Search results for: rock mechanics
300 Mixed-Mode Study of Rock Fracture Mechanics by using the Modified Arcan Specimen Test
Authors: R. Hasanpour, N. Choupani
Abstract:This paper studies mixed-mode fracture mechanics in rock based on experimental and numerical analyses. Experiments were performed on sharp-cracked specimens using the modified Arcan specimen test loading device. The modified Arcan specimen test was, in association with a special loading device, an appropriate apparatus for experimental mixed-mode fracture analysis. By varying the loading angle from 0° to 90°, pure mode-I, pure mode-II and a wide range of mixed-mode data were obtained experimentally. Using the finite element results, correction factors applied to the rectangular fracture specimen. By employing experimentally measured critical loads and the aid of the finite element method, mixed-mode fracture toughness for the limestone under consideration determined.
Keywords: Rock Fracture Mechanics, Mixed-mode Loading, Finite Element Analysis, Arcan Test specimen.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2427
299 Prediction of in situ Permeability for Limestone Rock Using Rock Quality Designation Index
Authors: Ahmed T. Farid, Muhammed Rizwan
Geotechnical study for evaluating soil or rock permeability is a highly important parameter. Permeability values for rock formations are more difficult for determination than soil formation as it is an effect of the rock quality and its fracture values. In this research, the prediction of in situ permeability of limestone rock formations was predicted. The limestone rock permeability was evaluated using Lugeon tests (in-situ packer permeability). Different sites which spread all over the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia were chosen to conduct our study of predicting the in-situ permeability of limestone rock. Correlations were deducted between the values of in-situ permeability of the limestone rock with the value of the rock quality designation (RQD) calculated during the execution of the boreholes of the study areas. The study was performed for different ranges of RQD values measured during drilling of the sites boreholes. The developed correlations are recommended for the onsite determination of the in-situ permeability of limestone rock only. For the other sedimentary formations of rock, more studies are needed for predicting the actual correlations related to each type.
Keywords: Packer, permeability, rock, quality.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1304
298 Valorization and Conservation of Rock Paintings and Engravings of Kabylia Region, Algeria
Authors: S. Ait Ali Yahia
In Algeria, the most impressive and most known prehistoric art is the painted or engraved rock art which is present with abundance in several regions. The existence of rock art in Great Kabylia region has been known for over sixty years. The main purpose of this research is to show the dangers facing these rock paintings and engravings and what are the arrangements for their protection and recovery. As every vestige destroyed is a part of the world's memory which disappears, some steps have to be taken in order to protect these historical and archaeological heritages.
Keywords: Kabylia, preservation, rock paintings and engravings, valorization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1200
297 Impact of Scale on Rock Strength
Authors: Roland Pusch, Richard Weston
The scale dependence of the strength of virtually homogeneous rock is usually considered to be insignificant but the spectrum of discontinuities plays a very important role for the strength of differently sized rock elements and also controls the rock creep strain. Large-scale load tests comprised recording of the creep strain rate that was found to be strongly retarded and negligible for stresses lower than about 1/3 of the failure load. For higher stresses creep took place according to a log time law representing secondary creep that ultimately changed to tertiary creep and failure.
Keywords: Impact of scale, rock strength.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1581
296 Evaluation of Geomechanical and Geometrical Parameters’ Effects on Hydro-Mechanical Estimation of Water Inflow into Underground Excavations
Authors: M. Mazraehli, F. Mehrabani, S. Zare
In general, mechanical and hydraulic processes are not independent of each other in jointed rock masses. Therefore, the study on hydro-mechanical coupling of geomaterials should be a center of attention in rock mechanics. Rocks in their nature contain discontinuities whose presence extremely influences mechanical and hydraulic characteristics of the medium. Assuming this effect, experimental investigations on intact rock cannot help to identify jointed rock mass behavior. Hence, numerical methods are being used for this purpose. In this paper, water inflow into a tunnel under significant water table has been estimated using hydro-mechanical discrete element method (HM-DEM). Besides, effects of geomechanical and geometrical parameters including constitutive model, friction angle, joint spacing, dip of joint sets, and stress factor on the estimated inflow rate have been studied. Results demonstrate that inflow rates are not identical for different constitutive models. Also, inflow rate reduces with increased spacing and stress factor.
Keywords: Distinct element method, fluid flow, hydro-mechanical coupling, jointed rock mass, underground excavations.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 655
295 Probabilistic Approach as a Method Used in the Solution of Engineering Design for Biomechanics and Mining
Authors: Karel Frydrýšek
Abstract:This paper focuses on the probabilistic numerical solution of the problems in biomechanics and mining. Applications of Simulation-Based Reliability Assessment (SBRA) Method are presented in the solution of designing of the external fixators applied in traumatology and orthopaedics (these fixators can be applied for the treatment of open and unstable fractures etc.) and in the solution of a hard rock (ore) disintegration process (i.e. the bit moves into the ore and subsequently disintegrates it, the results are compared with experiments, new design of excavation tool is proposed.
Keywords: probabilistic approach, engineering design, traumatology, rock mechanicsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1325
294 Rock Paintings with Libyan Inscriptions of Grande Kabylia, Algeria
Authors: Samia Ait Ali Yahia
The rock paintings of Grande Kabylia contain a good number of Libyan inscriptions. Of the 54 sites discovered, 23 have inscriptions painted in red ocher. We find them in rock shelters, on blocks of sandstone in the northern part of Kabylia. Our job is to collect as many cave paintings as possible with Libyan inscriptions. Then we will make an analysis on the epigraphic level, the different forms of the characters and their frequencies. The other purpose of this research is to bring out the different characters used in these paintings and compare them with those of the Libyan steles of Grande Kabylia.
Keywords: Grande Kabylia, Libyan inscriptions, Libyan stele, rock paintings.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 450
293 Elasto-Plastic Behavior of Rock during Temperature Drop
Authors: N. Reppas, Y. L. Gui, B. Wetenhall, C. T. Davie, J. Ma
A theoretical constitutive model describing the stress-strain behavior of rock subjected to different confining pressures is presented. A bounding surface plastic model with hardening effects is proposed which includes the effect of temperature drop. The bounding surface is based on a mapping rule and the temperature effect on rock is controlled by Poisson’s ratio. Validation of the results against available experimental data is also presented. The relation of deviatoric stress and axial strain is illustrated at different temperatures to analyze the effect of temperature decrease in terms of stiffness of the material.
Keywords: Bounding surface, cooling of rock, plasticity model, rock deformation, elasto-plastic behavior.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 622
292 Physical and Mechanical Phenomena Associated with Rock Failure in Brazilian Disc Specimens
Authors: Hamid Reza Nejati, Amin Nazerigivi, Ahmad Reza Sayadi
Abstract:Failure mechanism of rocks is one of the fundamental aspects to study rock engineering stability. Rock is a material that contains flaws, initial damage, micro-cracks, etc. Failure of rock structure is largely due to tensile stress and was influenced by various parameters. In the present study, the effect of brittleness and loading rate on the physical and mechanical phenomena produced in rock during loading sequences is considered. For this purpose, Acoustic Emission (AE) technique is used to monitor fracturing process of three rock types (onyx marble, sandstone and soft limestone) with different brittleness and sandstone samples under different loading rate. The results of experimental tests revealed that brittleness and loading rate have a significant effect on the mode and number of induced fracture in rocks. An increase in rock brittleness increases the frequency of induced cracks, and the number of tensile fracture decreases when loading rate increases.
Keywords: Brittleness, loading rate, acoustic emission, tensile fracture, shear fracture.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 861
291 Rock Textures Classification Based on Textural and Spectral Features
Authors: Tossaporn Kachanubal, Somkait Udomhunsakul
Abstract:In this paper, we proposed a method to classify each type of natural rock texture. Our goal is to classify 26 classes of rock textures. First, we extract five features of each class by using principle component analysis combining with the use of applied spatial frequency measurement. Next, the effective node number of neural network was tested. We used the most effective neural network in classification process. The results from this system yield quite high in recognition rate. It is shown that high recognition rate can be achieved in separation of 26 stone classes.
Keywords: Texture classification, SFM, neural network, rock texture classification.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1894
290 Field and Petrographic Relationships between the Charnockitic and Associated Granitic Rock, Akure Area, Southwestern Nigeria
Authors: Ademeso, Odunyemi Anthony
The charnockitic and associated granitic rocks of Akure area were studied for their field and petrographic relationship's. The outcrops locations were plotted in Surfer 8. The granitic rock exhibits a porphyritic texture and outcrops in the north-eastern side of the study area while the charnockitics outcrop in the central/western part. An essentially dark coloured and fine grained intrusive exhibiting xenoliths and xenocrysts (plagioclase phenocrysts) of the granite outcrops between the granitic and charnockitic rocks. Mineralogically, the central rock combines the content of the other two indicating that it is most likely a product of their hybridization. The charnockitic magma is believed to have intruded and assimilated the granite substantially thereby contaminating itself and consequently emplacing the hybrid. The presented model of emplacement elucidates the hybridization proposal. Conclusively, the charnockitics are believed to be (a) younger than the granite, (b) of Pan-African age and (c) of igneous origin.
Keywords: Charnockitic rock, Hybrid rock, ImageJ, XenocrystProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2879
289 Shaft Friction of Bored Pile Socketed in Weathered Limestone in Qatar
Authors: Thanawat Chuleekiat
Abstract:Socketing of bored piles in rock is always seen as a matter of debate on construction sites between consultants and contractors. The socketing depth normally depends on the type of rock, depth at which the rock is available below the pile cap and load carrying capacity of the pile. In this paper, the review of field load test data of drilled shaft socketed in weathered limestone conducted using conventional static pile load test and dynamic pile load test was made to evaluate a unit shaft friction for the bored piles socketed in weathered limestone (weak rock). The borehole drilling data were also reviewed in conjunction with the pile test result. In addition, the back-calculated unit shaft friction was reviewed against various empirical methods for bored piles socketed in weak rock. The paper concludes with an estimated ultimate unit shaft friction from the case study in Qatar for preliminary design.
Keywords: Piled foundation, weathered limestone, shaft friction, rock socket, pile load test.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 913
288 Rock Thickness Measurement by Using Self-Excited Acoustical System
Authors: JanuszKwaśniewski, IreneuszDominik, KrzysztofLalik
The knowledge about rock layers thickness,especially above drilled mining pavements is crucial for workers safety. The measuring systems used nowadays are generally imperfect and there is a strong demand for improvement. The application of a new type of a measurement system called Self-excited Acoustical System is presentedin the paper. The system was applied until now to monitor stress changes in metal and concrete constructions. The change in measurement methodology resulted in possibility of measuring the thickness of the rocks above the tunnels as well as thickness of a singular rocklayer. The idea is to find two resonance frequencies of the self-exited system,which consists of a vibration exciter and vibration receiver placed at a distance, which are coupled with a proper power amplifier, and which operate in a closed loop with a positive feedback. The resonance with the higher amplitude determines thickness of the whole rock, whereas the lower amplitude resonance indicates thickness of a singular layer. The results of the laboratory tests conducted on a group of different rock materials are also presented.
Keywords: Autooscillator, non-destructive testing, rock thickness measurement.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1914
287 Investigating the Nail Walls Performance in Jointed Rock Medium
Authors: Ibrahim Naeimifar, Omid Naeemifar
Abstract:Evaluation of the excavation-induced ground movements is an important design aspect of support systems in urban areas. Geological and geotechnical conditions of an excavation area have significant effects on excavation-induced ground movements and the related damage. This paper is aimed at studying the performance of excavation walls supported by nails in jointed rock medium. The performance of nailed walls is investigated based on evaluating the excavation-induced ground movements. For this purpose, a set of calibrated 2D finite element models are developed by taking into account the nail-rock-structure interactions, the anisotropic properties of jointed rock, and the staged construction process. The results of this paper highlight effects of different parameters such as joint inclinations, anisotropy of rocks and nail inclinations on deformation parameters of excavation wall supported by nails.
Keywords: Finite element, jointed rock, nailing, performance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1588
286 The Application of Distributed Optical Strain Sensing to Measure Rock Bolt Deformation Subject to Bedding Shear
Authors: Thomas P. Roper, Brad Forbes, Jurij Karlovšek
Shear displacement along bedding defects is a well-recognised behaviour when tunnelling and mining in stratified rock. This deformation can affect the durability and integrity of installed rock bolts. In-situ monitoring of rock bolt deformation under bedding shear cannot be accurately derived from traditional strain gauge bolts as sensors are too large and spaced too far apart to accurately assess concentrated displacement along discrete defects. A possible solution to this is the use of fiber optic technologies developed for precision monitoring. Distributed Optic Sensor (DOS) embedded rock bolts were installed in a tunnel project with the aim of measuring the bolt deformation profile under significant shear displacements. This technology successfully measured the 3D strain distribution along the bolts when subjected to bedding shear and resolved the axial and lateral strain constituents in order to determine the deformational geometry of the bolts. The results are compared well with the current visual method for monitoring shear displacement using borescope holes, considering this method as suitable.
Keywords: Distributed optical strain sensing, geotechnical monitoring, rock bolt stain measurement, bedding shear displacement.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 728
285 Locating Critical Failure Surface in Rock Slope Stability with Hybrid Model Based on Artificial Immune System and Cellular Learning Automata (CLA-AIS)
Authors: Ramin Javadzadeh, Emad Javadzadeh
Locating the critical slip surface with the minimum factor of safety for a rock slope is a difficult problem. In recent years, some modern global optimization methods have been developed with success in treating various types of problems, but very few of such methods have been applied to rock mechanical problems. In this paper, use of hybrid model based on artificial immune system and cellular learning automata is proposed. The results show that the algorithm is an effective and efficient optimization method with a high level of confidence rate.
Keywords: CLA-AIS, failure surface, optimization methods, rock slope.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1880
284 Simulating the Interaction between Groundwater and Brittle Failure in Open Pit Slopes
Authors: Janisse Vivas, Doug Stead, Davide Elmo, Charles Hunt
Abstract:This paper presents the results of a study on the influence of varying percentages of rock bridges along a basal surface defining a biplanar failure mode. A pseudo-coupled-hydromechanical brittle fracture analysis is adopted using the state-of-the-art code Slope Model. Model results show that rock bridge failure is strongly influenced by the incorporation of groundwater pressures. The models show that groundwater pressure can promote total failure of a 5% rock bridge along the basal surface. Once the percentage of the rock bridges increases to 10 and 15%, although, the rock bridges are broken, full interconnection of the surface defining the basal surface of the biplanar mode does not occur. Increased damage is caused when the rock bridge is located at the daylighting end of the basal surface in proximity to the blast damage zone. As expected, some cracking damage is experienced in the blast damage zone, where properties representing a good quality controlled damage blast technique were assumed. Model results indicate the potential increase of permeability towards the blast damage zone.
Keywords: Slope model, lattice spring, blasting damage zone.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1942
283 Investigation on the Stability of Rock Slopes Subjected to Tension Cracks via Limit Analysis
Based on the kinematic approach of limit analysis, a full set of upper bound solutions for the stability of homogeneous rock slopes subjected to tension cracks are obtained. The generalized Hoek-Brown failure criterion is employed to describe the non-linear strength envelope of rocks. In this paper, critical failure mechanisms are determined for cracks of known depth but unspecified location, cracks of known location but unknown depth, and cracks of unspecified location and depth. It is shown that there is a nearly up to 50% drop in terms of the stability factors for the rock slopes intersected by a tension crack compared with intact ones. Tables and charts of solutions in dimensionless forms are presented for ease of use by practitioners.
Keywords: Hoek-Brown failure criterion, limit analysis, rock slope, tension cracks.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2340
282 Determination of Seismic Wave of Consolidated Granite Rock in Penang Island: UltrasonicTesting Method Vs Seismic Refraction Method
Authors: Mohd Hafiz Musa, Zulfadhli Hasan Adli, M . N . Khairul Arifin
Abstract:In seismic survey, the information regarding the velocity of compression wave (Vp) as well as shear wave (Vs) are very useful especially during the seismic interpretation. Previous studies showed that both Vp and Vs determined by above methods are totally different with respect to each other but offered good approximation. In this study, both Vp and Vs of consolidated granite rock were studied by using ultrasonic testing method and seismic refraction method. In ultrasonic testing, two different condition of rock are used which is dry and wet. The differences between Vp and Vs getting by using ultrasonic testing and seismic refraction were investigated and studied. The effect of water content in granite rock towards the value of Vp and Vs during ultrasonic testing are also measured. Within this work, the tolerance of the differences between the velocity of seismic wave getting from ultrasonic testing and the velocity of seismic wave getting from seismic refraction are also measured and investigated.
Keywords: Compressional wave, Granite, Shear Wave, VelocityProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1760
281 Simulation and Statistical Analysis of Motion Behavior of a Single Rockfall
Authors: Iau-Teh Wang, Chin-Yu Lee
Abstract:The impact force of a rockfall is mainly determined by its moving behavior and velocity, which are contingent on the rock shape, slope gradient, height, and surface roughness of the moving path. It is essential to precisely calculate the moving path of the rockfall in order to effectively minimize and prevent damages caused by the rockfall. By applying the Colorado Rockfall Simulation Program (CRSP) program as the analysis tool, this research studies the influence of three shapes of rock (spherical, cylindrical and discoidal) and surface roughness on the moving path of a single rockfall. As revealed in the analysis, in addition to the slope gradient, the geometry of the falling rock and joint roughness coefficient ( JRC ) of the slope are the main factors affecting the moving behavior of a rockfall. On a single flat slope, both the rock-s bounce height and moving velocity increase as the surface gradient increases, with a critical gradient value of 1:m = 1 . Bouncing behavior and faster moving velocity occur more easily when the rock geometry is more oval. A flat piece tends to cause sliding behavior and is easily influenced by the change of surface undulation. When JRC <1.4 the moving velocity decreases and the bounce height increases as JRC increases. If the gradient is fixed, when JRC is greater, the bounce height will be higher, while the moving velocity will experience a downward trend. Therefore, the best protecting point and facilities can be chosen if the moving paths of rockfalls are precisely estimated.
Keywords: rock shape, surface roughness, moving path.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1811
280 Rock Slope Stabilization and Protection for Roads and Multi-Storey Structures in Jabal Omar, Saudi Arabia
Authors: Ibrahim Abdel Gadir Malik, Dafalla Siddig Dafalla, Abdelazim Ibrahim
Jabal Omar is located in the western side of Makkah city in Saudi Arabia. The proposed Jabal Omar Development project includes several multi-storey buildings, roads, bridges and below ground structures founded at various depths. In this study, geological mapping and site inspection which covered pre-selected areas were carried out within the easily accessed parts. Geological features; including rock types, structures, degree of weathering, and geotechnical hazards were observed and analyzed with specified software and also were documented in form of photographs. The presence of joints and fractures in the area made the rock blocks small and weak. The site is full of jointing; it was observed that, the northern side consists of 3 to 4 jointing systems with 2 random fractures associated with dykes. The southern part is affected by 2 to 3 jointing systems with minor fault and shear zones. From the field measurements and observations, it was concluded that, the Jabal Omar intruded by andesitic and basaltic dykes of different thickness and orientation. These dykes made the outcrop weak, highly deformed and made the rock masses sensitive to weathering.
Keywords: Rock, slope, stabilization, protection, Makkah.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1226
279 Topping Failure Analysis of Anti-Dip Bedding Rock Slopes Subjected to Crest Loads
Authors: Chaoyi Sun, Congxin Chen, Yun Zheng, Kaizong Xia, Wei Zhang
Crest loads are often encountered in hydropower, highway, open-pit and other engineering rock slopes. Toppling failure is one of the most common deformation failure types of anti-dip bedding rock slopes. Analysis on such failure of anti-dip bedding rock slopes subjected to crest loads has an important influence on engineering practice. Based on the step-by-step analysis approach proposed by Goodman and Bray, a geo-mechanical model was developed, and the related analysis approach was proposed for the toppling failure of anti-dip bedding rock slopes subjected to crest loads. Using the transfer coefficient method, a formulation was derived for calculating the residual thrust of slope toe and the support force required to meet the requirements of the slope stability under crest loads, which provided a scientific reference to design and support for such slopes. Through slope examples, the influence of crest loads on the residual thrust and sliding ratio coefficient was investigated for cases of different block widths and slope cut angles. The results show that there exists a critical block width for such slope. The influence of crest loads on the residual thrust is non-negligible when the block thickness is smaller than the critical value. Moreover, the influence of crest loads on the slope stability increases with the slope cut angle and the sliding ratio coefficient of anti-dip bedding rock slopes increases with the crest loads. Finally, the theoretical solutions and numerical simulations using Universal Distinct Element Code (UDEC) were compared, in which the consistent results show the applicability of both approaches.
Keywords: Anti-dip slopes, crest loads, stability analysis, toppling failure.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 747
278 Numerical Modeling of Determination of in situ Rock Mass Deformation Modulus Using the Plate Load Test
Authors: A. Khodabakhshi, A. Mortazavi
Accurate determination of rock mass deformation modulus, as an important design parameter, is one of the most controversial issues in most engineering projects. A 3D numerical model of standard plate load test (PLT) using the FLAC3D code was carried to investigate the mechanism governing the test process. Five objectives were the focus of this study. The first goal was to employ 3D modeling in the interpretation of PLT conducted at the Bazoft dam site, Iran. The second objective was to investigate the effect of displacements measuring depth from the loading plates on the calculated moduli. The magnitude of rock mass deformation modulus calculated from PLT depends on anchor depth, and in practice, this may be a cause of error in the selection of realistic deformation modulus for the rock mass. The third goal of the study was to investigate the effect of testing plate diameter on the calculated modulus. Moreover, a comparison of the calculated modulus from ISRM formula, numerical modeling and calculated modulus from the actual PLT carried out at right abutment of the Bazoft dam site was another objective of the study. Finally, the effect of plastic strains on the calculated moduli in each of the loading-unloading cycles for three loading plates was investigated. The geometry, material properties, and boundary conditions on the constructed 3D model were selected based on the in-situ conditions of PLT at Bazoft dam site. A good agreement was achieved between numerical model results and the field tests results.
Keywords: Deformation modulus, numerical model, plate loading test, rock mass.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 629
277 Delineating Concern Ground in Block Caving – Underground Mine Using Ground Penetrating Radar
Authors: Eric Sitorus, Septian Prahastudhi, Turgod Nainggolan, Erwin Riyanto
Mining by block or panel caving is a mining method that takes advantage of fractures within an ore body, coupled with gravity, to extract material from a predetermined column of ore. The caving column is weakened from beneath through the use of undercutting, after which the ore breaks up and is extracted from below in a continuous cycle. The nature of this method induces cyclical stresses on the pillars of excavations as stress is built up and released over time, which has a detrimental effect on both the installed ground support and the rock mass itself. Ground support capacity, especially on the production where excavation void ratio is highest, is subjected to heavy loading. Strain above threshold of the elongation of support capacity can yield resulting in damage to excavations. Geotechnical engineers must evaluate not only the remnant capacity of ground support systems but also investigate depth of rock mass yield within pillars, backs and floors. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a geophysical method that has the ability to evaluate rock mass damage using electromagnetic waves. This paper illustrates a case study from the Grasberg mining complex where non-invasive information on the depth of damage and condition of the remaining rock mass was required. GPR with 100 MHz antenna resolution was used to obtain images of the subsurface to determine rehabilitation requirements prior to recommencing production activities. The GPR surveys were used to calibrate the reflection coefficient response of varying rock mass conditions to known Rock Quality Designation (RQD) parameters observed at the mine. The calibrated GPR survey allowed site engineers to map subsurface conditions and plan rehabilitation accordingly.
Keywords: Block caving, ground penetrating radar, reflectivity, RQD.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 516
276 Continuum-Based Modelling Approaches for Cell Mechanics
Authors: Yogesh D. Bansod, Jiri Bursa
Abstract:The quantitative study of cell mechanics is of paramount interest, since it regulates the behaviour of the living cells in response to the myriad of extracellular and intracellular mechanical stimuli. The novel experimental techniques together with robust computational approaches have given rise to new theories and models, which describe cell mechanics as combination of biomechanical and biochemical processes. This review paper encapsulates the existing continuum-based computational approaches that have been developed for interpreting the mechanical responses of living cells under different loading and boundary conditions. The salient features and drawbacks of each model are discussed from both structural and biological points of view. This discussion can contribute to the development of even more precise and realistic computational models of cell mechanics based on continuum approaches or on their combination with microstructural approaches, which in turn may provide a better understanding of mechanotransduction in living cells.
Keywords: Cell mechanics, computational models, continuum approach, mechanical models.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2786
275 Resilient Modulus and Deformation Responses of Waste Glass in Flexible Pavement System
Authors: M. Al-Saedi, A. Chegenizadeh, H. Nikraz
Experimental investigations are conducted to assess a layered structure of glass (G) - rock (R) blends under the impact of repeated loading. Laboratory tests included sieve analyses, modified compaction test and repeated load triaxial test (RLTT) is conducted on different structures of stratified GR samples to reach the objectives of this study. Waste materials are such essential components in the climate system, and also commonly used in minimising the need for natural materials in many countries. Glass is one of the most widely used groups of waste materials which have been extensively using in road applications. Full range particle size and colours of glass are collected and mixed at different ratios with natural rock material trying to use the blends in pavement layers. Whole subsurface specimen sequentially consists of a single layer of R and a layer of G-R blend. 12G/88R and 45G/55R mix ratios are employed in this research, the thickness of G-R layer was changed, and the results were compared between the pure rock and the layered specimens. The relations between resilient module (Mr) and permanent deformation with sequence number are presented. During the earlier stages of RLTT, the results indicated that the 45G/55R specimen shows higher moduli than R specimen.
Keywords: Rock base course, layered structure, glass, resilient modulus.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 471
274 First-Principles Investigation of the Structural and Electronic Properties of Mg1-xBixO
Authors: G. P. Abdel Rahim, M. María Guadalupe Moreno Armenta, Jairo Arbey Rodriguez
Abstract:We investigated the structure and electronic properties of the compound Mg1-xBixO with varying concentrations of 0, ¼, ½, and ¾ x bismuth in the the cesium chloride (CsCl), zinc-blende (ZnS), nickel arsenide (NiAs) NaCl (rock-salt) and WZ (wurtzite) phases. We calculated. The calculations were performed using the first-principles pseudo-potential method within the framework of spin density functional theory (DFT).
Keywords: DFT, Mg1-xBixO, pseudo-potential, rock-salt and wurtzite.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1863
273 Depositional Environment and Source Potential of Devonian Source Rock, Ghadames Basin, Southern Tunisia
Authors: S. Mahmoudi, A. Belhaj Mohamed, M. Saidi, F. Rezgui
Depositional environment and source potential of the different organic-rich levels of Devonian age (up to 990m thick) from the onshore EC-1 well (Southern Tunisia) were investigated based on the analysis of more than 130 cutting samples by different geochemical techniques (Rock-Eval pyrolysis, GC-MS). The obtained results including Rock Eval Pyrolysis data and biomarker distribution (terpanes, steranes and aromatics) have been used to describe the depositional environment and to assess the thermal maturity of the Devonian organic matter. These results show that the Emsian deposits exhibit poor to fair TOC contents. The associated organic matter is composed of mixed kerogen (type II/III), as indicated by the predominance of C29 steranes over C27 and C28 homologous, that was deposited in a slightly reduced environment favoring organic matter preservation. Thermal maturity assessed from Tmax, TNR and MPI-1 values shows a mature stage of organic matter. The Middle Devonian (Eifelian) shales are rich in type II organic matter that was deposited in an open marine depositional environment. The TOC values are high and vary between 2 and 7% indicating good to excellent source rock. The relatively high HI values (reaching 547 mg HC/g TOC) and the low values of t19/t23 tricyclic terpane ratio (< 0.2) confirm the marine origin of the organic matter (type II). During the Upper Devonian, the organic matter was deposited under variable redox conditions, oxic to suboxic which is clearly indicated by the low C35/C34 hopanes ratio, immature to marginally mature with the vitrinite reflectance ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 Ro and Tmax value of 426°C-436 °C and the TOC values range between 0.8% to 4%.
Keywords: Depositional environment, Devonian, Source rock.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2348
272 A Practical Construction Technique to Enhance the Performance of Rock Bolts in Tunnels
Authors: O. Chaudhari, A. N. Ghafar, G. Zirgulis, M. Mousavi, T. Ellison, S. Pousette, P. Fontana
In Swedish tunnel construction, a critical issue that has been repeatedly acknowledged is corrosion and, consequently, failure of the rock bolts in rock support systems. The defective installation of rock bolts results in the formation of cavities in the cement mortar that is regularly used to fill the area under the dome plates. These voids allow for water-ingress to the rock bolt assembly, which results in corrosion of rock bolt components and eventually failure. In addition, the current installation technique consists of several manual steps with intense labor works that are usually done in uncomfortable and exhausting conditions, e.g., under the roof of the tunnels. Such intense tasks also lead to a considerable waste of materials and execution errors. Moreover, adequate quality control of the execution is hardly possible with the current technique. To overcome these issues, a non-shrinking/expansive cement-based mortar filled in the paper packaging has been developed in this study which properly fills the area under the dome plates without or with the least remaining cavities, ultimately that diminishes the potential of corrosion. This article summarizes the development process and the experimental evaluation of this technique for the installation of rock bolts. In the development process, the cementitious mortar was first developed using specific cement and shrinkage reducing/expansive additives. The mechanical and flow properties of the mortar were then evaluated using compressive strength, density, and slump flow measurement methods. In addition, isothermal calorimetry and shrinkage/expansion measurements were used to elucidate the hydration and durability attributes of the mortar. After obtaining the desired properties in both fresh and hardened conditions, the developed dry mortar was filled in specific permeable paper packaging and then submerged in water bath for specific intervals before the installation. The tests were enhanced progressively by optimizing different parameters such as shape and size of the packaging, characteristics of the paper used, immersion time in water and even some minor characteristics of the mortar. Finally, the developed prototype was tested in a lab-scale rock bolt assembly with various angles to analyze the efficiency of the method in real life scenario. The results showed that the new technique improves the performance of the rock bolts by reducing the material wastage, improving environmental performance, facilitating and accelerating the labor works, and finally enhancing the durability of the whole system. Accordingly, this approach provides an efficient alternative for the traditional way of tunnel bolt installation with considerable advantages for the Swedish tunneling industry.
Keywords: corrosion, durability, mortar, rock boltProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 241
271 Effect of Model Dimension in Numerical Simulation on Assessment of Water Inflow to Tunnel in Discontinues Rock
Authors: Hadi Farhadian, Homayoon Katibeh
Groundwater inflow to the tunnels is one of the most important problems in tunneling operation. The objective of this study is the investigation of model dimension effects on tunnel inflow assessment in discontinuous rock masses using numerical modeling. In the numerical simulation, the model dimension has an important role in prediction of water inflow rate. When the model dimension is very small, due to low distance to the tunnel border, the model boundary conditions affect the estimated amount of groundwater flow into the tunnel and results show a very high inflow to tunnel. Hence, in this study, the two-dimensional universal distinct element code (UDEC) used and the impact of different model parameters, such as tunnel radius, joint spacing, horizontal and vertical model domain extent has been evaluated. Results show that the model domain extent is a function of the most significant parameters, which are tunnel radius and joint spacing.
Keywords: Water inflow, Tunnel, Discontinues rock, Numerical simulation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2365