Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 237

Search results for: Hassan Haghighi

237 An Agent Oriented Architecture to Supply Multilanguage in EPR Systems

Authors: Hassan Haghighi, Seyedeh Zahra Hosseini, Seyedeh Elahe Jalambadani

Abstract:

ERP systems are often supposed to be implemented and deployed in multi-national companies. On the other hand, an ERP developer may plan to market and sale its product in various countries. Therefore, an EPR system should have the ability to communicate with its users, who usually have different languages and cultures, in a suitable way. EPR support of Multilanguage capability is a solution to achieve this objective. In this paper, an agent oriented architecture including several independent but cooperative agents has been suggested that helps to implement Multilanguage EPR systems.

Keywords: enterprise resource planning, Multilanguage, software architecture, agent oriented architecture, intelligence, learning, translation.

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236 PZ: A Z-based Formalism for Modeling Probabilistic Behavior

Authors: Hassan Haghighi

Abstract:

Probabilistic techniques in computer programs are becoming more and more widely used. Therefore, there is a big interest in the formal specification, verification, and development of probabilistic programs. In our work-in-progress project, we are attempting to make a constructive framework for developing probabilistic programs formally. The main contribution of this paper is to introduce an intermediate artifact of our work, a Z-based formalism called PZ, by which one can build set theoretical models of probabilistic programs. We propose to use a constructive set theory, called CZ set theory, to interpret the specifications written in PZ. Since CZ has an interpretation in Martin-L¨of-s theory of types, this idea enables us to derive probabilistic programs from correctness proofs of their PZ specifications.

Keywords: formal specification, formal program development, probabilistic programs, CZ set theory, type theory.

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235 A Comprehensive and Integrated Framework for Formal Specification of Concurrent Systems

Authors: Sara Sharifi Rad, Hassan Haghighi

Abstract:

Due to important issues, such as deadlock, starvation, communication, non-deterministic behavior and synchronization, concurrent systems are very complex, sensitive, and error-prone. Thus ensuring reliability and accuracy of these systems is very essential. Therefore, there has been a big interest in the formal specification of concurrent programs in recent years. Nevertheless, some features of concurrent systems, such as dynamic process creation, scheduling and starvation have not been specified formally yet. Also, some other features have been specified partially and/or have been described using a combination of several different formalisms and methods whose integration needs too much effort. In other words, a comprehensive and integrated specification that could cover all aspects of concurrent systems has not been provided yet. Thus, this paper makes two major contributions: firstly, it provides a comprehensive formal framework to specify all well-known features of concurrent systems. Secondly, it provides an integrated specification of these features by using just a single formal notation, i.e., the Z language.

Keywords: Concurrent systems, Formal methods, Formal specification, Z language

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234 Towards a Systematic, Cost-Effective Approach for ERP Selection

Authors: Hassan Haghighi, Omid Mafi

Abstract:

Existing experiences indicate that one of the most prominent reasons that some ERP implementations fail is related to selecting an improper ERP package. Among those important factors resulting in inappropriate ERP selections, one is to ignore preliminary activities that should be done before the evaluation of ERP packages. Another factor yielding these unsuitable selections is that usually organizations employ prolonged and costly selection processes in such extent that sometimes the process would never be finalized or sometimes the evaluation team might perform many key final activities in an incomplete or inaccurate way due to exhaustion, lack of interest or out-of-date data. In this paper, a systematic approach that recommends some activities to be done before and after the main selection phase is introduced for choosing an ERP package. On the other hand, the proposed approach has utilized some ideas that accelerates the selection process at the same time that reduces the probability of an erroneous final selection.

Keywords: enterprise resource planning, evaluation and selectionof ERP packages, organizational readiness for employing ERP, evaluationlists.

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233 An Agent Oriented Architecture to Supply Integration in ERP Systems

Authors: Hassan Haghighi, Sajad Ghorbani, Maryam Mohebati, Mohammad Mahdi Javanmard

Abstract:

One of the most important aspects expected from ERP systems is to integrate various operations existing in administrative, financial, commercial, human resources, and production departments of the consumer organization. Also, it is often needed to integrate the new ERP system with the organization legacy systems when implementing the ERP package in the organization. Without relying on an appropriate software architecture to realize the required integration, ERP implementation processes become error prone and time consuming; in some cases, the ERP implementation may even encounters serious risks. In this paper, we propose a new architecture that is based on the agent oriented vision and supplies the integration expected from ERP systems using several independent but cooperator agents. Besides integration which is the main issue of this paper, the presented architecture will address some aspects of intelligence and learning capabilities existing in ERP systems

Keywords: enterprise resource planning, software architecture, agent oriented architecture, integration, intelligence, learning.

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232 An Agent Oriented Architecture to Supply Dynamic Document Generation in ERP Systems

Authors: Hassan Haghighi, Seyedeh Zahra Hosseini, Seyedeh Elahe Jalambadani

Abstract:

One of the most important aspects expected from an ERP system is to mange user\administrator manual documents dynamically. Since an ERP package is frequently changed during its implementation in customer sites, it is often needed to add new documents and/or apply required changes to existing documents in order to cover new or changed capabilities. The worse is that since these changes occur continuously, the corresponding documents should be updated dynamically; otherwise, implementing the ERP package in the organization encounters serious risks. In this paper, we propose a new architecture which is based on the agent oriented vision and supplies the dynamic document generation expected from ERP systems using several independent but cooperative agents. Beside the dynamic document generation which is the main issue of this paper, the presented architecture will address some aspects of intelligence and learning capabilities existing in ERP.

Keywords: enterprise resource planning, dynamic documentgeneration, software architecture, agent oriented architecture, learning, intelligence

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231 Refinement of Object-Z Specifications Using Morgan-s Refinement Calculus

Authors: Mehrnaz Najafi, Hassan Haghighi

Abstract:

Morgan-s refinement calculus (MRC) is one of the well-known methods allowing the formality presented in the program specification to be continued all the way to code. On the other hand, Object-Z (OZ) is an extension of Z adding support for classes and objects. There are a number of methods for obtaining code from OZ specifications that can be categorized into refinement and animation methods. As far as we know, only one refinement method exists which refines OZ specifications into code. However, this method does not have fine-grained refinement rules and thus cannot be automated. On the other hand, existing animation methods do not present mapping rules formally and do not support the mapping of several important constructs of OZ, such as all cases of operation expressions and most of constructs in global paragraph. In this paper, with the aim of providing an automatic path from OZ specifications to code, we propose an approach to map OZ specifications into their counterparts in MRC in order to use fine-grained refinement rules of MRC. In this way, having counterparts of our specifications in MRC, we can refine them into code automatically using MRC tools such as RED. Other advantages of our work pertain to proposing mapping rules formally, supporting the mapping of all important constructs of Object-Z, and considering dynamic instantiation of objects while OZ itself does not cover this facility.

Keywords: Formal method, Formal specification, Formalprogram development, Morgan's Refinement Calculus, Object-Z

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230 Fuzzy Decision Making via Multiple Attribute

Authors: Behnaz Zohouri, Mahdi Zowghiand, Mohsen haghighi

Abstract:

In this paper, a method for decision making in fuzzy environment is presented.A new subjective and objective integrated approach is introduced that used to assign weight attributes in fuzzy multiple attribute decision making (FMADM) problems and alternatives and fmally ranked by proposed method.

Keywords: Multiple Attribute Decision Making, Triangular fuzzy numbers, ranking index, Fuzzy Entropy.

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229 Radon Concentration in the Water Samples of Hassan District, Karnataka, India

Authors: T. S. Shashikumar

Abstract:

Radon is a radioactive gas emitted from radium, a daughter product of uranium that occurs naturally in rocks and soil. Radon, together with its decay products, emits alpha particles that can damage lung tissue. The activity concentration of 222Ra has been analyzed in water samples collected from borewells and rivers in and around Hassan city, Karnataka State, India. The measurements were performed by Emanometry technique. The concentration of 222Rn in borewell waters varies from 18.49±1.89 to 397.26±12.3 Bql-1 with geometric mean 120.48±12.87 Bql-1 and in river waters it varies from 92.63±9.31 to 93.98±9.51 Bql-1 with geometric mean of 93.16±9.33 Bql-1. In the present study, the radon concentrations are higher in Adarshanagar and Viveka Nagar which are found to be 397.26±12.3 Bql-1 and 325.78±32.56 Bql-1. Most of the analysed samples show a 222Rn concentration more than 100 Bql-1 and this can be attributed to the geology of the area where the ground waters are located, which is predominantly of granitic characteristic. The average inhalation dose and ingestion dose in the borewell water are found to be 0.405 and 0.033 µSvy-1; and in river water it is found to be 0.234 and 0.019 µSvy-1, respectively. The average total effective dose rate in borewell waters and river waters are found to be 0.433 and 0.253 µSvy-1, which does not cause any health risk to the population of Hassan region.

Keywords: Borewell, effective dose, emanometry, 222Rn.

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228 Surface Morphology and Formation of Nanostructured Porous GaN by UV-assisted Electrochemical Etching

Authors: L. S. Chuah, Z. Hassan, C. W. Chin, H. Abu Hassan

Abstract:

This article reports on the studies of porous GaN prepared by ultra-violet (UV) assisted electrochemical etching in a solution of 4:1:1 HF: CH3OH:H2O2 under illumination of an UV lamp with 500 W power for 10, 25 and 35 minutes. The optical properties of porous GaN sample were compared to the corresponding as grown GaN. Porosity induced photoluminescence (PL) intensity enhancement was found in these samples. The resulting porous GaN displays blue shifted PL spectra compared to the as-grown GaN. Appearance of the blue shifted emission is correlated with the development of highly anisotropic structures in the morphology. An estimate of the size of the GaN nanostructure can be obtained with the help of a quantized state effective mass theory.

Keywords: Photoluminescence, porous GaN, electrochemical etching, Si, RF-MBE.

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227 Performance of InGaN/GaN Laser Diode Based on Quaternary Alloys Stopper and Superlattice Layers

Authors: S. M. Thahab, H. Abu Hassan, Z. Hassan

Abstract:

The optical properties of InGaN/GaN laser diode based on quaternary alloys stopper and superlattice layers are numerically studied using ISE TCAD (Integrated System Engineering) simulation program. Improvements in laser optical performance have been achieved using quaternary alloy as superlattice layers in InGaN/GaN laser diodes. Lower threshold current of 18 mA and higher output power and slope efficiency of 22 mW and 1.6 W/A, respectively, at room temperature have been obtained. The laser structure with InAlGaN quaternary alloys as an electron blocking layer was found to provide better laser performance compared with the ternary AlxGa1-xN blocking layer.

Keywords: Nitride semiconductors, InAlGaN quaternary, laserdiode, superlattice.

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226 Numerical Study of MHD Effects on Drop Formation in a T-Shaped Microchannel

Authors: M. Aghajani Haghighi, H. Emdad, K. Jafarpur, A. N. Ziaei

Abstract:

The effect of a uniform magnetic field on the formation of drops of specific size has been investigated numerically in a T-shaped microchannel. Previous researches indicated that the drop sizes of secondary stream decreases, with increasing main stream flow rate and decreasing interfacial tension. In the present study the effect of a uniform magnetic field on the main stream is considered, and it is proposed that by increasing the Hartmann number, the size of the drops of the secondary stream will be decreased.

Keywords: Drop formation, Magnetohydrodynamics, Microchannel, Volume-of-Fluid

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225 Influence of Bentonite Additive on Bitumen and Asphalt Mixture Properties

Authors: Ziari Hassan, Divandari Hassan, Babagoli Rezvan, Akbari Ali

Abstract:

Asphalt surfaces are exposed to various weather conditions and dynamic loading caused by passing trucks and vehicles. In such situations, asphalt cement shows so different rheological-mechanical behavior. If asphalt cement isn-t compatible enough, asphalt layer will be damaged immediately and expensive repairing procedures should be performed then. To overcome this problem, researchers study on mechanical improved asphalt cement. In this study, bentonite was used in order to modify bitumen characteristics and the modified bitumen's characteristics were investigated by asphalt cement tests. Then, the optimal bitumen content in various compounds was determined and asphalt samples with different contents of additives were prepared and tested. Results show using this kind of additive not only has caused improvement in bitumen mechanical properties, but also improvement in Marshall Parameters was achieved.

Keywords: Asphalt mixture, Bentonite, Modified bitumen, Performance characteristics

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224 Hardware Implementation of Stack-Based Replacement Algorithms

Authors: Hassan Ghasemzadeh, Sepideh Mazrouee, Hassan Goldani Moghaddam, Hamid Shojaei, Mohammad Reza Kakoee

Abstract:

Block replacement algorithms to increase hit ratio have been extensively used in cache memory management. Among basic replacement schemes, LRU and FIFO have been shown to be effective replacement algorithms in terms of hit rates. In this paper, we introduce a flexible stack-based circuit which can be employed in hardware implementation of both LRU and FIFO policies. We propose a simple and efficient architecture such that stack-based replacement algorithms can be implemented without the drawbacks of the traditional architectures. The stack is modular and hence, a set of stack rows can be cascaded depending on the number of blocks in each cache set. Our circuit can be implemented in conjunction with the cache controller and static/dynamic memories to form a cache system. Experimental results exhibit that our proposed circuit provides an average value of 26% improvement in storage bits and its maximum operating frequency is increased by a factor of two

Keywords: Cache Memory, Replacement Algorithms, LeastRecently Used Algorithm, First In First Out Algorithm.

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223 Surface Phonon Polariton in InAlGaN Quaternary Alloys

Authors: S. S. Ng, Z. Hassan, H. Abu Hassan

Abstract:

III-nitride quaternary InxAlyGa1-x-yN alloys have experienced considerable interest as potential materials for optoelectronic applications. Despite these interesting applications and the extensive efforts to understand their fundamental properties, research on its fundamental surface property, i.e., surface phonon polariton (SPP) has not yet been reported. In fact, the SPP properties have been shown to provide application for some photonic devices. Hence, there is an absolute need for thorough studies on the SPP properties of this material. In this work, theoretical study on the SPP modes in InAlGaN quaternary alloys are reported. Attention is focus on the wurtzite (α-) structure InxAlyGa1-x-yN semi-crystal with different In composition, x ranging from 0 to 0.10 and constant Al composition, y = 0.06. The SPP modes are obtained through the theoretical simulation by means of anisotropy model. The characteristics of SP dispersion curves are discussed. Accessible results in terms of the experimental point of view are also given. Finally, the results revealed that the SPP mode of α-InxAlyGa1-x-yN semiconductors exhibits two-mode behavior.

Keywords: III-nitride semiconductor, attenuated total reflection, quaternary alloy, surface phonon polariton.

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222 A Multi-Objective Optimization Model to the Integrating Flexible Process Planning And Scheduling Based on Modified Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (MPSO)

Authors: R. Sahraian, A. Karampour Haghighi, E. Ghasemi

Abstract:

Process planning and production scheduling play important roles in manufacturing systems. In this paper a multiobjective mixed integer linear programming model is presented for the integrated planning and scheduling of multi-product. The aim is to find a set of high-quality trade-off solutions. This is a combinatorial optimization problem with substantially large solution space, suggesting that it is highly difficult to find the best solutions with the exact search method. To account for it, a PSO-based algorithm is proposed by fully utilizing the capability of the exploration search and fast convergence. To fit the continuous PSO in the discrete modeled problem, a solution representation is used in the algorithm. The numerical experiments have been performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Integrated process planning and scheduling, multi objective, MILP, Particle swarm optimization

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221 InAlGaN Quaternary Multi-Quantum Wells UVLaser Diode Performance and Characterization

Authors: S. M. Thahab, H. Abu Hassan, Z. Hassan

Abstract:

The InAlGaN alloy has only recently began receiving serious attention into its growth and application. High quality InGaN films have led to the development of light emitting diodes (LEDs) and blue laser diodes (LDs). The quaternary InAlGaN however, represents a more versatile material since the bandgap and lattice constant can be independently varied. We report an ultraviolet (UV) quaternary InAlGaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) LD study by using the simulation program of Integrated System Engineering (ISE TCAD). Advanced physical models of semiconductor properties were used in order to obtain an optimized structure. The device performance which is affected by piezoelectric and thermal effects was studied via drift-diffusion model for carrier transport, optical gain and loss. The optical performance of the UV LD with different numbers of quantum wells was numerically investigated. The main peak of the emission wavelength for double quantum wells (DQWs) was shifted from 358 to 355.8 nm when the forward current was increased. Preliminary simulated results indicated that better output performance and lower threshold current could be obtained when the quantum number is four, with output power of 130 mW and threshold current of 140 mA.

Keywords: Nitride semiconductors, InAlGaN quaternary, UVLD, numerical simulation.

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220 Evolution of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) via Fuzzy Concepts and Neural Networks

Authors: M. Haghighi, M. Zowghi, B. Zohouri

Abstract:

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is an expounded, multi-step planning method for delivering commodity, services, and processes to customers, both external and internal to an organization. It is a way to convert between the diverse customer languages expressing demands (Voice of the Customer), and the organization-s languages expressing results that sate those demands. The policy is to establish one or more matrices that inter-relate producer and consumer reciprocal expectations. Due to its visual presence is called the “House of Quality" (HOQ). In this paper, we assumed HOQ in multi attribute decision making (MADM) pattern and through a proposed MADM method, rank technical specifications. Thereafter compute satisfaction degree of customer requirements and for it, we apply vagueness and uncertainty conditions in decision making by fuzzy set theory. This approach would propound supervised neural network (perceptron) for MADM problem solving.

Keywords: MADM, fuzzy set, QFD, supervised neural network (perceptron).

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219 Efficacy of Biosimilar Pegylated Interferon Alpha 40 KD (Peg INF) in Chronic Hepatitis C Infection

Authors: Ghias ul Hassan, Bilal Nasir, Israr ul Haque, ShafiqAwan, Ghias Un NabiTayyab, S. Hassan Akhtar Bokhari, Khawar Saeed, Qazi Masroor

Abstract:

Introduction: Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin combination is standard of care in the management of chronic HCV infected patients. Efficacy of the therapy is judged by the ability to achieve biochemical and virological response as judged by RVR, EVR, ETR and SVR.Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of newly marketed biosimilar Pegylated Interferon Alpha 40KD (Peg INF) in chronic HCV patients. Materials and methods: This was observational, prospective multicentre study to evaluate the ability of biosimilar pegylated interferon alfa 2a (40KD) along with Ribavirin (weight based) to achieve SVR. The enrolled patients were separated into Naïve (A), Relapsers (B) and Non Responders(C) based on the previous history of interferon exposure and its response. The RGT was followed on ALT and RVR, EVR, ETR and SVR.Results:As per protocol analysis estimated SVR for three groups is 86.6% for naïve, 89.4% for relapsers and 52.4% for non-responders to standard interferon. Conclusion: It is concluded that Bio-similar pegylated interferon alfa-2a (40kD) along with Ribavirin has good anti-viral efficacy in Naïve, Relapsers and Non-responders to standard IFN of chronic HCV infected patients requiring treatment.

Keywords: SVR (Sustained virological response), NR (Nonresponders), Pegylated Interferon.

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218 Structural and Optical Properties ofInxAlyGa1-x-yN Quaternary Alloys

Authors: N. H. Abd Raof, H. Abu Hassan, S.K. Mohd Bakhori, S. S. Ng, Z. Hassan

Abstract:

Quaternary InxAlyGa1-x-yN semiconductors have attracted much research interest because the use of this quaternary offer the great flexibility in tailoring their band gap profile while maintaining their lattice-matching and structural integrity. The structural and optical properties of InxAlyGa1-x-yN alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is presented. The structural quality of InxAlyGa1-x-yN layers was characterized using high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The results confirm that the InxAlyGa1-x-yN films had wurtzite structure and without phase separation. As the In composition increases, the Bragg angle of the (0002) InxAlyGa1-x-yN peak gradually decreases, indicating the increase in the lattice constant c of the alloys. FWHM of (0002) InxAlyGa1-x-yN decreases with increasing In composition from 0 to 0.04, that could indicate the decrease of quality of the samples due to point defects leading to non-uniformity of the epilayers. UV-VIS spectroscopy have been used to study the energy band gap of InxAlyGa1-x-yN. As the indium (In) compositions increases, the energy band gap decreases. However, for InxAlyGa1-x-yN with In composition of 0.1, the band gap shows a sudden increase in energy. This is probably due to local alloy compositional fluctuations in the epilayer. The bowing parameter which appears also to be very sensitive on In content is investigated and obtained b = 50.08 for quaternary InxAlyGa1-x-yN alloys. From photoluminescence (PL) measurement, green luminescence (GL) appears at PL spectrum of InxAlyGa1-x-yN, emitted for all x at ~530 nm and it become more pronounced as the In composition (x) increased, which is believed cause by gallium vacancies and related to isolated native defects.

Keywords: HRXRD, nitrides, PL, quaternary, UV-VIS.

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217 A Partially Accelerated Life Test Planning with Competing Risks and Linear Degradation Path under Tampered Failure Rate Model

Authors: Fariba Azizi, Firoozeh Haghighi, Viliam Makis

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a method to model the relationship between failure time and degradation for a simple step stress test where underlying degradation path is linear and different causes of failure are possible. It is assumed that the intensity function depends only on the degradation value. No assumptions are made about the distribution of the failure times. A simple step-stress test is used to shorten failure time of products and a tampered failure rate (TFR) model is proposed to describe the effect of the changing stress on the intensities. We assume that some of the products that fail during the test have a cause of failure that is only known to belong to a certain subset of all possible failures. This case is known as masking. In the presence of masking, the maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of the model parameters are obtained through an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm by treating the causes of failure as missing values. The effect of incomplete information on the estimation of parameters is studied through a Monte-Carlo simulation. Finally, a real example is analyzed to illustrate the application of the proposed methods.

Keywords: Expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, cause of failure, intensity, linear degradation path, masked data, reliability function.

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216 Energy Saving Potential with Improved Concrete in Ice Rink Floor Designs

Authors: Ehsan B. Haghighi, Pavel Makhnatch, Jörgen Rogstam

Abstract:

The ice rink floor is the largest heat exchanger in an ice rink. The important part of the floor consists of concrete, and the thermophysical properties of this concrete have strong influence on the energy usage of the ice rink. The thermal conductivity of concrete can be increased by using iron ore as ballast. In this study, the Transient Plane Source (TPS) method showed an increase up to 58.2% of thermal conductivity comparing the improved concrete to standard concrete. Moreover, two alternative ice rink floor designs are suggested to incorporate the improved concrete. A 2D simulation was developed to investigate the temperature distribution in the conventional and the suggested designs. The results show that the suggested designs reduce the temperature difference between the ice surface and the brine by 1-4˚C, when comparing with convectional designs at equal heat flux. This primarily leads to an increased coefficient of performance (COP) in the primary refrigeration cycle and secondly to a decrease in the secondary refrigerant pumping power. The suggested designs have great potential to reduce the energy usage of ice rinks. Depending on the load scenario in the ice rink, the saving potential lies in the range of 3-10% of the refrigeration system energy usage. This calculation is based on steady state conditions and the potential with improved dynamic behavior is expected to increase the potential saving.

Keywords: Concrete, iron ore, ice rink, energy saving.

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215 Factors Affecting Students’ Performance in Chemistry: Case Study in Zanzibar Secondary Schools

Authors: Ahmed A. Hassan, Hassan I. Ali, Abdallah A. Salum, Asia M. Kassim, Yussuf N. Elmoge, Ali A. Amour

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of chemistry in Zanzibar Secondary Schools. It was conducted in all regions of Zanzibar in public and private secondary schools and Ministry of Education officials. The objective of the study included finding out causes of poor performance in chemistry. Views, opinions, and suggestions of teachers and students to improve performance of chemistry and a descriptive survey was adopted for the study. 45 teachers and 200 students were randomly sampled from 15 secondary schools in Zanzibar and ten Ministry of Education officials were purposively sampled for the study. Questionnaires and open-ended interview schedules were the main instruments used in obtaining relevant data from respondents. Data collected from the field was analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitative analysis involved content analysis of the responses obtained through interviews and quantitative analysis involved generation of tables, frequencies and percentages. The results revealed that there were shortages of trained teachers, lack of proficiency in the language of instruction (English) and major facilities like laboratories and books. These led to poor delivery of subject matter and consequently resulting in poor performance. Based on the findings, this study recommends that provision of trained, competent, and effective teachers as vital aspects to be considered. Government through Ministry of Education should put effort to stalk libraries and equip laboratories with modern books and instruments. In addition, the ministry should strengthen teachers’ training and encourage use of instructional media in class and make conducive learning environment to both teachers and students.

Keywords: Zanzibar, secondary schools, chemistry, science, performance and factors.

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214 Microstructure Parameters of a Super-Ionic Sample (Csag2i3)

Authors: Samir Osman M., Mohammed Hassan S.

Abstract:

Sample of CsAg2I3 was prepared by solid state reaction. Then, microstructure parameters of this sample have been determined using wide angle X-ray scattering WAXS method. As well as, Cell parameters of crystal structure have been refined using CHEKCELL program. This analysis states that the lattice intrinsic strainof the sample is so small and the crystal size is on the order of 559Å.

Keywords: WAXS, Microstructure parameters, super-ionic conductor.

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213 Some Applications of Gröbner bases

Authors: Hassan Noori, Abdolali Basiri, Sajjad Rahmany

Abstract:

In this paper we will introduce a brief introduction to theory of Gr¨obner bases and some applications of Gr¨obner bases to graph coloring problem, automatic geometric theorem proving and cryptography.

Keywords: Gr¨obner bases, Application of Gr¨obner bases, Automatic Geometric Theorem Proving, Graph Coloring, Cryptography.

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212 Active Power Filter dimensioning Using a Hysteresis Current Controller

Authors: Tarek A. Kasmieh, Hassan S. Omran

Abstract:

This paper aims to give a full study of the dynamic behavior of a mono-phase active power filter. First, the principle of the parallel active power filter will be introduced. Then, a dimensioning procedure for all its components will be explained in detail, such as the input filter, the current and voltage controllers. This active power filter is simulated using OrCAD program showing the validity of the theoretical study.

Keywords: Active power filter, Power Quality, Hysteresiscurrent controller.

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211 DNA Polymorphism Studies of β-Lactoglobulin Gene in Saudi Goats

Authors: Amr A. El Hanafy, Muhammad Qureshi, Jamal Sabir, Mohamed Mutawakil, Mohamed M. Ahmed, Hassan El Ashmaoui, Hassan Ramadan, Mohamed Abou-Alsoud, Mahmoud Abdel Sadek

Abstract:

Domestic goats (Capra hircus) are extremely diverse species and principal animal genetic resource of the developing world. These facilitate a persistent supply of meat, milk, fibre, and skin and are considered as important revenue generators in small pastoral environments. This study aimed to fingerprint β-LG gene at PCR-RFLP level in native Saudi goat breeds (Ardi, Habsi and Harri) in an attempt to have a preliminary image of β-LG genotypic patterns in Saudi breeds as compared to other foreign breeds such as Indian and Egyptian. Also, the Phylogenetic analysis was done to investigate evolutionary trends and similarities among the caprine β-LG gene with that of the other domestic specie, viz. cow, buffalo and sheep. Blood samples were collected from 300 animals (100 for each breed) and genomic DNA was extracted. A fragment of the β-LG gene (427bp) was amplified using specific primers. Subsequent digestion with Sac II restriction endonuclease revealed two alleles (A and B) and three different banding patterns or genotypes i.e. AA, AB and BB. The statistical analysis showed a general trend that β-LG AA genotype had higher milk yield than β-LG AB and β-LG BB genotypes. Nucleotide sequencing of the selected β-LG fragments was done and submitted to GenBank NCBI (Accession No. KJ544248, KJ588275, KJ588276, KJ783455, KJ783456 and KJ874959). Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of nucleotide sequences of native Saudi goats indicated evolutional similarity with the GenBank reference sequences of goat, Bubalus bubalis and Bos taurus. However, the origin of sheep which is the most closely related from the evolutionary point of view, was located some distance away.

Keywords: β-Lactoglobulin, Saudi goats, PCR-RFLP, Phylogenetic analysis.

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210 The Homotopy Analysis Method for Solving Discontinued Problems Arising in Nanotechnology

Authors: Hassan Saberi-Nik, Mahin Golchaman

Abstract:

This paper applies the homotopy analysis method method to a nonlinear differential-difference equation arising in nanotechnology. Continuum hypothesis on nanoscales is invalid, and a differential-difference model is considered as an alternative approach to describing discontinued problems. Comparison of the approximate solution with the exact one reveals that the method is very effective.

Keywords: Homotopy analysis method, differential-difference, nanotechnology.

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209 The Importance of Changing the Traditional Mode of Higher Education in Bangladesh: Creating Huge Job Opportunities for Home and Abroad

Authors: M. M. Shahidul Hassan, Omiya Hassan

Abstract:

Bangladesh has set its goal to reach upper middle-income country status by 2024. To attain this status, the country must satisfy the World Bank requirement of achieving minimum Gross National Income (GNI). Number of youth job seekers in the country is increasing. University graduates are looking for decent jobs. So, the vital issue of this country is to understand how the GNI and jobs can be increased. The objective of this paper is to address these issues and find ways to create more job opportunities for youths at home and abroad which will increase the country’s GNI. The paper studies proportion of different goods Bangladesh exported, and also the percentage of employment in different sectors. The data used here for the purpose of analysis have been collected from the available literature. These data are then plotted and analyzed. Through these studies, it is concluded that growth in sectors like agricultural, ready-made garments (RMG), jute industries and fisheries are declining and the business community is not interested in setting up capital-intensive industries. Under this situation, the country needs to explore other business opportunities for a higher economic growth rate. Knowledge can substitute the physical resource. Since the country consists of the large youth population, higher education will play a key role in economic development. It now needs graduates with higher-order skills with innovative quality. Such dispositions demand changes in a university’s curriculum, teaching and assessment method which will function young generations as active learners and creators. By bringing these changes in higher education, a knowledge-based society can be created. The application of such knowledge and creativity will then become the commodity of Bangladesh which will help to reach its goal as an upper middle-income country.

Keywords: Bangladesh, economic sectors, economic growth, higher education, knowledge-based economy, massifcation of higher education, teaching and learning, universities’ role in society.

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208 Production of Biodiesel from Different Edible Oils

Authors: Amir Shafeeq, Ayyaz Muhammad, Noman Hassan, Rofice Dickson

Abstract:

Different vegetable oil based biodiesel (FAMES) were prepared by alkaline transesterification using refined oils as well as waste frying oil (WFO). Methanol and sodium hydroxide are used as catalyst under similar reaction conditions. To ensure the quality of biodiesel produced, a series of different ASTM Standard tests were carried out. In this context, various testwere done including viscosity, carbon residue, specific gravity, corrosion test, flash point, cloud point and pour point. Results revealed that characteristics of biodiesel depend on the feedstock and it is far better than petroleum diesel.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Edible oils, Separation.

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