Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 358

Search results for: Formal specification

358 A Comprehensive and Integrated Framework for Formal Specification of Concurrent Systems

Authors: Sara Sharifi Rad, Hassan Haghighi

Abstract:

Due to important issues, such as deadlock, starvation, communication, non-deterministic behavior and synchronization, concurrent systems are very complex, sensitive, and error-prone. Thus ensuring reliability and accuracy of these systems is very essential. Therefore, there has been a big interest in the formal specification of concurrent programs in recent years. Nevertheless, some features of concurrent systems, such as dynamic process creation, scheduling and starvation have not been specified formally yet. Also, some other features have been specified partially and/or have been described using a combination of several different formalisms and methods whose integration needs too much effort. In other words, a comprehensive and integrated specification that could cover all aspects of concurrent systems has not been provided yet. Thus, this paper makes two major contributions: firstly, it provides a comprehensive formal framework to specify all well-known features of concurrent systems. Secondly, it provides an integrated specification of these features by using just a single formal notation, i.e., the Z language.

Keywords: Concurrent systems, Formal methods, Formal specification, Z language

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357 Data and Control Flow Analysis of VDMµ Specifications

Authors: Mubina Nazmeen, Iram Rubab

Abstract:

Formal Specification languages are being widely used for system specification and testing. Highly critical systems such as real time systems, avionics, and medical systems are represented using Formal specification languages. Formal specifications based testing is mostly performed using black box testing approaches thus testing only the set of inputs and outputs of the system. The formal specification language such as VDMµ can be used for white box testing as they provide enough constructs as any other high level programming language. In this work, we perform data and control flow analysis of VDMµ class specifications. The proposed work is discussed with an example of SavingAccount.

Keywords: VDM-SL, VDMµ, data flow graph, control flowgraph, testing, formal specification.

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356 Survey to Assess the Feasibility of Executing the Web-Based Collaboration Process Using WBCS

Authors: Mohamed A. Sullabi

Abstract:

The importance of the formal specification in the software life cycle is barely concealing to anyone. Formal specifications use mathematical notation to describe the properties of information system precisely, without unduly constraining the way in how these properties are achieved. Having a correct and quality software specification is not easy task. This study concerns with how a group of rectifiers can communicate with each other and work to prepare and produce a correct formal software specification. WBCS has been implemented based mainly in the proposed supported cooperative work model and a survey conducted on the existing Webbased collaborative writing tools. This paper aims to assess the feasibility of executing the web-based collaboration process using WBCS. The purpose of conducting this test is to test the system as a whole for functionality and fitness for use based on the evaluation test plan.

Keywords: Formal methods, Formal specifications, collaborative writing, Usability testing.

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355 A Formal Implementation of Database Security

Authors: Yun Bai

Abstract:

This paper is to investigate the impplementation of security mechanism in object oriented database system. Formal methods plays an essential role in computer security due to its powerful expressiveness and concise syntax and semantics. In this paper, both issues of specification and implementation in database security environment will be considered; and the database security is achieved through the development of an efficient implementation of the specification without compromising its originality and expressiveness.

Keywords: database security, authorization policy, logic basedspecification

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354 Measuring the Comprehensibility of a UML-B Model and a B Model

Authors: Rozilawati Razali, Paul W. Garratt

Abstract:

Software maintenance, which involves making enhancements, modifications and corrections to existing software systems, consumes more than half of developer time. Specification comprehensibility plays an important role in software maintenance as it permits the understanding of the system properties more easily and quickly. The use of formal notation such as B increases a specification-s precision and consistency. However, the notation is regarded as being difficult to comprehend. Semi-formal notation such as the Unified Modelling Language (UML) is perceived as more accessible but it lacks formality. Perhaps by combining both notations could produce a specification that is not only accurate and consistent but also accessible to users. This paper presents an experiment conducted on a model that integrates the use of both UML and B notations, namely UML-B, versus a B model alone. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the comprehensibility of a UML-B model compared to a traditional B model. The measurement used in the experiment focused on the efficiency in performing the comprehension tasks. The experiment employed a cross-over design and was conducted on forty-one subjects, including undergraduate and masters students. The results show that the notation used in the UML-B model is more comprehensible than the B model.

Keywords: Model comprehensibility, formal and semi-formal notation, empirical assessment.

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353 PZ: A Z-based Formalism for Modeling Probabilistic Behavior

Authors: Hassan Haghighi

Abstract:

Probabilistic techniques in computer programs are becoming more and more widely used. Therefore, there is a big interest in the formal specification, verification, and development of probabilistic programs. In our work-in-progress project, we are attempting to make a constructive framework for developing probabilistic programs formally. The main contribution of this paper is to introduce an intermediate artifact of our work, a Z-based formalism called PZ, by which one can build set theoretical models of probabilistic programs. We propose to use a constructive set theory, called CZ set theory, to interpret the specifications written in PZ. Since CZ has an interpretation in Martin-L¨of-s theory of types, this idea enables us to derive probabilistic programs from correctness proofs of their PZ specifications.

Keywords: formal specification, formal program development, probabilistic programs, CZ set theory, type theory.

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352 Formal Specification of Web Services Applications for Digital Reference Services of Library Information System

Authors: Zainab M. Musa, Nordin M. A. Rahman, Julaily A. Jusoh

Abstract:

Digital reference service is when a traditional library reference service is provided electronically. In most cases users do not get full satisfaction from using digital reference service due to variety of reasons. This paper discusses the formal specification of web services applications for digital reference services (WSDRS). WSDRS is an informal model that claims to reduce the problems of digital reference services in libraries. It uses web services technology to provide efficient digital way of satisfying users’ need in the reference section of libraries. Informal model is in natural language which is inconsistent and ambiguous that may cause difficulties to the developers of the system. In order to solve this problem we decided to convert the informal specifications into formal specifications. This is supposed to reduce the overall development time and cost. We use Z language to develop the formal model and verify it with Z/EVES theorem prover tool.

Keywords: Formal, specifications, web services, digital reference services.

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351 Combining the Description Features of UMLRT and CSP+T Specifications Applied to a Complete Design of Real-Time Systems

Authors: Kawtar Benghazi Akhlaki, Manuel I. Capel-Tuñón

Abstract:

UML is a collection of notations for capturing a software system specification. These notations have a specific syntax defined by the Object Management Group (OMG), but many of their constructs only present informal semantics. They are primarily graphical, with textual annotation. The inadequacies of standard UML as a vehicle for complete specification and implementation of real-time embedded systems has led to a variety of competing and complementary proposals. The Real-time UML profile (UML-RT), developed and standardized by OMG, defines a unified framework to express the time, scheduling and performance aspects of a system. We present in this paper a framework approach aimed at deriving a complete specification of a real-time system. Therefore, we combine two methods, a semiformal one, UML-RT, which allows the visual modeling of a realtime system and a formal one, CSP+T, which is a design language including the specification of real-time requirements. As to show the applicability of the approach, a correct design of a real-time system with hard real time constraints by applying a set of mapping rules is obtained.

Keywords: CSP+T, formal software specification, process algebras, real-time systems, unified modeling language.

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350 Modeling and Analyzing the WAP Class 2 Wireless Transaction Protocol Using Event-B

Authors: Rajaa Filali, Mohamed Bouhdadi

Abstract:

This paper presents an incremental formal development of the Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP) in Event-B. WTP is part of the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) architectures and provides a reliable request-response service. To model and verify the protocol, we use the formal technique Event-B which provides an accessible and rigorous development method. This interaction between modelling and proving reduces the complexity and helps to eliminate misunderstandings, inconsistencies, and specification gaps. As result, verification of WTP allows us to find some deficiencies in the current specification.

Keywords: Event-B, wireless transaction protocol, refinement, proof obligation, Rodin, ProB.

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349 Formal Specification and Description Language and Message Sequence Chart to Model and Validate Session Initiation Protocol Services

Authors: Sa’ed Abed, Mohammad H. Al Shayeji, Ovais Ahmed, Sahel Alouneh

Abstract:

Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a signaling layer protocol for building, adjusting and ending sessions among participants including Internet conferences, telephone calls and multimedia distribution. SIP facilitates user movement by proxying and forwarding requests to the present location of the user. In this paper, we provide a formal Specification and Description Language (SDL) and Message Sequence Chart (MSC) to model and define the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) SIP protocol and its sample services resulted from informal SIP specification. We create an “Abstract User Interface” using case analysis so that can be applied to identify SIP services more explicitly. The issued sample SIP features are then used as case scenarios; they are revised in MSCs format and validated to their corresponding SDL models.

Keywords: Modeling, MSC, SDL, SIP, validating.

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348 A Tool for Checking Conformance of UML Specification

Authors: Rosziati Ibrahim, Noraini Ibrahim

Abstract:

Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standard language for modeling of a system. UML is used to visually specify the structure and behavior of a system. The system requirements are captured and then converted into UML specification. UML specification uses a set of rules and notations, and diagrams to specify the system requirements. In this paper, we present a tool for developing the UML specification. The tool will ease the use of the notations and diagrams for UML specification as well as increase the understanding and familiarity of the UML specification. The tool will also be able to check the conformance of the diagrams against each other for basic compliance of UML specification.

Keywords: Software Engineering, Unified Modeling Language (UML), UML Specification.

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347 Computer Proven Correctness of the Rabin Public-Key Scheme

Authors: Johannes Buchmann, Markus Kaiser

Abstract:

We decribe a formal specification and verification of the Rabin public-key scheme in the formal proof system Is-abelle/HOL. The idea is to use the two views of cryptographic verification: the computational approach relying on the vocabulary of probability theory and complexity theory and the formal approach based on ideas and techniques from logic and programming languages. The analysis presented uses a given database to prove formal properties of our implemented functions with computer support. Thema in task in designing a practical formalization of correctness as well as security properties is to cope with the complexity of cryptographic proving. We reduce this complexity by exploring a light-weight formalization that enables both appropriate formal definitions as well as eficient formal proofs. This yields the first computer-proved implementation of the Rabin public-key scheme in Isabelle/HOL. Consequently, we get reliable proofs with a minimal error rate augmenting the used database. This provides a formal basis for more computer proof constructions in this area.

Keywords: public-key encryption, Rabin public-key scheme, formalproof system, higher-order logic, formal verification.

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346 Formal Analysis of a Public-Key Algorithm

Authors: Markus Kaiser, Johannes Buchmann

Abstract:

In this article, a formal specification and verification of the Rabin public-key scheme in a formal proof system is presented. The idea is to use the two views of cryptographic verification: the computational approach relying on the vocabulary of probability theory and complexity theory and the formal approach based on ideas and techniques from logic and programming languages. A major objective of this article is the presentation of the first computer-proved implementation of the Rabin public-key scheme in Isabelle/HOL. Moreover, we explicate a (computer-proven) formalization of correctness as well as a computer verification of security properties using a straight-forward computation model in Isabelle/HOL. The analysis uses a given database to prove formal properties of our implemented functions with computer support. The main task in designing a practical formalization of correctness as well as efficient computer proofs of security properties is to cope with the complexity of cryptographic proving. We reduce this complexity by exploring a light-weight formalization that enables both appropriate formal definitions as well as efficient formal proofs. Consequently, we get reliable proofs with a minimal error rate augmenting the used database, what provides a formal basis for more computer proof constructions in this area.

Keywords: public-key encryption, Rabin public-key scheme, formalproof system, higher-order logic, formal verification.

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345 Construction of Intersection of Nondeterministic Finite Automata using Z Notation

Authors: Nazir Ahmad Zafar, Nabeel Sabir, Amir Ali

Abstract:

Functionalities and control behavior are both primary requirements in design of a complex system. Automata theory plays an important role in modeling behavior of a system. Z is an ideal notation which is used for describing state space of a system and then defining operations over it. Consequently, an integration of automata and Z will be an effective tool for increasing modeling power for a complex system. Further, nondeterministic finite automata (NFA) may have different implementations and therefore it is needed to verify the transformation from diagrams to a code. If we describe formal specification of an NFA before implementing it, then confidence over transformation can be increased. In this paper, we have given a procedure for integrating NFA and Z. Complement of a special type of NFA is defined. Then union of two NFAs is formalized after defining their complements. Finally, formal construction of intersection of NFAs is described. The specification of this relationship is analyzed and validated using Z/EVES tool.

Keywords: Modeling, Nondeterministic finite automata, Znotation, Integration of approaches, Validation.

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344 Adaptation of State/Transition-Based Methods for Embedded System Testing

Authors: Abdelaziz Guerrouat, Harald Richter

Abstract:

In this paper test generation methods and appropriate fault models for testing and analysis of embedded systems described as (extended) finite state machines ((E)FSMs) are presented. Compared to simple FSMs, EFSMs specify not only the control flow but also the data flow. Thus, we define a two-level fault model to cover both aspects. The goal of this paper is to reuse well-known FSM-based test generation methods for automation of embedded system testing. These methods have been widely used in testing and validation of protocols and communicating systems. In particular, (E)FSMs-based specification and testing is more advantageous because (E)FSMs support the formal semantic of already standardised formal description techniques (FDTs) despite of their popularity in the design of hardware and software systems.

Keywords: Formal methods, testing and validation, finite state machines, formal description techniques.

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343 Logic Program for Authorizations

Authors: Yun Bai

Abstract:

As a security mechanism, authorization is to provide access control to the system resources according to the polices and rules specified by the security strategies. Either by update or in the initial specification, conflicts in authorization is an issue needs to be solved. In this paper, we propose a new approach to solve conflict by using prioritized logic programs and discuss the uniqueness of its answer set. Addressing conflict resolution from logic programming viewpoint and the uniqueness analysis of the answer set provide a novel, efficient approach for authorization conflict resolution.

Keywords: authorization, formal specification, conflict resolution, prioritized logic program.

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342 Refinement of Object-Z Specifications Using Morgan-s Refinement Calculus

Authors: Mehrnaz Najafi, Hassan Haghighi

Abstract:

Morgan-s refinement calculus (MRC) is one of the well-known methods allowing the formality presented in the program specification to be continued all the way to code. On the other hand, Object-Z (OZ) is an extension of Z adding support for classes and objects. There are a number of methods for obtaining code from OZ specifications that can be categorized into refinement and animation methods. As far as we know, only one refinement method exists which refines OZ specifications into code. However, this method does not have fine-grained refinement rules and thus cannot be automated. On the other hand, existing animation methods do not present mapping rules formally and do not support the mapping of several important constructs of OZ, such as all cases of operation expressions and most of constructs in global paragraph. In this paper, with the aim of providing an automatic path from OZ specifications to code, we propose an approach to map OZ specifications into their counterparts in MRC in order to use fine-grained refinement rules of MRC. In this way, having counterparts of our specifications in MRC, we can refine them into code automatically using MRC tools such as RED. Other advantages of our work pertain to proposing mapping rules formally, supporting the mapping of all important constructs of Object-Z, and considering dynamic instantiation of objects while OZ itself does not cover this facility.

Keywords: Formal method, Formal specification, Formalprogram development, Morgan's Refinement Calculus, Object-Z

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341 Modelling Multiagent Systems

Authors: Gilbert Ndjatou

Abstract:

We propose a formal framework for the specification of the behavior of a system of agents, as well as those of the constituting agents. This framework allows us to model each agent-s effectoric capability including its interactions with the other agents. We also provide an algorithm based on Milner-s "observation equivalence" to derive an agent-s perception of its task domain situations from its effectoric capability, and use "system computations" to model the coordinated efforts of the agents in the system . Formal definitions of the concept of "behavior equivalence" of two agents and that of system computations equivalence for an agent are also provided.

Keywords: Multiagent system, object system, observation equivalence, reactive systems.

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340 Metamorphism, Formal Grammars and Undecidable Code Mutation

Authors: Eric Filiol

Abstract:

This paper presents a formalisation of the different existing code mutation techniques (polymorphism and metamorphism) by means of formal grammars. While very few theoretical results are known about the detection complexity of viral mutation techniques, we exhaustively address this critical issue by considering the Chomsky classification of formal grammars. This enables us to determine which family of code mutation techniques are likely to be detected or on the contrary are bound to remain undetected. As an illustration we then present, on a formal basis, a proof-of-concept metamorphic mutation engine denoted PB MOT, whose detection has been proven to be undecidable.

Keywords: Polymorphism, Metamorphism, Formal Grammars, Formal Languages, Language Decision, Code Mutation, Word Problem

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339 Similarity Detection in Collaborative Development of Object-Oriented Formal Specifications

Authors: Fathi Taibi, Fouad Mohammed Abbou, Md. Jahangir Alam

Abstract:

The complexity of today-s software systems makes collaborative development necessary to accomplish tasks. Frameworks are necessary to allow developers perform their tasks independently yet collaboratively. Similarity detection is one of the major issues to consider when developing such frameworks. It allows developers to mine existing repositories when developing their own views of a software artifact, and it is necessary for identifying the correspondences between the views to allow merging them and checking their consistency. Due to the importance of the requirements specification stage in software development, this paper proposes a framework for collaborative development of Object- Oriented formal specifications along with a similarity detection approach to support the creation, merging and consistency checking of specifications. The paper also explores the impact of using additional concepts on improving the matching results. Finally, the proposed approach is empirically evaluated.

Keywords: Collaborative Development, Formal methods, Object-Oriented, Similarity detection

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338 An Experiment for Assessment of a “Functional Scenario-based“ Test Case Generation Method

Authors: Cencen Li, Shaoying Liu, Shin Nakajima

Abstract:

Specification-based testing enables us to detect errors in the implementation of functions defined in given specifications. Its effectiveness in achieving high path coverage and efficiency in generating test cases are always major concerns of testers. The automatic test cases generation approach based on formal specifications proposed by Liu and Nakajima is aimed at ensuring high effectiveness and efficiency, but this approach has not been empirically assessed. In this paper, we present an experiment for assessing Liu-s testing approach. The result indicates that this testing approach may not be effective in some circumstances. We discuss the result, analyse the specific causes for the ineffectiveness, and describe some suggestions for improvement.

Keywords: experiment, functional scenario, specification-based, testing.

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337 Towards an Automatic Translation of Colored Petri Nets to Maude Language

Authors: Noura Boudiaf, Abdelhamid Djebbar

Abstract:

Colored Petri Nets (CPN) are very known kind of high level Petri nets. With sound and complete semantics, rewriting logic is one of very powerful logics in description and verification of non-deterministic concurrent systems. Recently, CPN semantics are defined in terms of rewriting logic, allowing us to built models by formal reasoning. In this paper, we propose an automatic translation of CPN to the rewriting logic language Maude. This tool allows graphical editing and simulating CPN. The tool allows the user drawing a CPN graphically and automatic translating the graphical representation of the drawn CPN to Maude specification. Then, Maude language is used to perform the simulation of the resulted Maude specification. It is the first rewriting logic based environment for this category of Petri Nets.

Keywords: Colored Petri Nets, Rewriting Logic, Maude, Graphical Edition, Automatic Translation, Simulation.

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336 Managing User Expectations in Information Systems Development

Authors: Linda, Sau-ling Lai

Abstract:

This paper provides new ways to explore the old problem of failure of information systems development in an organisation. Based on the theory of cognitive dissonance, information systems (IS) failure is defined as a gap between what the users expect from an information system and how well these expectations are met by the perceived performance of the delivered system. Bridging the expectation-perception gap requires that IS professionals make a radical change from being the proprietor of information systems and products to being service providers. In order to deliver systems and services that IS users perceive as valuable, IS people must become expert in determining and assessing users- expectations and perceptions. It is also suggested that the IS community, in general, has given relatively little attention to the front-end process of requirements specification for IS development. There is a simplistic belief that requirements are obtainable from users, they are then translatable into a formal specification. The process of information needs analysis is problematic and worthy of investigation.

Keywords: Information Systems Development, Cognitive Dissonance, Expectation-Perception Gap, Requirements Analysis.

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335 Implementing a Database from a Requirement Specification

Authors: M. Omer, D. Wilson

Abstract:

Creating a database scheme is essentially a manual process. From a requirement specification the information contained within has to be analyzed and reduced into a set of tables, attributes and relationships. This is a time consuming process that has to go through several stages before an acceptable database schema is achieved. The purpose of this paper is to implement a Natural Language Processing (NLP) based tool to produce a relational database from a requirement specification. The Stanford CoreNLP version 3.3.1 and the Java programming were used to implement the proposed model. The outcome of this study indicates that a first draft of a relational database schema can be extracted from a requirement specification by using NLP tools and techniques with minimum user intervention. Therefore this method is a step forward in finding a solution that requires little or no user intervention.

Keywords: Information Extraction, Natural Language Processing, Relation Extraction.

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334 Comparison of Current Chinese and Japanese Design Specification for Bridge Pile in Liquefied Ground

Authors: Baydaa H. Maula, Ling Zhang, Tang Liang, Gao Xia, Xu Peng-Ju, Zhang Yong-Qiang, Kang Jie, Su Lei

Abstract:

Firstly, this study briefly presents the current situation that there exists a vast gap between current Chinese and Japanese seismic design specification for bridge pile foundation in liquefiable and liquefaction-induced lateral spreading ground; The Chinese and Japanese seismic design method and technical detail for bridge pile foundation in liquefying and lateral spreading ground are described and compared systematically and comprehensively, the methods of determining coefficient of subgrade reaction and its reduction factor as well as the computing mode of the applied force on pile foundation due to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading soil in Japanese design specification are especially introduced. Subsequently, the comparison indicates that the content of Chinese seismic design specification for bridge pile foundation in liquefiable and liquefaction-induced lateral spreading ground, just presenting some qualitative items, is too general and lacks systematicness and maneuverability. Finally, some defects of seismic design specification in China are summarized, so the improvement and revision of specification in the field turns out to be imperative for China, some key problems of current Chinese specifications are generalized and the corresponding improvement suggestions are proposed.

Keywords: liquefying soil, laterally spreading ground, seismic design specification for bridge pile foundation.

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333 Formal Thai National Costume in the Reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej

Authors: Chanoknart Mayusoh

Abstract:

The research about Formal Thai National Costume in the reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej is an applied research that aimed to study the accurate knowledge concerning to Thai national costume in the reign of King Rama IX, also to study origin of all costumes in the reign of King Rama IX and to study the style, material used, and using accasion. This research methodology which are collect quanlitative data through observation, document, and photograph from key informant of costume in the reign of King Rama IX and from another who related to this field.

The formal Thai national costume of the reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej originated from the visit of His Majesty the King to Europe and America in 1960. Since Thailand had no traditional national costume; Her Majesty the Queen initiated the idea to create formal Thai national costumes. In 1964, Her Majesty the Queen selected 8 styles of formal Thai national costume. Later, Her Majesty the Queen confered another 3 formal Thai national costume for men. There are 8 styles of formal Thai national costume for women: Thai Ruean Ton, Thai Chit Lada, Thai Amarin, Thai Borom Phiman, Thai Siwalia, Thai Chakkri, Thai Dusit, and Thai Chakkraphat. There are 3 styles of formal Thai national costume for men: short-sleeve shirt, long-sleeve shirt, and long-sleeve shirt with breechcloth. The costume is widely used in formal ceremony such as greeting ceremony for official foreign visitors, wedding ceremony, or other auspicious ceremonies. Now a day, they are always used as a bridal gown as well. The formal Thai national costume is valuable art that shows Thai identity and, should be preserved for the next generation.

Keywords: The formal Thai national costume for women, The formal Thai national costume for men, His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej the Great King Rama IX, Her Majesty Queen Sirikit Queen.

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332 Identification of Critical Success Factors in Non-Formal Service Sector Using Delphi Technique

Authors: Amol A. Talankar, Prakash Verma, Nitin Seth

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to identify the critical success factors (CSFs) for the effective implementation of Six Sigma in non-formal service Sectors.

Based on the survey of literature, the critical success factors (CSFs) for Six Sigma have been identified and are assessed for their importance in Non-formal service sector using Delphi Technique. These selected CSFs were put forth to the panel of expert to cluster them and prepare cognitive map to establish their relationship.

All the critical success factors examined and obtained from the review of literature have been assessed for their importance with respect to their contribution to Six Sigma effectiveness in non formal service sector.

The study is limited to the non-formal service sectors involved in the organization of religious festival only. However, the similar exercise can be conducted for broader sample of other non-formal service sectors like temple/ashram management, religious tours management etc.

The research suggests an approach to identify CSFs of Six Sigma for Non-formal service sector. All the CSFs of the formal service sector will not be applicable to Non-formal services, hence opinion of experts was sought to add or delete the CSFs. In the first round of Delphi, the panel of experts has suggested, two new CSFs-“competitive benchmarking (F19) and resident’s involvement (F28)”, which were added for assessment in the next round of Delphi.  One of the CSFs-“fulltime six sigma personnel (F15)” has been omitted in proposed clusters of CSFs for non-formal organization, as it is practically impossible to deploy full time trained Six Sigma recruits.

Keywords: Critical success factors (CSFs), Quality assurance, non-formal service sectors, Six Sigma.

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331 Analysis of Medical Data using Data Mining and Formal Concept Analysis

Authors: Anamika Gupta, Naveen Kumar, Vasudha Bhatnagar

Abstract:

This paper focuses on analyzing medical diagnostic data using classification rules in data mining and context reduction in formal concept analysis. It helps in finding redundancies among the various medical examination tests used in diagnosis of a disease. Classification rules have been derived from positive and negative association rules using the Concept lattice structure of the Formal Concept Analysis. Context reduction technique given in Formal Concept Analysis along with classification rules has been used to find redundancies among the various medical examination tests. Also it finds out whether expensive medical tests can be replaced by some cheaper tests.

Keywords: Data Mining, Formal Concept Analysis, Medical Data, Negative Classification Rules.

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330 A Computer Proven Application of the Discrete Logarithm Problem

Authors: Sebastian Kusch, Markus Kaiser

Abstract:

In this paper we analyze the application of a formal proof system to the discrete logarithm problem used in publickey cryptography. That means, we explore a computer verification of the ElGamal encryption scheme with the formal proof system Isabelle/HOL. More precisely, the functional correctness of this algorithm is formally verified with computer support. Besides, we present a formalization of the DSA signature scheme in the Isabelle/HOL system. We show that this scheme is correct what is a necessary condition for the usefulness of any cryptographic signature scheme.

Keywords: Formal proof system, higher-order logic, formal verification, cryptographic signature scheme.

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329 Application of Formal Methods for Designing a Separation Kernel for Embedded Systems

Authors: Kei Kawamorita, Ryouta Kasahara, Yuuki Mochizuki, Kenichiro Noguchi

Abstract:

A separation-kernel-based operating system (OS) has been designed for use in secure embedded systems by applying formal methods to the design of the separation-kernel part. The separation kernel is a small OS kernel that provides an abstract distributed environment on a single CPU. The design of the separation kernel was verified using two formal methods, the B method and the Spin model checker. A newly designed semi-formal method, the extended state transition method, was also applied. An OS comprising the separation-kernel part and additional OS services on top of the separation kernel was prototyped on the Intel IA-32 architecture. Developing and testing of a prototype embedded application, a point-of-sale application, on the prototype OS demonstrated that the proposed architecture and the use of formal methods to design its kernel part are effective for achieving a secure embedded system having a high-assurance separation kernel.

Keywords: B method, embedded systems, extended state transition, formal methods, separation kernel, Spin.

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