Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 108

Search results for: nozzle

108 Study of the Effect of Over-expansion Factor on the Flow Transition in Dual Bell Nozzles

Authors: Abhilash Narayan, S. Panneerselvam

Abstract:

Dual bell nozzle is a promising one among the altitude adaptation nozzle concepts, which offer increased nozzle performance in rocket engines. Its advantage is the simplicity it offers due to the absence of any additional mechanical device or movable parts. Hence it offers reliability along with improved nozzle performance as demanded by future launch vehicles. Among other issues, the flow transition to the extension nozzle of a dual bell nozzle is one of the major issues being studied in the development of dual bell nozzle. A parameter named over-expansion factor, which controls the value of the wall inflection angle, has been reported to have substantial influence in this transition process. This paper studies, through CFD and cold flow experiments, the effect of overexpansion factor on flow transition in dual bell nozzles.

Keywords: Altitude adaptation, Dual bell nozzle, Nozzle pressure ratio, Over-expansion factor

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107 Using Divergent Nozzle with Aerodynamic Lens to Focus Nanoparticles

Authors: Hasan Jumaah Mrayeh, Fue-Sang Lien

Abstract:

ANSYS Fluent will be used to simulate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for an efficient lens and nozzle design which will be explained in this paper. We have designed and characterized an aerodynamic lens and a divergent nozzle for focusing flow that transmits sub 25 nm particles through the aerodynamic lens. The design of the lens and nozzle has been improved using CFD for particle trajectories. We obtained a case for calculating nanoparticles (25 nm) flowing through the aerodynamic lens and divergent nozzle. Nanoparticles are transported by air, which is pumped into the aerodynamic lens through the nozzle at 1 atmospheric pressure. We have also developed a computational methodology that can determine the exact focus characteristics of aerodynamic lens systems. Particle trajectories were traced using the Lagrange approach. The simulation shows the ability of the aerodynamic lens to focus on 25 nm particles after using a divergent nozzle.

Keywords: Aerodynamic lens AL, divergent nozzle DN, ANSYS Fluent, Lagrange approach.

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106 The Effect of Different Nozzle Configurations on Airflow Behaviour and Yarn Quality

Authors: D. Yilmaz, M.R. Usal

Abstract:

Nozzle is the main part of various spinning systems such as air-jet and Murata air vortex systems. Recently, many researchers worked on the usage of the nozzle on different spinning systems such as conventional ring and compact spinning systems. In these applications, primary purpose is to improve the yarn quality. In present study, it was produced the yarns with two different nozzle types and determined the changes in yarn properties. In order to explain the effect of the nozzle, airflow structure in the nozzle was modelled and airflow variables were determined. In numerical simulation, ANSYS 12.1 package program and Fluid Flow (CFX) analysis method was used. As distinct from the literature, Shear Stress Turbulent (SST) model is preferred. And also air pressure at the nozzle inlet was measured by electronic mass flow meter and these values were used for the simulation of the airflow. At last, the yarn was modelled and the area from where the yarn is passing was included to the numerical analysis.

Keywords: Nozzle, compressed air, swirling airflow, yarn properties.

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105 The Comparative Analysis of Two Typical Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Exhaust Nozzles on Aerodynamic Characteristics

Authors: Xin H. Zou, Qiang Wang

Abstract:

The comparisons of two typical fluidic thrust vectoring exhaust nozzles including two-dimensional(2-D) nozzle and axisymmetric nozzle on aerodynamic characteristics was presented by numerical simulation. The results show: the thrust vector angles increased with the increasing secondary flow but decreased with the nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) increasing. With the same secondary flow and NPR, the thrust vector angles of 2-D nozzle were higher than the axisymmetric nozzle-s. So with the lower NPR and more secondary weight flow, the much higher thrust vector angle was caused by 2-D fluidic nozzle. And with the higher NPR and less secondary weight flow, there was not much difference in angular dimension between two nozzles.

Keywords: Aerodynamic characteristics, fluidic nozzle, vector angle, thrust coefficient comparison.

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104 Experimental Study of Submersible Jet on Flow Hydraulic Parameters

Authors: Mohsen Solimani Babarsad, Habib Musavi Jahromi

Abstract:

Behavior of turbulent jet is relying on jet parameters, environmental and geometric parameters. In this research, it has attempt to Study effect of jet parameters of internal angle on maximum effective length and velocity on centerline from nozzle experimentally. Toward this end, four internal angles 30, 45, 60 and 90-degree are considered for this study in a flume with 600cm as long, 100cm as high and 150cm in width. Various discharges were used to evaluate effective length for a wide range of densimetric Froude numbers F0, from 17.9 to 39.4 that is defined at the nozzle. As a result, It is revealed that both velocity on centerline and effective length decreases when nozzle angle decreased from 90° to 30°. The results show that, for all range of Fr0 the Um/U0 ratio for nozzle with α=90° on centerline increases 20% - 27% than nozzle with α=30° that has lowest velocity on centerline than other nozzle.

Keywords: Turbulent jet, velocity, effective length, Froude number.

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103 The Role of Nozzle-Exit Conditions on the Flow Field of a Plane Jet

Authors: Ravinesh C. Deo

Abstract:

This article reviews the role of nozzle-exit conditions on the flow field of a plane jet. The jet issuing from a sharp-edged orifice plate at a Reynolds number (Re=18000) with nozzle aspect ratio (AR=72) exhibits the greatest shear-layer instabilities, highest entrainment and jet-spreading rates compared to the radially contoured nozzle. The growth rate of the shear-layer is the highest for the orifice-jet although this property could be amplified for larger Re or AR. A local peak in turbulent energy is found at x»10h. The peak appears to be elevated for an orifice-jet with lower Re or AR. The far-field energy sustained by the orifice-jet exceeds the contoured case although a higher Re and AR may enhance this value. The spectra demonstrated the largest eddy structures for the contoured nozzle. However, the frequency of coherent eddies is higher for the orifice-jet, with a larger magnitude achievable for lower Re and AR

Keywords: Plane jet, Reynolds number, nozzle-exit conditions, nozzle geometry, aspect ratio.

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102 Performance Investigation of Solid-Rocket Motor with Nozzle Throat Erosion

Authors: Suwicha Chankapoe, Nattawat Winya, Narupon Pittayaprasertkul

Abstract:

In order to determine the performance and key design parameters of rocket, the erosion of nozzle throat during solid rocket motor burning have to be calculated. This study aims to predict the nozzle throat erosion in solid rocket motors according to the thrust profile of motor in operating conditions and develop a model for optimum performance of rocket. We investigate the throat radius change in the static test programs. The standard method and thrust coefficient  are used for adjusting into the ideal performance for conical nozzles. Pressure and thrust data acquired from the tests are analyzed to determine the instantaneous nozzle throat diameter variation throughout the test duration. The result shows good agreement of calculated correlation comparing with measured erosion rate data showing agreement within 1.6 mm/s. Nozzle thrust coefficient loss is found approximately 24% form nozzle throat erosion during burning.

Keywords: Erosion, nozzle throat, thrust coefficient.

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101 Dripping Modes of Newtonian Liquids: The Effect of Nozzle Inclination

Authors: Amaraja Taur, Pankaj Doshi, Hak Koon Yeoh

Abstract:

The dripping modes for a Newtonian liquid of viscosity µ emanating from an inclined nozzle at flow rate Q is investigated experimentally. As the liquid flow rate Q increases, starting with period-1 with satellite drops, the system transitions to period-1 dripping without satellite, then to limit cycle before showing chaotic responses. Phase diagrams showing the changes in the transitions between the different dripping modes for different nozzle inclination angle q is constructed in the dimensionless (Q, µ) space.

Keywords: Dripping, inclined nozzle, phase diagram.

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100 Erosion in Abrasive Jet Nozzles: A Comprehensive Study

Authors: D. V. Sreekanth, M. Sreenivasa Rao

Abstract:

Abrasive jet machining is one of the promising non-traditional machining processes which uses mechanical energy (pressure and velocity) for machining various materials. The process parameters that influence the metal removal rate are kerfs, surface finish, depth of cut, air pressure, and distance between nozzle and work piece, nozzle diameter, abrasive type, abrasive shape, and mass flow rate of abrasive particles. The abrasive particles coming out with high pressure not only hits work surface but also passes through the nozzle resulting in erosion. This paper focuses mainly on the effect of different parameters on the erosion of nozzle in Abrasive jet machining. Three different types of nozzles made of sapphire, tungsten carbide, and high carbon high chromium steel (HCHCS) are used for machining glass and the erosion of these nozzles are calculated. The results are shown in tabular form and graphical representation.

Keywords: AJM, nozzle, sapphire, tungsten carbide, chrome steel.

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99 Effect of Mesh Size on the Viscous Flow Parameters of an Axisymmetric Nozzle

Authors: Rabah Haoui

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to analyze a viscous flow in the axisymmetric nozzle taken into account the mesh size both in the free stream and into the boundary layer. The resolution of the Navier- Stokes equations is realized by using the finite volume method to determine the supersonic flow parameters at the exit of convergingdiverging nozzle. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer. Here, adequate time stepping parameter, along with CFL coefficient and mesh size level is selected to ensure numerical convergence. The effect of the boundary layer thickness is significant at the exit of the nozzle. The best solution is obtained with using a very fine grid, especially near the wall, where we have a strong variation of velocity, temperature and shear stress. This study enabled us to confirm that the determination of boundary layer thickness can be obtained only if the size of the mesh is lower than a certain value limits given by our calculations.

Keywords: Supersonic flow, viscous flow, finite volume, nozzle

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98 Investigation on Mesh Sensitivity of a Transient Model for Nozzle Clogging

Authors: H. Barati, M. Wu, A. Kharicha, A. Ludwig

Abstract:

A transient model for nozzle clogging has been developed and successfully validated against a laboratory experiment. Key steps of clogging are considered: transport of particles by turbulent flow towards the nozzle wall; interactions between fluid flow and nozzle wall, and the adhesion of the particle on the wall; the growth of the clog layer and its interaction with the flow. The current paper is to investigate the mesh (size and type) sensitivity of the model in both two and three dimensions. It is found that the algorithm for clog growth alone excluding the flow effect is insensitive to the mesh type and size, but the calculation including flow becomes sensitive to the mesh quality. The use of 2D meshes leads to overestimation of the clog growth because the 3D nature of flow in the boundary layer cannot be properly solved by 2D calculation. 3D simulation with tetrahedron mesh can also lead to an error estimation of the clog growth. A mesh-independent result can be achieved with hexahedral mesh, or at least with triangular prism (inflation layer) for near-wall regions.

Keywords: Clogging, nozzle, numerical model, simulation.

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97 Effect of Different Diesel Fuels on Formation of the Cavitation Phenomena

Authors: Mohammadreza Nezamirad, Sepideh Amirahmadian, Nasim Sabetpour, Azadeh Yazdi, Amirmasoud Hamedi

Abstract:

Cavitation inside a diesel injector nozzle is investigated numerically in this study. The Reynolds Stress Navier Stokes set of equations (RANS) are utilized to investigate flow behavior inside the nozzle numerically. Moreover, K-ε turbulent model is found to be a better approach comparing to K-ω turbulent model. The Winklhofer rectangular shape nozzle is also simulated in order to verify the current numerical scheme, and with the mass flow rate approach, the current solution is verified. Afterward, a six-hole real size nozzle was simulated and it was found that among the different fuels used in this study with the same condition, diesel fuel provides the largest length of cavitation. Also, it was found that at the same boundary condition, rapeseed methyl ester (RME) fuel leads to the highest value of discharge coefficient and mass flow rate.

Keywords: cavitation, diesel fuel, CFD, real size nozzle, discharge coefficient

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96 Properties of Composite Nanofiber Produced by Single and Coaxial Nozzle Method used for Electrospinning Technique

Authors: Onur Ayaz, Nuray Ucar, Elif Bahar, Oguzhan Ucar, Mustafa Oksuz, Aysen Onen, Mehmet Ucar, Ezgi İşmar, Ali Demir

Abstract:

In this study, single nozzle method used for electrospinning technique which composite polymer solution with cellulose nanowiskers (CNW) was treated by ultrasonic sonificator have been compared with coaxial (double) nozzle method, in terms of mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of composite nanofiber. The effect of water content in composite polymer solution on properties of nanofiber has also been examined. It has been seen that single nozzle method which polymer solution does not contain water has better results than that of coaxial method, in terms of mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of nanofiber. However, it is necessary to make an optimization study on setting condition of ultrasonic treatment to get better dispersion of CNW in composite nanofiber and to get better mechanical and thermal properties

Keywords: cellulose nanowhiskers, coaxial nozzle, composite nanofiber, electrospinning

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95 Numerical Studies on Thrust Vectoring Using Shock Induced Supersonic Secondary Jet

Authors: Jerin John, Subanesh Shyam R., Aravind Kumar T. R., Naveen N., Vignesh R., Krishna Ganesh B, Sanal Kumar V. R.

Abstract:

Numerical studies have been carried out using a validated two-dimensional RNG k-epsilon turbulence model for the design optimization of a thrust vector control system using shock induced supersonic secondary jet. Parametric analytical studies have been carried out with various secondary jets at different divergent locations, jet interaction angles, jet pressures. The results from the parametric studies of the case on hand reveal that the primary nozzle with a small divergence angle, downstream injections with a distance of 2.5 times the primary nozzle throat diameter from the primary nozzle throat location warrant higher efficiency over a certain range of jet pressures and jet angles. We observed that the supersonic secondary jet opposing the core flow with jets interaction angle of 40o to the axis far downstream of the nozzle throat facilitates better thrust vectoring than the secondary jet with same direction as that of core flow with various interaction angles. We concluded that fixing of the supersonic secondary jet nozzle pointing towards the throat direction with suitable angle at a distance 2 to 4 times of the primary nozzle throat diameter, as the case may be, from the primary nozzle throat location could facilitate better thrust vectoring for the supersonic aerospace vehicles.

Keywords: Fluidic thrust vectoring, rocket steering, supersonic secondary jet location, TVC in spacecraft.

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94 Effect of Various Nozzle Profiles on Performance of a Two Phase Flow Jet Pump

Authors: Vishnu Prasad Sharma, S. Kumaraswamy, A. Mani

Abstract:

This paper reports on the results of experimental investigations on the performance of a jet pump operated under selected primary flows to optimize the related parameters. For this purpose a two-phase flow jet pump was used employing various profiles of nozzles as the primary device which was designed, fabricated and used along with the combination of mixing tube and diffuser. The profiles employed were circular, conical, and elliptical. The diameter of the nozzle used was 4 mm. The area ratio of the jet pump was 0.16. The test facility created for this purpose was an open loop continuous circulation system. Performance of the jet pump was obtained as iso-efficiency curves on characteristic curves drawn for various water flow rates. To perform the suction capability, evacuation test was conducted at best efficiency point for all the profiles.

Keywords: Evacuation test, jet pump, nozzle profile, nozzle spacing, performance test, two phase flow

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93 Numerical Investigation of Nozzle Shape Effect on Shock Wave in Natural Gas Processing

Authors: Esam I. Jassim, Mohamed M. Awad

Abstract:

Natural gas flow contains undesirable solid particles, liquid condensation, and/or oil droplets and requires reliable removing equipment to perform filtration. Recent natural gas processing applications are demanded compactness and reliability of process equipment. Since conventional means are sophisticated in design, poor in efficiency, and continue lacking robust, a supersonic nozzle has been introduced as an alternative means to meet such demands. A 3-D Convergent-Divergent Nozzle is simulated using commercial Code for pressure ratio (NPR) varies from 1.2 to 2. Six different shapes of nozzle are numerically examined to illustrate the position of shock-wave as such spot could be considered as a benchmark of particle separation. Rectangle, triangle, circular, elliptical, pentagon, and hexagon nozzles are simulated using Fluent Code with all have same cross-sectional area. The simple one-dimensional inviscid theory does not describe the actual features of fluid flow precisely as it ignores the impact of nozzle configuration on the flow properties. CFD Simulation results, however, show that nozzle geometry influences the flow structures including location of shock wave. The CFD analysis predicts shock appearance when p01/pa>1.2 for almost all geometry and locates at the lower area ratio (Ae/At). Simulation results showed that shock wave in Elliptical nozzle has the farthest distance from the throat among the others at relatively small NPR. As NPR increases, hexagon would be the farthest. The numerical result is compared with available experimental data and has shown good agreement in terms of shock location and flow structure.

Keywords: CFD, Particle Separation, Shock wave, Supersonic Nozzle.

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92 Analysis of Simple Mechanisms to Continuously Vary Mach Number in a Supersonic Wind Tunnel Facility

Authors: Prateek Kishore, T. M. Muruganandam

Abstract:

Supersonic wind tunnel nozzles are generally capable of producing a constant Mach number flow in the test section of the wind tunnel. As a result, most of the supersonic vehicles are widely designed using steady state flow characteristics which may have errors while facing unsteady situations. This study aims to explore the possibility of varying the Mach number of the flow during wind tunnel operation. The nozzle walls are restricted to be inflexible for cooling near the throat due to high stagnation temperature requirement of the flow to simulate the conditions as experienced by the vehicle. Two simple independent mechanisms, rotation and translation of nozzle walls have been analyzed and the nozzle ranges have been optimized to vary the Mach number from Mach 2 to Mach 5 using minimum number of nozzles in the wind tunnel.

Keywords: Method of characteristics, Nozzle, supersonic wind tunnel, variable Mach number.

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91 Application of Subversion Analysis in the Search for the Causes of Cracking in a Marine Engine Injector Nozzle

Authors: Leszek Chybowski, Artur Bejger, Katarzyna Gawdzińska

Abstract:

Subversion analysis is a tool used in the TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) methodology. This article introduces the history and describes the process of subversion analysis, as well as function analysis and analysis of the resources, used at the design stage when generating possible undesirable situations. The article charts the course of subversion analysis when applied to a fuel injection nozzle of a marine engine. The work describes the fuel injector nozzle as a technological system and presents principles of analysis for the causes of a cracked tip of the nozzle body. The system is modelled with functional analysis. A search for potential causes of the damage is undertaken and a cause-and-effect analysis for various hypotheses concerning the damage is drawn up. The importance of particular hypotheses is evaluated and the most likely causes of damage identified.

Keywords: Complex technical system, fuel injector, function analysis, importance analysis, resource analysis, sabotage analysis, subversion analysis, TRIZ.

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90 Effect of Highly Pressurized Dispersion Arc Nozzle on Breakup of Oil Leakage in Offshore

Authors: N. M. M. Ammar, S. M. Mustaqim, N. M. Nadzir

Abstract:

The most important problem occurs on oil spills in sea water is to reduce the oil spills size. This study deals with the development of high pressurized nozzle using dispersion method for oil leakage in offshore. 3D numerical simulation results were obtained using ANSYS Fluent 13.0 code and correlate with the experimental data for validation. This paper studies the contribution of the process on flow speed and pressure of the flow from two different geometrical designs of nozzles and to generate a spray pattern suitable for dispersant application. Factor of size distribution of droplets generated by the nozzle is calculated using pressures ranging from 2 to 6 bars. Results obtain from both analyses shows a significant spray pattern and flow distribution as well as distance. Results also show a significant contribution on the effect of oil leakage in terms of the diameter of the oil spills break up.

Keywords: Arc Nozzle, CFD simulation, Droplets, Oil Spills.

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89 Application of De-Laval Nozzle Transonic Flow Field Computation Approaches

Authors: A. Haddad, H. Kbab

Abstract:

A supersonic expansion cannot be achieved within a convergent-divergent nozzle if the flow velocity does not reach that of the sound at the throat. The computation of the flow field characteristics at the throat is thus essential to the nozzle developed thrust value and therefore to the aircraft or rocket it propels. Several approaches were developed in order to describe the transonic expansion, which takes place through the throat of a De-Laval convergent-divergent nozzle. They all allow reaching good results but showing a major shortcoming represented by their inability to describe the transonic flow field for nozzles having a small throat radius. The approach initially developed by Kliegel & Levine uses the velocity series development in terms of the normalized throat radius added to unity instead of solely the normalized throat radius or the traditional small disturbances theory approach. The present investigation carries out the application of these three approaches for different throat radiuses of curvature. The method using the normalized throat radius added to unity shows better results when applied to geometries integrating small throat radiuses.

Keywords: De-Laval nozzles, transonic calculations, transonic flow, supersonic nozzle.

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88 A Sliding Mesh Technique and Compressibility Correction Effects of Two-equation Turbulence Models for a Pintle-Perturbed Flow Analysis

Authors: J. Y. Heo, H. G. Sung

Abstract:

Numerical simulations have been performed for assessment of compressibility correction of two-equation turbulence models suitable for large scale separation flows perturbed by pintle strokes. In order to take into account pintle movement, a sliding mesh method was applied. The chamber pressure, mass flow rate, and thrust have been analyzed, and the response lag and sensitivity at the chamber and nozzle were estimated for a movable pintle. The nozzle performance for pintle reciprocating as its insertion and extraction processes, were analyzed to better understand the dynamic performance of the pintle nozzle.

Keywords: Pintle, sliding mesh, turbulent model, compressibility correction.

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87 An Automated Approach to the Nozzle Configuration of Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Drill Bits for Effective Cuttings Removal

Authors: R. Suresh, Pavan Kumar Nimmagadda, Ming Zo Tan, Shane Hart, Sharp Ugwuocha

Abstract:

Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drill bits are extensively used in the oil and gas industry as well as the mining industry. Industry engineers continually improve upon PDC drill bit designs and hydraulic conditions. Optimized injection nozzles play a key role in improving the drilling performance and efficiency of these ever changing PDC drill bits. In the first part of this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling is performed to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of drilling fluid flow around the PDC drill bit. An Open-source CFD software – OpenFOAM simulates the flow around the drill bit, based on the field input data. A specifically developed console application integrates the entire CFD process including, domain extraction, meshing, and solving governing equations and post-processing. The results from the OpenFOAM solver are then compared with that of the ANSYS Fluent software. The data from both software programs agree. The second part of the paper describes the parametric study of the PDC drill bit nozzle to determine the effect of parameters such as number of nozzles, nozzle velocity, nozzle radial position and orientations on the flow field characteristics and bit washing patterns. After analyzing a series of nozzle configurations, the best configuration is identified and recommendations are made for modifying the PDC bit design.

Keywords: ANSYS Fluent, computational fluid dynamics, nozzle configuration, OpenFOAM, PDC dill bit.

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86 Prediction of Scour Profile Caused by Submerged Three-Dimensional Wall Jets

Authors: Abdullah Al Faruque, Ram Balachandar

Abstract:

Series of laboratory tests were carried out to study the extent of scour caused by a three-dimensional wall jets exiting from a square cross-section nozzle and into a non-cohesive sand beds. Previous observations have indicated that the effect of the tail water depth was significant for densimetric Froude number greater than ten. However, the present results indicate that the cut off value could be lower depending on the value of grain size-to-nozzle width ratio. Numbers of equations are drawn out for a better scaling of numerous scour parameters. Also suggested the empirical prediction of scour to predict the scour centre line profile and plan view of scour profile at any particular time.

Keywords: Densimetric Froude Number, Jets, Nozzle, Sand, Scour, Tailwater, Time.

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85 Parametric Study of Confined Turbulent Impinging Slot Jets upon a Flat Plate

Authors: A. M. Tahsini, S. Tadayon Mousavi

Abstract:

In the present paper, a numerical investigation has been carried out to classify and clarify the effects of paramount parameters on turbulent impinging slot jets. The effects of nozzle-s exit turbulent intensity, distance between nozzle and impinging plate are studied at Reynolds number 5000 and 20000. In addition, the effect of Mach number that is varied between 0.3-0.8 at a constant Reynolds number 133000 is investigated to elucidate the effect of compressibility in impinging jet upon a flat plate. The wall that is located at the same level with nozzle-s exit confines the flow. A compressible finite volume solver is implemented for simulation the flow behavior. One equation Spalart-Allmaras turbulent model is used to simulate turbulent flow at this study. Assessment of the Spalart-Allmaras turbulent model at high nozzle to plate distance, and giving enough insights to characterize the effect of Mach number at high Reynolds number for the complex impinging jet flow are the remarkable results of this study.

Keywords: Impinging jet, Numerical simulation, Turbulence.

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84 Thrust Vectoring Control of Supersonic Flow Through an Orifice Injector

Authors: Ibrahim Mnafeg, Azgal Abichou, Lotfi Beji

Abstract:

Traditional mechanical control systems in thrust vectoring are efficient in rocket thrust guidance but their costs and their weights are excessive. The fluidic injection in the nozzle divergent constitutes an alternative procedure to achieve the goal. In this paper, we present a 3D analytical model for fluidic injection in a supersonic nozzle integrating an orifice. The fluidic vectoring uses a sonic secondary injection in the divergent. As a result, the flow and interaction between the main and secondary jet has built in order to express the pressure fields from which the forces and thrust vectoring are deduced. Under various separation criteria, the present analytical model results are compared with the existing numerical and experimental data from the literature.

Keywords: Flow separation, Fluidic thrust vectoring, Nozzle, Secondary jet, Shock wave.

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83 Effect of Atmospheric Pressure on the Flow at the Outlet of a Propellant Nozzle

Authors: R. Haoui

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to simulate the flow at the exit of Vulcan 1 engine of European launcher Ariane 5. The geometry of the propellant nozzle is already determined using the characteristics method. The pressure in the outlet section of the nozzle is less than atmospheric pressure on the ground, causing the existence of oblique and normal shock waves at the exit. During the rise of the launcher, the atmospheric pressure decreases and the shock wave disappears. The code allows the capture of shock wave at exit of nozzle. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer to ensure convergence and avoid the calculation instabilities. The Courant, Friedrichs and Lewy coefficient (CFL) and mesh size level are selected to ensure the numerical convergence. The nonlinear partial derivative equations system which governs this flow is solved by an explicit unsteady numerical scheme by the finite volume method. The accuracy of the solution depends on the size of the mesh and also the step of time used in the discretized equations. We have chosen in this study the mesh that gives us a stationary solution with good accuracy.

Keywords: Launchers, supersonic flow, finite volume, nozzles, shock wave.

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82 Optimum Design of Attenuator of Spun-Bond Production System

Authors: Nasser Ghassembaglou, Abdullah Bolek, Oktay Yilmaz, Ertan Oznergiz, Hikmet Kocabas, Safak Yilmaz

Abstract:

Nanofibers are effective materials which have frequently been investigated to produce high quality air filters. As an environmental approach our aim is to achieve nanofibers by melting. In spun-bond systems extruder, spin-pump, nozzle package and attenuator are used. Molten polymer which flows from extruder is made steady by spin-pump. Regular melt passes through nozzle holes and forms fibers under high pressure. The fibers pulled from nozzle are shrunk to micron size by an attenuator; after solidification, they are collected on a conveyor. In this research different designs of attenuator system have been studied; and also CFD analysis has been done on these different designs. Afterwards, one of these designs tested and finally some optimizations have been done to reduce pressure loss and increase air velocity.

Keywords: Attenuator, nanofiber, spun-bond.

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81 Numerical Simulation of Minimum Distance Jet Impingement Heat Transfer

Authors: Aman Agarwal, Georg Klepp

Abstract:

Impinging jets are used in various industrial areas as a cooling and drying technique. The current research is concerned with the means of improving the heat transfer for configurations with a minimum distance of the nozzle to the impingement surface. The impingement heat transfer is described using numerical methods over a wide range of parameters for an array of planar jets. These parameters include varying jet flow speed, width of nozzle, distance of nozzle, angle of the jet flow, velocity and geometry of the impingement surface. Normal pressure and shear stress are computed as additional parameters. Using dimensionless characteristic numbers the parameters and the results are correlated to gain generalized equations. The results demonstrate the effect of the investigated parameters on the flow.

Keywords: Heat Transfer Coefficient, Minimum distance jet impingement, Numerical simulation, Dimensionless coefficients.

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80 Experimental Study on Dehumidification Performance of Supersonic Nozzle

Authors: Esam Jassim

Abstract:

Supersonic nozzles are commonly used to purify natural gas in gas processing technology. As an innovated technology, it is employed to overcome the deficit of the traditional method, related to gas dynamics, thermodynamics and fluid dynamics theory. An indoor test rig is built to study the dehumidification process of moisture fluid. Humid air was chosen for the study. The working fluid was circulating in an open loop, which had provision for filtering, metering, and humidifying. A stainless steel supersonic separator is constructed together with the C-D nozzle system. The result shows that dehumidification enhances as NPR increases. This is due to the high intensity in the turbulence caused by the shock formation in the divergent section. Such disturbance strengthens the centrifugal force, pushing more particles toward the near-wall region. In return return, the pressure recovery factor, defined as the ratio of the outlet static pressure of the fluid to its inlet value, decreases with NPR.

Keywords: Supersonic nozzle, dehumidification, particle separation, geometry.

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79 Effect of Needle Height on Discharge Coefficient and Cavitation Number

Authors: Azadeh Yazdi, Mohammadreza Nezamirad, Sepideh Amirahmadian, Nasim Sabetpour, Amirmasoud Hamedi

Abstract:

Cavitation inside diesel injector nozzle is investigated using Reynolds-Stress-Navier stokes equations. Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model is used for modeling cavitation inside diesel injector nozzle. The carrying fluid utilized in the current study is diesel fuel. The flow is verified at the beginning by comparing with the previous experimental data and it was found that K-Epsilon turbulent model could lead to a better accuracy comparing to K-Omega turbulent model. Moreover, mass flow rate obtained numerically is compared with the experimental value and discrepancy was found to be less than 5% - which shows the accuracy of the current results. Finally, a real-size four-hole nozzle is investigated and the flow inside it is visualized based on velocity profile, discharge coefficient and cavitation number. It was found that the mesh density could be reduced significantly by utilizing periodic boundary condition. Velocity contour at the mid nozzle showed that maximum value of velocity occurs at the end of the needle before entering the orifice area. Last but not least, at the same boundary conditions, when different needle heights were utilized, it was found that as needle height increases with an increase in cavitation number, discharge coefficient increases, while the mentioned increases is more tangible at smaller values of needle heights.

Keywords: cavitation, diesel fuel, CFD, real size nozzle, mass flow rate

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