic loading. Being one of the critical components, failures of the drum require costly repairs of dynamic components. In this study, tolerance bands between the drum shaft and its two bearings were examined to develop a relationship between the fatigue life of the shaft and the interaction tolerances. Optimization of tolerance bands was completed in consideration of the fatigue life of the shaft as the cost function. The following methodology is followed: multibody dynamic model of a washing machine was constructed and used to calculate dynamic loading on the components. Then, these forces were used in finite element analyses to calculate the stress field in critical components which was used for fatigue life predictions. The factors affecting the fatigue life were examined to find optimum tolerance grade for a given test condition. Numerical results were verified by experimental observations.

Keywords: Fatigue life, finite element analysis, tolerance analysis, optimization.

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183 Tool for Analysing the Sensitivity and Tolerance of Mechatronic Systems in Matlab GUI

Authors: Bohuslava Juhasova, Martin Juhas, Renata Masarova, Zuzana Sutova

Abstract:

The article deals with the tool in Matlab GUI form that is designed to analyse a mechatronic system sensitivity and tolerance. In the analysed mechatronic system, a torque is transferred from the drive to the load through a coupling containing flexible elements. Different methods of control system design are used. The classic form of the feedback control is proposed using Naslin method, modulus optimum criterion and inverse dynamics method. The cascade form of the control is proposed based on combination of modulus optimum criterion and symmetric optimum criterion. The sensitivity is analysed on the basis of absolute and relative sensitivity of system function to the change of chosen parameter value of the mechatronic system, as well as the control subsystem. The tolerance is analysed in the form of determining the range of allowed relative changes of selected system parameters in the field of system stability. The tool allows to analyse an influence of torsion stiffness, torsion damping, inertia moments of the motor and the load and controller(s) parameters. The sensitivity and tolerance are monitored in terms of the impact of parameter change on the response in the form of system step response and system frequency-response logarithmic characteristics. The Symbolic Math Toolbox for expression of the final shape of analysed system functions was used. The sensitivity and tolerance are graphically represented as 2D graph of sensitivity or tolerance of the system function and 3D/2D static/interactive graph of step/frequency response.

Keywords: Mechatronic systems, Matlab GUI, sensitivity, tolerance.

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182 Invariant Characters of Tolerance Class and Reduction under Homomorphism in IIS

Authors: Chen Wu, Lijuan Wang

Abstract:

Some invariant properties of incomplete information systems homomorphism are studied in this paper. Demand conditions of tolerance class, attribute reduction, indispensable attribute and dispensable attribute being invariant under homomorphism in incomplete information system are revealed and discussed. The existing condition of endohomomorphism on an incomplete information system is also explored. It establishes some theoretical foundations for further investigations on incomplete information systems in rough set theory, like in information systems.

Keywords: Attribute reduction, homomorphism, incomplete information system, rough set, tolerance relation.

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181 Evaluation of drought Tolerance Indices in Dryland Bread wheat Genotypes under Post-Anthesis drought Stress

Authors: Mokhtar Ghobadi , Mohammad-Eghbal Ghobadi, Danial Kahrizi, Alireza Zebarjadi, Mahdi Geravandi

Abstract:

Post-anthesis drought stress is the most important problem affecting wheat production in dryland fields, specially in Mediterranean regions. The main objective of this research was to evaluate drought tolerance indices in dryland wheat genotypes under post-anthesis drought stress. The research was including two different experiments. In each experiment, twenty dryland bread wheat genotypes were sown in a randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with three replications. One of experiments belonged to rain-fed conditions (post-anthesis drought stress) and other experiment was under non-stress conditions (with supplemental irrigation). Different drought tolerance indices include Stress Tolerance (Tol), Mean Productivity (MP), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP), Stress Susceptibility Index (SSI), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Harmonic Mean (HAM), Yield Index (YI) and Yield Stability Index (YSI) were evaluate based on grain yield under rain-fed (Ys) and supplemental irrigation (Yp) environments. G10 and G12 were the most tolerant genotypes based on TOL and SSI. But, based on MP, GMP, STI, HAM and YI indices, G1 and G2 were selected. STI, GMP and MP indices had high correlation with grain yield under rain-fed and supplementary irrigation conditions and were recognized as appropriate indices to identify genotypes with high grain yield and low sensitivity to drought stress environments.

Keywords: Dryland wheat, Supplemental irrigation, Tolerance indices

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180 Asynchronous Sequential Machines with Fault Detectors

Authors: Seong Woo Kwak, Jung-Min Yang

Abstract:

A strategy of fault diagnosis and tolerance for asynchronous sequential machines is discussed in this paper. With no synchronizing clock, it is difficult to diagnose an occurrence of permanent or stuck-in faults in the operation of asynchronous machines. In this paper, we present a fault detector comprised of a timer and a set of static functions to determine the occurrence of faults. In order to realize immediate fault tolerance, corrective control theory is applied to designing a dynamic feedback controller. Existence conditions for an appropriate controller and its construction algorithm are presented in terms of reachability of the machine and the feature of fault occurrences.

Keywords: Asynchronous sequential machines, corrective control, fault diagnosis and tolerance, fault detector.

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179 Comparison of Different Methods to Produce Fuzzy Tolerance Relations for Rainfall Data Classification in the Region of Central Greece

Authors: N. Samarinas, C. Evangelides, C. Vrekos

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is the comparison of three different methods, in order to produce fuzzy tolerance relations for rainfall data classification. More specifically, the three methods are correlation coefficient, cosine amplitude and max-min method. The data were obtained from seven rainfall stations in the region of central Greece and refers to 20-year time series of monthly rainfall height average. Three methods were used to express these data as a fuzzy relation. This specific fuzzy tolerance relation is reformed into an equivalence relation with max-min composition for all three methods. From the equivalence relation, the rainfall stations were categorized and classified according to the degree of confidence. The classification shows the similarities among the rainfall stations. Stations with high similarity can be utilized in water resource management scenarios interchangeably or to augment data from one to another. Due to the complexity of calculations, it is important to find out which of the methods is computationally simpler and needs fewer compositions in order to give reliable results.

Keywords: Classification, fuzzy logic, tolerance relations, rainfall data.

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178 Hierarchical Checkpoint Protocol in Data Grids

Authors: Rahma Souli-Jbali, Minyar Sassi Hidri, Rahma Ben Ayed

Abstract:

Grid of computing nodes has emerged as a representative means of connecting distributed computers or resources scattered all over the world for the purpose of computing and distributed storage. Since fault tolerance becomes complex due to the availability of resources in decentralized grid environment, it can be used in connection with replication in data grids. The objective of our work is to present fault tolerance in data grids with data replication-driven model based on clustering. The performance of the protocol is evaluated with Omnet++ simulator. The computational results show the efficiency of our protocol in terms of recovery time and the number of process in rollbacks.

Keywords: Data grids, fault tolerance, chandy-lamport, clustering.

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177 Fault Tolerance in Wireless Sensor Networks – A Survey

Authors: B. R. Tapas Bapu, K. Thanigaivelu, A. Rajkumar

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have wide variety of applications and provide limitless future potentials. Nodes in WSNs are prone to failure due to energy depletion, hardware failure, communication link errors, malicious attacks, and so on. Therefore, fault tolerance is one of the critical issues in WSNs. We study how fault tolerance is addressed in different applications of WSNs. Fault tolerant routing is a critical task for sensor networks operating in dynamic environments. Many routing, power management, and data dissemination protocols have been specifically designed for WSNs where energy awareness is an essential design issue. The focus, however, has been given to the routing protocols which might differ depending on the application and network architecture.

Keywords: Resiliency, Self-diagnosis, Smart Grid, TinyOS, WSANs.

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176 Probabilistic Damage Tolerance Methodology for Solid Fan Blades and Discs

Authors: Andrej Golowin, Viktor Denk, Axel Riepe

Abstract:

Solid fan blades and discs in aero engines are subjected to high combined low and high cycle fatigue loads especially around the contact areas between blade and disc. Therefore, special coatings (e.g. dry film lubricant) and surface treatments (e.g. shot peening or laser shock peening) are applied to increase the strength with respect to combined cyclic fatigue and fretting fatigue, but also to improve damage tolerance capability. The traditional deterministic damage tolerance assessment based on fracture mechanics analysis, which treats service damage as an initial crack, often gives overly conservative results especially in the presence of vibratory stresses. A probabilistic damage tolerance methodology using crack initiation data has been developed for fan discs exposed to relatively high vibratory stresses in cross- and tail-wind conditions at certain resonance speeds for limited time periods. This Monte-Carlo based method uses a damage databank from similar designs, measured vibration levels at typical aircraft operations and wind conditions and experimental crack initiation data derived from testing of artificially damaged specimens with representative surface treatment under combined fatigue conditions. The proposed methodology leads to a more realistic prediction of the minimum damage tolerance life for the most critical locations applicable to modern fan disc designs.

Keywords: Damage tolerance, Monte-Carlo method, fan blade and disc, laser shock peening.

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175 The New Effective Biostimulator for Agroecological Engineering

Authors: Saniyam A. Ibragimova, Zhandos M. Basygarayev, Almagul R. Kerimkulova, E. A. Bukenova, Murat K. Gilmanov

Abstract:

New biostimulator from wheat seeds which by its chemical composition relates to fusicoccin is presented in this article. New biostimulator could be used as powerful hormonal substance that has ability to increase productivity and salt tolerance of agricultural plants. Also on the basis of biostimulator we have developed vegetative method for fast reproduction of perennial plants as desert plant - Tamarix gracilis.

Keywords: Biostimulator, crop productivity, ecology, fussicoccin, salt tolerance.

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174 Trees for Air Pollution Tolerance to Develop Green Belts as an Ecological Mitigation

Authors: Rahma Al Maawali, Hameed Sulaiman

Abstract:

Air pollution both from point and non-point sources is difficult to control once released in to the atmosphere. There is no engineering method known available to ameliorate the dispersed pollutants. The only suitable approach is the ecological method of constructing green belts in and around the pollution sources. Air pollution in Muscat, Oman is a serious concern due to ever increasing vehicles on roads. Identifying the air pollution tolerance levels of species is important for implementing pollution control strategies in the urban areas of Muscat. Hence, in the present study, Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) for ten avenue tree species was evaluated by analyzing four bio-chemical parameters, plus their Anticipated Performance Index (API) in field conditions. Based on the two indices, Ficus benghalensis was the most suitable one with the highest performance score. Conocarpus erectuse, Phoenix dactylifera, and Pithcellobium dulce were found to be good performers and are recommended for extensive planting. Azadirachta indica which is preferred for its dense canopy is qualified in the moderate category. The rest of the tree species expressed lower API score of less than 51, hence cannot be considered as suitable species for pollution mitigation plantation projects.

Keywords: Air pollution tolerance index, avenue tree species, bio-chemical parameters, Muscat.

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173 Interspecific Variation in Heat Stress Tolerance and Oxidative Damage among 15 C3 Species

Authors: Wagdi S. Soliman, Shu-ichi Sugiyama

Abstract:

The C3 plants are frequently suffering from exposure to high temperature stress which limits the growth and yield of these plants. This study seeks to clarify the physiological mechanisms of heat tolerance in relation to oxidative stress in C3 species. Fifteen C3 species were exposed to prolonged moderately high temperature stress 36/30°C for 40 days in a growth chamber. Chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) showed great difference among species at 40 days of the stress. The species showed decreases in Fv/Fm and increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) content under stress condition as well as negative correlation between Fv/Fm and MDA (r = -0.61*) at 40 days of the stress. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content before and after stress in addition to its response under stress showed great differences among species. The results suggest that the difference in heat tolerance among C3 species is closely associated with the ability to suppress oxidative damage but not with the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which is regulated by complex network.

Keywords: C3 species, Fv/Fm, heat stress, oxidative stress.

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172 An Improved Variable Tolerance RSM with a Proportion Threshold

Authors: Chen Wu, Youquan Xu, Dandan Li, Ronghua Yang, Lijuan Wang

Abstract:

In rough set models, tolerance relation, similarity relation and limited tolerance relation solve different situation problems for incomplete information systems in which there exists a phenomenon of missing value. If two objects have the same few known attributes and more unknown attributes, they cannot distinguish them well. In order to solve this problem, we presented two improved limited and variable precision rough set models. One is symmetric, the other one is non-symmetric. They all use more stringent condition to separate two small probability equivalent objects into different classes. The two models are needed to engage further study in detail. In the present paper, we newly form object classes with a different respect comparing to the first suggested model. We overcome disadvantages of non-symmetry regarding to the second suggested model. We discuss relationships between or among several models and also make rule generation. The obtained results by applying the second model are more accurate and reasonable.

Keywords: Incomplete information system, rough set, symmetry, variable precision.

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171 Five-axis Strip Machining with Barrel Cutter Based On Tolerance Constraint for Sculptured Surfaces

Authors: YaoAn Lu, QingZhen Bi, BaoRui Du, ShuLin Chen, LiMin Zhu, Kai Huang

Abstract:

Taking the design tolerance into account, this paper presents a novel efficient approach to generate iso-scallop tool path for five-axis strip machining with a barrel cutter. The cutter location is first determined on the scallop surface instead of the design surface, and then the cutter is adjusted to locate the optimal tool position based on the differential rotation of the tool axis and satisfies the design tolerance simultaneously. The machining strip width and error are calculated with the aid of the grazing curve of the cutter. Based on the proposed tool positioning algorithm, the tool paths are generated by keeping the scallop height formed by adjacent tool paths constant. An example is conducted to confirm the validity of the proposed method.

Keywords: Strip machining, barrel cutter, iso-scallop tool path, sculptured surfaces, differential motion.

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170 Effect of the Workpiece Position on the Manufacturing Tolerances

Authors: M. Rahou, F. Sebaa, A. Cheikh

Abstract:

Manufacturing tolerancing is intended to determine the intermediate geometrical and dimensional states of the part during its manufacturing process. These manufacturing dimensions also serve to satisfy not only the functional requirements given in the definition drawing, but also the manufacturing constraints, for example geometrical defects of the machine, vibration and the wear of the cutting tool. The choice of positioning has an important influence on the cost and quality of manufacture. To avoid this problem, a two-step approach has been developed. The first step is dedicated to the determination of the optimum position. As for the second step, a study was carried out for the tightening effect on the tolerance interval.

Keywords: Dispersion, tolerance, manufacturing, position.

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