Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 383
383 An Analysis of Variation of Ceiling Height and Window Level for Studio Architecture in Malaysia

Authors: Seyedehzahra Mirrahimi, Nik Lukman Nik Ibrahim, M. Surat

Abstract:

This paper investigated the impact of ceiling height and window head heights variation on daylighting inside architectural teaching studio with a full width window. In architectural education, using the studio is more than normal classroom in most credit hours. Therefore, window position, size and dimension of studio have direct influence on level of daylighting. Daylighting design is a critical factor that improves student learning, concentration and behavior, in addition to these, it also reduces energy consumption. The methodology of analysis involves using Radiance in IES software under overcast and cloudy sky in Malaysia. It has been established that presentation of daylighting of architecture studio can be enhanced by changing the ceiling heights and window level, because, different ceiling heights and window head heights can contribute to different range of daylight levels.

Keywords: Ceiling height, window head height, daylighting, studio architecture, simulation.

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382 Performance of Block Codes Using the Eigenstructure of the Code Correlation Matrixand Soft-Decision Decoding of BPSK

Authors: Vitalice K. Oduol, C. Ardil

Abstract:

A method is presented for obtaining the error probability for block codes. The method is based on the eigenvalueeigenvector properties of the code correlation matrix. It is found that under a unary transformation and for an additive white Gaussian noise environment, the performance evaluation of a block code becomes a one-dimensional problem in which only one eigenvalue and its corresponding eigenvector are needed in the computation. The obtained error rate results show remarkable agreement between simulations and analysis.

Keywords: bit error rate, block codes, code correlation matrix, eigenstructure, soft-decision decoding, weight vector.

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381 Interaction between Environmental Performance and Logistic System: A Case Study of International Company

Authors: T. Tambovceva, A. Tambovcevs

Abstract:

The activities which are mostly related to the environmental performance need to be pointed, especially how logistics systems influence on environmental performance. This paper analyses how company could lead the initiative in this area by incorporating environmental management principles into their daily activities. The analysis is based on literature review about logistics and environment, the information from company R website as well as face-to-face interviews. A case study is given to show how they can turn practices into green while simultaneously meet the efficiency objectives. The research results show that the adoption of EMS and ISO 14001 certification is an effective tool for the logistics management. Such practices simultaneously reduce the negative contribute to better company performance. The results also show that the emissions to air and water, and energy consumption are the main logistics impacts to the environment.

Keywords: environmental management system, green logistics, information technology, information systems.

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380 Generation of Artificial Earthquake Accelerogram Compatible with Spectrum using the Wavelet Packet Transform and Nero-Fuzzy Networks

Authors: Peyman Shadman Heidari, Mohammad Khorasani

Abstract:

The principal purpose of this article is to present a new method based on Adaptive Neural Network Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) to generate additional artificial earthquake accelerograms from presented data, which are compatible with specified response spectra. The proposed method uses the learning abilities of ANFIS to develop the knowledge of the inverse mapping from response spectrum to earthquake records. In addition, wavelet packet transform is used to decompose specified earthquake records and then ANFISs are trained to relate the response spectrum of records to their wavelet packet coefficients. Finally, an interpretive example is presented which uses an ensemble of recorded accelerograms to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Adaptive Neural Network Fuzzy Inference System, Wavelet Packet Transform, Response Spectrum.

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379 Velocity Distribution in Open Channels: Combination of Log-law and Parabolic-law

Authors: Snehasis Kundu, Koeli Ghoshal

Abstract:

In this paper, based on flume experimental data, the velocity distribution in open channel flows is re-investigated. From the analysis, it is proposed that the wake layer in outer region may be divided into two regions, the relatively weak outer region and the relatively strong outer region. Combining the log law for inner region and the parabolic law for relatively strong outer region, an explicit equation for mean velocity distribution of steady and uniform turbulent flow through straight open channels is proposed and verified with the experimental data. It is found that the sediment concentration has significant effect on velocity distribution in the relatively weak outer region.

Keywords: Inner and outer region, Log law, Parabolic law, Richardson number.

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378 A Visco-elastic Model for High-density Cellulose Insulation Materials

Authors: Jonas Engqvist, Per Hard af Segerstad, Birger Bring, Mathias Wallin

Abstract:

A macroscopic constitutive equation is developed for a high-density cellulose insulation material with emphasis on the outof- plane stress relaxation behavior. A hypothesis is proposed where the total stress is additively composed by an out-of-plane visco-elastic isotropic contribution and an in-plane elastic orthotropic response. The theory is validated against out-of-plane stress relaxation, compressive experiments and in-plane tensile hysteresis, respectively. For large scale finite element simulations, the presented model provides a balance between simplicity and capturing the materials constitutive behaviour.

Keywords: Cellulose insulation materials, constitutive modelling, material characterisation, pressboard.

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377 On Modified Numerical Schemes in Vortex Element Method for 2D Flow Simulation Around Airfoils

Authors: Ilia Marchevsky, Victoriya Moreva

Abstract:

The problem of incompressible steady flow simulation around an airfoil is discussed. For some simplest airfoils (circular, elliptical, Zhukovsky airfoils) the exact solution is known from complex analysis. It allows to compute the intensity of vortex layer which simulates the airfoil. Some modifications of the vortex element method are proposed and test computations are carried out. It-s shown that the these approaches are much more effective in comparison with the classical numerical scheme.

Keywords: Vortex element method, vortex layer, integral equation, ill-conditioned matrix.

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376 Educational Robotics Constructivism and Modeling of Robots using Reverse Engineering

Authors: David G. Maxínez, A. Ferreyra Ramírez, Ismael Echenique Álvarez, Francisco Javier Sánchez Rangel, Guillermo Castillo Tapia, Petra Baldivia Noyola, María Antonieta García Galván

Abstract:

The project describes the modeling of various architectures mechatronics specifically morphologies of robots in an educational environment. Each structure developed by students of pre-school, primary and secondary was created using the concept of reverse engineering in a constructivist environment, to later be integrated in educational software that promotes the teaching of educational Robotics in a virtual and economic environment.

Keywords: Modeling, constructivist, engineering, reverse, robotics education, virtual, morphology.

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375 Analyses of Wear Mechanisms Occurring During Machining of the Titanium Alloy Ti- 6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo

Authors: Z. Rihova, K. Saksl, C. Siemers, D. Ostroushko

Abstract:

Titanium alloys like the modern alloy Ti 6Al 2Sn 4Zr 6Mo (Ti-6246) combine excellent specific mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. On the other hand,due to their material characteristics, machining of these alloys is difficult to perform. The aim of the current study is the analyses of wear mechanisms of coated cemented carbide tools applied in orthogonal cutting experiments of Ti-6246 alloy. Round bars were machined with standard coated tools in dry conditions on a CNC latheusing a wide range of cutting speeds and cutting depths. Tool wear mechanisms were afterwards investigated by means of stereo microscopy, optical microscopy, confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Wear mechanisms included fracture of the tool tip (total failure) and abrasion. Specific wear features like crater wear, micro cracks and built-up edgeformation appeared depending of the mechanical and thermal conditions generated in the workpiece surface by the cutting action.

Keywords: Alloy 6246, machining, tool wear, optical microscopy, SEM, EDX analysis

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374 Heat Flux Reduction Research in Hypersonic Flow with Opposing Jet

Authors: Yisheng Rong, Jian Sun, Weiqiang Liu, Renjun Zhan

Abstract:

A CFD study on heat flux reduction in hypersonic flow with opposing jet has been conducted. Flowfield parameters, reattachment point position, surface pressure distributions and heat flux distributions are obtained and validated with experiments. The physical mechanism of heat reduction has been analyzed. When the opposing jet blows, the freestream is blocked off, flows to the edges and not interacts with the surface to form aerodynamic heating. At the same time, the jet flows back to form cool recirculation region, which reduces the difference in temperature between the surface and the nearby gas, and then reduces the heat flux. As the pressure ratio increases, the interface between jet and freestream is gradually pushed away from the surface. Larger the total pressure ratio is, lower the heat flux is. To study the effect of the intensity of opposing jet more reasonably, a new parameter RPA has been introduced by combining the flux and the total pressure ratio. The study shows that the same shock wave position and total heat load can be obtained with the same RPA with different fluxes and the total pressures, which means the new parameter could stand for the intensity of opposing jet and could be used to analyze the influence of opposing jet on flow field and aerodynamic heating.

Keywords: opposing jet, aerodynamic heating, total pressure ratio, thermal protection system

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373 Transliterating Methods of the Kazakh Onyms in the Arabic Language

Authors: K. A. Kydyrbayev, B.N. Zhubatova, G.E. Nadirova, A.A. Mustafayeva

Abstract:

Transliteration is frequently used especially in writing geographic denominations, personal names (onyms) etc. Proper names (onyms) of all languages must sound similarly in translated works as well as in scientific projects and works written in mother tongue, because we can get introduced with the nation, its history, culture, traditions and other spiritual values through the onyms of that nation. Therefore it is necessary to systematize the different transliterations of onyms of foreign languages. This paper is dedicated to the problem of making the project of transliterating Kazakh onyms into Arabic. In order to achieve this goal we use scientific or practical types of transliteration. Because in this type of transliteration provides easy reading writing source language's texts in the target language without any diacritical symbols, it is limited by the target language's alphabetic system.

Keywords: The Arabic, Kazakh languages, onyms, transliterating

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372 Machine Morphisms and Simulation

Authors: Janis Buls

Abstract:

This paper examines the concept of simulation from a modelling viewpoint. How can one Mealy machine simulate the other one? We create formalism for simulation of Mealy machines. The injective s–morphism of the machine semigroups induces the simulation of machines [1]. We present the example of s–morphism such that it is not a homomorphism of semigroups. The story for the surjective s–morphisms is quite different. These are homomorphisms of semigroups but there exists the surjective s–morphism such that it does not induce the simulation.

Keywords: Mealy machine, simulation, machine semigroup, injective s–morphism, surjective s–morphisms.

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371 Evaluation of Chlorophyll Content and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters and Relationships between Chlorophyll a, b and Chlorophyll Content Index under Water Stress in Olea europaea cv. Dezful

Authors: E. Khaleghi, K. Arzani, N. Moallemi, M. Barzegar

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine effect of water stress on chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter in young `Dezful- olive trees. Three irrigation regimes (40% ETcrop, 65% ETcrop and 100% ETcrop) were used. After irrigation treatments were applied, some of biochemical parameters including chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence and also chlorophyll content index (C.C.I) were measured. Results of Analysis of variance showed that irrigation treatments had significant effect on chlorophylla, total chlorophyll (chl a+b), C.C.I and Fv/Fm ratio. The amount of decreased chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll in plants were received 40% ETcrop were 51.55% and 46.86%, respectively, compared with 100% ETcrop.

Keywords: Evatarnspiration (ETcrop), Chlorophyll Content, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Water stress, Olive

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370 Simulation of Multiphase Flows Using a Modified Upwind-Splitting Scheme

Authors: David J. Robbins, R. Stewart Cant, Lynn F. Gladden

Abstract:

A robust AUSM+ upwind discretisation scheme has been developed to simulate multiphase flow using consistent spatial discretisation schemes and a modified low-Mach number diffusion term. The impact of the selection of an interfacial pressure model has also been investigated. Three representative test cases have been simulated to evaluate the accuracy of the commonly-used stiffenedgas equation of state with respect to the IAPWS-IF97 equation of state for water. The algorithm demonstrates a combination of robustness and accuracy over a range of flow conditions, with the stiffened-gas equation tending to overestimate liquid temperature and density profiles.

Keywords: Multiphase flow, AUSM+ scheme, liquid EOS, low Mach number models

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369 Application of He-s Amplitude Frequency Formulation for a Nonlinear Oscillator with Fractional Potential

Authors: Meng Hu, Lili Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, He-s amplitude frequency formulation is used to obtain a periodic solution for a nonlinear oscillator with fractional potential. By calculation and computer simulations, compared with the exact solution shows that the result obtained is of high accuracy.

Keywords: He's amplitude frequency formulation, Periodic solution, Nonlinear oscillator, Fractional potential.

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368 Instability of a Nonlinear Differential Equation of Fifth Order with Variable Delay

Authors: Cemil Tunc

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the instability of the zero solution to a nonlinear differential equation with variable delay. By using the Lyapunov functional approach, some sufficient conditions for instability of the zero solution are obtained.

Keywords: Instability, Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, delay differential equation, fifth order.

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367 Novel Delay-Dependent Stability Criteria for Uncertain Discrete-Time Stochastic Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays

Authors: Mengzhuo Luo, Shouming Zhong

Abstract:

This paper investigates the problem of exponential stability for a class of uncertain discrete-time stochastic neural network with time-varying delays. By constructing a suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, combining the stochastic stability theory, the free-weighting matrix method, a delay-dependent exponential stability criteria is obtained in term of LMIs. Compared with some previous results, the new conditions obtain in this paper are less conservative. Finally, two numerical examples are exploited to show the usefulness of the results derived.

Keywords: Delay-dependent stability, Neural networks, Time varying delay, Linear matrix inequality (LMI).

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366 Traveling Wave Solutions for the Sawada-Kotera-Kadomtsev-Petviashivili Equation and the Bogoyavlensky-Konoplechenko Equation by (G'/G)- Expansion Method

Authors: Nisha Goyal, R.K. Gupta

Abstract:

This paper presents a new function expansion method for finding traveling wave solutions of a nonlinear equations and calls it the G G -expansion method, given by Wang et al recently. As an application of this new method, we study the well-known Sawada-Kotera-Kadomtsev-Petviashivili equation and Bogoyavlensky-Konoplechenko equation. With two new expansions, general types of soliton solutions and periodic solutions for these two equations are obtained.

Keywords: Sawada-Kotera-Kadomtsev-Petviashivili equation, Bogoyavlensky-Konoplechenko equation,

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365 Some (v + 1, b + r + λ + 1, r + λ + 1, k, λ + 1) Balanced Incomplete Block Designs (BIBDs) from Lotto Designs (LDs)

Authors: Oluwaseun. A. Alawode, Timothy. A. Bamiduro, Adekunle. A. Eludire

Abstract:

The paper considered the construction of BIBDs using potential Lotto Designs (LDs) earlier derived from qualifying parent BIBDs. The study utilized Li’s condition  pr t−1  ( t−1 2 ) + pr− pr t−1 (t−1) 2  < ( p 2 ) λ, to determine the qualification of a parent BIBD (v, b, r, k, λ) as LD (n, k, p, t) constrained on v ≥ k, v ≥ p, t ≤ min{k, p} and then considered the case k = t since t is the smallest number of tickets that can guarantee a win in a lottery. The (15, 140, 28, 3, 4) and (7, 7, 3, 3, 1) BIBDs were selected as parent BIBDs to illustrate the procedure. These BIBDs yielded three potential LDs each. Each of the LDs was completely generated and their properties studied. The three LDs from the (15, 140, 28, 3, 4) produced (9, 84, 28, 3, 7), (10, 120, 36, 3, 8) and (11, 165, 45, 3, 9) BIBDs while those from the (7, 7, 3, 3, 1) produced the (5, 10, 6, 3, 3), (6, 20, 10, 3, 4) and (7, 35, 15, 3, 5) BIBDs. The produced BIBDs follow the generalization (v + 1, b + r + λ + 1, r +λ+1, k, λ+1) where (v, b, r, k, λ) are the parameters of the (9, 84, 28, 3, 7) and (5, 10, 6, 3, 3) BIBDs. All the BIBDs produced are unreduced designs.

Keywords: Balanced Incomplete Block Designs, Lotto Designs, Unreduced Designs, Lottery games.

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364 On a New Numerical Analysis for the Symmetric Shortest Queue Problem

Authors: Tayeb Lardjane, Rabah Messaci

Abstract:

We consider a network of two M/M/1 parallel queues having the same poisonnian arrival stream with rate λ. Upon his arrival to the system a customer heads to the shortest queue and stays until being served. If the two queues have the same length, an arriving customer chooses one of the two queues with the same probability. Each duration of service in the two queues is an exponential random variable with rate μ and no jockeying is permitted between the two queues. A new numerical method, based on linear programming and convex optimization, is performed for the computation of the steady state solution of the system.

Keywords: Steady state solution, matrix formulation, convex set, shortest queue, linear programming.

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363 Periodic Oscillations in a Delay Population Model

Authors: Changjin Xu, Peiluan Li

Abstract:

In this paper, a nonlinear delay population model is investigated. Choosing the delay as a bifurcation parameter, we demonstrate that Hopf bifurcation will occur when the delay exceeds a critical value. Global existence of bifurcating periodic solutions is established. Numerical simulations supporting the theoretical findings are included.

Keywords: Population model, Stability, Hopf bifurcation, Delay, Global Hopf bifurcation.

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362 On Symmetry Analysis and Exact Wave Solutions of New Modified Novikov Equation

Authors: Anupma Bansal, R. K. Gupta

Abstract:

In this paper, we study a new modified Novikov equation for its classical and nonclassical symmetries and use the symmetries to reduce it to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE). With the aid of solutions of the nonlinear ODE by using the modified (G/G)-expansion method proposed recently, multiple exact traveling wave solutions are obtained and the traveling wave solutions are expressed by the hyperbolic functions, trigonometric functions and rational functions.

Keywords: New Modified Novikov Equation, Lie Classical Method, Nonclassical Method, Modified (G'/G)-Expansion Method, Traveling Wave Solutions.

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361 Novelist Calls Out Poemist: A Psycholinguistic and Contrastive Analysis of the Errors in Turkish EFL Learners- Interlanguage

Authors: Mehmet Ozcan

Abstract:

This study is designed to investigate errors emerged in written texts produced by 30 Turkish EFL learners with an explanatory, and thus, qualitative perspective. Erroneous language elements were identified by the researcher first and then their grammaticality and intelligibility were checked by five native speakers of English. The analysis of the data showed that it is difficult to claim that an error stems from only one single factor since different features of an error are triggered by different factors. Our findings revealed two different types of errors: those which stem from the interference of L1 with L2 and those which are developmental ones. The former type contains more global errors whereas the errors in latter type are more intelligible.

Keywords: Contrastive analysis, Error analysis, Language acquisition, Language transfer, Turkish

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360 On Graded Semiprime Submodules

Authors: Farkhonde Farzalipour, Peyman Ghiasvand

Abstract:

Let G be an arbitrary group with identity e and let R be a G-graded ring. In this paper we define graded semiprime submodules of a graded R-moduleM and we give a number of results concerning such submodules. Also, we extend some results of graded semiprime submoduls to graded weakly semiprime submodules.

Keywords: graded semiprime, graded weakly semiprime, graded secondary

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359 Hutchinson-Barnsley Operator in Intuitionistic Fuzzy Metric Spaces

Authors: R. Uthayakumar, D. Easwaramoorthy

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to prove the intuitionistic fuzzy contraction properties of the Hutchinson-Barnsley operator on the intuitionistic fuzzy hyperspace with respect to the Hausdorff intuitionistic fuzzy metrics. Also we discuss about the relationships between the Hausdorff intuitionistic fuzzy metrics on the intuitionistic fuzzy hyperspaces. Our theorems generalize and extend some recent results related with Hutchinson-Barnsley operator in the metric spaces to the intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces.

Keywords: Contraction, Iterated Function System, Hutchinson- Barnsley Operator, Intuitionistic Fuzzy Metric Space, Hausdorff Intuitionistic Fuzzy Metric.

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358 Mechanical Quadrature Methods and Their Extrapolations for Solving First Kind Boundary Integral Equations of Anisotropic Darcy-s Equation

Authors: Xin Luo, Jin Huang, Chuan-Long Wang

Abstract:

The mechanical quadrature methods for solving the boundary integral equations of the anisotropic Darcy-s equations with Dirichlet conditions in smooth domains are presented. By applying the collectively compact theory, we prove the convergence and stability of approximate solutions. The asymptotic expansions for the error show that the methods converge with the order O (h3), where h is the mesh size. Based on these analysis, extrapolation methods can be introduced to achieve a higher convergence rate O (h5). An a posterior asymptotic error representation is derived in order to construct self-adaptive algorithms. Finally, the numerical experiments show the efficiency of our methods.

Keywords: Darcy's equation, anisotropic, mechanical quadrature methods, extrapolation methods, a posteriori error estimate.

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357 Positive Almost Periodic Solutions for Neural Multi-Delay Logarithmic Population Model

Authors: Zhouhong Li

Abstract:

In this paper, by applying Mawhin-s continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, we study the existence of almost periodic solutions for neural multi-delay logarithmic population model and obtain one sufficient condition for the existence of positive almost periodic solution for the above equation. An example is employed to illustrate our result.

Keywords: Almost periodic solution, Multi-delay, Logarithmic population model, Coincidence degree.

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356 The Lower and Upper Approximations in a Group

Authors: Zhaohao Wang, Lan Shu

Abstract:

In this paper, we generalize some propositions in [C.Z. Wang, D.G. Chen, A short note on some properties of rough groups, Comput. Math. Appl. 59(2010)431-436.] and we give some equivalent conditions for rough subgroups. The notion of minimal upper rough subgroups is introduced and a equivalent characterization is given, which implies the rough version of Lagranges Theorem.

Keywords: Lower approximations, Upper approximations, Rough sets, Rough groups, Lagrange

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355 Analysis on Fractals in Intuitionistic Fuzzy Metric Spaces

Authors: R. Uthayakumar, D. Easwaramoorthy

Abstract:

This paper investigates the fractals generated by the dynamical system of intuitionistic fuzzy contractions in the intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces by generalizing the Hutchinson-Barnsley theory. We prove some existence and uniqueness theorems of fractals in the standard intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces by using the intuitionistic fuzzy Banach contraction theorem. In addition to that, we analyze some results on intuitionistic fuzzy fractals in the standard intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces with respect to the Hausdorff intuitionistic fuzzy metrics.

Keywords: Fractal Analysis, Fixed Point, Contraction, Iterated Function System, Intuitionistic Fuzzy Metric Space.

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354 Generalized Module Homomorphisms of Triangular Matrix Rings of Order Three

Authors: Jianmin Xing

Abstract:

Let T,U and V be rings with identity and M be a unitary (T,U)-bimodule, N be a unitary (U, V )- bimodule, D be a unitary (T, V )-bimodule . We characterize homomorphisms and isomorphisms of the generalized matrix ring Γ =  T M D 0 U N 0 0 V .

Keywords: Generalized module homomorphism, ring homomorphism, isomorphisms, triangular matrix rings.

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353 Periodic Solutions for Some Strongly Nonlinear Oscillators by He's Energy Balance Method

Authors: Meng Hu, Lili Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, applying He-s energy balance method to determine frequency formulation relations of nonlinear oscillators with discontinuous term or fractional potential. By calculation and computer simulations, compared with the exact solutions show that the results obtained are of high accuracy.

Keywords: He's energy balance method, periodic solution, nonlinear oscillator, discontinuous, fractional potential.

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352 Identifying an Unknown Source in the Poisson Equation by a Modified Tikhonov Regularization Method

Authors: Ou Xie, Zhenyu Zhao

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the problem for identifying the unknown source in the Poisson equation. A modified Tikhonov regularization method is presented to deal with illposedness of the problem and error estimates are obtained with an a priori strategy and an a posteriori choice rule to find the regularization parameter. Numerical examples show that the proposed method is effective and stable.

Keywords: Ill-posed problem, Unknown source, Poisson equation, Tikhonov regularization method, Discrepancy principle

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351 Bifurcations of a Delayed Prototype Model

Authors: Changjin Xu

Abstract:

In this paper, a delayed prototype model is studied. Regarding the delay as a bifurcation parameter, we prove that a sequence of Hopf bifurcations will occur at the positive equilibrium when the delay increases. Using the normal form method and center manifold theory, some explicit formulae are worked out for determining the stability and the direction of the bifurcated periodic solutions. Finally, Computer simulations are carried out to explain some mathematical conclusions.

Keywords: Prototype model, Stability, Hopf bifurcation, Delay, Periodic solution.

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350 Effect of Domestic Treated Wastewater use on Three Varieties of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) under Semi Arid Conditions

Authors: El Youssfi L., Choukr-Allah R., Zaafrani M., Mediouni T., Ba Samba M., Hirich A

Abstract:

The purpose of this work was to study the effect of the irrigation using waste water with various electric conductivities (T(0,92ds/m), EC3 (3ds/m) and EC6 (6ds/m) on three varieties of quinoa cultivated in a field south of Morocco. The follow up of the evolution of the chemical and agronomic parameters throughout the culture made it possible to determine the responses to the saline stress in arid conditions. Results showed that the salinity caused the depression of plant-s height, and reduced the fresh and dry weight in the different parts of the three varieties plants. The increase of the irrigation water EC didn-t affect the yield for the varieties. Thus, quinoa resisted to salinity and proved a behavior of a facultative halophyte crop. In fact, the cultivation of this using treated wastewater is feasible especially in arid areas for a sustainable use of water resources.

Keywords: Quinoa, salinity, semi-arid, treated wastewater.

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349 Life Experiences are Important Factors of Making Stronger SOC (Sense of Coherence) on the Workers in Tsukuba Research Park City (TRPC)

Authors: Shinichiro Sasahara, Yusuke Tomotsune, Yuichi Ohi, Shun Suzuki, Akihiro Seki, Junko Sakano, Yoshihiko Yamazaki, Ichiyo Matsuzaki

Abstract:

Via a large scale cross-sectional study among Japanese white color workers, the authors aimed to elucidate: (1) the distributions of Sense of Coherence (SOC), which reflect stress coping abilities, (2) the distributions of Life experience; (3) and the association between SOC and Life experience. Anonymous self-administered questionnaires were sent to 15,891 in 2001 and 21,922 in 2011 employees at educational and research institutions in Tsukuba Research Park City. A total of 5,868 (36.9%) and 9,528 (43.5%) respectively workers completed and returned the questionnaire; 5,715 and 9,515 respectively workers without missing data were analyzed. SOC scale scores differed by gender, age, and other demographic features in both study years. Among the life experiences, workers who have got over parenting or management position were higher SOC scale scores adjusted by gender and age. The life experiences that workers have got over could develop their stronger SOC in their life course.

Keywords: field study, life experience, mental health, SOC (sense of coherence)

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348 Contingent Pay and Experience with Its Utilization by Companies in one of the Czech Republic's Regions

Authors: Petra Horváthová, Andrej Miklosik

Abstract:

One part of the total employee’s reward is apart from basic wages or salary, employee’s benefits and intangible remuneration also so called contingent (variable) pay. Contingent pay is connected to performance, contribution, cap competency or skills of individual employees, and to team’s or company-wide performance or to combination of few of the mentioned possibilities. Sometimes among the contingent pay is also incorporated the remuneration based on length of employment, when the financial reward is not connected to performance or skills, but to length of continuous employment either on one working position or in one level of remuneration scale. Main aim of this article is to define, based on available information, contingent pay, describe individual forms, its advantages and disadvantages and possibilities to utilization in practice; but also bring information not only about its extent and level of utilization of contingent pay by companies in one of the Czech Republic’s regions, but also mention their practical experience with this type of remuneration.

Keywords: Contingent pay, individual contingent pay, team contingent pay, company-wide contingent pay

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347 Biosensor Measurement of Urea Coonncentration in Human Blood Serum

Authors: O. L. Kukla, S. V. Marchenko, O. A. Zinchenko, O. S. Pavluchenko, O. M. KKuukla, S. V. Dzyadevych, O. P. Soldatkin

Abstract:

An application of the highly biosensor based on pH-sensitive field immobilized urease for urea analysis was demo The main analytical characteristics of the bios determined; the conditions of urea measureme blood were optimized. A conceptual possibility biosensor for detection of urea concentratio patients suffering from renal insufficiency was sensitive and selective effect transistor and monstrated in this work. iosensor developed were ment in real samples of ility of application of the tion in blood serum of as shown.

Keywords: Biosensor, blood serum, pH transistor, urea, urease, field-effect

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346 Gauteng-s Waste Outlook: A Reflection

Authors: Edison Muzenda

Abstract:

Gauteng, as the province with the greatest industrial and population density, the economic hub of South Africa also generates the greatest amount of waste, both general and hazardous. Therefore the province has a significant need to develop and apply appropriate integrated waste management policies that ensure that waste is recognised as a serious problem and is managed in an effective integrated manner to preserve both the present and future human health and environment. This paper reflects on Gauteng-s waste outlook in particular the province-s General Waste Minimisation Plan and its Integrated Waste Management Policy. The paper also looks at general waste generation, recyclable waste streams as well as recycling and separation at source initiatives in the province. Both the quantity and nature of solid waste differs considerably across the socio-economic spectrum. People in informal settlements generate an average of 0.16 kg per person per day whereas 2 kg per day is not unusual in affluent areas. For example the amount of waste generated in Johannesburg is approximately 1.2 kg per person per day.

Keywords: General waste, generation, integrated, minimisation, recycling, separation

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345 Waste Management, Strategies and Situation in South Africa: An Overview

Authors: Edison Muzenda, Freeman Ntuli, Tsietsi Jefrey Pilusa

Abstract:

This paper highlights some interesting facts on South African-s waste situation and management strategies, in particular the Integrated Waste Management. South Africa supports a waste hierarchy by promoting cleaner production, waste minimisation, reuse, recycling and waste treatment with disposal and remediation as the last preferred options in waste management. The drivers for waste management techniques are identified as increased demand for waste service provision; increased demand for waste minimisation; recycling and recovery; land use, physical and environmental limitations; and socio-economic and demographic factors. The South African government recognizes the importance of scientific research as outlined on the white paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management (IP and WM) (DEAT, 2000).

Keywords: Cleaner production, demographic factors, environmental quality, integrated waste management, hierarchy, recycling

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344 The removal of Ni, Cu and Fe from a Mixed Metal System using Sodium Hypophosphite as a Reducing Agent

Authors: Promise Sethembiso Ngema, Freeman Ntuli, Mohamed Belaid

Abstract:

The main objective of this study was to remove and recover Ni, Cu and Fe from a mixed metal system using sodium hypophosphite as a reducing agent and nickel powder as seeding material. The metal systems studied consisted of Ni-Cu, Ni-Fe and Ni-Cu-Fe solutions. A 5 L batch reactor was used to conduct experiments where 100 mg/l of each respective metal was used. It was found that the metals were reduced to their elemental form with removal efficiencies of over 80%. The removal efficiency decreased in the order Fe>Ni>Cu. The metal powder obtained contained between 97-99% Ni and was almost spherical and porous. Size enlargement by aggregation was the dominant particulate process.

Keywords: crystallization, electroless plating, heavy metal removal, wastewater treatment

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343 Automation of Packing Cell in Fresh Fish Facilities

Authors: Omid Mirmotahari, Yngvar Berg, Mats Hovin

Abstract:

The problem discussed in this paper involves packing fresh fish fileet of the northern Cod into a standard square container. The fish is first cleaned and split and then collected on a belt ready to be stacked in a container. The aim of our work is to pack the fish into the container with constraints on the amount of overlap allowed for the fileets. The current focus is to design a packing cell that can be real-time and of practical use, while finding the optimal solution to the degree of overlap and minimise the unused space of the container.

Keywords: Facilities Planning and Management, Intelligent Systems, Manufacturing Systems, Operations Research, Production Planning and Control.

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342 Adaptive Fourier Decomposition Based Signal Instantaneous Frequency Computation Approach

Authors: Liming Zhang

Abstract:

There have been different approaches to compute the analytic instantaneous frequency with a variety of background reasoning and applicability in practice, as well as restrictions. This paper presents an adaptive Fourier decomposition and (α-counting) based instantaneous frequency computation approach. The adaptive Fourier decomposition is a recently proposed new signal decomposition approach. The instantaneous frequency can be computed through the so called mono-components decomposed by it. Due to the fast energy convergency, the highest frequency of the signal will be discarded by the adaptive Fourier decomposition, which represents the noise of the signal in most of the situation. A new instantaneous frequency definition for a large class of so-called simple waves is also proposed in this paper. Simple wave contains a wide range of signals for which the concept instantaneous frequency has a perfect physical sense. The α-counting instantaneous frequency can be used to compute the highest frequency for a signal. Combination of these two approaches one can obtain the IFs of the whole signal. An experiment is demonstrated the computation procedure with promising results.

Keywords: Adaptive Fourier decomposition, Fourier series, signal processing, instantaneous frequency

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341 Factorial Structure and Psychometric Validation of Ecotourism Experiential Value Construct: Insights from Taman Negara National Park, Malaysia

Authors: Rosidah Musa, Rezian-na Muhammad Kassim

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to disentangle and validate the underlying factorial-structure of Ecotourism Experiential Value (EEV) measurement scale and subsequently investigate its psychometric properties. The analysis was based on a sample of 225 eco-tourists, collected at the vicinity of Taman Negara National Park (TNNP) via interviewer-administered questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to determine the factorial structure of EEV. Subsequently, to confirm and validate the factorial structure and assess the psychometric properties of EEV, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was executed. In addition, to establish the nomological validity of EEV a structural model was developed to examine the effect of EEV on Total Eco-tourist Experience Quality (TEEQ). It is unveiled that EEV is a secondorder six-factorial structure construct and it scale has adequately met the psychometric criteria, thus could permit interpretation of results confidently. The findings have important implications for future research directions and management of ecotourism destination.

Keywords: ecotourism, experiential value, experience quality, national park,

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340 Leaching Characteristics of Upgraded Copper Flotation Tailings

Authors: Mercy M. Ramakokovhu, Henry Kasaini, Richard K.K. Mbaya

Abstract:

The copper flotation tailings from Konkola Copper mine in Nchanga, Zambia were used in the study. The purpose of this study was to determine the leaching characteristics of the tailings material prior and after the physical beneficiation process is employed. The Knelson gravity concentrator (KC-MD3) was used for the beneficiation process. The copper leaching efficiencies and impurity co-extraction percentages in both the upgraded and the raw feed material were determined at different pH levels and temperature. It was observed that the copper extraction increased with an increase in temperature and a decrease in pH levels. In comparison to the raw feed sample, the upgraded sample reported a maximum copper extraction of 69% which was 9%, higher than raw feed % extractions. The impurity carry over was reduced from 18% to 4 % on the upgraded sample. The reduction in impurity co-extraction was as a result of the removal of the reactive gangue elements during the upgrading process, this minimized the number of side reaction occurring during leaching.

Keywords: Atmospheric leaching, Copper, Iron, Knelson concentrator

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339 Numerical Study on CO2 Pollution in an Ignition Chamber by Oxygen Enrichment

Authors: Zohreh Orshesh

Abstract:

In this study, a 3D combustion chamber was simulated using FLUENT 6.32. Aims to obtain accurate information about the profile of the combustion in the furnace and also check the effect of oxygen enrichment on the combustion process. Oxygen enrichment is an effective way to reduce combustion pollutant. The flow rate of air to fuel ratio is varied as 1.3, 3.2 and 5.1 and the oxygen enriched flow rates are 28, 54 and 68 lit/min. Combustion simulations typically involve the solution of the turbulent flows with heat transfer, species transport and chemical reactions. It is common to use the Reynolds-averaged form of the governing equation in conjunction with a suitable turbulence model. The 3D Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations with standard k-ε turbulence model are solved together by Fluent 6.3 software. First order upwind scheme is used to model governing equations and the SIMPLE algorithm is used as pressure velocity coupling. Species mass fractions at the wall are assumed to have zero normal gradients.Results show that minimum mole fraction of CO2 happens when the flow rate ratio of air to fuel is 5.1. Additionally, in a fixed oxygen enrichment condition, increasing the air to fuel ratio will increase the temperature peak. As a result, oxygen-enrichment can reduce the CO2 emission at this kind of furnace in high air to fuel rates.

Keywords: Combustion chamber, Oxygen enrichment, Reynolds Averaged Navier- Stokes, CO2 emission

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338 The Influence of Ancient Artifacts on Contemporary Culture (exemplified by the Painting and Sculpture of Kazakhstan)

Authors: Yerbol B. Kairanov, Arnur Zh. Karymsakov

Abstract:

Petroglyphs, stone sculptures, burial mounds, and other memorial religious structures are ancient artifacts which find reflection in contemporary world culture, including the culture of Kazakhstan. In this article, the problem of the influence of ancient artifacts on contemporary culture is researched, using as an example Kazakhstan-s sculpture and painting. The practice of creating petroglyphs, stone sculptures, and memorial religious structures was closely connected to all fields of human existence, which fostered the formation of and became an inseparable part of a traditional worldview. The ancient roots of Saka-Sythian and Turkic nomadic culture have been studied, and integrated into the foundations of the contemporary art of Kazakhstan. The study of the ancient cultural heritage of Kazakhstan by contemporary artists, sculptors and architects, as well as the influence of European art and cultures on the art of Kazakhstan are furthering the development of a new national art.

Keywords: ancient artifacts, Golden Man, nomadic culture, sculpture, painting

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337 User Satisfaction Issues in ERP Projects

Authors: Shahin Dezdar

Abstract:

Over the past few years, companies in developing countries have implemented enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. Regardless of the various benefits of the ERP system, its adoption and implementation have not been without problems. Many companies have assigned considerable organizational resources to their ERP projects, but have encountered unexpected challenges. Neglecting a number of important factors in ERP projects might lead to failure instead of success. User satisfaction is among those factors that has a major influence on ERP implementation success. So, this paper intends to investigate the key factors that create ERP users- satisfaction and to discover whether ERP users- satisfaction varies among different users- profiles. The study was conducted using a survey questionnaire which was distributed to ERP users in Iranian organizations. A total of 384 responses were collected and analyzed. The findings indicated that younger ERP users tend to be more satisfied with ERP systems. Furthermore, ERP users with more experiences in IT and also more educated users have more satisfaction with ERP softwares. However, the study found no satisfaction differences between men and women users.

Keywords: ERP, Enterprise resource planning, User satisfaction, Iran, Developing country

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336 Decay Heat Contribution Analyses of Curium Isotopes in the Mixed Oxide Nuclear Fuel

Authors: S. S. Nafee, A. K. Al-Ramady, S. A. Shaheen

Abstract:

The mixed oxide nuclear fuel (MOX) of U and Pu contains several percent of fission products and minor actinides, such as neptunium, americium and curium. It is important to determine accurately the decay heat from Curium isotopes as they contribute significantly in the MOX fuel. This heat generation can cause samples to melt very quickly if excessive quantities of curium are present. In the present paper, we introduce a new approach that can predict the decay heat from curium isotopes. This work is a part of the project funded by King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology (KASCT), Long-Term Comprehensive National Plan for Science, Technology and Innovations, and take place in King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Saudi Arabia. The approach is based on the numerical solution of coupled linear differential equations that describe decays and buildups of many nuclides to calculate the decay heat produced after shutdown. Results show the consistency and reliability of the approach applied.

Keywords: Decay heat, Mixed oxide nuclear fuel, Numerical Solution of Linear Differential Equations, and Curium isotopes

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335 Analysis of Tool-Chip Interface Temperature with FEM and Empirical Verification

Authors: M. Bagheri, P. Mottaghizadeh

Abstract:

Reliable information about tool temperature distribution is of central importance in metal cutting. In this study, tool-chip interface temperature was determined in cutting of ST37 steel workpiece by applying HSS as the cutting tool in dry turning. Two different approaches were implemented for temperature measuring: an embedded thermocouple (RTD) in to the cutting tool and infrared (IR) camera. Comparisons are made between experimental data and results of MSC.SuperForm and FLUENT software. An investigation of heat generation in cutting tool was performed by varying cutting parameters at the stable cutting tool geometry and results were saved in a computer; then the diagrams of tool temperature vs. various cutting parameters were obtained. The experimental results reveal that the main factors of the increasing cutting temperature are cutting speed (V ), feed rate ( S ) and depth of cut ( h ), respectively. It was also determined that simultaneously change in cutting speed and feed rate has the maximum effect on increasing cutting temperature.

Keywords: Cutting parameters, Finite element modeling, Temperature measurement, Tool-chip interface temperature.

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334 A Study on the Effect of Variation of the Cross-sectional Area of Spiral Volute Casing for Centrifugal Pump

Authors: Hyun Bae Jin, Myung Jin Kim, Wui Jun Chung

Abstract:

The impeller and the casing are the key components of a centrifugal pump. Although there have been many studies on the impeller and the volute casing of centrifugal pump, further study of the volute casing to improve the performance of centrifugal pumps is needed. In this paper, the effect of cross-sectional area on the performance of volute casing was investigated using a commercial CFD code. The performance characteristics, not only at the off-design point but also for a full type model are required these days. So we conducted numerical analysis for all operating points by using complete geometry through transient analysis. Transient analysis on the complete geometry of a real product has the advantage of simulating realistic flow. The results of this study show the variation of a performance curve by modifying the above-mentioned design parameter.

Keywords: Centrifugal Pump, Volute Casing, Cross-Section area, CFD

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333 An Elin Load Tap Changer Diagnosis by DGA

Authors: Hoda Molavi, Alireza Zahiri, Katayoon Anvarizadeh

Abstract:

Dissolved gas analysis has been accepted as a sensitive, informative and reliable technique for incipient faults detection in power transformers and is widely used. In the last few years this method, which has been recommended by IEEE Power & Energy society, has been applied for fault detection in load tap changers. Regarding the critical role of load tap changers in electrical network and essential of catastrophic failures prevention, it is necessary to choose "condition based preventative maintenance strategy" which leads to reduction in costs, the number of unnecessary visits as well as the probability of interruptions and also increment in equipment reliability. In current work, considering the condition based preventative maintenance strategy, condition assessment of an Elin tap changer was carried out using dissolved gas analysis.

Keywords: Condition Assessment, Dissolved Gas Analysis, Load Tap Changer

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332 Experimental Investigation of Convective Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Al2O3/Water Nanofluid in Laminar Flow Regime inside a Circular Tube

Authors: H. Almohammadi, Sh. Nasiri Vatan, E. Esmaeilzadeh, A. Motezaker, A. Nokhosteen

Abstract:

In the present study, Convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of Al2O3/water nanofluid in laminar flow regime under constant heat flux conditions inside a circular tube were experimentally investigated. Al2O3/water nanofluid with 0.5% and 1% volume concentrations with 15 nm diameter nanoparticles were used as working fluid. The effect of different volume concentrations on convective heat transfer coefficient and friction factor was studied. The results emphasize that increasing of particle volume concentration leads to enhance convective heat transfer coefficient. Measurements show the average heat transfer coefficient enhanced about 11-20% with 0.5% volume concentration and increased about 16-27% with 1% volume concentration compared to distilled water. In addition, the convective heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid enhances with increase in heat flux. From the results, the average ratio of (fnf/fbf) was about 1.10 for 0.5% volume concentration. Therefore, there is no significant increase in friction factor for nanofluids.

Keywords: Convective heat transfer, Laminar flow regime, Nanofluids, Pressure drop

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331 An Automated Test Setup for the Characterization of Antenna in CATR

Authors: Faisal Amin, Abdul Mueed, Xu Jiadong

Abstract:

This paper describes the development of a fully automated measurement software for antenna radiation pattern measurements in a Compact Antenna Test Range (CATR). The CATR has a frequency range from 2-40 GHz and the measurement hardware includes a Network Analyzer for transmitting and Receiving the microwave signal and a Positioner controller to control the motion of the Styrofoam column. The measurement process includes Calibration of CATR with a Standard Gain Horn (SGH) antenna followed by Gain versus angle measurement of the Antenna under test (AUT). The software is designed to control a variety of microwave transmitter / receiver and two axis Positioner controllers through the standard General Purpose interface bus (GPIB) interface. Addition of new Network Analyzers is supported through a slight modification of hardware control module. Time-domain gating is implemented to remove the unwanted signals and get the isolated response of AUT. The gated response of the AUT is compared with the calibration data in the frequency domain to obtain the desired results. The data acquisition and processing is implemented in Agilent VEE and Matlab. A variety of experimental measurements with SGH antennas were performed to validate the accuracy of software. A comparison of results with existing commercial softwares is presented and the measured results are found to be within .2 dBm.

Keywords: Antenna measurement, calibration, time-domain gating, VNA, Positioner controller

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330 Computational Study on Cardiac-Coronary Interaction in Terms of Coronary Flow-Pressure Waveforms in Presence of Drugs: Comparison Between Simulated and In Vivo Data

Authors: C. De Lazzari, E. Del Prete, I. Genuini, F. Fedele

Abstract:

Cardiovascular human simulator can be a useful tool in understanding complex physiopathological process in cardiocirculatory system. It can also be a useful tool in order to investigate the effects of different drugs on hemodynamic parameters. The aim of this work is to test the potentiality of our cardiovascular numerical simulator CARDIOSIM© in reproducing flow/pressure coronary waveforms in presence of two different drugs: Amlodipine (AMLO) and Adenosine (ADO). In particular a time-varying intramyocardial compression, assumed to be proportional to the left ventricular pressure, was related to the venous coronary compliances in order to study its effects on the coronary blood flow and the flow/pressure loop. Considering that coronary circulation dynamics is strongly interrelated with the mechanics of the left ventricular contraction, relaxation, and filling, the numerical model allowed to analyze the effects induced by the left ventricular pressure on the coronary flow.

Keywords: Cardiovascular system, Coronary blood flow, Hemodynamic, Numerical simulation.

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329 Transformation of Course Timetablinng Problem to RCPSP

Authors: M. Ahmad, M. Gourgand, C. Caux

Abstract:

The Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP) is concerned with single-item or small batch production where limited resources have to be allocated to dependent activities over time. Over the past few decades, a lot of work has been made with the use of optimal solution procedures for this basic problem type and its extensions. Brucker and Knust[1] discuss, how timetabling problems can be modeled as a RCPSP. Authors discuss high school timetabling and university course timetabling problem as an example. We have formulated two mathematical formulations of course timetabling problem in a new way which are the prototype of single-mode RCPSP. Our focus is to show, how course timetabling problem can be transformed into RCPSP. We solve this transformation model with genetic algorithm.

Keywords: Course Timetabling, Integer programming, Combinatorial optimizations

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328 Roundabout Optimal Entry and Circulating Flow Induced by Road Hump

Authors: Amir Hossein Pakshir, A. Hossein Pour, N. Jahandar, Ali Paydar

Abstract:

Roundabout work on the principle of circulation and entry flows, where the maximum entry flow rates depend largely on circulating flow bearing in mind that entry flows must give away to circulating flows. Where an existing roundabout has a road hump installed at the entry arm, it can be hypothesized that the kinematics of vehicles may prevent the entry arm from achieving optimum performance. Road humps are traffic calming devices placed across road width solely as speed reduction mechanism. They are the preferred traffic calming option in Malaysia and often used on single and dual carriageway local routes. The speed limit on local routes is 30mph (50 km/hr). Road humps in their various forms achieved the biggest mean speed reduction (based on a mean speed before traffic calming of 30mph) of up to 10mph or 16 km/hr according to the UK Department of Transport. The underlying aim of reduced speed should be to achieve a 'safe' distribution of speeds which reflects the function of the road and the impacts on the local community. Constraining safe distribution of speeds may lead to poor drivers timing and delayed reflex reaction that can probably cause accident. Previous studies on road hump impact have focused mainly on speed reduction, traffic volume, noise and vibrations, discomfort and delay from the use of road humps. The paper is aimed at optimal entry and circulating flow induced by road humps. Results show that roundabout entry and circulating flow perform better in circumstances where there is no road hump at entrance.

Keywords: Road hump, Roundabout, Speed Reduction

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327 Multi-criteria Optimization of Square Beam using Linear Weighted Average Model

Authors: Ali Farhaninejad, Rizal Zahari, Ehsan Rasooliyazdi

Abstract:

Increasing energy absorption is a significant parameter in vehicle design. Absorbing more energy results in decreasing occupant damage. Limitation of the deflection in a side impact results in decreased energy absorption (SEA) and increased peak load (PL). Hence a high crash force jeopardizes passenger safety and vehicle integrity. The aims of this paper are to determine suitable dimensions and material of a square beam subjected to side impact, in order to maximize SEA and minimize PL. To achieve this novel goal, the geometric parameters of a square beam are optimized using the response surface method (RSM).multi-objective optimization is performed, and the optimum design for different response features is obtained.

Keywords: Crashworthiness, side impact, energy absorption, multi-objective optimization, Square beam, SEA

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326 Design and Implementation of a WiFi Based Home Automation System

Authors: Ahmed ElShafee, Karim Alaa Hamed

Abstract:

This paper presents a design and prototype implementation of new home automation system that uses WiFi technology as a network infrastructure connecting its parts. The proposed system consists of two main components; the first part is the server (web server), which presents system core that manages, controls, and monitors users- home. Users and system administrator can locally (LAN) or remotely (internet) manage and control system code. Second part is hardware interface module, which provides appropriate interface to sensors and actuator of home automation system. Unlike most of available home automation system in the market the proposed system is scalable that one server can manage many hardware interface modules as long as it exists on WiFi network coverage. System supports a wide range of home automation devices like power management components, and security components. The proposed system is better from the scalability and flexibility point of view than the commercially available home automation systems.

Keywords: Home automation, Wireless LAN, WiFi, MicroControllers

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325 Information Delivery and Advanced Traffic Information Systems in Istanbul

Authors: Kevser Simsek, Rahime Gunay

Abstract:

In this paper, we focused primarily on Istanbul data that is gathered by using intelligent transportation systems (ITS), and considered the developments in traffic information delivery and future applications that are being planned for implementation. Since traffic congestion is increasing and travel times are becoming less consistent and less predictable, traffic information delivery has become a critical issue. Considering the fuel consumption and wasted time in traffic, advanced traffic information systems are becoming increasingly valuable which enables travelers to plan their trips more accurately and easily.

Keywords: Data Fusion, Istanbul, ITS, Real Time Information, Traffic Information, Travel Time, Urban Mobility

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324 Robotics, Education and Economy

Authors: David G. Maxínez, Francisco Javier Sánchez Rangel, Guillermo Castillo Tapia, Petra Baldovinos Noyola, M. Antonieta García Galván, Moisés G Sierra

Abstract:

Describes the current situation of educational Robotics "the State of the art" its concept, its evolution their niches of opportunity, academic and business and the importance of education and academic outreach. It shows that the development of high-tech automated educational materials influence the teaching-learning process and that communication between machines and humans is a reality.

Keywords: Education, robotics, robots, technology, innovation, educational constructivism

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323 Retrieving Extended High Dynamic Range from Digital Negative Image - An Experiment on Architectural Photo Imaging

Authors: See Zi Siang, Khairul Hazrin Hashim, Harold Thwaites, Lee Xia Sheng, Ooi Wooi Har

Abstract:

The paper explores the development of an optimization of method and apparatus for retrieving extended high dynamic range from digital negative image. Architectural photo imaging can benefit from high dynamic range imaging (HDRI) technique for preserving and presenting sufficient luminance in the shadow and highlight clipping image areas. The HDRI technique that requires multiple exposure images as the source of HDRI rendering may not be effective in terms of time efficiency during the acquisition process and post-processing stage, considering it has numerous potential imaging variables and technical limitations during the multiple exposure process. This paper explores an experimental method and apparatus that aims to expand the dynamic range from digital negative image in HDRI environment. The method and apparatus explored is based on a single source of RAW image acquisition for the use of HDRI post-processing. It will cater the optimization in order to avoid and minimize the conventional HDRI photographic errors caused by different physical conditions during the photographing process and the misalignment of multiple exposed image sequences. The study observes the characteristics and capabilities of RAW image format as digital negative used for the retrieval of extended high dynamic range process in HDRI environment.

Keywords: High Dynamic Range Image, Photography Workflow Optimization, Digital Negative Image, Architectural Image

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322 An Automatic Sleep Spindle Detector based on WT, STFT and WMSD

Authors: J. Costa, M. Ortigueira, A. Batista, T. Paiva

Abstract:

Sleep spindles are the most interesting hallmark of stage 2 sleep EEG. Their accurate identification in a polysomnographic signal is essential for sleep professionals to help them mark Stage 2 sleep. Sleep Spindles are also promising objective indicators for neurodegenerative disorders. Visual spindle scoring however is a tedious workload. In this paper three different approaches are used for the automatic detection of sleep spindles: Short Time Fourier Transform, Wavelet Transform and Wave Morphology for Spindle Detection. In order to improve the results, a combination of the three detectors is presented and comparison with human expert scorers is performed. The best performance is obtained with a combination of the three algorithms which resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 94% when compared to human expert scorers.

Keywords: EEG, Short Time Fourier Transform, Sleep Spindles, Wave Morphology for Spindle Detection, Wavelet Transform.

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321 CAPWAP Status and Design Considerations for Seamless Roaming Support

Authors: M. Balfaqih, S. Haseeb, M. H. Mazlan, S. N. Hasnan, O. Mahmoud, A. Hashim

Abstract:

Wireless LAN technologies have picked up momentum in the recent years due to their ease of deployment, cost and availability. The era of wireless LAN has also given rise to unique applications like VOIP, IPTV and unified messaging. However, these real-time applications are very sensitive to network and handoff latencies. To successfully support these applications, seamless roaming during the movement of mobile station has become crucial. Nowadays, centralized architecture models support roaming in WLANs. They have the ability to manage, control and troubleshoot large scale WLAN deployments. This model is managed by Control and Provision of Wireless Access Point protocol (CAPWAP). This paper covers the CAPWAP architectural solution along with its proposals that have emerged. Based on the literature survey conducted in this paper, we found that the proposed algorithms to reduce roaming latency in CAPWAP architecture do not support seamless roaming. Additionally, they are not sufficient during the initial period of the network. This paper also suggests important design consideration for mobility support in future centralized IEEE 802.11 networks.

Keywords: 802.11, centralized Architecture, CAPWAP, Roaming.

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320 Effects of Dopant Concentrations on Radiative Properties of Nanoscale Multilayer with Coherent Formulation for Visible Wavelengths

Authors: S. A. A. Oloomi , M. Omidpanah

Abstract:

Semiconductor materials with coatings have a wide range of applications in MEMS and NEMS. This work uses transfermatrix method for calculating the radiative properties. Dopped silicon is used and the coherent formulation is applied. The Drude model for the optical constants of doped silicon is employed. Results showed that for the visible wavelengths, more emittance occurs in greater concentrations and the reflectance decreases as the concentration increases. In these wavelengths, transmittance is negligible. Donars and acceptors act similar in visible wavelengths. The effect of wave interference can be understood by plotting the spectral properties such as reflectance or transmittance of a thin dielectric film versus the film thickness and analyzing the oscillations of properties due to constructive and destructive interferences. But this effect has not been shown at visible wavelengths. At room temperature, the scattering process is dominated by lattice scattering for lightly doped silicon, and the impurity scattering becomes important for heavily doped silicon when the dopant concentration exceeds1018cm-3 .

Keywords: Dopant Concentrations, Radiative Properties, Nanoscale Multilayer, Coherent Formulation, Visible Wavelengths

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319 Spatial Variability of Some Soil Properties in Mountain Rangelands of Northern Iran

Authors: Zeinab Jafarian Jeloudar, Hossien Kavianpoor, Abazar Esmali Ouri, Ataollah Kavian

Abstract:

In this paper spatial variability of some chemical and physical soil properties were investigated in mountain rangelands of Nesho, Mazandaran province, Iran. 110 soil samples from 0-30 cm depth were taken with systematic method on grid 30×30 m2 in regions with different vegetation cover and transported to laboratory. Then soil chemical and physical parameters including Acidity (pH), Electrical conductivity, Caco3, Bulk density, Particle density, total phosphorus, total Nitrogen, available potassium, Organic matter, Saturation moisture, Soil texture (percentage of sand, silt and clay), Sodium, Calcium, magnesium were measured in laboratory. Data normalization was performed then was done statistical analysis for description of soil properties and geostatistical analysis for indication spatial correlation between these properties and were perpetrated maps of spatial distribution of soil properties using Kriging method. Results indicated that in the study area Saturation moisture and percentage of Sand had highest and lowest spatial correlation respectively.

Keywords: Chemical and physical soil properties, Iran, Spatial variability, Nesho Rangeland

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318 Performance Determinants for Convenience Store Suppliers

Authors: Zainah Abdullah, Aznur Hajar Abdullah

Abstract:

This paper examines the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) usage, internal relationship, supplier-retailer relationship, logistics services and inventory management on convenience store suppliers- performance. Data was collected from 275 convenience store managers in Malaysia using a set of questionnaire. The multiple linear regression results indicate that inventory management, supplier-retailer relationship, logistics services and internal relationship are predictors of supplier performance as perceived by convenience store managers. However, ICT usage is not a predictor of supplier performance. The study focuses only on convenience stores and petrol station convenience stores and concentrates only on managers. The results provide insights to suppliers who serve convenience stores and possibly similar retail format on factors to consider in improving their service to retailers. The results also provide insights to government in its aspiration to improve business operations of convenience store to consider ways to enhance the adoption of ICT by retailers and suppliers.

Keywords: Information and communication technology (ICT), internal relationship, inventory management, logistics services, supplier performance, supplier-retailer relationship.

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317 Unrelated Parallel Machines Scheduling Problem Using an Ant Colony Optimization Approach

Authors: Y. K. Lin, H. T. Hsieh, F. Y. Hsieh

Abstract:

Total weighted tardiness is a measure of customer satisfaction. Minimizing it represents satisfying the general requirement of on-time delivery. In this research, we consider an ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm to solve the problem of scheduling unrelated parallel machines to minimize total weighted tardiness. The problem is NP-hard in the strong sense. Computational results show that the proposed ACO algorithm is giving promising results compared to other existing algorithms.

Keywords: ant colony optimization, total weighted tardiness, unrelated parallel machines.

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316 Direction to Manage OTOP Entrepreneurship Based on Local Wisdom

Authors: Witthaya Mekhum

Abstract:

The OTOP Entrepreneurship that used to create substantial source of income for local Thai communities are now in a stage of exigent matters that required assistances from public sectors due to over Entrepreneurship of duplicative ideas, unable to adjust costs and prices, lack of innovation, and inadequate of quality control. Moreover, there is a repetitive problem of middlemen who constantly corner the OTOP market. Local OTOP producers become easy preys since they do not know how to add more values, how to create and maintain their own brand name, and how to create proper packaging and labeling. The suggested solutions to local OTOP producers are to adopt modern management techniques, to find knowhow to add more values to products and to unravel other marketing problems. The objectives of this research are to study the prevalent OTOP products management and to discover direction to manage OTOP products to enhance the effectiveness of OTOP Entrepreneurship in Nonthaburi Province, Thailand. There were 113 participants in this study. The research tools can be divided into two parts: First part is done by questionnaire to find responses of the prevalent OTOP Entrepreneurship management. Second part is the use of focus group which is conducted to encapsulate ideas and local wisdom. Data analysis is performed by using frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation as well as the synthesis of several small group discussions. The findings reveal that 1) Business Resources: the quality of product is most important and the marketing of product is least important. 2) Business Management: Leadership is most important and raw material planning is least important. 3) Business Readiness: Communication is most important and packaging is least important. 4) Support from public sector: Certified from the government is most important and source of raw material is the least important.

Keywords: Management, OTOP Entrepreneurship, Local Wisdom

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315 Work Motivation, Work Stress, and Job Satisfaction in between Taiwan and China - An Empitical Study

Authors: Tung-Liang Chen, Ming - Yi Huang, Tchiu-Hui Su

Abstract:

This study investigates the relationships between Work Motivation, Work Stress, and Job Satisfaction toward cross-strait employees. The target subjects are three manufacturing firms in Mainland China and Taiwan. Out of 450 distributed surveys, 352 valid surveys were obtained with the response rate of 78.22%.The findings have addressed three main pull factors toward cross-strait employees in choosing jobs, which are (1) high level of firm stability, (2) good firm image, and (3) good employee benefits. In addition, various employee attributes exert different impacts on Work Motivation, Work Stress, and Job Satisfaction. The comparison between expected and actual perceived Job Satisfaction toward cross-strait employees shows that “salary" ranks highest regarding expected Job Satisfaction whereas “co-worker relationship" ranks highest regarding actual perceived Job Satisfaction, which implies actual perceived Job Satisfaction do not match employee expectations. Therefore, this research further concludes that there exists differences between employees- expected and actual perceived Job Satisfaction.

Keywords: Cross-strait, job satisfaction, work motivation, work stress

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314 The Effect of Intermediate Stiffeners on Steel Reinforced Concrete Beams Behaviors

Authors: Teguh Sudibyo, Cheng-Cheng Chen

Abstract:

Eight steel reinforced concrete beams (SRC), were fabricated and tested under earthquake type cyclic loading. The effectiveness of intermediate stiffeners, such as mid-span stiffener and plastic hinge zone stiffeners, in enhancing composite action and ductility of SRC beams was investigated. The effectiveness of strengthened beam-to-column (SBC) and weakened beam-to-column (WBC) connections in enhancing beam ductility was also studied. It was found that: (1) All the specimens possessed fairly high flexural ductility and were found adequate for structures in high seismic zones. (2) WBC connections induced stress concentration which caused extra damage to concrete near the flange tapering zone. This extra damage inhibited the flexural strength development and the ductility of the specimens with WBC connections to some extent. (3) Specimens with SBC connections demonstrated higher flexural strength and ductility compared to specimens with WBC connections. (4) The intermediate stiffeners, especially combination of plastic hinge zone stiffener and mid span stiffeners, have an obvious effect in enhancing the ductility of the beams with SBC connection.

Keywords: Composite beam, concrete encased steel beam, steel reinforced concrete, stiffeners.

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313 Feature-Based Machining using Macro

Authors: M. Razak, A. Jusoh, A. Zakaria

Abstract:

This paper presents an on-going research work on the implementation of feature-based machining via macro programming. Repetitive machining features such as holes, slots, pockets etc can readily be encapsulated in macros. Each macro consists of methods on how to machine the shape as defined by the feature. The macro programming technique comprises of a main program and subprograms. The main program allows user to select several subprograms that contain features and define their important parameters. With macros, complex machining routines can be implemented easily and no post processor is required. A case study on machining of a part that comprised of planar face, hole and pocket features using the macro programming technique was carried out. It is envisaged that the macro programming technique can be extended to other feature-based machining fields such as the newly developed STEP-NC domain.

Keywords: Feature-based machining, CNC, Macro, STEP-NC.

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312 Health Effects of Trihalomethanes as Chlorinated Disinfection by Products: A Review Article

Authors: M. R. Mohamadshafiee, L. Taghavi

Abstract:

Trihalomethanes (THMs) were among the first disinfection byproducts to be discovered in chlorinated water. The substances form during a reaction between chlorine and organic matter in the water. Trihalomethanes are suspected to have negative effects on birth such as, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation in term births, as well as gestational age and preterm delivery. There are also some evidences showing these by-products to be mutagenic and carcinogenic, the greatest amount of evidence being related to the bladder cancer. However, there exist inconsistencies regarding such effects of THMs as different studies have provided different results in this regard. The aim of the present study is to provide a review of the related researches about the above mentioned health effects of THMs.

Keywords: Trihalomethans, by-products, disinfection, carcinogenic

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311 An Eulerian Numerical Method and its Application to Explosion Problems

Authors: Li Hao, Yan Zhang, Jingan Cui

Abstract:

The Eulerian numerical method is proposed to analyze the explosion in tunnel. Based on this method, an original software M-MMIC2D is developed by Cµ program language. With this software, the explosion problem in the tunnel with three expansion-chambers is numerically simulated, and the results are found to be in full agreement with the observed experimental data.

Keywords: Eulerian method, numerical simulation, shock wave, tunnel

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310 The Antioxidant Capacity of Beverage Blends Made from Cocoa, Zobo and Ginger

Authors: Folasade F. Awe, Tayo N. Fagbemi, Comfort F. Ajibola, Adebanjo A. Badejo

Abstract:

The antioxidant capability of beverage blends made from cocoa, zobo and ginger with standard antioxidant assay procedures was investigated. The DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) scavenging capacity ranged from 21.2-25.8% in comparison with GSH of 37.1%. The ferric reducing ability was highest in the zobo drink and lowest in ginger. The superoxide scavenging capacity was also highest in the zobo drink followed by the drink with alkalized cocoa. The metal chelating power decreased as the level of zobo in the blends decreases. The chelating power of zobo and ginger were significantly lower than the natural and alkalized cocoa. The 100% zobo drink inhibited linoleic acid till the fifth day while natural and alkalized cocoa as well as the blend with 50% alkalized cocoa inhibited linoleic acid greatly till the sixth day. The finding describes the potential health benefit of the phytochemical antioxidants of cocoa:zobo:ginger beverage blends.

Keywords: Antioxidant, cocoa, ginger, health benefit, zobo blend.

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309 Monotonic and Cyclic J-integral Estimation for Through-Wall Cracked Straight Pipes

Authors: Rohit, S. Vishnuvardhan, P. Gandhi, Nagesh R. Iyer

Abstract:

The evaluation of energy release rate and centre Crack Opening Displacement (COD) for circumferential Through-Wall Cracked (TWC) pipes is an important issue in the assessment of critical crack length for unstable fracture. The ability to predict crack growth continues to be an important component of research for several structural materials. Crack growth predictions can aid the understanding of the useful life of a structural component and the determination of inspection intervals and criteria. In this context, studies were carried out at CSIR-SERC on Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) piping components subjected to monotonic as well as cyclic loading to assess the damage for crack growth due to low-cycle fatigue in circumferentially TWC pipes.

Keywords: 304LN stainless steel, cyclic J-integral, Elastic- Plastic Fracture Mechanics, J-integral, Through-wall crack

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308 Comparison between Solar Simulation and Infrared Technique for Thermal Balance Test

Authors: Tao Tao, Wang Jing, Cao Zhisong, Liu Yi, Qie Dianfu

Abstract:

The precision of heat flux simulation influences the temperature field and test aberration for TB test and also reflects the test level for spacecraft development. This paper describes TB tests for a small satellite using solar simulator, electric heaters, calrod heaters to evaluate the difference of the three methods. Under the same boundary condition, calrod heaters cases were about 6oC higher than solar simulator cases and electric heaters cases for non-external-heat-flux cases (extreme low temperature cases). While calrod heaters cases and electric heaters cases were 5~7oC and 2~3oC lower than solar simulator cases respectively for high temperature cases. The results show that the solar simulator is better than calrod heaters for its better collimation, non-homogeneity and stability.

Keywords: solar simulation, infrared simulation, TB test, TMM

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307 Thailand Throne Hall Architecture in the Grand Palace in the Early Days of Ratthanakosin Era

Authors: Somchai Seviset, Lin Jian Qun

Abstract:

Amarindra-vinitchai-mahaisuraya Bhiman throne hall is one of the most significant throne halls in the grand palace in the Ratthanakosin city situated in Bangkok, Thailand. This is the first group of throne halls built in order to serve as a place for meetings, performing state affairs and royal duties until the present time. The structure and pattern of architectural design including the decoration and interior design of the throne hall obviously exhibits and convey the status of the king under the context of Thai society in the early period of Ratthanakosin era. According to the tradition of ruling the kingdom in absolute monarchy which had been in place since Ayutthaya era (A.D.1350-1767), the king was deemed as Deva Raja, the highest power and authority over the kingdom and as the greatest emperor of the universe (Chakkravatin). The architectural design adopted the concept of “Prasada" or Viman which served as the dwelling place of the gods and was presented in the form of “Thai traditional architecture" For the interior design of the throne hall, it had been adopted to be the heaven and the centre of the Universe in line with the cosmological beliefs of ancient people described in scripture Tribhumikatha (Tri Bhumi) written by Phra Maha Thamma Raja (Phraya Lithai) of the Sukhothai era (A.D.1347-1368). According to this belief, the throne hall had been designed to represent mount Meru, the central of the universe. On the top end of Mount Meru is situated the Viman and dwelling place of Indra who is the king of gods according to the idea of Deva Raja (the king god Avatar). At the same time, Indra also existed as the king of the universe simultaneously.

Keywords: Amarindra-vinitchai-mahaisuraya Bhiman throne hall, throne hall architecture, grand palace, Thai traditional architecture, Ratthanakosin era

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306 Career Counseling Program for the Psychological Well-Being of Freshmen University Students

Authors: Sheila Marie G. Hocson

Abstract:

One of the vital developmental tasks that an individual faces during adolescence is choosing a career. Arriving at a career decision is difficult and anxious for many adolescents in the tertiary level. The main purpose of this study is to determine the factors relating to career indecision among freshmen college students as basis for the formulation of a comprehensive career counseling program for the psychological well-being of freshmen university students. The subjects were purposively selected. The Slovin-s formula was used in determining the sample size, using a 0.05 margin of error in getting the total number of samples per college and per major. The researcher made use of descriptive correlational study in determining significant factors relating to career indecision. Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that career thoughts, career decisions and vocational identity as factors related to career indecision.

Keywords: career decisions, career guidance program, career thoughts, vocational identity

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305 E-Voting: A Trustworthiness In Democratic; A View from Technology, Political and Social Issue

Authors: Sera Syarmila Sameon, Rohaini Ramli

Abstract:

A trustworthy voting process in democratic is important that each vote is recorded with accuracy and impartiality. The accuracy and impartiality are tallied in high rate with biometric system. One of the sign is a fingerprint. Fingerprint recognition is still a challenging problem, because of the distortions among the different impression of the same finger. Because of the trustworthy of biometric voting technologies, it may give a great effect on numbers of voter-s participation and outcomes of the democratic process. Hence in this study, the authors are interested in designing and analyzing the Electronic Voting System and the participation of the users. The system is based on the fingerprint minutiae with the addition of person ID number. This is in order to enhance the accuracy and speed of the voting process. The new design is analyzed by conducting pilot election among a class of students for selecting their representative.

Keywords: Biometric, FAR and FRR, democratic, voting

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304 Analysis of Complexes Pairing Performat Radical and Water

Authors: Sanaz Gharehzadeh Shirazi, Subira Gharehzadeh Shirazi, Fariba Jafari

Abstract:

The present article comprises a theoretical study of structures Performat radical (HCO3) with H2O molecule. We make use of ab initio quantum chemical methods. Unrestricted Hartee-Fock (UHF) with the basis set6-311+g(2df,2p) and density functional theory (B3LYP) with the basis set 6-311+g(2df,2p) and also we done atoms in molecules (AIM) theory for them. We have found four stable geometries the PerformatRadical(HCO3) with H2O.

Keywords: Hydrogen binding, Performat Radical, Water, Gaussian, Atoms in molecules (AIM) theory

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303 Forming the Differential-Algebraic Model of Radial Power Systems for Simulation of both Transient and Steady-State Conditions

Authors: Saleh A. Al-Jufout

Abstract:

This paper presents a procedure of forming the mathematical model of radial electric power systems for simulation of both transient and steady-state conditions. The research idea has been based on nodal voltages technique and on differentiation of Kirchhoff's current law (KCL) applied to each non-reference node of the radial system, the result of which the nodal voltages has been calculated by solving a system of algebraic equations. Currents of the electric power system components have been determined by solving their respective differential equations. Transforming the three-phase coordinate system into Cartesian coordinate system in the model decreased the overall number of equations by one third. The use of Cartesian coordinate system does not ignore the DC component during transient conditions, but restricts the model's implementation for symmetrical modes of operation only. An example of the input data for a four-bus radial electric power system has been calculated.

Keywords: Mathematical Modelling, Radial Power System, Steady-State, Transients

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302 Selective Separation of Lead and Mercury Ions from Synthetic Produced Water via a Hollow Fiber Supported Liquid Membrane

Authors: S. Suren, U. Pancharoen

Abstract:

A double module hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) was applied to selectively separate lead and mercury ions from dilute synthetic produced water. The experiments were investigated on several variables: types of extractants (D2EHPA, Cyanex 471, Aliquat 336, and TOA), concentration of the selected extractant and operating time. The results clearly showed that the double module HFSLM could selectively separate Pb(II) and Hg(II) in feed solution at a very low concentration to less than the regulatory discharge limit of 0.2 and 0.005 mg/L issued by the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Natural Resource Environment, Thailand. The highest extractions of lead and mercury ions from synthetic produced water were 96% and 100% using 0.03 M D2EHPA and 0.06 M Aliquat 336 as the extractant for the first and second modules.

Keywords: Hollow fiber, Lead ions, Liquid membrane, Mercury ions, Selective separation

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301 Nonlinear Effects in Bubbly Liquid with Shock Waves

Authors: Raisa Kh. Bolotnova, Marat N. Galimzianov, Andrey S. Topolnikov, Uliana O. Agisheva, Valeria A. Buzina

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of theoretical and numerical modeling of propagation of shock waves in bubbly liquids related to nonlinear effects (realistic equation of state, chemical reactions, two-dimensional effects). On the basis on the Rankine- Hugoniot equations the problem of determination of parameters of passing and reflected shock waves in gas-liquid medium for isothermal, adiabatic and shock compression of the gas component is solved by using the wide-range equation of state of water in the analitic form. The phenomenon of shock wave intensification is investigated in the channel of variable cross section for the propagation of a shock wave in the liquid filled with bubbles containing chemically active gases. The results of modeling of the wave impulse impact on the solid wall covered with bubble layer are presented.

Keywords: bubbly liquid, cavitation, equation of state, shock wave

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300 Hydrodynamic Processes in Bubbly Liquid Flow in Tubes and Nozzles

Authors: Raisa Kh. Bolotnova, Marat N. Galimzianov, Andrey S. Topolnikov, Valeria A. Buzina, Uliana O. Agisheva

Abstract:

The hydrodynamic processes in bubbly liquid flowing in tubes and nozzles are studied theoretically and numerically. The principal regularities of non-stationary processes of boiling liquid outflow are established under conditions of experiments when the depressurization of a tube with high pressure inside occurs. The steady-state solution of bubbly liquid flow in the nozzle of round cross section with high pressure and temperature conditions inside bubbles is studied accounting for phase transition and chemical reactions.

Keywords: bubbly liquid, cavitation, chemical reactions, phase transition.

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299 On Convergence of Affine Thin Plate Bending Element

Authors: Rado Flajs, Miran Saje

Abstract:

In the present paper the displacement-based nonconforming quadrilateral affine thin plate bending finite element ARPQ4 is presented, derived directly from non-conforming quadrilateral thin plate bending finite element RPQ4 proposed by Wanji and Cheung [19]. It is found, however, that element RPQ4 is only conditionally unisolvent. The new element is shown to be inherently unisolvent. This convenient property results in the element ARPQ4 being more robust and thus better suited for computations than its predecessor. The convergence is proved and the rate of convergence estimated. The mathematically rigorous proof of convergence presented in the paper is based on Stummel-s generalized patch test and the consideration of the element approximability condition, which are both necessary and sufficient for convergence.

Keywords: Quadrilateral thin plate bending element, convergence, generalized patch test.

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298 Applications of Carbon Fibers Produced from Polyacrylonitrile Fibers

Authors: R. Eslami Farsani, R. Fazaeli

Abstract:

Carbon fibers have specific characteristics in comparison with industrial and structural materials used in different applications. Special properties of carbon fibers make them attractive for reinforcing and fabrication of composites. These fibers have been utilized for composites of metals, ceramics and plastics. However, it-s mainly used in different forms to reinforce lightweight polymer materials such as epoxy resin, polyesters or polyamides. The composites of carbon fiber are stronger than steel, stiffer than titanium, and lighter than aluminum and nowadays they are used in a variety of applications. This study explains applications of carbon fibers in different fields such as space, aviation, transportation, medical, construction, energy, sporting goods, electronics, and the other commercial/industrial applications. The last findings of composites with polymer, metal and ceramic matrices containing carbon fibers and their applications in the world investigated. Researches show that carbon fibers-reinforced composites due to unique properties (including high specific strength and specific modulus, low thermal expansion coefficient, high fatigue strength, and high thermal stability) can be replaced with common industrial and structural materials.

Keywords: Polyacrylonitrile Fibers, Carbon Fibers, Application

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297 Mechanical Properties of Ultra High Performance Concrete

Authors: Prabhat Ranjan Prem, B.H.Bharatkumar, Nagesh R Iyer

Abstract:

A research program is conducted to evaluate the mechanical properties of Ultra High Performance Concrete, target compressive strength at the age of 28 days being more than 150 MPa. The methodology to develop such mix has been explained. The material properties, mix design and curing regime are determined. The material attributes are understood by studying the stress strain behaviour of UHPC cylinders under uniaxial compressive loading. The load –crack mouth opening displacement (cmod) of UHPC beams, flexural strength and fracture energy was evaluated using third point loading test. Compressive strength and Split tensile strength results are determined to find out the compressive and tensile behaviour. Residual strength parameters are presented vividly explaining the flexural performance, toughness of concrete.Durability studies were also done to compare the effect of fibre to that of a control mix For all the studies the Mechanical properties were evaluated by varying the percentage and aspect ratio of steel fibres The results reflected that higher aspect ratio and fibre volume produced drastic changes in the cube strength, cylinder strength, post peak response, load-cmod, fracture energy flexural strength, split tensile strength, residual strength and durability. In regards to null application of UHPC in India, an initiative is undertaken to comprehend the mechanical behaviour of UHPC, which will be vital for longer run in commercialization for structural applications.

Keywords: Ultra High Performance Concrete, Reinforcement Index, Compressive Strength, Tensile Strength, Flexural Strength, Residual Strength, Fracture Energy, Stress-Strain Relationships, Load-Crack Mouth Opening Displacement and Durability.

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296 Characterization of Fabricated A 384.1-MgO Based Metal Matrix Composite and Optimization of Tensile Strength using Taguchi Techniques

Authors: Nripjit, Anand K Tyagi, Nirmal Singh

Abstract:

The present work consecutively on synthesis and characterization of composites, Al/Al alloy A 384.1 as matrix in which the main ingredient as Al/Al-5% MgO alloy based metal matrix composite. As practical implications the low cost processing route for the fabrication of Al alloy A 384.1 and operational difficulties of presently available manufacturing processes based in liquid manipulation methods. As all new developments, complete understanding of the influence of processing variables upon the final quality of the product. And the composite is applied comprehensively to the acquaintance for achieving superiority of information concerning the specific heat measurement of a material through the aid of thermographs. Products are evaluated concerning relative particle size and mechanical behavior under tensile strength. Furthermore, Taguchi technique was employed to examine the experimental optimum results are achieved, owing to effectiveness of this approach.

Keywords: MMC, Thermographs, Tensile strength, Taguchi technique, Optimal parameters

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295 An Approach for Data Analysis, Evaluation and Correction: A Case Study from Man-Made River Project in Libya

Authors: Nasser M. Amaitik, Nabil A. Alfagi

Abstract:

The world-s largest Pre-stressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe (PCCP) water supply project had a series of pipe failures which occurred between 1999 and 2001. This has led the Man-Made River Authority (MMRA), the authority in charge of the implementation and operation of the project, to setup a rehabilitation plan for the conveyance system while maintaining the uninterrupted flow of water to consumers. At the same time, MMRA recognized the need for a long term management tool that would facilitate repair and maintenance decisions and enable taking the appropriate preventive measures through continuous monitoring and estimation of the remaining life of each pipe. This management tool is known as the Pipe Risk Management System (PRMS) and now in operation at MMRA. Both the rehabilitation plan and the PRMS require the availability of complete and accurate pipe construction and manufacturing data This paper describes a systematic approach of data collection, analysis, evaluation and correction for the construction and manufacturing data files of phase I pipes which are the platform for the PRMS database and any other related decision support system.

Keywords: Asbuilt, History, IMD, MMRA, PDBMS & PRMS

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294 Design Optimization of Aerocapture with Aerodynamic-Environment-Adaptive Variable Geometry Flexible Aeroshell

Authors: Naohiko Honma, Kojiro Suzuki

Abstract:

This paper proposes the concept of aerocapture with aerodynamic-environment-adaptive variable geometry flexible aeroshell that vehicle deploys. The flexible membrane is composed of thin-layer film or textile as its aeroshell in order to solve some problems obstructing realization of aerocapture technique. Multi-objective optimization study is conducted to investigate solutions and derive design guidelines. As a result, solutions which can avoid aerodynamic heating and enlarge the corridor width up to 10% are obtained successfully, so that the effectiveness of this concept can be demonstrated. The deformation-use optimum solution changes its drag coefficient from 1.6 to 1.1, along with the change in dynamic pressure. Moreover, optimization results show that deformation-use solution requires the membrane for which upper temperature limit and strain limit are more than 700 K and 120%, respectively, and elasticity (Young-s modulus) is of order of 106 Pa.

Keywords: Aerocapture, flexible aeroshell, optimization, response surface methodology.

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293 Density Wave Instability of Supercritical Kerosene in Active Cooling Channels of Scramjets

Authors: N. Wang, Y. Pan, J. Zhou, J. Lei, X. Z. Yang

Abstract:

Experimental investigations were made on the instability of supercritical kerosene flowing in active cooling channels. Two approaches were used to control the pressure in the channel. One is the back-pressure valve while the other is the venturi. In both conditions, a kind of low-frequency oscillation of pressure and temperature is observed. And the oscillation periods are calculated. By comparison with the flow time, it is concluded that the instability occurred in active cooling channels is probably one kind of density wave instability. And its period has no relationship with the cooling channel geometry, nor the pressure, but only depends on the flow time of kerosene in active cooling channels. When the mass flow rate, density and pressure drop couple with each other, the density wave instability will appear.

Keywords: scramjets, active cooling, instability, density wave

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292 Optimal Conditions for Carotenoid Production and Antioxidation Characteristics by Rhodotorula rubra

Authors: N. Chanchay, S. Sirisansaneeyakul, C. Chaiyasut, N. Poosaran

Abstract:

This study aims to screen out and to optimize the major nutrients for maximum carotenoid production and antioxidation characteristics by Rhodotorula rubra. It was found that supplementary of 10 g/l glucose as carbon source, 1 g/l ammonium sulfate as nitrogen source and 1 g/l yeast extract as growth factor in the medium provided the better yield of carotenoid content of 30.39 μg/g cell dry weight the amount of antioxidation of Rhodotorula rubra by DPPH, ABTS and MDA method were 1.463%, 34.21% and 34.09 μmol/l, respectively.

Keywords: Carotenoid, Rhodotorula rubra, Antioxidation, DPPH, ABTS

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291 Condition Monitoring in the Management of Maintenance in a Large Scale Precision CNC Machining Manufacturing Facility

Authors: N. Ahmed, A.J. Day, J.L. Victory L. Zeall, B. Young

Abstract:

The manufacture of large-scale precision aerospace components using CNC requires a highly effective maintenance strategy to ensure that the required accuracy can be achieved over many hours of production. This paper reviews a strategy for a maintenance management system based on Failure Mode Avoidance, which uses advanced techniques and technologies to underpin a predictive maintenance strategy. It is shown how condition monitoring (CM) is important to predict potential failures in high precision machining facilities and achieve intelligent and integrated maintenance management. There are two distinct ways in which CM can be applied. One is to monitor key process parameters and observe trends which may indicate a gradual deterioration of accuracy in the product. The other is the use of CM techniques to monitor high status machine parameters enables trends to be observed which can be corrected before machine failure and downtime occurs. It is concluded that the key to developing a flexible and intelligent maintenance framework in any precision manufacturing operation is the ability to evaluate reliably and routinely machine tool condition using condition monitoring techniques within a framework of Failure Mode Avoidance.

Keywords: Maintenance, Condition Monitoring, CNC, Machining, Accuracy, Capability, Key Process Parameters, Critical Parameters

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290 Applications of High-Order Compact Finite Difference Scheme to Nonlinear Goursat Problems

Authors: Mohd Agos Salim Nasir, Ahmad Izani Md. Ismail

Abstract:

Several numerical schemes utilizing central difference approximations have been developed to solve the Goursat problem. However, in a recent years compact discretization methods which leads to high-order finite difference schemes have been used since it is capable of achieving better accuracy as well as preserving certain features of the equation e.g. linearity. The basic idea of the new scheme is to find the compact approximations to the derivative terms by differentiating centrally the governing equations. Our primary interest is to study the performance of the new scheme when applied to two Goursat partial differential equations against the traditional finite difference scheme.

Keywords: Goursat problem, partial differential equation, finite difference scheme, compact finite difference

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289 Outer-Brace Stress Concentration Factors of Offshore Two-Planar Tubular DKT-Joints

Authors: Mohammad Ali Lotfollahi-Yaghin, Hamid Ahmadi

Abstract:

In the present paper, a set of parametric FE stress analyses is carried out for two-planar welded tubular DKT-joints under two different axial load cases. Analysis results are used to present general remarks on the effect of geometrical parameters on the stress concentration factors (SCFs) at the inner saddle, outer saddle, toe, and heel positions on the main (outer) brace. Then a new set of SCF parametric equations is developed through nonlinear regression analysis for the fatigue design of two-planar DKT-joints. An assessment study of these equations is conducted against the experimental data; and the satisfaction of the criteria regarding the acceptance of parametric equations is checked. Significant effort has been devoted by researchers to the study of SCFs in various uniplanar tubular connections. Nevertheless, for multi-planar joints covering the majority of practical applications, very few investigations have been reported due to the complexity and high cost involved.

Keywords: Offshore jacket structure, Parametric equation, Stress concentration factor (SCF), Two-planar tubular KT-joint

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288 Effects of Human Factors on Workforce Scheduling

Authors: M. Othman, N. Bhuiyan, G. J. Gouw

Abstract:

In today-s competitive market, most companies develop manufacturing systems that can help in cost reduction and maximum quality. Human issues are an important part of manufacturing systems, yet most companies ignore their effects on production performance. This paper aims to developing an integrated workforce planning system that incorporates the human being. Therefore, a multi-objective mixed integer nonlinear programming model is developed to determine the amount of hiring, firing, training, overtime for each worker type. This paper considers a workforce planning model including human aspects such as skills, training, workers- personalities, capacity, motivation, and learning rates. This model helps to minimize the hiring, firing, training and overtime costs, and maximize the workers- performance. The results indicate that the workers- differences should be considered in workforce scheduling to generate realistic plans with minimum costs. This paper also investigates the effects of human learning rates on the performance of the production systems.

Keywords: Human Factors, Learning Curves, Workers' Differences, Workforce Scheduling

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287 Corporate Social Responsibility and Creating Shared Value: Case of Latvia

Authors: Inga Lapiņa, Indra Borkus, Olga Stariņeca

Abstract:

Creating shared value (CSV) is a newly introduced concept whose essence and expressions, relationship to Corporate social responsibility (CSR) and implications for the business and society is now at the core of management and social responsibility debates of the scientific world. The aim of the paper is to gain clearer understanding of the CSR and CSV concepts, their implementation and role in sustainable development of organizations in Latvia. In this paper the authors discuss and compare the two conceptsand, based on the results of Sustainability Index (SI) initiative and analysis of publically available company information, evaluate their implementation in Latvia and draw conclusions on the development trends and potential of these approaches in Latvian market.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Creating Shared Value, Sustainability Index.

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286 Porous Ni and Ni-Co Electrodeposits for Alkaline Water Electrolysis – Energy Saving

Authors: I. Herraiz-Cardona, C. González-Buch, E. Ortega, V. Pérez-Herranz, J. García-Antón

Abstract:

Hydrogen is considered to be the most promising candidate as a future energy carrier. One of the most used technologies for the electrolytic hydrogen production is alkaline water electrolysis. However, due to the high energy requirements, the cost of hydrogen produced in such a way is high. In continuous search to improve this process using advanced electrocatalytic materials for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), Ni type Raney and macro-porous Ni-Co electrodes were prepared on AISI 304 stainless steel substrates by electrodeposition. The developed electrodes were characterized by SEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy. HER on these electrodes was evaluated in 30 wt.% KOH solution by means of hydrogen discharge curves and galvanostatic tests. Results show that the developed electrodes present a most efficient behaviour for HER when comparing with the smooth Ni cathode. It has been reported a reduction in the energy consumption of the electrolysis cell of about 25% by using the developed coatings as cathodes.

Keywords: Alkaline water electrolysis, energy efficiency, porous nickel electrodes

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285 A Mesh Free Moving Node Method To Analyze Flow Through Spirals of Orbiting Scroll Pump

Authors: I.Banerjee, A.K.Mahendra, T.K.Bera, B.G.Chandresh

Abstract:

The scroll pump belongs to the category of positive displacement pump can be used for continuous pumping of gases at low pressure apart from general vacuum application. The shape of volume occupied by the gas moves and deforms continuously as the spiral orbits. To capture flow features in such domain where mesh deformation varies with time in a complicated manner, mesh less solver was found to be very useful. Least Squares Kinetic Upwind Method (LSKUM) is a kinetic theory based mesh free Euler solver working on arbitrary distribution of points. Here upwind is enforced in molecular level based on kinetic flux vector splitting scheme (KFVS). In the present study we extended the LSKUM to moving node viscous flow application. This new code LSKUM-NS-MN for moving node viscous flow is validated for standard airfoil pitching test case. Simulation performed for flow through scroll pump using LSKUM-NS-MN code agrees well with the experimental pumping speed data.

Keywords: Least Squares, Moving node, Pitching, Spirals.

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284 Influence of Cavity Length on Forward-facing Cavity and Opposing Jet Combined Thermal Protection System Cooling Efficiency

Authors: Hai-bo Lu, Wei-qiang Liu

Abstract:

A numerical study on the influence of forward-facing cavity length upon forward-facing cavity and opposing jet combined thermal protection system (TPS) cooling efficiency under hypersonic flow is conducted, by means of which the flow field parameters, heat flux distribution along the outer body surface are obtained. The numerical simulation results are validated by experiments and the cooling effect of the combined TPS with different cavity length is analyzed. The numerical results show that the combined configuration dose well in cooling the nose of the hypersonic vehicle. The deeper the cavity is, the weaker the heat flux is. The recirculation region plays a key role for the reduction of the aerodynamic heating.

Keywords: Thermal protection, hypersonic vehicle, aerodynamic heating, forward-facing cavity, opposing jet

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283 High Order Accurate Runge Kutta Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Numerical Solution of Linear Convection Equation

Authors: Faheem Ahmed, Fareed Ahmed, Yongheng Guo, Yong Yang

Abstract:

This paper deals with a high-order accurate Runge Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method for the numerical solution of the wave equation, which is one of the simple case of a linear hyperbolic partial differential equation. Nodal DG method is used for a finite element space discretization in 'x' by discontinuous approximations. This method combines mainly two key ideas which are based on the finite volume and finite element methods. The physics of wave propagation being accounted for by means of Riemann problems and accuracy is obtained by means of high-order polynomial approximations within the elements. High order accurate Low Storage Explicit Runge Kutta (LSERK) method is used for temporal discretization in 't' that allows the method to be nonlinearly stable regardless of its accuracy. The resulting RKDG methods are stable and high-order accurate. The L1 ,L2 and L∞ error norm analysis shows that the scheme is highly accurate and effective. Hence, the method is well suited to achieve high order accurate solution for the scalar wave equation and other hyperbolic equations.

Keywords: Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin Method, RKDG, Scalar Wave Equation, LSERK

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282 Development of Split Air-Conditioning System using Chill Water as the Cooling Medium

Authors: Faezzan Madli, Zamri Noranai, Md. Norrizam Mohamad Jaat, Hamidon Salleh, Mohammad Zainal Md Yusof

Abstract:

Current air conditioning system is using refrigerant as the cooling medium. The main purpose of this study is to develop an air conditioning system using chill water as the cooling medium. In this system, chill water used to replace refrigerant as the cooling medium. This study is focus on the split type unit air conditioning system only. It will be involving some renovation on the indoor unit and freezer. The cooling capability of this system was validate by few series of testing, which conducted at standard 36m3 office room. Result of the testing found that 0.1 m3 of chill water is able to maintain the room temperature within standard up to 4 ~ 8 hours. It expected able to maintain room temperature up to 10 hour with some improvement.

Keywords: Chill water, air-condition, office room.

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281 Framework for Spare Inventory Management

Authors: Eman M. Wahba, Noha M. Galal, Khaled S. El-Kilany

Abstract:

Spare parts inventory management is one of the major areas of inventory research. Analysis of recent literature showed that an approach integrating spare parts classification, demand forecasting, and stock control policies is essential; however, adapting this integrated approach is limited. This work presents an integrated framework for spare part inventory management and an Excel based application developed for the implementation of the proposed framework. A multi-criteria analysis has been used for spare classification. Forecasting of spare parts- intermittent demand has been incorporated into the application using three different forecasting models; namely, normal distribution, exponential smoothing, and Croston method. The application is also capable of running with different inventory control policies. To illustrate the performance of the proposed framework and the developed application; the framework is applied to different items at a service organization. The results achieved are presented and possible areas for future work are highlighted.

Keywords: Demand forecasting, intermittent demand, inventory management, integrated approach, spare parts, spare part classification

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280 Design of a Mould System for Horizontal Continuous Casting of Bilayer Aluminium Strips

Authors: Ch. Nerl, M. Wimmer, P. Hofer, E. Kaschnitz

Abstract:

The present article deals with a composite casting process that allows to produce bilayer AlSn6-Al strips based on the technique of horizontal continuous casting. In the first part experimental investigations on the production of a single layer AlSn6 strip are described. Afterwards essential results of basic compound casting trials using simple test specimen are presented to define the thermal conditions required for a metallurgical compound between the alloy AlSn6 and pure aluminium. Subsequently, numerical analyses are described. A finite element model was used to examine a continuous composite casting process. As a result of the simulations the main influencing parameters concerning the thermal conditions within the composite casting region could be pointed out. Finally, basic guidance is given for the design of an appropriate composite mould system.

Keywords: Aluminium alloys, composite casting, compound casting, continuous casting, numerical simulation

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279 Optical Fiber Sensor for Detection of Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: C. I. L. Justino, A. C. Freitas, T. A. P. Rocha-Santos, A. C. Duarte

Abstract:

This work relates the development of an optical fiber (OF) sensor for the detection and quantification of single walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous solutions. The developed OF displays a compact design, it requires less expensive materials and equipment as well as low volume of sample (0.2 mL). This methodology was also validated by the comparison of its analytical performance with that of a standard methodology based on ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The developed OF sensor follows the general SDS calibration proposed for OF sensors as a more suitable calibration fitting compared with classical calibrations.

Keywords: Optical fiber sensor, single-walled carbon nanotubes, SDS calibration model, UV-Vis spectroscopy

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278 Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Human Breath by Optical Fiber Sensing

Authors: C. I. L. Justino, L. I. B. Silva, K. Duarte, A. C. Freitas, T. A. P. Rocha-Santos, A. C. Duarte

Abstract:

This work proposes an optical fiber system (OF) for sensing various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human breath for the diagnosis of some metabolic disorders as a non-invasive methodology. The analyzed VOCs are alkanes (i.e., ethane, pentane, heptane, octane, and decane), and aromatic compounds (i.e., benzene, toluene, and styrene). The OF displays high analytical performance since it provides near real-time responses, rapid analysis, and low instrumentation costs, as well as it exhibits useful linear range and detection limits; the developed OF sensor is also comparable to a reference methodology (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) for the eight tested VOCs.

Keywords: Breath analysis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, optical fiber sensor, volatile organic compounds

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277 Two Culture-s Characters in Contemporary Kazakh Cinema

Authors: Baubek B. Nogerbek, Alma M. Aidarova

Abstract:

In this article the authors are researching cultural differences between rural and urban characters in case of contemporary Kazakh cinema.Two motion pictures are analyzed: “Strizh" (2007) by AbaiKulbai and “Seker" (2009) by SabitKurmanbekov.According to the authors- opinion ateenage girl characters in these two films reflect two cultures (urban and rural) of Kazakh society, which displays complicated socio-cultural processes of modern Kazakhstan.

Keywords: Culture (urban and rural), film characters, Kazakh cinema, Kazakh society

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276 Estimation of the Minimum Floor Length Downstream Regulators under Different Flow Scenarios

Authors: Bakhiet, Shenouda, Gamal Abouzeid Abdel-Rahim, Norihiro Izumi

Abstract:

The correct design of the regulators structure requires complete prediction of the ultimate dimensions of the scour hole profile formed downstream the solid apron. The study of scour downstream regulator is studied either on solid aprons by means of velocity distribution or on movable bed by studying the topography of the scour hole formed in the downstream. In this paper, a new technique was developed to study the scour hole downstream regulators on movable beds. The study was divided into two categories; the first is to find out the sum of the lengths of rigid apron behind the gates in addition to the length of scour hole formed downstream, while the second is to find the minimum length of rigid apron behind the gates to prevent erosion downstream it. The study covers free and submerged hydraulic jump conditions in both symmetrical and asymmetrical under-gated regulations. From the comparison between the studied categories, we found that the minimum length of rigid apron to prevent scour (Ls) is greater than the sum of the lengths of rigid apron and that of scour hole formed behind it (L+Xs). On the other hand, the scour hole dimensions in case of submerged hydraulic jump is always greater than free one, also the scour hole dimensions in asymmetrical operation is greater than symmetrical one.

Keywords: Movable bed, Regulators, Scour, Symmetrical and asymmetrical operation

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275 Investigating the Fatigue Crack Initiation Location in Interference Fitted and/or bolt Clamped Al 2024-T3 Double Shear Lap Joints

Authors: Babak Abazadeh, Hadi Rezghi Maleki

Abstract:

In this paper the fatigue crack initiation location of double shear lap joints, treated by interference fit and bolt clamping, have been investigated both experimentally and numerically. To do so, using the fracture section of available fatigue tested specimens of interference fitted and torque tightened Aluminum 2024-T3 plates, the crack initiation location was determined. The stress distribution attained from the finite element analysis was used to help explain the results observed in the experimental tests. The results showed that the fatigue crack initiation location changes from top and mid plane at the hole edge to somewhere far from the hole edge (stress concentration region) in different combination of clamping force, interference fit size and applied cyclic load ranges. It is worth mentioning that the fatigue crack initiation location affects the fatigue life of the specimens too.

Keywords: Fatigue crack initiation, interference fit, bolt clamping, double shear lap joint.

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274 Study on Performance of Wigner Ville Distribution for Linear FM and Transient Signal Analysis

Authors: Azeemsha Thacham Poyil, Nasimudeen KM

Abstract:

This research paper presents some methods to assess the performance of Wigner Ville Distribution for Time-Frequency representation of non-stationary signals, in comparison with the other representations like STFT, Spectrogram etc. The simultaneous timefrequency resolution of WVD is one of the important properties which makes it preferable for analysis and detection of linear FM and transient signals. There are two algorithms proposed here to assess the resolution and to compare the performance of signal detection. First method is based on the measurement of area under timefrequency plot; in case of a linear FM signal analysis. A second method is based on the instantaneous power calculation and is used in case of transient, non-stationary signals. The implementation is explained briefly for both methods with suitable diagrams. The accuracy of the measurements is validated to show the better performance of WVD representation in comparison with STFT and Spectrograms.

Keywords: WVD: Wigner Ville Distribution, STFT: Short Time Fourier Transform, FT: Fourier Transform, TFR: Time-Frequency Representation, FM: Frequency Modulation, LFM Signal: Linear FM Signal, JTFA: Joint time frequency analysis.

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273 Linear-Operator Formalism in the Analysis of Omega Planar Layered Waveguides

Authors: António L. Topa

Abstract:

A complete spectral representation for the electromagnetic field of planar multilayered waveguides inhomogeneously filled with omega media is presented. The problem of guided electromagnetic propagation is reduced to an eigenvalue equation related to a 2 ´ 2 matrix differential operator. Using the concept of adjoint waveguide, general bi-orthogonality relations for the hybrid modes (either from the discrete or from the continuous spectrum) are derived. For the special case of homogeneous layers the linear operator formalism is reduced to a simple 2 ´ 2 coupling matrix eigenvalue problem. Finally, as an example of application, the surface and the radiation modes of a grounded omega slab waveguide are analyzed.

Keywords: Metamaterials, linear operators, omega media, layered waveguide, orthogonality relations

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272 Evaluation of Newly Developed Dot-ELISA Test for Identification of Naja-naja sumantrana and Calloselasma rhodostoma Venom Antigens

Authors: A.S. Sikarwar, S. Ambu, T .H. Wong

Abstract:

Snake bite cases in Malaysia most often involve the species Naja-naja and Calloselasma rhodostoma. In keeping with the need for a rapid snake venom detection kit in a clinical setting, plate and dot-ELISA test for the venoms of Naja-naja sumatrana, Calloselasma rhodostoma and the cobra venom fraction V antigen was developed. Polyclonal antibodies were raised and further used to prepare the reagents for the dot-ELISA test kit which was tested in mice, rabbit and virtual human models. The newly developed dot- ELISA kit was able to detect a minimum venom concentration of 244ng/ml with cross reactivity of one antibody type. The dot-ELISA system was sensitive and specific for all three snake venom types in all tested animal models. The lowest minimum venom concentration detectable was in the rabbit model, 244ng/ml of the cobra venom fraction V antigen. The highest minimum venom concentration was in mice, 1953ng/ml against a multitude of venoms. The developed dot-ELISA system for the detection of three snake venom types was successful with a sensitivity of 95.8% and specificity of 97.9%.

Keywords: ELISA, Venom, SVDK, Naja-naja sumatrana , Calloselasma rhodostoma.

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271 Minimizing Makespan Subject to Budget Limitation in Parallel Flow Shop

Authors: Amin Sahraeian

Abstract:

One of the criteria in production scheduling is Make Span, minimizing this criteria causes more efficiently use of the resources specially machinery and manpower. By assigning some budget to some of the operations the operation time of these activities reduces and affects the total completion time of all the operations (Make Span). In this paper this issue is practiced in parallel flow shops. At first we convert parallel flow shop to a network model and by using a linear programming approach it is identified in order to minimize make span (the completion time of the network) which activities (operations) are better to absorb the predetermined and limited budget. Minimizing the total completion time of all the activities in the network is equivalent to minimizing make span in production scheduling.

Keywords: parallel flow shop, make span, linear programming, budget

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270 Land Surface Temperature and Biophysical Factors in Urban Planning

Authors: Illyani Ibrahim, Azizan Abu Samah, Rosmadi Fauzi

Abstract:

Land surface temperature (LST) is an important parameter to study in urban climate. The understanding of the influence of biophysical factors could improve the establishment of modeling urban thermal landscape. It is well established that climate hold a great influence on the urban landscape. However, it has been recognize that climate has a low priority in urban planning process, due to the complex nature of its influence. This study will focus on the relatively cloud free Landsat Thematic Mapper image of the study area, acquired on the 2nd March 2006. Correlation analyses were conducted to identify the relationship of LST to the biophysical factors; vegetation indices, impervious surface, and albedo to investigate the variation of LST. We suggest that the results can be considered by the stackholders during decision-making process to create a cooler and comfortable environment in the urban landscape for city dwellers.

Keywords: Biophysical factors, land surface temperature, urban planning.

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269 Biomass and Pigment Production by Monascus during Miniaturized Submerged Culture on Adlay

Authors: Supavej Maniyom, Gerard H. Markx

Abstract:

Three reactor types were explored and successfully used for pigment production by Monascus: shake flasks, and shaken and stirred miniaturized reactors. Also, the use of dielectric spectroscopy for the on-line measurement of biomass levels was explored. Shake flasks gave good pigment yields, but scale up is difficult, and they cannot be automated. Shaken bioreactors were less successful with pigment production than stirred reactors. Experiments with different impeller speeds in different volumes of liquid in the reactor confirmed that this is most likely due oxygen availability. The availability of oxygen appeared to affect biomass levels less than pigment production; red pigment production in particular needed very high oxygen levels. Dielectric spectroscopy was effectively used to continuously measure biomass levels during the submerged fungal fermentation in the shaken and stirred miniaturized bioreactors, despite the presence of the solid substrate particles. Also, the capacitance signal gave useful information about the viability of the cells in the culture.

Keywords: Chinese pearl barley, miniature submerged culture, Monascus pigment, biomass, capacitance.

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268 Analytical Model Prediction: Micro-Cutting Tool Forces with the Effect of Friction on Machining Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)

Authors: Mohd Shahrom Ismail, B.T. Hang Tuah Baharudin, K.K.B. Hon

Abstract:

In this paper, a methodology of a model based on predicting the tool forces oblique machining are introduced by adopting the orthogonal technique. The applied analytical calculation is mostly based on Devries model and some parts of the methodology are employed from Amareggo-Brown model. Model validation is performed by comparing experimental data with the prediction results on machining titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) based on micro-cutting tool perspective. Good agreements with the experiments are observed. A detailed friction form that affected the tool forces also been examined with reasonable results obtained.

Keywords: dynamics machining, micro cutting tool, Tool forces

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267 Periodic Storage Control Problem

Authors: Ru-Shuo Sheu, Han-Hsin Chou, Te-Shyang Tan

Abstract:

Considering a reservoir with periodic states and different cost functions with penalty, its release rules can be modeled as a periodic Markov decision process (PMDP). First, we prove that policy- iteration algorithm also works for the PMDP. Then, with policy- iteration algorithm, we obtain the optimal policies for a special aperiodic reservoir model with two cost functions under large penalty and give a discussion when the penalty is small.

Keywords: periodic Markov decision process, periodic state, policy-iteration algorithm.

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266 Effect of Substituent on Titanocene/MMAO Catalyst for Ethylene/1-Hexene Copolymerization

Authors: M. Wannaborworn, B. Jongsomjit, T. Shiono

Abstract:

Copolymerization of ethylene with 1-hexene was carried out using two ansa-fluorenyl titanium derivative complexes. The substituent effect on the catalytic activity, monomer reactivity ratio and polymer property was investigated. It was found that the presence of t-Bu groups on fluorenyl ring exhibited remarkable catalytic activity and produced polymer with high molecular weight. However, these catalysts produce polymer with narrow molecular weight distribution, indicating the characteristic of single-site metallocene catalyst. Based on 13C NMR, we can observe that monomer reactivity ratio was affected by catalyst structure. The rH values of complex 2 were lower than that of complex 1 which might be result from the higher steric hindrance leading to a reduction of 1- hexene insertion step.

Keywords: Constrained geometry catalyst, linear low density polyethylene, copolymerization, reactivity ratio

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265 Magnetohydrodynamics Boundary Layer Flows over a Stretching Surface with Radiation Effect and Embedded in Porous Medium

Authors: Siti Khuzaimah Soid, Zanariah Mohd Yusof, Ahmad Sukri Abd Aziz, Seripah Awang Kechil

Abstract:

A steady two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics flow and heat transfer over a stretching vertical sheet influenced by radiation and porosity is studied. The governing boundary layer equations of partial differential equations are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation. The system is solved numerically by using a finite difference scheme known as the Keller-box method for some values of parameters, namely the radiation parameter N, magnetic parameter M, buoyancy parameter l , Prandtl number Pr and permeability parameter K. The effects of the parameters on the heat transfer characteristics are analyzed and discussed. It is found that both the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number decrease as the magnetic parameter M and permeability parameter K increase. Heat transfer rate at the surface decreases as the radiation parameter increases.

Keywords: Keller-box, MHD boundary layer flow, permeability stretching.

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264 Finite Element Analysis of Cooling Time and Residual Strains in Cold Spray Deposited Titanium Particles

Authors: Thanh-Duoc Phan, Saden H. Zahiri, S. H. Masood, Mahnaz Jahedi

Abstract:

In this article, using finite element analysis (FEA) and an X-ray diffractometer (XRD), cold-sprayed titanium particles on a steel substrate is investigated in term of cooling time and the development of residual strains. Three cooling-down models of sprayed particles after deposition stage are simulated and discussed: the first model (m1) considers conduction effect to the substrate only, the second model (m2) considers both conduction as well as convection effect to the environment, and the third model (m3) which is the same as the second model but with the substrate heated to a near particle temperature before spraying. Thereafter, residual strains developed in the third model is compared with the experimental measurement of residual strains, which involved a Bruker D8 Advance Diffractometer using CuKa radiation (40kV, 40mA) monochromatised with a graphite sample monochromator. For deposition conditions of this study, a good correlation was found to exist between the FEA results and XRD measurements of residual strains.

Keywords: cold gas dynamic spray, X-ray diffraction, explicit finite element analysis, residual strain, titanium, particle impact, deformation behavior.

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263 An Energy Consumption Study for a Malaysian University

Authors: Fu E. Tang

Abstract:

The increase in energy demand has raised concerns over adverse impacts on the environment from energy generation. It is important to understand the status of energy consumption for institutions such as Curtin Sarawak to ensure the sustainability of energy usage, and also to reduce its costs. In this study, a preliminary audit framework was developed and was conducted around the Malaysian campus to obtain information such as the number and specifications of electrical appliances, built-up area and ambient temperature to understand the relationship of these factors with energy consumption. It was found that the number and types of electrical appliances, population and activities in the campus impacted the energy consumption of Curtin Sarawak directly. However, the built-up area and ambient temperature showed no clear correlation with energy consumption. An investigation of the diurnal and seasonal energy consumption of the campus was also carried out. From the data, recommendations were made to improve the energy efficiency of the campus.

Keywords: Energy audit, energy consumption, energy efficiency

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262 Feature Point Detection by Combining Advantages of Intensity-based Approach and Edge-based Approach

Authors: Sungho Kim, Chaehoon Park, Yukyung Choi, Soon Kwon, In So Kweon

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel corner detection method is presented to stably extract geometrically important corners. Intensity-based corner detectors such as the Harris corner can detect corners in noisy environments but has inaccurate corner position and misses the corners of obtuse angles. Edge-based corner detectors such as Curvature Scale Space can detect structural corners but show unstable corner detection due to incomplete edge detection in noisy environments. The proposed image-based direct curvature estimation can overcome limitations in both inaccurate structural corner detection of the Harris corner detector (intensity-based) and the unstable corner detection of Curvature Scale Space caused by incomplete edge detection. Various experimental results validate the robustness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Feature, intensity, contour, hybrid.

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261 Effect of Buoyancy Ratio on Non-Darcy Mixed Convection in a Vertical Channel: A Thermal Non-equilibrium Approach

Authors: Manish K. Khandelwal, P. Bera, A. Chakrabarti

Abstract:

This article presents a numerical study of the doublediffusive mixed convection in a vertical channel filled with porous medium by using non-equilibrium model. The flow is assumed fully developed, uni-directional and steady state. The controlling parameters are thermal Rayleigh number (RaT ), Darcy number (Da), Forchheimer number (F), buoyancy ratio (N), inter phase heat transfer coefficient (H), and porosity scaled thermal conductivity ratio (γ). The Brinkman-extended non-Darcy model is considered. The governing equations are solved by spectral collocation method. The main emphasize is given on flow profiles as well as heat and solute transfer rates, when two diffusive components in terms of buoyancy ratio are in favor (against) of each other and solid matrix and fluid are thermally non-equilibrium. The results show that, for aiding flow (RaT = 1000), the heat transfer rate of fluid (Nuf ) increases upto a certain value of H, beyond that decreases smoothly and converges to a constant, whereas in case of opposing flow (RaT = -1000), the result is same for N = 0 and 1. The variation of Nuf in (N, Nuf )-plane shows sinusoidal pattern for RaT = -1000. For both cases (aiding and opposing) the flow destabilize on increasing N by inviting point of inflection or flow separation on the velocity profile. Overall, the buoyancy force have significant impact on the non-Darcy mixed convection under LTNE conditions.

Keywords: buoyancy ratio, mixed convection, non-Darcy model, thermal non-equilibrium

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260 Non-Destructive Evaluation of Launch Tube Welds with Radiography

Authors: Tosapolporn Pornpibunsompop

Abstract:

The non-destructive testing of launch tube weld with radiography was investigated and evaluated with AWS D1.1 standard. The paper started with preparation of launch tube and radiographic inspection. X-Ray inspection then was done and gotten the result. The judgment of inspection results were concluded by certified person and finally, the evaluation with AWS D1.1 standard was conducted as well. The result shown that weld position P1 was not conformed to AWS D1.1 which allowed size of incomplete penetration did not exceed 4 mm. The other welds were corresponded to as mentioned standard. Additionally, the corrective actions for incomplete penetration either provided for future actions.

Keywords: Non-destructive evaluation, Weld, Launch tube, Radiography

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259 3D Modeling of Temperature by Finite Element in Machining with Experimental Authorization

Authors: P. Mottaghizadeh, M. Bagheri

Abstract:

In the present paper, the three-dimensional temperature field of tool is determined during the machining and compared with experimental work on C45 workpiece using carbide cutting tool inserts. During the metal cutting operations, high temperature is generated in the tool cutting edge which influence on the rate of tool wear. Temperature is most important characteristic of machining processes; since many parameters such as cutting speed, surface quality and cutting forces depend on the temperature and high temperatures can cause high mechanical stresses which lead to early tool wear and reduce tool life. Therefore, considerable attention is paid to determine tool temperatures. The experiments are carried out for dry and orthogonal machining condition. The results show that the increase of tool temperature depends on depth of cut and especially cutting speed in high range of cutting conditions.

Keywords: Finite element method, Machining, Temperature measurement, Thermal fields

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258 Extraction of Graphene-Titanium Contact Resistances using Transfer Length Measurement and a Curve-Fit Method

Authors: Johanna Anteroinen, Wonjae Kim, Kari Stadius, Juha Riikonen, Harri Lipsanen, Jussi Ryynanen

Abstract:

Graphene-metal contact resistance limits the performance of graphene-based electrical devices. In this work, we have fabricated both graphene field-effect transistors (GFET) and transfer length measurement (TLM) test devices with titanium contacts. The purpose of this work is to compare the contact resistances that can be numerically extracted from the GFETs and measured from the TLM structures. We also provide a brief review of the work done in the field to solve the contact resistance problem.

Keywords: Contact resistance, graphene, TLM

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257 Gas-Liquid Flow on Smooth and Textured Inclined Planes

Authors: J.J. Cooke, S. Gu, L.M. Armstrong, K.H. Luo

Abstract:

Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) is one of the various methods that can be used to reduce the carbon footprint of the energy sector. This paper focuses on the absorption of CO2 from flue gas using packed columns, whose efficiency is highly dependent on the structure of the liquid films within the column. To study the characteristics of liquid films a CFD solver, OpenFOAM is utilised to solve two-phase, isothermal film flow using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method. The model was validated using existing experimental data and the Nusselt theory. It was found that smaller plate inclination angles, with respect to the horizontal plane, resulted in larger wetted areas on smooth plates. However, only a slight improvement in the wetted area was observed. Simulations were also performed using a ridged plate and it was observed that these surface textures significantly increase the wetted area of the plate. This was mainly attributed to the channelling effect of the ridges, which helped to oppose the surface tension forces trying to minimise the surface area. Rivulet formations on the ridged plate were also flattened out and spread across a larger proportion of the plate width.

Keywords: CCS, liquid film flow, packed columns, wetted area

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256 Effect of Mass on Bus Superstructure Strength Having Rollover Crash

Authors: Mustafa Bin Yusof, Mohammad Amirul Affiz Bin Afripin

Abstract:

Safety of bus journey is a fundamental concern. Risk of injuries and fatalities is severe when bus superstructure fails during rollover accident. Adequate design and sufficient strength of bus superstructure can reduce the number of injuries and fatalities. This paper deals with structural analysis of bus superstructure undergoes rollover event. Several value of mass will be varied in multiple simulations. The purpose of this work is to analyze structural response of bus superstructure in terms of deformation, stress and strain under several loading and constraining conditions. A complete bus superstructure with forty four passenger-s capability was developed using finite element analysis software. Simulations have been conducted to observe the effect of total mass of bus on the strength of superstructure. These simulations are following United Nation Economic Commission of Europe regulation 66 which focuses on strength of large vehicle superstructure. Validation process had been done using simple box model experiment and results obtained are comparing with simulation results. Inputs data from validation process had been used in full scale simulation. Analyses suggested that, the failure of bus superstructure during rollover situation is basically dependent on the total mass of bus and on the strength of bus superstructure.

Keywords: Bus, rollover, superstructure strength, UNECE regulation 66.

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255 The Social and Environmental Roles of Verandah in Tropical Houses

Authors: M. H. M. Zin, N. L. N. Ibrahim, M. F. M. Zain, M. Jamil

Abstract:

Located within the tropical belt region, there are certain rules which should implemented in creating a passive sustainable housing design in Malaysia. Traditional Malay house possess a strong character with certain special spaces to create a sustainable house which suit to the tropical climate in Malaysia. One of the special space known as verandah or serambi gantung, create various advantages in solving various issues. However, this special space is not extremely being applied currently which produce major issues in term of social and environmental aspects. Hence, this phenomena create a negative impact to the occupant while Malaysia already has a best housing design previously. Therefore, this paper aims to explore both of the main issues mentioned above and reveal the advantages of implementing verandah into passive sustainable housing design in Malaysia. A systematic literature review is the main methodology in this research to identify the various advantages about verandah.. The study reveals that verandah is the best solution in term of social and environmental issues and should be implemented in current housing design in Malaysia.

Keywords: Tropical climate, traditional Malay house, verandah, passive sustainable housing design

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254 An Improved QRS Complex Detection for Online Medical Diagnosis

Authors: I. L. Ahmad, M. Mohamed, N. A. Ab. Ghani

Abstract:

This paper presents the work of signal discrimination specifically for Electrocardiogram (ECG) waveform. ECG signal is comprised of P, QRS, and T waves in each normal heart beat to describe the pattern of heart rhythms corresponds to a specific individual. Further medical diagnosis could be done to determine any heart related disease using ECG information. The emphasis on QRS Complex classification is further discussed to illustrate the importance of it. Pan-Tompkins Algorithm, a widely known technique has been adapted to realize the QRS Complex classification process. There are eight steps involved namely sampling, normalization, low pass filter, high pass filter (build a band pass filter), derivation, squaring, averaging and lastly is the QRS detection. The simulation results obtained is represented in a Graphical User Interface (GUI) developed using MATLAB.

Keywords: ECG, Pan Tompkins Algorithm, QRS Complex, Simulation

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253 Effect of Preheating Temperature and Chamber Pressure on the Properties of Porous NiTi Alloy Prepared by SHS Technique

Authors: Wisutmethangoon S., Denmud N., Sikong L.

Abstract:

The fabrication of porous NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) from elemental powder compacts was conducted by selfpropagating high temperature synthesis (SHS). Effects of the preheating temperature and the chamber pressure on the combustion characteristics as well as the final morphology and the composition of products were studied. The samples with porosity between 56.4 and 59.0% under preheating temperature in the range of 200-300°C and Ar-gas chamber pressure of 138 and 201 kPa were obtained. The pore structures were found to be dissimilar only in the samples processed with different preheating temperature. The major phase in the porous product is NiTi with small amounts of secondary phases, NiTi2 and Ni4Ti3. The preheating temperature and the chamber pressure have very little effect on the phase constituent. While the combustion temperature of the sample was notably increased by increasing the preheating temperature, they were slightly changed by varying the chamber pressure.

Keywords: Combustion synthesis, porous materials, self propagating high temperature synthesis, shape memory alloy.

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252 Optimal Aggregate Production Planning with Fuzzy Data

Authors: Wen-Lung Huang, Shih-Pin Chen

Abstract:

This paper investigates the optimization problem of multi-product aggregate production planning (APP) with fuzzy data. From a comprehensive viewpoint of conserving the fuzziness of input information, this paper proposes a method that can completely describe the membership function of the performance measure. The idea is based on the well-known Zadeh-s extension principle which plays an important role in fuzzy theory. In the proposed solution procedure, a pair of mathematical programs parameterized by possibility level a is formulated to calculate the bounds of the optimal performance measure at a . Then the membership function of the optimal performance measure is constructed by enumerating different values of a . Solutions obtained from the proposed method contain more information, and can offer more chance to achieve the feasible disaggregate plan. This is helpful to the decision-maker in practical applications.

Keywords: fuzzy data, aggregate production planning, membership function, parametric programming

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251 Enhanced Data Access Control of Cooperative Environment used for DMU Based Design

Authors: Wei Lifan, Zhang Huaiyu, Yang Yunbin, Li Jia

Abstract:

Through the analysis of the process digital design based on digital mockup, the fact indicates that a distributed cooperative supporting environment is the foundation conditions to adopt design approach based on DMU. Data access authorization is concerned firstly because the value and sensitivity of the data for the enterprise. The access control for administrators is often rather weak other than business user. So authors established an enhanced system to avoid the administrators accessing the engineering data by potential approach and without authorization. Thus the data security is improved.

Keywords: access control, DMU, PLM, virtual prototype.

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250 Comparative Evaluation of Ice Adhesion Behavior

Authors: T. Strobl, D. Raps, M. Hornung

Abstract:

In this study, the adhesion of ice to solid substrates with different surface properties is compared. Clear ice, similar to atmospheric in-flight icing encounters, is accreted on the different substrates under controlled conditions. The ice adhesion behavior is investigated by means of a dynamic vibration testing technique with an electromagnetic shaker initiating ice de-bonding in the interface between the substrate and the ice. The results of the experiments reveal that the affinity for ice accretion is significantly influenced by the water contact angle of the respective sample.

Keywords: Contact angle, dynamic vibration measurement, ice adhesion, interfacial shear stress.

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249 Reducing Power Consumption in Cloud Platforms using an Effective Mechanism

Authors: Shuen-Tai Wang, Chin-Hung Li, Ying-Chuan Chen

Abstract:

In recent years there has been renewal of interest in the relation between Green IT and Cloud Computing. The growing use of computers in cloud platform has caused marked energy consumption, putting negative pressure on electricity cost of cloud data center. This paper proposes an effective mechanism to reduce energy utilization in cloud computing environments. We present initial work on the integration of resource and power management that aims at reducing power consumption. Our mechanism relies on recalling virtualization services dynamically according to user-s virtualization request and temporarily shutting down the physical machines after finish in order to conserve energy. Given the estimated energy consumption, this proposed effort has the potential to positively impact power consumption. The results from the experiment concluded that energy indeed can be saved by powering off the idling physical machines in cloud platforms.

Keywords: Green IT, Cloud Computing, virtualization, power consumption.

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248 Combined Microwaves and Microreactors Plant

Authors: Shigenori Togashi, Mitsuhiro Matsuzawa

Abstract:

A pilot plant for continuous flow microwave-assisted chemical reaction combined with microreactors was developed and water heating tests were conducted for evaluation of the developed plant. We developed a microwave apparatus having a single microwave generator that can heat reaction solutions in four reaction fields simultaneously in order to increase throughput. We also designed a four-branch waveguide using electromagnetic simulation, and found that the transmission efficiency at 99%. Finally, we developed the pilot plant using the developed microwave apparatus and conducted water heating tests. The temperatures in the respective reaction fields were controlled within ±1.1 K at 353.2 K. Moreover, the energy absorption rates by the water were about 90% in the respective reaction fields, whereas the energy absorption rate was about 40% when 100 cm3 of water was heated by a commercially available multimode microwave chemical reactor.

Keywords: Microwave, Microreactor, Heating, Electromagnetic Simulation

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247 Is the use of Social Networking Sites Correlated with Internet Addiction? Facebook Use among Taiwanese College Students

Authors: Sen-Chi Yu, Wei-Hsin Hsu, Min-Ning Yu, Hao-Yi Hsu

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between Facebook involvement and internet addiction. We sampled 577 university students in Taiwan and administered a survey of Facebook usage, Facebook involvement scale (FIS), and internet addiction scale. The FIS comprises three factors (salience, emotional support, and amusement). Results showed that the Facebook involvement scale had good reliability and validity. The correlation between Facebook involvement and internet addiction was measured at .395. This means that a higher degree of Facebook involvement indicates a greater degree of psychological dependency on the internet, and a greater propensity towards social withdrawal and other negative psychological consequences associated with internet addiction. Besides, the correlations between three factors of FIS (salience, emotional support, and amusement) and internet addiction ranged from .313-372, indicating that these neither of these factors (salience, emotional support, and amusement) is more effective than the others in predicting internet dependency.

Keywords: Social networking sites, Facebook, Facebook Involvement, Internet Addiction

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246 Characterization of Novel Atrazine-Degrading Klebsiella sp. isolated from Thai Agricultural Soil

Authors: Sawangjit Sopid

Abstract:

Atrazine, a herbicide widely used in sugarcane and corn production, is a frequently detected groundwater contaminant. An atrazine-degrading bacterium, strain KB02, was obtained from long-term atrazine-treated sugarcane field soils in Kanchanaburi province of Thailand. Strain KB02 had a rod-to-coccus morphological cycle during growth. Sequence analysis of the PCR product indicated that the 16S rRNA gene in strain KB02 was ranging from 97-98% identical to the same region in Klebsiella sp. Based on biochemical, physiological analysis and 16S rDNA sequence analysis of one representative isolate, strain KB02, the isolates belong to the genus Klebsiella in the family Enterobacteriaceae. Interestingly that the various primers for atzA, B and C failed to amplify genomic DNA of strain KB02. Whereas the expected PCR product of atzA, B and C were obtained from the reference strain, Arthrobacter sp. strain KU001.

Keywords: Atrazine, atz gene, Biodegradation, bioremediation, Klebsiella

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245 The Importance of Theatrical Language in the Creativeness of the Actor

Authors: Ordabek Khozhamberdiyev

Abstract:

In this article, some methods are mentioned for developing the theatrical language by giving information of “theatrical language" since the arising of the language in obsolete terms, and today, and also by examining the problems. Being able to talk meaningfully in the theater stage is a skillful art. Maybe, to be able to convey the idea of the poet, his/her world outlook and his/her feelings from the bottom of the heart as such, also conveying the speech norms without breaking them to the ear of audience in a fascinating way in adverse of a repellent way is the most difficult one. Because of this, “the word is the mirror of the idea". The importance of the theatrical language should not be perceived as only a post, it is “as the yarn that the culture carpet is weaved from". Thereby, it is a tool which transposes our culture and our life style from generation to generation. At the time of creativeness, the “word" comes out from the poet, “the word and feeling" art comes out from the actor. If it was not so, the audience could read the texts of the work himself/herself instead of going to the theater in order to see the performance. The fundamental works by the Turkish, Kazakh and English scientists have been taken as a basis for the research done.

Keywords: language, sound, stage, theatrical language, voice

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244 Comparison of Valuation Techniques for Bone Age Assessment

Authors: N. Olarte L, A. Rubiano F, A. Mejía F.

Abstract:

This comparison of valuation techniques for bone age assessment is a work carried out by the Telemedicine Research Group of the Military University - TIGUM, as a preliminary to the Design and development a treatment system of hand and wrist radiological images for children aged 0-6 years to bone age assessment . In this paper the techniques mentioned for decades have been the most widely used and the statistically significant. Althought, initially with the current project, it wants to work with children who have limit age, this comparison and evaluation techniques work will help in the future to expand the study subject in the system to bone age assessment, implementing more techniques, tools and deeper analysis to accomplish this purpose.

Keywords: Atlas, Bone Age Assessment, Hand and Wrist Radiograph, Image Processing

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243 Mercerization Treatment Parameter Effect on Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite: A Brief Review

Authors: Mohd Yussni Hashim, Mohd Nazrul Roslan, Azriszul Mohd Amin, Ahmad Mujahid Ahmad Zaidi, Saparudin Ariffin

Abstract:

Environmental awareness and depletion of the petroleum resources are among vital factors that motivate a number of researchers to explore the potential of reusing natural fiber as an alternative composite material in industries such as packaging, automotive and building constructions. Natural fibers are available in abundance, low cost, lightweight polymer composite and most importance its biodegradability features, which often called “ecofriendly" materials. However, their applications are still limited due to several factors like moisture absorption, poor wettability and large scattering in mechanical properties. Among the main challenges on natural fibers reinforced matrices composite is their inclination to entangle and form fibers agglomerates during processing due to fiber-fiber interaction. This tends to prevent better dispersion of the fibers into the matrix, resulting in poor interfacial adhesion between the hydrophobic matrix and the hydrophilic reinforced natural fiber. Therefore, to overcome this challenge, fiber treatment process is one common alternative that can be use to modify the fiber surface topology by chemically, physically or mechanically technique. Nevertheless, this paper attempt to focus on the effect of mercerization treatment on mechanical properties enhancement of natural fiber reinforced composite or so-called bio composite. It specifically discussed on mercerization parameters, and natural fiber reinforced composite mechanical properties enhancement.

Keywords: Mercerization treatment, mechanical properties, natural fiber and bio composite

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242 Effect of Secondary Curvature on Mixing Characteristic within Constant Circular Tubes

Authors: Minh Tuan Nguyen, Sang-Wook Lee

Abstract:

In this study, numerical simulations on laminar flow in sinusoidal wavy shaped tubes were conducted for mean Reynolds number of 250, which is in the range of physiological flow-rate and investigated flow structures, pressure distribution and particle trajectories both in steady and periodic inflow conditions. For extensive comparisons, various wave lengths and amplitudes of sine function for geometry of tube models were employed. The results showed that small amplitude secondary curvature has significant influence on the nature of flow patterns and particle mixing mechanism. This implies that characterizing accurate geometry is essential in accurate predicting of in vivo hemodynamics and may motivate further study on any possibility of reflection of secondary flow on vascular remodeling and pathophysiology.

Keywords: Secondary curvature, Sinusoidal wavy tubes, Mixing Characteristics, Pulsatile flow, Hemodynamics.

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241 Enhancement of Impingement Heat Transfer on a Flat Plate with Ribs

Authors: M. Kito, M. Takezaki, T. Shakouchi, K. Tsujimoto, T. Ando

Abstract:

Impinging jets are widely used in industrial cooling systems for their high heat transfer characteristics at stagnation points. However, the heat transfer characteristics are low in the downstream direction. In order to improve the heat transfer coefficient further downstream, investigations introducing ribs on jet-cooled flat plates have been conducted. Most studies regarding the heat-transfer enhancement using a rib-roughened wall have dealt with the rib pitch. In this paper, we focused on the rib spacing and demonstrated that the rib spacing must be more than 6 times the nozzle width to improve heat transfer at Reynolds number Re=5.0×103 because it is necessary to have enough space to allow reattachment of flow behind the first rib.

Keywords: Forced convection, heat transfer, impinging jet cooling, rib roughened wall

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240 Definition of Foot Size Model using Kohonen Network

Authors: Khawla Ben Abderrahim

Abstract:

In order to define a new model of Tunisian foot sizes and for building the most comfortable shoes, Tunisian industrialists must be able to offer for their customers products able to put on and adjust the majority of the target population concerned. Moreover, the use of models of shoes, mainly from others country, causes a mismatch between the foot and comfort of the Tunisian shoes. But every foot is unique; these models become uncomfortable for the Tunisian foot. We have a set of measures produced from a 3D scan of the feet of a diverse population (women, men ...) and we try to analyze this data to define a model of foot specific to the Tunisian footwear design. In this paper we propose tow new approaches to modeling a new foot sizes model. We used, indeed, the neural networks, and specially the Kohonen network. Next, we combine neural networks with the concept of half-foot size to improve the models already found. Finally, it was necessary to compare the results obtained by applying each approach and we decide what-s the best approach that give us the most model of foot improving more comfortable shoes.

Keywords: Morphology of the foot, foot size, half foot size, neural network, Kohonen network, model of foot size.

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239 GSM Position Tracking using a Kalman Filter

Authors: Jean-Pierre Dubois, Jihad S. Daba, M. Nader, C. El Ferkh

Abstract:

GSM has undoubtedly become the most widespread cellular technology and has established itself as one of the most promising technology in wireless communication. The next generation of mobile telephones had also become more powerful and innovative in a way that new services related to the user-s location will arise. Other than the 911 requirements for emergency location initiated by the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) of the United States, GSM positioning can be highly integrated in cellular communication technology for commercial use. However, GSM positioning is facing many challenges. Issues like accuracy, availability, reliability and suitable cost render the development and implementation of GSM positioning a challenging task. In this paper, we investigate the optimal mobile position tracking means. We employ an innovative scheme by integrating the Kalman filter in the localization process especially that it has great tracking characteristics. When tracking in two dimensions, Kalman filter is very powerful due to its reliable performance as it supports estimation of past, present, and future states, even when performing in unknown environments. We show that enhanced position tracking results is achieved when implementing the Kalman filter for GSM tracking.

Keywords: Cellular communication, estimation, GSM, Kalman filter, positioning

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238 Numerical Investigation of Instabilities in Free Shear Layer Produced by NS-DBD Actuator

Authors: Ilya Popov, Steven Hulshoff

Abstract:

A numerical investigation of the effects of nanosecond barrier discharge on the stability of a two-dimensional free shear layer is performed. The computations are carried out using a compressible Navier-Stokes algorithm coupled with a thermodynamic model of the discharge. The results show that significant increases in the shear layer-s momentum thickness and Reynolds stresses occur due to actuation. Dependence on both frequency and amplitude of actuation are considered, and a comparison is made of the computed growth rates with those predicted by linear stability theory. Amplitude and frequency ranges for the efficient promotion of shear-layer instabilities are identified.

Keywords: NS-DBD, plasma, actuator, flow control, instability, shear layer

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237 Effect of Strain and Storage Period on Some Qualitative and Quantitative Traits of Table Eggs

Authors: Hani N. Hermiz, Sukar H. Ali

Abstract:

This study include the effect of strain and storage period and their interaction on some quantitative and qualitative traits and percentages of the egg components in the eggs collected at the start of production (at age 24 weeks). Eggs were divided into three storage periods (1, 7 and 14) days under refrigerator temperature (5- 7)0C. Fifty seven eggs obtained randomly from each strain including Isa Brown and Lohman White. General Linear Model within SAS programme was used to analyze the collected data and correlations between the studied traits were calculated for each strain.Average egg weight (EW), Haugh Unit (HU), yolk index (YI), yolk % (HP), albumin % (AP) and yolk to albumin ratio (YAR) was 56.629 gm, 87.968 %, 0.493, 22.13%, 67.74% and 32.76 respectively. Egg produced from ISA Brown surpassed those produced by Lohman White significantly (P<0.01) in EW (59.337 vs. 53.921 g) and AP (68.46 vs. 67.02 %), while Lohman White surpassed ISA Brown significantly (P<0.01) in HU (91.998 against 83.939 %), YI (0.498 against 0.487), YP (22.83 against 21.44%) and YAR (34.12 against 31.40). Storage period did not have any significant effect on EW and YI. Increasing the storage period caused a significant (P<0.01) decrease in HU. A non-significant increasing in YP and significant decreasing in AP % due to increasing storage period caused a significant increasing in YAR. The interaction between strain and storage period affect EW, HU and YI significantly (P <0.01), while its effect on YP, AP and YAR was not significant. Highest and significant (P<0.01) correlation was recorded between YP with YAR (0.99) in both strains, while the lowest values were between AP with YAR and being -0.97 and -0.95 in ISA Brown and Lohman White, respectively. The conclusion: increasing storage period caused a few decreasing in egg weight and this enabling the consumer to store eggs without any damage. Because of using the albumin in many food industries, so it is very important to focus on its weight. The correlations between some of the studied traits were significant, which means that selection for any trait will improve other traits.

Keywords: Quality, Quantity, Storage period, Strain, Table egg

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236 The Importance of 3D Mesh Generation for Large Eddy Simulation of Gas – Solid Turbulent Flows in a Fluidized Beds

Authors: G. González-Silva, E. M. Matos, W. P. Martignoni, M. Mori

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to show a procedure for mesh generation in a fluidized bed using large eddy simulations (LES) of a filtered two-fluid model. The experimental data were obtained by [1] in a laboratory fluidized bed. Results show that it is possible to use mesh with less cells as compared to RANS turbulence model with granular kinetic theory flow (KTGF). Also, the numerical results validate the experimental data near wall of the bed, which cannot be predicted by RANS.model.

Keywords: LES, Mesh, Gas-Solid, Fluidized bed

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235 A Comparison of Inflow Generation Methods for Large-Eddy Simulation

Authors: Francois T. Pronk, Steven J. Hulshoff

Abstract:

A study of various turbulent inflow generation methods was performed to compare their relative effectiveness for LES computations of turbulent boundary layers. This study confirmed the quality of the turbulent information produced by the family of recycling and rescaling methods which take information from within the computational domain. Furthermore, more general inflow methods also proved applicable to such simulations, with a precursor-like inflow and a random inflow augmented with forcing planes showing promising results.

Keywords: Boundary layer, Flat plate, Inflow modeling, LES

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234 Accelerated Microwave Extraction of Natural Product using the Cryogrinding

Authors: F. Benkaci-Ali, R. Mekaoui, G. Eppe, E. De Pau, J. F. Faucont

Abstract:

Team distillation assisted by microwave extraction (SDAM) considered as accelerated technique extraction is a combination of microwave heating and steam distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure. SDAM has been compared with the same technique coupled with the cryogrinding of seeds (SDAM -CG). Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage for the extraction of essential oil from Cuminum cyminum seeds. The essential oils extracted by these two methods for 5 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) no similar. These methods yield an essential oil with higher amounts of more valuable oxygenated compounds, and allow substantial savings of costs, in terms of time, energy and plant material. SDAM and SDAM-CG is a green technology and appears as a good alternative for the extraction of essential oils from aromatic plants.

Keywords: Steam distillation, microwave extraction, Cuminum cyminum, chromatography, mass spectrometry

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233 Leaching Behaviour of a Low-grade South African Nickel Laterite

Authors: Catherine K. Thubakgale, Richard K.K. Mbaya, Kaby Kabongo

Abstract:

The morphology, mineralogical and chemical composition of a low-grade nickel ore from Mpumalanga, South Africa, were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF), respectively. The ore was subjected to atmospheric agitation leaching using sulphuric acid to investigate the effects of acid concentration, leaching temperature, leaching time and particle size on extraction of nickel and cobalt. Analyses results indicated the ore to be a saprolitic nickel laterite belonging to the serpentine group of minerals. Sulphuric acid was found to be able to extract nickel from the ore. Increased acid concentration and temperature only produced low amounts of nickel but improved cobalt extraction. As high as 77.44% Ni was achieved when leaching a -106+75μm fraction with 4.0M acid concentration at 25oC. The kinetics of nickel leaching from the saprolitic ore were studied and the activation energy was determined to be 18.16kJ/mol. This indicated that nickel leaching reaction was diffusion controlled.

Keywords: Laterite, sulphuric acid, atmospheric leaching, nickel.

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232 Numerical Simulation of CNT Incorporated Cement

Authors: B. S. Sindu, Saptarshi Sasmal, Smitha Gopinath

Abstract:

Cement, the most widely used construction material is very brittle and characterized by low tensile strength and strain capacity. Macro to nano fibers are added to cement to provide tensile strength and ductility to it. Carbon Nanotube (CNT), one of the nanofibers, has proven to be a promising reinforcing material in the cement composites because of its outstanding mechanical properties and its ability to close cracks at the nano level. The experimental investigations for CNT reinforced cement is costly, time consuming and involves huge number of trials. Mathematical modeling of CNT reinforced cement can be done effectively and efficiently to arrive at the mechanical properties and to reduce the number of trials in the experiments. Hence, an attempt is made to numerically study the effective mechanical properties of CNT reinforced cement numerically using Representative Volume Element (RVE) method. The enhancement in its mechanical properties for different percentage of CNTs is studied in detail.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Cement composites, Representative Volume Element, Numerical simulation

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231 Experimental Study of the Metal Foam Flow Conditioner for Orifice Plate Flowmeters

Authors: B. Manshoor, N. Ihsak, Amir Khalid

Abstract:

The sensitivity of orifice plate metering to disturbed flow (either asymmetric or swirling) is a subject of great concern to flow meter users and manufacturers. The distortions caused by pipe fittings and pipe installations upstream of the orifice plate are major sources of this type of non-standard flows. These distortions can alter the accuracy of metering to an unacceptable degree. In this work, a multi-scale object known as metal foam has been used to generate a predetermined turbulent flow upstream of the orifice plate. The experimental results showed that the combination of an orifice plate and metal foam flow conditioner is broadly insensitive to upstream disturbances. This metal foam demonstrated a good performance in terms of removing swirl and producing a repeatable flow profile within a short distance downstream of the device. The results of using a combination of a metal foam flow conditioner and orifice plate for non-standard flow conditions including swirling flow and asymmetric flow show this package can preserve the accuracy of metering up to the level required in the standards.

Keywords: Metal foam flow conditioner, flow measurement, orifice plate.

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230 Study of the Effect of Over-expansion Factor on the Flow Transition in Dual Bell Nozzles

Authors: Abhilash Narayan, S. Panneerselvam

Abstract:

Dual bell nozzle is a promising one among the altitude adaptation nozzle concepts, which offer increased nozzle performance in rocket engines. Its advantage is the simplicity it offers due to the absence of any additional mechanical device or movable parts. Hence it offers reliability along with improved nozzle performance as demanded by future launch vehicles. Among other issues, the flow transition to the extension nozzle of a dual bell nozzle is one of the major issues being studied in the development of dual bell nozzle. A parameter named over-expansion factor, which controls the value of the wall inflection angle, has been reported to have substantial influence in this transition process. This paper studies, through CFD and cold flow experiments, the effect of overexpansion factor on flow transition in dual bell nozzles.

Keywords: Altitude adaptation, Dual bell nozzle, Nozzle pressure ratio, Over-expansion factor

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229 Laboratory Experiments: Influence of Rainfall Characteristics on Runoff and Water Erosion

Authors: A. Moussouni, L. Mouzai, M. Bouhadef

Abstract:

The study concerns an experimental investigation in the laboratory of the water erosion using a rainfall simulator. We have focused our attention on the influence of rainfall intensity on some hydraulic characteristics. The results obtained allow us to conclude that there is a significant correlation between rainfall intensity and hydraulic characteristics of runoff (Reynolds number, Froude number) and sediment concentration.

Keywords: Laboratory experiments, rainfall intensity, rainfall simulator, runoff, sediment concentration, soil erosion

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228 Influence of Bentonite Additive on Bitumen and Asphalt Mixture Properties

Authors: Ziari Hassan, Divandari Hassan, Babagoli Rezvan, Akbari Ali

Abstract:

Asphalt surfaces are exposed to various weather conditions and dynamic loading caused by passing trucks and vehicles. In such situations, asphalt cement shows so different rheological-mechanical behavior. If asphalt cement isn-t compatible enough, asphalt layer will be damaged immediately and expensive repairing procedures should be performed then. To overcome this problem, researchers study on mechanical improved asphalt cement. In this study, bentonite was used in order to modify bitumen characteristics and the modified bitumen's characteristics were investigated by asphalt cement tests. Then, the optimal bitumen content in various compounds was determined and asphalt samples with different contents of additives were prepared and tested. Results show using this kind of additive not only has caused improvement in bitumen mechanical properties, but also improvement in Marshall Parameters was achieved.

Keywords: Asphalt mixture, Bentonite, Modified bitumen, Performance characteristics

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227 Heat Transfer Analysis of Rectangular Channel Plate Heat Sink

Authors: Zhang Lei, Liu Min, Liu Botao

Abstract:

In order to improve the simulation effects of space cold black environment, this paper described a rectangular channel plate heat sink. By using fluid mechanics theory and finite element method, the internal fluid flow and heat transfer in heat sink was numerically simulated to analyze the impact of channel structural on fluid flow and heat transfer. The result showed that heat sink temperature uniformity is well, and the impact of channel structural on the heat sink temperature uniformity is not significant. The channel depth and spacing are important factors which affect the fluid flow and heat transfer in the heat sink. The two factors of heat transfer and resistance need to be considered comprehensively to determine the optimal flow structure parameters.

Keywords: heat transfer, heat sink, numerical simulation

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226 The U.S. and Central Asia: Religion, Politics, Ideology

Authors: Zhanar Aldubasheva, Elnura Assyltayeva, Mukhtar Senggirbay, Gаzizа Aldubаshovа

Abstract:

Numerous facts evidence the increasing religiosity of the population and the intensification of religious movements in various countries in the last decade of the 20th century. The number of international religious institutions and foundations; religious movements; parties and sects operating worldwide is increasing as well. Some ethnic and inter-state conflicts are obviously of a religious origin. All of this make a number of analysts to conclude that the religious factor is becoming an important part of international life, including the formation and activities of terrorist organizations. Most of all is said and written about Islam, the second, after Christianity, world religions professed according to various estimates by 1.5 bln. individuals in 127 countries.

Keywords: USA, Central Asia, Religion, Politics, Ideology Terrorism, Regional Security

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225 Dynamic Response of Fixed-base Core-tube and Base-isolated Frame Structure Subjected to Strong Earthquake Motions

Authors: Z.D. Yang, E.S.S. Lam

Abstract:

Considering the merits and limitations of energy dissipation system, seismic isolation system and suspension system, a new earthquake resistant system is proposed and is demonstrated numerically through a frame-core structure. Base isolators and story isolators are installed in the proposed system. The former “isolates" the frame from the foundation and the latter “separates" the frame from the center core. Equations of motion are formulated to study the response of the proposed structural system to strong earthquake motion. As compared with the fixed-base building system, the proposed structural system shows substantial reduction on structural response.

Keywords: Base Isolator, Core-tube, Isolated frame, Seismic Mitigation, Story Isolator

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224 Research on Maintenance Design Method based Virtual Maintenance

Authors: Yunbin Yang, Liangli He, Fengjun Wang

Abstract:

The essentiality of maintenance assessment and maintenance optimization in design stage is analyzed, and the existent problems of conventional maintenance design method are illuminated. MDMVM (Maintenance Design Method based Virtual Maintenance) is illuminated, and the process of MDMVM established, and the MDMVM architecture is given out. The key techniques of MDMVM are analyzed, and include maintenance design based KBE (Knowledge Based Engineering) and virtual maintenance based physically attribute. According to physical property, physically based modeling, visual object movement control, the simulation of operation force and maintenance sequence planning method are emphatically illuminated. Maintenance design system based virtual maintenance is established in foundation of maintenance design method.

Keywords: Digital mock-up, virtual maintenance, knowledge engineering, maintenance sequence planning.

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223 Combined Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithm to Solve Optimization Problems

Authors: Younis R. Elhaddad

Abstract:

Combinatorial optimization problems arise in many scientific and practical applications. Therefore many researchers try to find or improve different methods to solve these problems with high quality results and in less time. Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Simulated Annealing (SA) have been used to solve optimization problems. Both GA and SA search a solution space throughout a sequence of iterative states. However, there are also significant differences between them. The GA mechanism is parallel on a set of solutions and exchanges information using the crossover operation. SA works on a single solution at a time. In this work SA and GA are combined using new technique in order to overcome the disadvantages' of both algorithms.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Optimization problems, Simulated Annealing, Traveling Salesman Problem

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222 An Optimization of Orbital Transfer for Spacecrafts with Finite-thrust Based on Legendre Pseudospectral Method

Authors: Yanan Yang, Zhigang Wang, Xiang Chen

Abstract:

This paper presents the use of Legendre pseudospectral method for the optimization of finite-thrust orbital transfer for spacecrafts. In order to get an accurate solution, the System-s dynamics equations were normalized through a dimensionless method. The Legendre pseudospectral method is based on interpolating functions on Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto (LGL) quadrature nodes. This is used to transform the optimal control problem into a constrained parameter optimization problem. The developed novel optimization algorithm can be used to solve similar optimization problems of spacecraft finite-thrust orbital transfer. The results of a numerical simulation verified the validity of the proposed optimization method. The simulation results reveal that pseudospectral optimization method is a promising method for real-time trajectory optimization and provides good accuracy and fast convergence.

Keywords: Finite-thrust, Orbital transfer, Legendre pseudospectral method

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221 Comparison of Stochastic Point Process Models of Rainfall in Singapore

Authors: Y. Lu, X. S. Qin

Abstract:

Extensive rainfall disaggregation approaches have been developed and applied in climate change impact studies such as flood risk assessment and urban storm water management.In this study, five rainfall models that were capable ofdisaggregating daily rainfall data into hourly one were investigated for the rainfall record in theChangi Airport, Singapore. The objectives of this study were (i) to study the temporal characteristics of hourly rainfall in Singapore, and (ii) to evaluate the performance of variousdisaggregation models. The used models included: (i) Rectangular pulse Poisson model (RPPM), (ii) Bartlett-Lewis Rectangular pulse model (BLRPM), (iii) Bartlett-Lewis model with 2 cell types (BL2C), (iv) Bartlett-Lewis Rectangular with cell depth distribution dependent on duration (BLRD), and (v) Neyman-Scott Rectangular pulse model (NSRPM). All of these models werefitted using hourly rainfall data ranging from 1980 to 2005 (which was obtained from Changimeteorological station).The study results indicated that the weight scheme of inversely proportional variance could deliver more accurateoutputs for fitting rainfall patterns in tropical areas, and BLRPM performedrelatively better than other disaggregation models.

Keywords: Rainfall disaggregation, statistical properties, poisson processed, Bartlett-Lewis model, Neyman-Scott model.

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220 Impact of Scale on Rock Strength

Authors: Roland Pusch, Richard Weston

Abstract:

The scale dependence of the strength of virtually homogeneous rock is usually considered to be insignificant but the spectrum of discontinuities plays a very important role for the strength of differently sized rock elements and also controls the rock creep strain. Large-scale load tests comprised recording of the creep strain rate that was found to be strongly retarded and negligible for stresses lower than about 1/3 of the failure load. For higher stresses creep took place according to a log time law representing secondary creep that ultimately changed to tertiary creep and failure.

Keywords: Impact of scale, rock strength.

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219 Information Sharing to Transformation: Antecedents of Collaborative Networked Learning in Manufacturing

Authors: Wee Hock Quik, Nevan Wright

Abstract:

Collaborative networked learning (hereafter CNL) was first proposed by Charles Findley in his work “Collaborative networked learning: online facilitation and software support" as part of instructional learning for the future of the knowledge worker. His premise was that through electronic dialogue learners and experts could interactively communicate within a contextual framework to resolve problems, and/or to improve product or process knowledge. Collaborative learning has always been the forefront of educational technology and pedagogical research, but not in the mainstream of operations management. As a result, there is a large disparity in the study of CNL, and little is known about the antecedents of network collaboration and sharing of information among diverse employees in the manufacturing environment. This paper presents a model to bridge the gap between theory and practice. The objective is that manufacturing organizations will be able to accelerate organizational learning and sharing of information through various collaborative

Keywords: Collaborative networked learning, Collaborative technologies, Organizational learning, Synchronous and asynchronous networked learning.

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218 Generational Differences in Perception of Affective Climate Antecedents

Authors: Waratta Authayarat, Hiroyuki Umemuro

Abstract:

This study aims to explore the differences and similarities in perceptions of affective climate antecedents at the workplace (intimacy, flexibility, employment stability, and team) among Japanese and Thai Generations X and Y. The samples in this study were Thai and Japanese workers who completed a work environment questionnaire and provided demographic information. Generational differences in perceptions (beliefs) of what factors contribute to affective climate were investigated using t-test analysis. Mean scores for each antecedent were ranked to determine how each generation in each group prioritized the importance of all affective climate antecedents. Japanese Generation Y perceived the importance of employment stability for affective climate of their workplaces to be significantly higher than did Japanese Generation X. Thai Generation Y considered flexibility with a higher priority than did Thai Generation X. Intimacy was perceived as highly important across generations and countries in regard to affective climate. Results suggest that managers should design workplaces for a mixture of diverse generations, resulting in a better affective climate. Differences in the importance of antecedents for affective climate among Generations X and Y in two countries were clarified. In addition, different preferences regarding work environment across Japanese Generations X and Y and Thai Generations X and Y were discussed.

Keywords: Affective Climate, Employee, Generational Differences, Workplace

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217 Pressure Study on Mn Doped KDP System under Hydrostatic Pressure

Authors: W. Paraguassu, S. Guerini, C. M. R. Remédios, P. T. C. Freire

Abstract:

High Pressure Raman scattering measurements of KDP:Mn were performed at room temperatures. The X-ray powder diffraction patterns taken at room temperature by Rietveld refinement showed that doped samples of KDP-Mn have the same tetragonal structure of a pure KDP crystal, but with a contraction of the crystalline cell. The behavior of the Raman spectra, in particular the emergence of a new modes at 330 cm-1, indicates that KDP:Mn undergoes a structural phase transition with onset at around 4 GP. First principle density-functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that tetrahedral rotation with pressure is predominantly around the c crystalline direction. Theoretical results indicates that pressure induced tetrahedral rotations leads to change tetrahedral neighborhood, activating librations/bending modes observed for high pressure phase of KDP:Mn with stronger Raman activity.

Keywords: Dipotassium molybdate, High pressure, Raman scattering, Phase transition, ab initio

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216 Process and Supply-Chain Optimization for Testing and Verification of Formation Tester/Pressure-While- Drilling Tools

Authors: Vivek V, Hafeez Syed, Darren W Terrell, Harit Naik, Halliburton

Abstract:

Applying a rigorous process to optimize the elements of a supply-chain network resulted in reduction of the waiting time for a service provider and customer. Different sources of downtime of hydraulic pressure controller/calibrator (HPC) were causing interruptions in the operations. The process examined all the issues to drive greater efficiencies. The issues included inherent design issues with HPC pump, contamination of the HPC with impurities, and the lead time required for annual calibration in the USA. HPC is used for mandatory testing/verification of formation tester/pressure measurement/logging-while drilling tools by oilfield service providers, including Halliburton. After market study andanalysis, it was concluded that the current HPC model is best suited in the oilfield industry. To use theexisting HPC model effectively, design andcontamination issues were addressed through design and process improvements. An optimum network is proposed after comparing different supply-chain models for calibration lead-time reduction.

Keywords: Hydraulic Pressure Controller/Calibrator, M/LWD, Pressure, FTWD

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215 Molecular Electronic Devices based on Carotenoid Derivatives

Authors: Vicente F. P. Aleixo, Augusto C. F. Saraiva, Jordan Del Nero

Abstract:

The production of devices in nanoscale with specific molecular rectifying function is one of the most significant goals in state-of-art technology. In this work we show by ab initio quantum mechanics calculations coupled with non-equilibrium Green function, the design of an organic two-terminal device. These molecular structures have molecular source and drain with several bridge length (from five up to 11 double bonds). Our results are consistent with significant features as a molecular rectifier and can be raised up as: (a) it can be used as bi-directional symmetrical rectifier; (b) two devices integrated in one (FET with one operational region, and Thyristor thiristor); (c) Inherent stability due small intrinsic capacitance under forward/reverse bias. We utilize a scheme for the transport mechanism based on previous properties of ¤Ç bonds type that can be successfully utilized to construct organic nanodevices.

Keywords: ab initio, Carotenoid, Charge Transfer, Nanodevice

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214 A Case Study of an Online Assignment Submission System at UOM

Authors: V. Ramnarain-Seetohul, J. Abdool Karim, A. Amir

Abstract:

Almost all universities include some form of assignment in their courses. The assignments are either carried out in either in groups or individually. To effectively manage these submitted assignments, a well-designed assignment submission system is needed, hence the need for an online assignment submission system to facilitate the distribution, and collection of assignments on due dates. The objective of such system is to facilitate interaction of lecturers and students for assessment and grading purposes. The aim of this study was to create a web based online assignment submission system for University of Mauritius. The system was created to eliminate the traditional process of giving an assignment and collecting the answers for the assignment. Lecturers can also create automated assessment to assess the students online. Moreover, the online submission system consists of an automatic mailing system which acts as a reminder for students about the deadlines of the posted assignments. System was tested to measure its acceptance rate among both student and lecturers.

Keywords: Assignment, assessment, online, submission

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213 Analytical Solutions of Three Dimensional Steady-State Heat Transfer in Rectangular Ribs

Authors: Tao Nie, Weiqiang Liu

Abstract:

In order to obtain an accurate result of the heat transfer of the rib in the internal cooling Rectangular channel, using separation of variables, analytical solutions of three dimensional steady-state heat conduction in rectangular ribs are given by solving three dimensional steady-state function of the rectangular ribs. Therefore, we can get solution of three dimensional temperature field in the rib. Based on the solution, we can get how the Bi number affected on heat transfer. Furthermore, comparisons of the analytical and numerical results indicate agreement on temperature field in the rib.

Keywords: variable separation method, analytical solution, rib, heat transfer

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212 Fourth Order Accurate Free Convective Heat Transfer Solutions from a Circular Cylinder

Authors: T. V. S. Sekhar, B. Hema Sundar Raju

Abstract:

Laminar natural-convective heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder is studied by solving the Navier-Stokes and energy equations using higher order compact scheme in cylindrical polar coordinates. Results are obtained for Rayleigh numbers of 1, 10, 100 and 1000 for a Prandtl number of 0.7. The local Nusselt number and mean Nusselt number are calculated and compared with available experimental and theoretical results. Streamlines, vorticity - lines and isotherms are plotted.

Keywords: Higher order compact scheme, Navier-Stokes equations, Energy equation, Natural convection, Boussinesq's approximation and Mean Nusselt number.

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211 Proteolytic Dedradation of Anchovy (Spolephorus spp.) Proteins by Halophilic Proteinase from Halobacillus sp. SR5-3

Authors: Sirilak Namwong , Wonnop Visessanguan, Soottawat Benjakul, Somboon Tanasupawat

Abstract:

The halophilic proteinase showed a maximal activity at 50°C and pH 9~10, in 20% NaCl and was highly stabilized by NaCl. It was able to hydrolyse natural actomyosin (NAM), collagen and anchovy protein. For NAM hydrolysis, the myosin heavy chain was completely digested by halophilic proteinase as evidenced by the lowest band intensity remaining, but partially hydrolysed actin. The SR5-3 proteinase was also capable hydrolyzing two major components of collagen, β- and α-compounds, effectively. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) of the halophilic proteinase and commercial proteinases (Novozyme, Neutrase, chymotrypsin and Flavourzyme) on the anchovy protein, were compared, and it was found that the proteinase showed a greater degree of hydrolysis towards anchovy protein than that from commercial proteinases. DH of halophilic proteinase was sharply enhanced according to the increase in the concentration of enzyme from 0.035 U to 0.105 U. The results warranting that the acceleration of the production of fish sauce with higher quality, may be achieved by adding of the halophilic proteinase from this bacterium.

Keywords: Halophilic proteinase, Halobacillus sp. SR5-3, anchovy (Spolephorus spp.) proteins, fish sauce

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210 Codon-optimized Carbonic Anhydrase from Dunaliella species: Expression and Characterization

Authors: Seung Pil Pack

Abstract:

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) has been focused as biological catalysis for CO2 sequestration process because it can catalyze the conversion of CO2 to bicarbonate. Here, codon-optimized sequence of α type-CA cloned from Duneliala species. (DsCAopt) was constructed, expressed, and characterized. The expression level in E. coli BL21(DE3) was better for codon-optimized DsCAopt than intact sequence of DsCAopt. DsCAopt enzyme shows high-stability at pH 7.6/10.0. In final, we demonstrated that in the Ca2+ solution, DsCAopt enzyme can catalyze well the conversion of CO2 to CaCO3, as the calcite form.

Keywords: Carbonic anhydrase, Codon-optimization, Duneliala species, CO2 sequestration

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209 A Comparative Analysis of Financial Performance of Funded and Non-Funded Charity Organizations

Authors: Saunah Zainon, Ruhaya Atan, Yap Bee Wah, Zarina Abu Bakar

Abstract:

The primary objective of this study is to test whether there is any difference in performance between funded and nonfunded registered charity organizations. In this study, performance as the dependent variable is measured using total donations. Using a sample of 101 charity organizations registered with the Registry of Society, analysis of variance (ANOVA) results indicate that there is a difference in financial performance between funded and non-funded charity organizations. The study provides empirical evidence to resource providers and the policy makers in scrutinizing the decision to disburse their funds and resources to these charity organizations.

Keywords: charity organizations, donations, funded, non-funded

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208 Transcutaneous Inductive Powering Links Based on ASK Modulation Techniques

Authors: S. M. Abbas, M. A. Hannan, S. A. Samad, A. Hussain

Abstract:

This paper presented a modified efficient inductive powering link based on ASK modulator and proposed efficient class- E power amplifier. The design presents the external part which is located outside the body to transfer power and data to the implanted devices such as implanted Microsystems to stimulate and monitoring the nerves and muscles. The system operated with low band frequency 10MHZ according to industrial- scientific – medical (ISM) band to avoid the tissue heating. For external part, the modulation index is 11.1% and the modulation rate 7.2% with data rate 1 Mbit/s assuming Tbit = 1us. The system has been designed using 0.35-μm fabricated CMOS technology. The mathematical model is given and the design is simulated using OrCAD P Spice 16.2 software tool and for real-time simulation, the electronic workbench MULISIM 11 has been used.

Keywords: Implanted devices, ASK techniques, Class-E power amplifier, Inductive powering and low-frequency ISM band.

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207 Multiclass Support Vector Machines for Environmental Sounds Classification Using log-Gabor Filters

Authors: S. Souli, Z. Lachiri

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a robust environmental sound classification approach, based on spectrograms features driven from log-Gabor filters. This approach includes two methods. In the first methods, the spectrograms are passed through an appropriate log-Gabor filter banks and the outputs are averaged and underwent an optimal feature selection procedure based on a mutual information criteria. The second method uses the same steps but applied only to three patches extracted from each spectrogram.

To investigate the accuracy of the proposed methods, we conduct experiments using a large database containing 10 environmental sound classes. The classification results based on Multiclass Support Vector Machines show that the second method is the most efficient with an average classification accuracy of 89.62 %.

Keywords: Environmental sounds, Log-Gabor filters, Spectrogram, SVM Multiclass, Visual features.

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206 Evaluation of Ultrasonic C-Scan Images by Fractal Dimension

Authors: S. Samanta, D. Datta, S. S. Gautam

Abstract:

In this paper, quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic Cscan images through estimation of their Fractal Dimension (FD) is discussed. Necessary algorithm for evaluation of FD of any 2-D digitized image is implemented by developing a computer code. For the evaluation purpose several C-scan images of the Kevlar composite impacted by high speed bullet and glass fibre composite having flaw in the form of inclusion is used. This analysis automatically differentiates a C-scan image showing distinct damage zone, from an image that contains no such damage.

Keywords: C-scan, Impact, Fractal Dimension, Kevlar composite and Inclusion Flaw

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205 Analysis of Short Bearing in Turbulent Regime Considering Micropolar Lubrication

Authors: S. S. Gautam, S. Samanta

Abstract:

The aim of the paper work is to investigate and predict the static performance of journal bearing in turbulent flow condition considering micropolar lubrication. The Reynolds equation has been modified considering turbulent micropolar lubrication and is solved for steady state operations. The Constantinescu-s turbulence model is adopted using the coefficients. The analysis has been done for a parallel and inertia less flow. Load capacity and friction factor have been evaluated for various operating parameters.

Keywords: hydrodynamic bearing, micropolar lubrication, coupling number, characteristic length, perturbation analysis

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204 Rear Separation in a Rotating Fluid at Moderate Taylor Numbers

Authors: S. Damodaran, T. V. S.Sekhar

Abstract:

The motion of a sphere moving along the axis of a rotating viscous fluid is studied at high Reynolds numbers and moderate values of Taylor number. The Higher Order Compact Scheme is used to solve the governing Navier-Stokes equations. The equations are written in the form of Stream function, Vorticity function and angular velocity which are highly non-linear, coupled and elliptic partial differential equations. The flow is governed by two parameters Reynolds number (Re) and Taylor number (T). For very low values of Re and T, the results agree with the available experimental and theoretical results in the literature. The results are obtained at higher values of Re and moderate values of T and compared with the experimental results. The results are fourth order accurate.

Keywords: Navier_Stokes equations, Taylor number, Reynolds number, Higher order compact scheme, Rotating Fluid.

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203 Analyzing Disclosure Practice of Religious Nonprofit Organizations using Partial Disclosure Index

Authors: Ruhaya Atan, Saunah Zainon, Roland Yeow Theng Nam, Sharifah Aliman

Abstract:

This study examines the relevance of disclosure practices in improving the accountability and transparency of religious nonprofit organizations (RNPOs). The assessment of disclosure is based on the annual returns of RNPOs for the financial year 2010. In order to quantify the information disclosed in the annual returns, partial disclosure indexes of basic information (BI) disclosure index, financial information (FI) disclosure index and governance information (GI) disclosure index have been built which takes into account the content of information items in the annual returns. The empirical evidence obtained revealed low disclosure practices among RNPOs in the sample. The multiple regression results showed that the organizational attribute of the board size appeared to be the most significant predictor for both partial index on the extent of BI disclosure index, and FI disclosure index. On the other hand, the extent of financial information disclosure is related to the amount of donation received by RNPOs. On GI disclosure index, the existence of an external audit appeared to be significant variable. This study has contributed to the academic literature in providing empirical evidence of the disclosure practices among RNPOs.

Keywords: disclosure, index, partial, NPOs, religious

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202 Exploring the Relationships among Shopping Motivation, Shopping Behavior, and Post- Purchasing Behavior of Mainland Tourists toward Taipei Night Markets

Authors: Ren-Hua Kung, Jen-Chieh Liu , Chih-Teng Chang, Pei-Ti Chen

Abstract:

The consumption capability of people in China has been a big issue to tourism business. Due to the increasing of China tourists, Taiwan-s government rescinded the category of people in China and opened up the non-stopped airline from China to Taiwan. The “one-day traveling style between China and Taiwan" has formed, hoping to bring business to Taiwan. Night market, which shows foreigners the very local character of Taiwan, contains various merchandise for consumers to purchase. With the increasing numbers of non-stopped airline, visiting Taiwan-s night markets has also been one of major activities to China-s tourists. The purpose of the present study is to understand the consumer behavior of China tourists in tourist night markets in Taipei and analyze that if their shopping motives cause the different shopping behaviors and post-purchase satisfaction and revisiting intention. The results reveled that for the China tourists, the motives of significant influence to the shopping behaviors. Also, the shopping behaviors significant influence to the whole satisfaction and the whole satisfaction significant influence to post-purchase behavior.

Keywords: Shopping Motivation, Shopping Behavior, Satisfaction, Post-Purchase Behavior

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201 Technology Integrated Education – Shaping the Personality and Social Development of the Young

Authors: R. Ramli, S. Sameon

Abstract:

There has been a strong link between computermediated education and constructivism learning and teaching theory.. Acknowledging how well the constructivism doctrine would work online, it has been established that constructivist views of learning would agreeably correlate with the philosophy of open and distance learning. Asynchronous and synchronous communications have placed online learning on the right track of a constructive learning path. This paper is written based on the social constructivist framework, where knowledge is constructed from social communication and interaction. The study explores the possibility of practicing this theory through incorporating online discussion in the syllabus and the ways it can be implemented to contribute to young people-s personality and social development by addressing some aspects that may contribute to the social problem such as prejudice, ignorance and intolerance.

Keywords: Educational Technology, Internet, Personal Development, Student Exchange

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200 Effect of Leadership Approach to Organizational Commitment: A Study in Transportation Sector

Authors: R. Iraz, K. Eryeşil

Abstract:

Employees commitments of vision and mission of organization is effected due to manager’s executes by approach of leadership The leaders who have attributions like vision, confidence and correctitude, sharing and participation, creativeness, progressive learning –improvement and responsibility are effective to increase organizational commitment if they are sensitive to expectation and requirement of employees in an organization. Studies about organizational commitment appear results that employees who have strong organizational commitment have the most contribution. In this study, “Leadership” and “Organizational Commitment” conduct surveys to 31 employees of Ahmet Özdemir Nak. Tic. San. A.Ş. which has operations in road and railway transportation sector. It is analyzed the effects of leadership approach to organizational commitment deals with result of survey.

Keywords: Leadership Approach, Organizational Commitment, Study

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199 An Experimental Helicopter Wind Envelope for Ship Operations

Authors: R. Bardera Mora

Abstract:

Launch and recovery helicopter wind envelope for a ship type was determined as the first step to the helicopter qualification program. Flight deck velocities data were obtained by means of a two components laser Doppler anemometer testing a 1/50th model in the wind tunnel stream. Full-scale flight deck measurements were obtained on board the ship using a sonic anemometer. Wind tunnel and full-scale measurements were compared, showing good agreement and finally, a preliminary launch and recovery helicopter wind envelope for this specific ship was built.

Keywords: Flight deck flow, relative wind, ship airwake, wind envelope

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198 Bioethanol - A Viable Answer to India-s Surging Energy Needs

Authors: Pranav Raghav Sood

Abstract:

India is currently the second most populous nation in the world with over 1.2 billion people, growing annually at the rate of 1.5%. It is experiencing a surge in energy demands, expected to grow more than three to four times in 25 years. Most of the energy requirements are currently satisfied by the import of fossil fuels – coal, petroleum-based products and natural gas. Biofuels can satisfy these energy needs in an environmentally benign and cost effective manner while reducing dependence on import of fossil fuels, thus providing National Energy Security. Among various forms of bioenergy, bioethanol is one of the major options for India because of availability of feed stock crops. This paper presents an overview on bioethanol production and technology, steps taken by the Indian government to facilitate and bring about optimal development and utilization of indigenous biomass feedstocks for production of this biofuel.

Keywords: Bioethanol, Fossil fuel, Biofuel, energy

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197 Exploring the Medical Tourism Development Barriers and Participation Willingness in Taiwan: An Example of Mainland Tourist

Authors: Pei-Ti Chen, Ren-Hua Kung, Ming –Yi Huang , Fuu-Diing Chen, Lei Pei

Abstract:

Medical Tourism is a new development in Taiwan recently. The willingness and barriers of potential tourists from China to participate medical tourism are studied. A questionnaire survey is conducted and the SPSS software is used to analyze data. The results show that under one fifth of respondents express full medical tourism participation willingness. Among travel barriers toward medical tourism, “insufficient information of medical tourism trip", “not enough time", “no companion", “worrying about unsatisfied itinerary." are perceived the most important barriers.

Keywords: medical tourism, travel barriers, participation willingness

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196 Planning of Road Infrastructure Financing: Computational Finance Viewpoint

Authors: Ornst J., Voracek J., Allouache A., Allouache D.

Abstract:

Lack of resources for road infrastructure financing is a problem that currently affects not only eastern European economies but also many other countries especially in relation to the impact of global financial crisis. In this context, we are talking about the socalled short-investment problem as a result of long-term lack of investment resources. Based on an analysis of road infrastructure financing in the Czech Republic this article points out at weaknesses of current system and proposes a long-term planning methodology supported by system approach. Within this methodology and using created system dynamic model the article predicts the development of short-investment problem in the Country and in reaction on the downward trend of certain sources the article presents various scenarios resulting from the change of the structure of financial sources. In the discussion the article focuses more closely on the possibility of introduction of tax on vehicles instead of taxes with declining revenue streams and estimates its approximate price in relation to reaching various solutions of short-investment in time.

Keywords: Road financing, road infrastructure development, system dynamics

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195 Eco-Innovation as a New Sustainable Development Strategy: Case Studies

Authors: Orhan Çoban, Nuryağdı Rozıyev, Fehmi Karasioğlu

Abstract:

Sustainable development is one of the most debated issues, recently. In terms of providing more livable Earth continuity, while Production activities are going on, on the other hand protecting the environment has importance. As a strategy for sustainable development, eco-innovation is the application of innovations to reduce environmental burdens. Endeavors to understand ecoinnovation processes have been affected from environmental economics and innovation economics from neoclassical economics, and evolutionary economics other than neoclassical economics. In the light of case study analyses, this study aims to display activities in this field through case studies after explaining the theoretical framework of eco-innovations. This study consists of five sections including introduction and conclusion. In the second part of the study identifications of the concepts related with eco-innovation are described and eco-innovations are classified. Third section considers neoclassical and evolutionary approaches from neoclassical economics and evolutionary economics, respectively. Fourth section gives the case studies of successful eco-innovations. Last section is the conclusion part and offers suggestions for future eco-innovation research according to the theoretical framework and the case studies.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Innovation, Ecoinnovation, Neoclassical Approach, Evolutionary Approach, Case Studies

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194 Analytical Crack Propagation Scenario for Gear Teeth and Time-Varying Gear Mesh Stiffness

Authors: Omar D. Mohammed, Matti Rantatalo, Uday Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper an analytical crack propagation scenario is proposed which assumes that a crack propagates in the tooth root in both the crack depth direction and the tooth width direction, and which is more reasonable and realistic for non-uniform load distribution cases than the other presented scenarios. An analytical approach is used for quantifying the loss of time-varying gear mesh stiffness with the presence of crack propagation in the gear tooth root. The proposed crack propagation scenario can be applied for crack propagation modelling and monitoring simulation, but further research is required for comparison and evaluation of all the presented crack propagation scenarios from the condition monitoring point of view.

Keywords: Crack propagation, Gear tooth crack, Time varying gear mesh stiffness.

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193 Beta-spline Surface Fitting to Multi-slice Images

Authors: Normi Abdul Hadi, Arsmah Ibrahim, Fatimah Yahya, Jamaludin Md. Ali

Abstract:

Beta-spline is built on G2 continuity which guarantees smoothness of generated curves and surfaces using it. This curve is preferred to be used in object design rather than reconstruction. This study however, employs the Beta-spline in reconstructing a 3- dimensional G2 image of the Stanford Rabbit. The original data consists of multi-slice binary images of the rabbit. The result is then compared with related works using other techniques.

Keywords: Beta-spline, multi-slice image, rectangular surface, 3D reconstruction

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192 A New Design Partially Blind Signature Scheme Based on Two Hard Mathematical Problems

Authors: Nedal Tahat

Abstract:

Recently, many existing partially blind signature scheme based on a single hard problem such as factoring, discrete logarithm, residuosity or elliptic curve discrete logarithm problems. However sooner or later these systems will become broken and vulnerable, if the factoring or discrete logarithms problems are cracked. This paper proposes a secured partially blind signature scheme based on factoring (FAC) problem and elliptic curve discrete logarithms (ECDL) problem. As the proposed scheme is focused on factoring and ECDLP hard problems, it has a solid structure and will totally leave the intruder bemused because it is very unlikely to solve the two hard problems simultaneously. In order to assess the security level of the proposed scheme a performance analysis has been conducted. Results have proved that the proposed scheme effectively deals with the partial blindness, randomization, unlinkability and unforgeability properties. Apart from this we have also investigated the computation cost of the proposed scheme. The new proposed scheme is robust and it is difficult for the malevolent attacks to break our scheme.

Keywords: Cryptography, Partially Blind Signature, Factoring, Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithms.

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191 FAT based Adaptive Impedance Control for Unknown Environment Position

Authors: N. Z. Azlan, H. Yamaura

Abstract:

This paper presents the Function Approximation Technique (FAT) based adaptive impedance control for a robotic finger. The force based impedance control is developed so that the robotic finger tracks the desired force while following the reference position trajectory, under unknown environment position and uncertainties in finger parameters. The control strategy is divided into two phases, which are the free and contact phases. Force error feedback is utilized in updating the uncertain environment position during contact phase. Computer simulations results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

Keywords: Adaptive impedance control, force based impedance control, force control, Function Approximation Technique (FAT), unknown environment position.

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190 In Vitro and Experimental Screening of Mangrove Herbal Extract against Vibrio Alginolyticus in Marine Ornamental Fish

Authors: N. B. Dhayanithi, T. T. Ajith Kumar, T. Balasubramanian

Abstract:

Present study summarizes the control of Vibrio alginolyticus infection in hatchery reared Clownfish, Amphiprion sebae with the extract of the mangrove plant, Avicennia marina. Fishes with visible symptoms of hemorrhagic spots were chosen and the genomic DNA of the causative bacterium was isolated and sequenced based on 16S rDNA gene. The in vitro assay revealed that a fraction of A. marina leaf extract elucidated with ethyl acetate: methanol (6:4) showed a high activity (28 mm) at 125 μg/ml concentrations. About 4 % of the fraction fed along with live V. alginolyticus was significantly decreased the cumulative mortality (P<0.05) in the experimental groups than the control group. The responsible fraction was investigated by gas chromatography - mass spectroscopy and found the presence of active compounds. This is the first research in India to control vibriosis infection in marine ornamental fish with mangrove leaf extract.

Keywords: Amphiprion seabe, Avicennia marina, Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectroscopy, Vibrio alginolyticus

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189 Vermicomposting of Waste Corn Pulp Blended with Cow Dung Manure using Eisenia Fetida

Authors: Musaida M. M. Manyuchi, Anthony Phiri, Ngoni Chirinda, Perkins Muredzi, Joseph Govhaand, Thamary Sengudzwa

Abstract:

Waste corn pulp was investigated as a potential feedstock during vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida. Corn pulp is the major staple food in Southern Africa and constitutes about 25% of the total organic waste. Wastecooked corn pulp was blended with cow dung in the ratio 6:1 respectively to optimize the vermicomposting process. The feedstock was allowed to vermicompost for 30 days. The vermicomposting took place in a 3- tray plastic worm bin. Moisture content, temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity were monitoreddaily. The NPK content was determined at day 30. During vermicomposting, moisture content increased from 27.68% to 52.41%, temperature ranged between 19- 25◦C, pH increased from 5.5 to 7.7, and electrical conductivity decreased from 80000μS/cm to 60000μS/cm. The ash content increased from 11.40% to 28.15%; additionally the volatile matter increased from 1.45% to 10.02%. An odorless, dark brown vermicompost was obtained. The vermicompost NPK content was 4.19%, 1.15%, and 6.18% respectively.

Keywords: Corn pulp, Eisenia fetida, vermicomposting, waste management.

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188 Novel D- glucose Based Glycomonomers Synthesis and Characterization

Authors: M.S. Mazăre, A. M. Pană, L. M. Ştefan, M. Silion, M. Bălan, G. Bandur, L. M. Rusnac

Abstract:

In the last decade, carbohydrates have attracted great attention as renewable resources for the chemical industry. Carbohydrates are abundantly found in nature in the form of monomers, oligomers and polymers, or as components of biopolymers and other naturally occurring substances. As natural products, they play important roles in conferring certain physical, chemical, and biological properties to their carrier molecules.The synthesis of this particular carbohydrate glycomonomer is part of our work to obtain biodegradable polymers. Our current paper describes the synthesis and characterization of a novel carbohydrate glycomonomer starting from D-glucose, in several synthesis steps, that involve the protection/deprotection of the D-glucose ring via acetylation, tritylation, then selective deprotection of the aromaticaliphatic protective group, in order to obtain 1,2,3,4-tetra-O-acetyl- 6-O-allyl-β-D-glucopyranose. The glycomonomer was then obtained by the allylation in drastic conditions of 1,2,3,4-tetra-O-acetyl-6-Oallyl- β-D-glucopyranose with allylic alcohol in the presence of stannic chloride, in methylene chloride, at room temperature. The proposed structure of the glycomonomer, 2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-1,6-di- O-allyl-β-D-glucopyranose, was confirmed by FTIR, NMR and HPLC-MS spectrometry. This glycomonomer will be further submitted to copolymerization with certain acrylic or methacrylic monomers in order to obtain competitive plastic materials for applications in the biomedical field.

Keywords: allylation, D-glucose, glycomonomer, trityl chloride

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187 MICOSim: A Simulator for Modelling Economic Scheduling in Grid Computing

Authors: Mohammad Bsoul, Iain Phillips, Chris Hinde

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the design and implementation of MICOSim, an event-driven simulator written in Java for evaluating the performance of Grid entities (users, brokers and resources) under different scenarios such as varying the numbers of users, resources and brokers and varying their specifications and employed strategies.

Keywords: Grid computing, Economic Scheduling, Simulation, Event-Driven, Java.

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186 Structure Improvement of Aluminothermic Welding Joints by Using Modifiers

Authors: Mihai Brânzei, Tudor Coman

Abstract:

Aluminothermic rail welding was from the beginning a great success because its low price even in 1895 in Germany. This method is now, widely used all over the world for the railways construction, maintenance and modernization. Instructions give you guidelines for preparing papers for conferences or journals. After 1989, the welding needs of the potentials beneficiaries (Romanian Railways, Urban Transportation Companies) keep raise because of the railways maintenance and modernization necessity. The main materials that determine the Thermit (T) composition result from manufacturing scraps all over the country. This can help the environment by consuming these scraps. The Romanian need for alumino-thermic welding is now by 11300 per year, and in a favourable economical environment, this amount can reach 30000 units. This paper tries to show the effect of two types of modifiers introduced in the T composition on the structure and properties of an alumino-thermic welding.

Keywords: aluminothermic rail welding, modifier, Thermit.

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185 Biodiesel from Coconut Oil: A Renewable Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engine

Authors: Md A. Hossain, Shabab M. Chowdhury, Yamin Rekhu, Khandakar S. Faraz, Monzur Ul Islam

Abstract:

With the growth of modern civilization and industrialization in worldwide, the demand for energy is increasing day by day. Majority of the world-s energy needs are met through fossil fuels and natural gas. As a result the amount of fossil fuels is on diminishing from year to year. Since the fossil fuel is nonrenewable, so fuel price is gouging as a consequence of spiraling demand and diminishing supply. At present the power generation of our country is mainly depends on imported fossil fuels. To reduce the dependency on imported fuel, the use of renewable sources has become more popular. In Bangladesh coconut is widely growing tree. Especially in the southern part of the country a large area will be found where coconut tree is considered as natural asset. So, our endeavor was to use the coconut oil as a renewable and alternative fuel. This article shows the prospect of coconut oil as a renewable and alternative fuel of diesel fuel. Since diesel engine has a versatile uses including small electricity generation, an experimental set up is then made to study the performance of a small diesel engine using different blends of bio diesel converted from coconut oil. It is found that bio diesel has slightly different properties than diesel. With biodiesel the engine is capable of running without difficulty. Different blends of bio diesel (i.e. B80, B60, and B 50 etc.) have been used to avoid complicated modification of the engine or the fuel supply system. Finally, a comparison of engine performance for different blends of biodiesel has been carried out to determine the optimum blend for different operating conditions.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Bio-fuel, Renewable Energy, Transesterification

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184 From Mother Tongue Education to Multilingual Higher Education

Authors: Mario R. Acevedo Amaya, Fernanda M. Martinez Reyes

Abstract:

Through the time, the higher education has changed the learning system since mother tongue to bilingual, and in this new century has been coming develop a multilingual education. All as part of globalization process of the countries and the education. Nevertheless, this change only has been effectively in countries of the first world, the rest have been lagging. Therefore, these countries require strengthen their higher education systems through models that give way to multilingual and bilingual education. In this way, shows a new model adapted from a systemic form to allow a higher bilingual and multilingual education in Latin America. This systematization aims to increase the skills and competencies student’s, decrease the time learning of a second tongue, add to multilingualism in the American Latin Universities, also, contribute to position the region´s countries in a better global status, and stimulate the development of new research in this area.

Keywords: Bilingual Education, Higher Education, Multilingual Education, Multilingual Education Model

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183 Removal of Chromium from Aqueous Solution using Synthesized Polyaniline in Acetonitrile

Authors: Majid Riahi Samani, Seyed Mehdi Borghei

Abstract:

Absorptive characteristics of polyaniline synthesized in mixture of water and acetonitrile in 50/50 volume ratio was studied. Synthesized polyaniline in powder shape is used as an adsorbent to remove toxic hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions. Experiments were conducted in batch mode with different variables such as agitation time, solution pH and initial concentration of hexavalent chromium. Removal mechanism is the combination of surface adsorption and reduction. The equilibrium time for removal of Cr(T) and Cr(VI) was about 2 and 10 minutes respectively. The optimum pH for total chromium removal occurred at pH 7 and maximum hexavalent chromium removal took place under acidic condition at pH 3. Investigating the isothermal characteristics showed that the equilibrium adsorption data fitted both Freundlich-s and Langmuir-s isotherms. The maximum adsorption of chromium was calculated 36.1 mg/g for polyaniline

Keywords: Polyaniline, Chromium, acetonitrile, Adsorption

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182 Sprayer Boom Active Suspension Using Intelligent Active Force Control

Authors: M. Tahmasebi, R.A. Rahman, M. Mailah, M. Gohari

Abstract:

The control of sprayer boom undesired vibrations pose a great challenge to investigators due to various disturbances and conditions. Sprayer boom movements lead to reduce of spread efficiency and crop yield. This paper describes the design of a novel control method for an active suspension system applying proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller with an active force control (AFC) scheme integration of an iterative learning algorithm employed to a sprayer boom. The iterative learning as an intelligent method is principally used as a method to calculate the best value of the estimated inertia of the sprayer boom needed for the AFC loop. Results show that the proposed AFC-based scheme performs much better than the standard PID control technique. Also, this shows that the system is more robust and accurate.

Keywords: Active force control, sprayer boom, active suspension, iterative learning.

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181 Design and Research of a New Kind Balance Adjusting System of Centrifuge

Authors: Li Xinyao, Hong Jianzhong, Wu Wenkai

Abstract:

In order to make environmental test centrifuge balance automatically and accurately, reduce unbalance centrifugal force, balance adjusting system of centrifuge is designed. The new balance adjusting system comprises motor-reducer, timing belt, screw pair, slider-guideway and four rocker force sensors. According to information obtained by the four rocker force sensors, unbalanced value at both ends of the big arm is computed and heavy block is moved to achieve balance adjusting. In this paper, motor power and torque to move the heavy block is calculated. In full load running progress of centrifuge, the stress-strain of screw pair composed by adjusting nut and big arm are analyzed. A successful application of the balance adjusting system is also put forwarded. The results show that the balance adjusting system can satisfy balance require of environmental test centrifuge.

Keywords: balance adjusting system, centrifuge, screw pair, timing belt

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180 Self-Excited Vibration in Hydraulic Ball Check Valve

Authors: L. Grinis, V. Haslavsky, U. Tzadka

Abstract:

This paper describes an experimental, theoretical model and numerical study of concentrated vortex flow past a sphere in a hydraulic check valve. The phenomenon of the rotation of the ball around the axis of the device through which liquid flows has been found. That is, due to the rotation of the sphere in the check valve vibration is caused. We observe the rotation of the sphere around the longitudinal axis of the check valve. This rotation is induced by a vortex shedding from the sphere. We will discuss computational simulation and experimental investigations of this strong sphere rotation. The frequency of the sphere vibration and interaction with the check valve wall has been measured as a function of the wide range Reynolds Number. The validity of the computational simulation and of the assumptions on which it is based has been proved experimentally. This study demonstrates the possibility to control the vibrations in a hydraulic system and proves to be very effective suppression of the self-excited vibration.

Keywords: Check-valve, vibration, vortex shedding

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179 Mining Educational Data to Analyze the Student Motivation Behavior

Authors: Kunyanuth Kularbphettong, Cholticha Tongsiri

Abstract:

The purpose of this research aims to discover the knowledge for analysis student motivation behavior on e-Learning based on Data Mining Techniques, in case of the Information Technology for Communication and Learning Course at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. The data mining techniques was applied in this research including association rules, classification techniques. The results showed that using data mining technique can indicate the important variables that influence the student motivation behavior on e-Learning.

Keywords: association rule mining, classification techniques, e- Learning, Moodle log Motivation Behavior

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178 An Evaluation of Land Use Control in Hokkaido, Japan

Authors: Kayoko Yamamoto

Abstract:

This study focuses on an evaluation of Hokkaido which is the northernmost and largest prefecture by surface area in Japan and particularly on two points: the rivalry between all kinds of land use such as urban land and agricultural and forestry land in various cities and their surrounding areas and the possibilities for forestry biomass in areas other than those mentioned above and grasps which areas require examination of the nature of land use control and guidance through conducting land use analysis at the district level using GIS (Geographic Information Systems). The results of analysis in this study demonstrated that it is essential to divide the whole of Hokkaido into two areas: those within delineated city planning areas and those outside of delineated city planning areas and to conduct an evaluation of each land use control. In delineated urban areas, particularly urban areas, it is essential to re-examine land use from the point of view of compact cities or smart cities along with conducting an evaluation of land use control that focuses on issues of rivalry between all kinds of land use such as urban land and agricultural and forestry land. In areas outside of delineated urban areas, it is desirable to aim to build a specific community recycling range based on forest biomass utilization by conducting an evaluation of land use control concerning the possibilities for forest biomass focusing particularly on forests within and outside of city planning areas.

Keywords: Land Use Control, Urbanization, Forestry Biomass, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Hokkaido

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177 SURF Based Image Matching from Different Angle of Viewpoints using Rectification and Simplified Orientation Correction

Authors: K.M.Goh, M.M.Mokji, S.A.R. Abu-Bakar

Abstract:

Speeded-Up Robust Feature (SURF) is commonly used for feature matching in stereovision because of their robustness towards scale changes and rotational changes. However, SURF feature cannot cope with large viewpoint changes or skew distortion. This paper introduces a method which can help to improve the wide baseline-s matching performance in term of accuracy by rectifying the image using two vanishing points. Simplified orientation correction was used to remove the false matching..

Keywords: Affine, orientation, projective, SURF.

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176 Analysis on the Game-Playing Tendency of SNGs (Social Network Games) users by Gender

Authors: Jooyeon Yook, Wonjun Ko

Abstract:

As the Social network game(SNG) is rising dramatically worldwide, an interesting aspect has appeared in the demographic analysis. That is the ratio of the game users by gender. Although the ratio of male and female users in online game was 60:40% previously, the ratio of male and female users in SNG stood at 47:53% which shows that the ratio of female users is higher than that of male users. Here, it should be noted that 35% in those 53% female users are the first-time users of game. This fact suggests that women who were not interested in game previously has taken an interest in SNG. Notwithstanding this issue, there have been little studies on the female users of SNG although there are many studies that analyzed the tendency of female users- online game play. This study conducted the analyzed how the game-playing tendency of SNG gamers was manifested in the game by gender. For that, this study will identify the tendency of SNG users by gender based on the preceding studies that analyzed the online game users by gender. The subject of this study was confined to the farm and urban construction simulation games which were offered based on the mobile application platform. Regarding the methodology of study, the first focus group interview(FGI) was conducted with the male and female users who had played games on Social network service(SNS) until recently. Later, the second one-on-one in-depth interview was conducted to gain an insight into the psychological state of the subjects.

Keywords: Social network Game, Gender, Play inclination, Game psychology

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175 A Critics Study of Neural Networks Applied to ion-Exchange Process

Authors: John Kabuba, Antoine Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Kim Battle

Abstract:

This paper presents a critical study about the application of Neural Networks to ion-exchange process. Ionexchange is a complex non-linear process involving many factors influencing the ions uptake mechanisms from the pregnant solution. The following step includes the elution. Published data presents empirical isotherm equations with definite shortcomings resulting in unreliable predictions. Although Neural Network simulation technique encounters a number of disadvantages including its “black box", and a limited ability to explicitly identify possible causal relationships, it has the advantage to implicitly handle complex nonlinear relationships between dependent and independent variables. In the present paper, the Neural Network model based on the back-propagation algorithm Levenberg-Marquardt was developed using a three layer approach with a tangent sigmoid transfer function (tansig) at hidden layer with 11 neurons and linear transfer function (purelin) at out layer. The above mentioned approach has been used to test the effectiveness in simulating ion exchange processes. The modeling results showed that there is an excellent agreement between the experimental data and the predicted values of copper ions removed from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: Copper, ion-exchange process, neural networks, simulation

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174 Modeling of Co-Cu Elution From Clinoptilolite using Neural Network

Authors: John Kabuba, Antoine Mulaba-Bafubiandi

Abstract:

The elution process for the removal of Co and Cu from clinoptilolite as an ion-exchanger was investigated using three parameters: bed volume, pH and contact time. The present paper study has shown quantitatively that acid concentration has a significant effect on the elution process. The favorable eluant concentration was found to be 2 M HCl and 2 M H2SO4, respectively. The multi-component equilibrium relationship in the process can be very complex, and perhaps ill-defined. In such circumstances, it is preferable to use a non-parametric technique such as Neural Network to represent such an equilibrium relationship.

Keywords: Clinoptilolite, elution, modeling, neural network.

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173 Binary Mixture of Copper-Cobalt Ions Uptake by Zeolite using Neural Network

Authors: John Kabuba, Antoine Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Kim Battle

Abstract:

In this study a neural network (NN) was proposed to predict the sorption of binary mixture of copper-cobalt ions into clinoptilolite as ion-exchanger. The configuration of the backpropagation neural network giving the smallest mean square error was three-layer NN with tangent sigmoid transfer function at hidden layer with 10 neurons, linear transfer function at output layer and Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation training algorithm. Experiments have been carried out in the batch reactor to obtain equilibrium data of the individual sorption and the mixture of coppercobalt ions. The obtained modeling results have shown that the used of neural network has better adjusted the equilibrium data of the binary system when compared with the conventional sorption isotherm models.

Keywords: Adsorption isotherm, binary system, neural network; sorption

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172 Study on the Optimization of Completely Batch Water-using Network with Multiple Contaminants Considering Flow Change

Authors: Jian Du, Shui Hong Hong, Lu Meng, Qing Wei Meng

Abstract:

This work addresses the problem of optimizing completely batch water-using network with multiple contaminants where the flow change caused by mass transfer is taken into consideration for the first time. A mathematical technique for optimizing water-using network is proposed based on source-tank-sink superstructure. The task is to obtain the freshwater usage, recycle assignments among water-using units, wastewater discharge and a steady water-using network configuration by following steps. Firstly, operating sequences of water-using units are determined by time constraints. Next, superstructure is simplified by eliminating the reuse and recycle from water-using units with maximum concentration of key contaminants. Then, the non-linear programming model is solved by GAMS (General Algebra Model System) for minimum freshwater usage, maximum water recycle and minimum wastewater discharge. Finally, numbers of operating periods are calculated to acquire the steady network configuration. A case study is solved to illustrate the applicability of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Completely batch process, flow change, multiple contaminants, water-using network.

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171 Effect of Ply Orientation on Roughness for the Trimming Process of CFRP Laminates

Authors: Jean François Chatelain, Imed Zaghbani, Joseph Monier

Abstract:

The machining of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics has come to constitute a significant challenge for many fields of industry. The resulting surface finish of machined parts is of primary concern for several reasons, including contact quality and impact on the assembly. Therefore, the characterization and prediction of roughness based on machining parameters are crucial for costeffective operations. In this study, a PCD tool comprised of two straight flutes was used to trim 32-ply carbon fiber laminates in a bid to analyze the effects of the feed rate and the cutting speed on the surface roughness. The results show that while the speed has but a slight impact on the surface finish, the feed rate for its part affects it strongly. A detailed study was also conducted on the effect of fiber orientation on surface roughness, for quasi-isotropic laminates used in aerospace. The resulting roughness profiles for the four-ply orientation lay-up were compared, and it was found that fiber angle is a critical parameter relating to surface roughness. One of the four orientations studied led to very poor surface finishes, and characteristic roughness profiles were identified and found to only relate to the ply orientations of multilayer carbon fiber laminates.

Keywords: Roughness, Detouring, Composites, Aerospace

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170 The Analysis of Two-Phase Jet in Pneumatic Powder Injection into Liquid Alloys

Authors: J. Jezierski, K. Janerka

Abstract:

The results of the two-phase gas-solid jet in pneumatic powder injection process analysis were presented in the paper. The researches were conducted on model set-up with high speed camera jet movement recording. Then the recorded material was analyzed to estimate main particles movement parameters. The values obtained from this direct measurement were compared to those calculated with the use of the well-known formulas for the two-phase flows (pneumatic conveying). Moreover, they were compared to experimental results previously achieved by authors. The analysis led to conclusions which to some extent changed the assumptions used even by authors, regarding the two-phase jet in pneumatic powder injection process. Additionally, the visual analysis of the recorded clips supplied data to make a more complete evaluation of the jet behavior in the lance outlet than before.

Keywords: injection lance, liquid metal, powder injection, slip velocity, two-phase jet

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169 Graphical Approach for Targeting Work Exchange Networks

Authors: Hui Chen, Xiao Feng

Abstract:

Depressurization and pressurization streams in industrial systems constitute a work exchange network (WEN). In this paper, a novel graphical approach for targeting energy conservation potential of a WEN is proposed. Through constructing the composite work curves in the pressure-work diagram and assuming all of the mechanical energy of the depressurization streams is recovered by expanders, the maximum work target of a WEN can be determined via the proposed targeting steps. A WEN in an ammonia production process is used as a case study to illustrate the applicability of the proposed graphical approach.

Keywords: Expanders, Graphical approach, Pressure-work diagram, Work exchange network, Work target

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168 Modeling Method and Application in Digital Mockup System towards Mechanical Product

Authors: Huaiyu Zhang

Abstract:

The method of modeling is the key technology for digital mockup (DMU). Based upon the developing for mechanical product DMU, the theory, method and approach for virtual environment (VE) and virtual object (VO) were studied. This paper has expounded the design goal and architecture of DMU system, analyzed the method of DMU application, and researched the general process of physics modeling and behavior modeling.

Keywords: DMU, VR, virtual environment, virtual object, physics modeling, behavior modeling

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167 Investigation on Yield and Fruit Quality of Some Cultivated Strawberry in Iran

Authors: Hossein Ali Asadi Gharneh, Kazem Arzani, Abdolali Shojaeian

Abstract:

fifteen cultivars of Strawberries (Queen Eliza, Sequia, Paros, Mcdonance, Selva, Chandler, Mrak, Ten beauty, Aliso, Pajero, Kordestan, Camarosa, Blackmore, Gaviota and Fresno) were investigated in 2011, under hydroponic system condition. Yield and fruit Firmness was determinate. Chemical analyses of soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), ascorbic acid (AA) and pH were done. 4 cultivars (Aliso, Selva, Paros and Gaviota) yielded more than 250 g/plant, while cultivar Black more, Fresno and Kordestan produced less than 100g/plant. The amounts of fruit firmness indicated that 'Camarosa' fruit was firmer than others cultivars. Cultivar 'Fresno' had the highest pH (3.27). Ttitratable acidity varied from 1.03g/l00g for cultivar 'Sequia' and 'Gaviota' to 1.48g/l00g for cultivar 'Chandler'. Fresno, Kordestan, Aliso and Chandler showed the highest soluble solid concentration. Ascorbic acid averaged for most cultivars between 30.26 and 79.73 mg/100gf.w. Present results showed that different cultivars of strawberry contain highly variable in fruit quality.

Keywords: Yield, Fruit quality, Ascorbic acid, Hydroponic system

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166 Numerical Analysis and Experimental Validation of Detector Pressure Housing Subject to HPHT

Authors: Hafeez Syed, Harit Naik

Abstract:

Reservoirs with high pressures and temperatures (HPHT) that were considered to be atypical in the past are now frequent targets for exploration. For downhole oilfield drilling tools and components, the temperature and pressure affect the mechanical strength. To address this issue, a finite element analysis (FEA) for 206.84 MPa (30 ksi) pressure and 165°C has been performed on the pressure housing of the measurement-while-drilling/logging-whiledrilling (MWD/LWD) density tool. The density tool is a MWD/LWD sensor that measures the density of the formation. One of the components of the density tool is the pressure housing that is positioned in the tool. The FEA results are compared with the experimental test performed on the pressure housing of the density tool. Past results show a close match between the numerical results and the experimental test. This FEA model can be used for extreme HPHT and ultra HPHT analyses, and/or optimal design changes.

Keywords: FEA, HPHT, M/LWD, Oil & Gas

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165 Fretting Fatigue behavior of Bolted Single Lap Joints of Aluminum Alloys

Authors: Hadi Rezghi Maleki, Babak Abazadeh

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of bolt clamping force on the fatigue behavior of bolted single lap joints of aluminum alloy 2024- T3 have been studied using numerical finite element method. To do so, a three dimensional model according to the bolted single lap joint has been created and numerical analysis has been carried out using finite element based package. Then the stress distribution and also the slip amplitudes have been calculated in the critical regions and the outcome have been compared with the available experimental fatigue tests results. The numerical results show that in low applied clamping force, the fatigue failure of the specimens occur around the stress concentration location (the bolted hole edge) due to the tensile stresses and thus fatigue crack propagation, but with increase of the clamping force, the fatigue life increases and the cracks nucleate and propagate far from the hole edge because of fretting fatigue. In other words, with the further increase of clamping force value of the joint, the fatigue life reduces due to occurrence of the fretting fatigue in the critical location where the slip amplitude is within its critical occurs earlier.

Keywords: Fretting fatigue, bolted single lap joint, torque tightening, finite element method.

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164 Anaerobic Treatment of Petroleum Refinery Wastewater

Authors: H. A. Gasim, S. R. M. Kutty, M. Hasnain Isa

Abstract:

Anaerobic treatment has many advantages over other biological method particularly when used to treat complex wastewater such as petroleum refinery wastewater. In this study two Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors were operated in parallel to treat six volumetric organic loads (0.58, 1.21, 0.89, 2.34, 1.47 and 4.14 kg COD/m3·d) to evaluate the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency. The reactors were continuously adapting to the changing of operation condition with increase in the removal efficiency or slight decrease until the last load which was more than two times the load, at which the reactor stressed and the removal efficiency decreased to 75% with effluent concentration of 1746 mg COD/L. Other parameters were also monitored such as pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acid and gas production rate. The UASB reactor was suitable to treat petroleum refinery wastewater and the highest COD removal rate was 83% at 1215 kg/m3·d with COD concentration about 356 mg/L in the effluent.

Keywords: Petroleum refinery wastewater, anaerobic digestion, UASB, organic volumetric loading rate

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163 The Influence of Substrate Bias on the Mechanical Properties of a W- and S-containing DLC-based Solid-lubricant Film

Authors: Guojia Ma, Guoqiang Lin, Shuili Gong, Gang Sun, Dawang Wang

Abstract:

A diamond-like carbon (DLC) based solid-lubricant film was designed and DLC films were successfully prepared using a microwave plasma enhanced magnetron sputtering deposition technology. Post-test characterizations including Raman spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, nano-indentation test, adhesion test, friction coefficient test were performed to study the influence of substrate bias voltage on the mechanical properties of the W- and S-doped DLC films. The results indicated that the W- and S-doped DLC films also had the typical structure of DLC films and a better mechanical performance achieved by the application of a substrate bias of -200V.

Keywords: Adhesive Strength, Coefficient of Friction, Substrate Bias, W- and S-doped DLC film

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162 A Study of Water Consumption in Two Malaysian Resorts

Authors: Fu E. Tang

Abstract:

In the effort to reduce water consumption for resorts, more water conservation practices need to be implemented. Hence water audits need to be performed to obtain a baseline of water consumption, before planning water conservation practices. In this study, a water audit framework specifically for resorts was created, and the audit was performed on two resorts: Resort A in Langkawi, Malaysia; and Resort B in Miri, Malaysia. From the audit, the total daily water consumption for Resorts A and B were estimated to be 180m3 and 330 m3 respectively, while the actual water consumption (based on water meter readings) were 175 m3 and 325 m3. This suggests that the audit framework is reasonably accurate and may be used to account for most of the water consumption sources in a resort. The daily water consumption per guest is about 500 litres. The water consumption of both resorts is poorly rated compared with established benchmarks. Water conservation measures were suggested for both resorts.

Keywords: water consumption patterns, water conservation practices, water audit, water audit framework.

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161 Central Asia and Kazakhstan: In Search of Civic Identity

Authors: Elnura Assyltayeva, Zhanar Aldubasheva, Zhengisbek Tolen, Ziyakul Assyltayeva, Aliya Alimzhanova

Abstract:

Mankind has entered into an extremely complex and controversial stage of its development: the world is simultaneously organized and chaoticized, globalized and localized, combined and split. Analysts point out that globalization as a process of strengthening economic, cultural, financial and other ties of states cause many problems. In the economic sphere, it creates the danger of growing gap between the states, in the sphere of politics it leads to the weakening of political power and influence of nation-states.

Keywords: Civic identity, globalization, identity crisis, culture identity

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160 Chips of Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo Alloy – A Detailed Geometry Study

Authors: Dmytro Ostroushko, Karel Saksl, Carsten Siemers, Zuzana Rihova

Abstract:

Titanium alloys like Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo (Ti- 6246) are widely used in aerospace applications. Component manufacturing, however, is difficult and expensive as their machinability is extremely poor. A thorough understanding of the chip formation process is needed to improve related metal cutting operations.In the current study, orthogonal cutting experiments have been performed and theresulting chips were analyzed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.Chips from aTi- 6246ingot were produced at different cutting speeds and cutting depths. During the experiments, depending of the cutting conditions, continuous or segmented chips were formed. Narrow, highly deformed and grain oriented zones, the so-called shear zone, separated individual segments. Different material properties have been measured in the shear zones and the segments.

Keywords: Titanium alloy, Ti-6246, chip formation, machining, shear zone, microstructure

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159 Application of Computational Methods Mm2 and Gussian for Studing Unimolecular Decomposition of Vinil Ethers based on the Mechanism of Hydrogen Bonding

Authors: Behnaz Shahrokh, Garnik N. Sargsyan, Arkadi B. Harutyunyan

Abstract:

Investigations of the unimolecular decomposition of vinyl ethyl ether (VEE), vinyl propyl ether (VPE) and vinyl butyl ether (VBE) have shown that activation of the molecule of a ether results in formation of a cyclic construction - the transition state (TS), which may lead to the displacement of the thermodynamic equilibrium towards the reaction products. The TS is obtained by applying energy minimization relative to the ground state of an ether under the program MM2 when taking into account the hydrogen bond formation between a hydrogen atom of alkyl residue and the extreme atom of carbon of the vinyl group. The dissociation of TS up to the products is studied by energy minimization procedure using the mathematical program Gaussian. The obtained calculation data for VEE testify that the decomposition of this ether may be conditioned by hydrogen bond formation for two possible versions: when α- or β- hydrogen atoms of the ethyl group are bound to carbon atom of the vinyl group. Applying the same calculation methods to other ethers (VPE and VBE) it is shown that only in the case of hydrogen bonding between α-hydrogen atom of the alkyl residue and the extreme atom of carbon of the vinyl group (αH---C) results in decay of theses ethers.

Keywords: Gaussian, MM2, ethers, TS, decomposition

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158 The Theoretical Framework of the Necessity of Conducting Operational Auditing in Iran

Authors: Arash Derakhshanmehr

Abstract:

Nowadays, efficiency, effectiveness and economy are regarded as the main objectives of managers and the secret of the continuity of an organization in competing economy. In such competing settings, it is essential that the management of an organization has not been neglected and been obliged to identify quickly the opportunities for improving the operation of organization and remove the shortcomings of their managed system in order to use the opportunities for development. Operational auditing is a useful tool for system adjustment and leading an organization toward its objectives. Operational auditing is indeed a viewpoint which identifies the causes of insufficiencies, weaknesses and deficiencies of system and plans to eliminate them. Operational auditing is useful in the effectiveness and optimization of executive managers- decisions and increasing the efficiency and economy of their performance in the future and prevents the waste and incorrect use of resources. Evidence shows that operational auditing is used at a limited level in Iran. This matter raises some questions like the following ones in the minds. Why do a limited number of corporations use operational auditing? Which factors can guarantee its full implementation? What obstacles are there in its implementation? The purpose of this article is to determine executive objectives, the operation domain of operational auditing, the components of operational auditing and the executive obstacles to operational auditing in Iran.

Keywords: Operational Auditing, Iran

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157 Visual Attention Analysis on Mutated Brand Name using Eye-Tracking: A Case Study

Authors: Anirban Chowdhury, Sougata Karmakar, Swathi Matta Reddy, Sanjog J., Subrata Ghosh, Debkumar Chakrabarti

Abstract:

Brand name plays a vital role for in-shop buying behavior of consumers and mutated brand name may affect the selling of leading branded products. In Indian market, there are many products with mutated brand names which are either orthographically or phonologically similar. Due to presence of such products, Indian consumers very often fall under confusion when buying some regularly used stuff. Authors of the present paper have attempted to demonstrate relationship between less attention and false recognition of mutated brand names during a product selection process. To achieve this goal, visual attention study was conducted on 15 male college students using eye-tracker against a mutated brand name and errors in recognition were noted using questionnaire. Statistical analysis of the acquired data revealed that there was more false recognition of mutated brand name when less attention was paid during selection of favorite product. Moreover, it was perceived that eye tracking is an effective tool for analyzing false recognition of brand name mutation.

Keywords: Brand Name Mutation, Consumer Behavior, Visual Attention, Orthography

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156 Design of Reliable and Low Cost Substrate Heater for Thin Film Deposition

Authors: Ali Eltayeb Muhsin, Mohamed Elhadi Elsari

Abstract:

The substrate heater designed for this investigation is a front side substrate heating system. It consists of 10 conventional tungsten halogen lamps and an aluminum reflector, total input electrical power of 5 kW. The substrate is heated by means of a radiation from conventional tungsten halogen lamps directed to the substrate through a glass window. This design allows easy replacement of the lamps and maintenance of the system. Within 2 to 6 minutes the substrate temperature reaches 500 to 830 C by varying the vertical distance between the glass window and the substrate holder. Moreover, the substrate temperature can be easily controlled by controlling the input power to the system. This design gives excellent opportunity to deposit many deferent films at deferent temperatures in the same deposition time. This substrate heater was successfully used for Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of many thin films, such as Silicon, iron, etc.

Keywords: CVD, Halogen Lamp, Substrate Heater, Thin Films.

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155 Some Design Issues in Designing of 50KW 50Krpm Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine

Authors: Ali A. Mehna, Mohmed A. Ali, Ali S. Zayed

Abstract:

A numbers of important developments have led to an increasing attractiveness for very high speed electrical machines (either motor or generator). Specifically the increasing switching speed of power electronics, high energy magnets, high strength retaining materials, better high speed bearings and improvements in design analysis are the primary drivers in a move to higher speed. The design challenges come in the mechanical design both in terms of strength and resonant modes and in the electromagnetic design particularly in respect of iron losses and ac losses in the various conducting parts including the rotor. This paper describes detailed design work which has been done on a 50,000 rpm, 50kW permanent magnet( PM) synchronous machine. It describes work on electromagnetic and rotor eddy current losses using a variety of methods including both 2D finite element analysis

Keywords: High speed, PM motor, rotor and stator losses, finiteelement analysis

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154 Vortex Wake Formation and Its Effects on Thrust and Propulsive Efficiency of an Oscillating Airfoil

Authors: Ahmet Selim Durna, Bayram Celik, Aydin Misirlioglu

Abstract:

Flows over a harmonically oscillating NACA 0012 airfoil are simulated here using a two-dimensional, unsteady, incompressibleNavier-Stokes solver.Both pure-plunging and pitching-plunging combined oscillations are considered at a Reynolds number of 5000. Special attention is paid to the vortex shedding and interaction mechanism of the motions. For all the simulations presented here, the reduced frequency (k) is fixed at a value of 2.5 and plunging amplitude (h) is selected to be in the range of 0.2-0.5. The simulation results show that the interaction mechanism between the leading and trailing edge vortices has a decisive effect on the values of the resulting thrust and propulsive efficiency.

Keywords: pithing and plunging airfoil, leading edge vortex, trailing edge vortex, vortex interaction, wake structure.

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153 Boundary Segmentation of Microcalcification using Parametric Active Contours

Authors: Abdul Kadir Jumaat, Siti Salmah Yasiran, Wan Eny Zarina Wan Abd Rahman, Aminah Abdul Malek

Abstract:

A mammography image is composed of low contrast area where the breast tissues and the breast abnormalities such as microcalcification can hardly be differentiated by the medical practitioner. This paper presents the application of active contour models (Snakes) for the segmentation of microcalcification in mammography images. Comparison on the microcalcifiation areas segmented by the Balloon Snake, Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) Snake, and Distance Snake is done against the true value of the microcalcification area. The true area value is the average microcalcification area in the original mammography image traced by the expert radiologists. From fifty images tested, the result obtained shows that the accuracy of the Balloon Snake, GVF Snake, and Distance Snake in segmenting boundaries of microcalcification are 96.01%, 95.74%, and 95.70% accuracy respectively. This implies that the Balloon Snake is a better segmentation method to locate the exact boundary of a microcalcification region.

Keywords: Balloon Snake, GVF Snake, Distance Snake, Mammogram, Microcalcifications, Segmentation

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152 The Effect of Perceived Organizational Support on Organizational Identification

Authors: A. Çelik, M. Findik

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to determine the effects of perceived organizational support on organizational identification. In accordance with this purpose was applied on 131 family physicians in Konya. The data obtained by means of the survey method were analyzed. According to the results of correlation analysis, while positive relationship between perceived organizational support, organizational identification and supervisor support was revealed. Also, with the scope of the research, relationships between these variables and certain demographic variables were detected. According to difference analysis results of the research, significant differences between organizational identification and gender variable were determined. However, significant differences were not determined between demographic variables and perceived organizational support.

Keywords: Family Physicians, Organizational Identification, Perceived Organizational Support, Supervisor Support

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151 Variation of Spot Price and Profits of Andhra Pradesh State Grid in Deregulated Environment

Authors: Chava Sunil Kumar, P.S. Subrahmanyan, J. Amarnath

Abstract:

In this paper variation of spot price and total profits of the generating companies- through wholesale electricity trading are discussed with and without Central Generating Stations (CGS) share and seasonal variations are also considered. It demonstrates how proper analysis of generators- efficiencies and capabilities, types of generators owned, fuel costs, transmission losses and settling price variation using the solutions of Optimal Power Flow (OPF), can allow companies to maximize overall revenue. It illustrates how solutions of OPF can be used to maximize companies- revenue under different scenarios. And is also extended to computation of Available Transfer Capability (ATC) is very important to the transmission system security and market forecasting. From these results it is observed that how crucial it is for companies to plan their daily operations and is certainly useful in an online environment of deregulated power system. In this paper above tasks are demonstrated on 124 bus real-life Indian utility power system of Andhra Pradesh State Grid and results have been presented and analyzed.

Keywords: OPF, ATC, Electricity Market, Bid, Spot Price

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150 Effect of Bentonite on the Properties of Liquid Insulating Oil

Authors: Loai Nasrat, Mervat S. Hassan

Abstract:

Bentonitic material from South Aswan, Egypt was evaluated in terms of mineral-ogy and chemical composition as bleaching clay in refining of transformer oil before and after acid activation and thermal treatment followed by acid leaching using HCl and H2SO4 for different contact times. Structural modification and refining power of bento-nite were investigated during modification by means of X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The results revealed that the activated bentonite could be used for refining of transformer oil. The oil parameters such as; dielectric strength, viscosity and flash point had been improved. The dielectric breakdown strength of used oil increased from 29 kV for used oil treated with unactivated bentonite to 74 kV after treatment with activated bentonite. Kinematic Viscosity changed from 19 to 11 mm2 /s after treatment with activated bentonite. However, flash point achieved 149 ºC.

Keywords: Dielectric strength, unactivated bentonite, X-ray diffraction, SEM image

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149 An Efficient Approach for Optimal Placement of TCSC in Double Auction Power Market

Authors: Prashant Kumar Tiwari, Yog Raj Sood

Abstract:

This paper proposes an investment cost recovery based efficient and fast sequential optimization approach to optimal allocation of thyristor controlled series compensator (TCSC) in competitive power market. The optimization technique has been used with an objective to maximizing the social welfare and minimizing the device installation cost by suitable location and rating of TCSC in the system. The effectiveness of proposed approach for location of TCSC has been compared with some existing methods of TCSC placement, in terms of its impact on social welfare, TCSC investment recovery and optimal generation as well as load patterns. The results have been obtained on modified IEEE 14-bus system.

Keywords: Double auction market, Investment cost recovery, Optimal location, Social welfare, TCSC

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148 A Robust Approach to the Load Frequency Control Problem with Speed Regulation Uncertainty

Authors: S. Z. Sayed Hassen

Abstract:

The load frequency control problem of power systems has attracted a lot of attention from engineers and researchers over the years. Increasing and quickly changing load demand, coupled with the inclusion of more generators with high variability (solar and wind power generators) on the network are making power systems more difficult to regulate. Frequency changes are unavoidable but regulatory authorities require that these changes remain within a certain bound. Engineers are required to perform the tricky task of adjusting the control system to maintain the frequency within tolerated bounds. It is well known that to minimize frequency variations, a large proportional feedback gain (speed regulation constant) is desirable. However, this improvement in performance using proportional feedback comes about at the expense of a reduced stability margin and also allows some steady-state error. A conventional PI controller is then included as a secondary control loop to drive the steadystate error to zero. In this paper, we propose a robust controller to replace the conventional PI controller which guarantees performance and stability of the power system over the range of variation of the speed regulation constant. Simulation results are shown to validate the superiority of the proposed approach on a simple single-area power system model.

Keywords: Robust control, power system, integral action, minimax LQG control.

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147 Orthogonal Functions Approach to LQG Control

Authors: B. M. Mohan, Sanjeeb Kumar Kar

Abstract:

In this paper a unified approach via block-pulse functions (BPFs) or shifted Legendre polynomials (SLPs) is presented to solve the linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) control problem. Also a recursive algorithm is proposed to solve the above problem via BPFs. By using the elegant operational properties of orthogonal functions (BPFs or SLPs) these computationally attractive algorithms are developed. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed approaches a numerical example is included.

Keywords: Linear quadratic Gaussian control, linear quadratic estimator, linear quadratic regulator, time-invariant systems, orthogonal functions, block-pulse functions, shifted legendre polynomials.

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146 Real Time Monitoring of Long Slender Shaft by Distributed-Lumped Modeling Techniques

Authors: Sina Babadi, K. M. Ebrahimi

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to determine the stress levels at the end of a long slender shaft such as a drilling assembly used in the oil or gas industry using a mathematical model in real-time. The torsional deflection experienced by this type of drilling shaft (about 4 KM length and 20 cm diameter hollow shaft with a thickness of 1 cm) can only be determined using a distributed modeling technique. The main objective of this project is to calculate angular velocity and torque at the end of the shaft by TLM method and also analyzing of the behavior of the system by transient response. The obtained result is compared with lumped modeling technique the importance of these results will be evident only after the mentioned comparison. Two systems have different transient responses and in this project because of the length of the shaft transient response is very important.

Keywords: Distributed Lumped modeling, Lumped modeling, Drill string, Angular Velocity, Torque.

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145 Interconnect Analysis of a Novel Multiplexer Based Full-Adder Cell for Power and Propagation Delay Optimizations

Authors: G.Ramana Murthy, C.Senthilpari, P.Velrajkumar, Lim Tien Sze

Abstract:

The proposed multiplexer-based novel 1-bit full adder cell is schematized by using DSCH2 and its layout is generated by using microwind VLSI CAD tool. The adder cell layout interconnect analysis is performed by using BSIM4 layout analyzer. The adder circuit is compared with other six existing adder circuits for parametric analysis. The proposed adder cell gives better performance than the other existing six adder circuits in terms of power, propagation delay and PDP. The proposed adder circuit is further analyzed for interconnect analysis, which gives better performance than other adder circuits in terms of layout thickness, width and height.

Keywords: Full Adder, Interconnect Analysis, Low-Power, Multiplexer, Propagation Delay, Parametric Analysis.

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144 An Efficient Heuristic for the Minimum Connected Dominating Set Problem on Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

Authors: S. Balaji, N. Revathi

Abstract:

Connected dominating set (CDS) problem in unit disk graph has signi£cant impact on an ef£cient design of routing protocols in wireless sensor networks, where the searching space for a route is reduced to nodes in the set. A set is dominating if all the nodes in the system are either in the set or neighbors of nodes in the set. In this paper, a simple and ef£cient heuristic method is proposed for £nding a minimum connected dominating set (MCDS) in ad hoc wireless networks based on the new parameter support of vertices. With this parameter the proposed heuristic approach effectively £nds the MCDS of a graph. Extensive computational experiments show that the proposed approach outperforms the recently proposed heuristics found in the literature for the MCD

Keywords: ad hoc wireless networks, dominating sets, unit disk graphs, heuristic.

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143 Positive Periodic Solutions for a Predator-prey Model with Modified Leslie-Gower Holling-type II Schemes and a Deviating Argument

Authors: Yanling Zhu, Kai Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, by utilizing the coincidence degree theorem a predator-prey model with modified Leslie-Gower Hollingtype II schemes and a deviating argument is studied. Some sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of positive periodic solutions of the model.

Keywords: Predator-prey model, Holling II type functional response, positive periodic solution, coincidence degree theorem.

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142 Generalization Kernel for Geopotential Approximation by Harmonic Splines

Authors: Elena Kotevska

Abstract:

This paper presents a generalization kernel for gravitational potential determination by harmonic splines. It was shown in [10] that the gravitational potential can be approximated using a kernel represented as a Newton integral over the real Earth body. On the other side, the theory of geopotential approximation by harmonic splines uses spherically oriented kernels. The purpose of this paper is to show that in the spherical case both kernels have the same type of representation, which leads us to conclusion that it is possible to consider the kernel represented as a Newton integral over the real Earth body as a kind of generalization of spherically harmonic kernels to real geometries.

Keywords: Geopotential, Reproducing Kernel, Approximation, Regular Surface

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141 Ranking and Unranking Algorithms for k-ary Trees in Gray Code Order

Authors: Fateme Ashari-Ghomi, Najme Khorasani, Abbas Nowzari-Dalini

Abstract:

In this paper, we present two new ranking and unranking algorithms for k-ary trees represented by x-sequences in Gray code order. These algorithms are based on a gray code generation algorithm developed by Ahrabian et al.. In mentioned paper, a recursive backtracking generation algorithm for x-sequences corresponding to k-ary trees in Gray code was presented. This generation algorithm is based on Vajnovszki-s algorithm for generating binary trees in Gray code ordering. Up to our knowledge no ranking and unranking algorithms were given for x-sequences in this ordering. we present ranking and unranking algorithms with O(kn2) time complexity for x-sequences in this Gray code ordering

Keywords: k-ary Tree Generation, Ranking, Unranking, Gray Code.

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140 Stability of Interval Fractional-order Systems with Order 0 < α < 1

Authors: Hong Li, Shou-ming Zhong, Hou-biao Li

Abstract:

In this paper, some brief sufficient conditions for the stability of FO-LTI systems dαx(t) dtα = Ax(t) with the fractional order are investigated when the matrix A and the fractional order α are uncertain or both α and A are uncertain, respectively. In addition, we also relate the stability of a fractional-order system with order 0 < α ≤ 1 to the stability of its equivalent fractional-order system with order 1 ≤ β < 2, the relationship between α and β is presented. Finally, a numeric experiment is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of our results.

Keywords: Interval fractional-order systems, linear matrix inequality (LMI), asymptotical stability.

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139 On Method of Fundamental Solution for Nondestructive Testing

Authors: Jieer Wu, Zheshu Ma

Abstract:

Nondestructive testing in engineering is an inverse Cauchy problem for Laplace equation. In this paper the problem of nondestructive testing is expressed by a Laplace-s equation with third-kind boundary conditions. In order to find unknown values on the boundary, the method of fundamental solution is introduced and realized. Because of the ill-posedness of studied problems, the TSVD regularization technique in combination with L-curve criteria and Generalized Cross Validation criteria is employed. Numerical results are shown that the TSVD method combined with L-curve criteria is more efficient than the TSVD method combined with GCV criteria. The abstract goes here.

Keywords: ill-posed, TSVD, Laplace's equation, inverse problem, L-curve, Generalized Cross Validation.

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138 Existence and Exponential Stability of Almost Periodic Solution for Recurrent Neural Networks on Time Scales

Authors: Lili Wang, Meng Hu

Abstract:

In this paper, a class of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) with variable delays are studied on almost periodic time scales, some sufficient conditions are established for the existence and global exponential stability of the almost periodic solution. These results have important leading significance in designs and applications of RNNs. Finally, two examples and numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the results.

Keywords: Recurrent neural network, Almost periodic solution, Global exponential stability, Time scale.

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137 A Novel Approach to Positive Almost Periodic Solution of BAM Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays

Authors: Lili Wang, Meng Hu

Abstract:

In this paper, based on almost periodic functional hull theory and M-matrix theory, some sufficient conditions are established for the existence and uniqueness of positive almost periodic solution for a class of BAM neural networks with time-varying delays. An example is given to illustrate the main results.

Keywords: Delayed BAM neural networks, Hull theorem, Mmatrix, Almost periodic solution, Global exponential stability.

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136 Alternating Implicit Block FDTD Method For Scalar Wave Equation

Authors: N. M. Nusi, M. Othman, M. Suleiman, F. Ismail, N. Alias

Abstract:

In this paper, an alternating implicit block method for solving two dimensional scalar wave equation is presented. The new method consist of two stages for each time step implemented in alternating directions which are very simple in computation. To increase the speed of computation, a group of adjacent points is computed simultaneously. It is shown that the presented method increase the maximum time step size and more accurate than the conventional finite difference time domain (FDTD) method and other existing method of natural ordering.

Keywords: FDTD, Scalar wave equation, alternating direction implicit (ADI), alternating group explicit (AGE), asymmetric approximation.

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135 Solving a System of Nonlinear Functional Equations Using Revised New Iterative Method

Authors: Sachin Bhalekar, Varsha Daftardar-Gejji

Abstract:

In the present paper, we present a modification of the New Iterative Method (NIM) proposed by Daftardar-Gejji and Jafari [J. Math. Anal. Appl. 2006;316:753–763] and use it for solving systems of nonlinear functional equations. This modification yields a series with faster convergence. Illustrative examples are presented to demonstrate the method.

Keywords: Caputo fractional derivative, System of nonlinear functional equations, Revised new iterative method.

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134 Variational Iteration Method for Solving Systems of Linear Delay Differential Equations

Authors: Sara Barati, Karim Ivaz

Abstract:

In this paper, using a model transformation approach a system of linear delay differential equations (DDEs) with multiple delays is converted to a non-delayed initial value problem. The variational iteration method (VIM) is then applied to obtain the approximate analytical solutions. Numerical results are given for several examples involving scalar and second order systems. Comparisons with the classical fourth-order Runge-Kutta method (RK4) verify that this method is very effective and convenient.

Keywords: Variational iteration method, delay differential equations, multiple delays, Runge-Kutta method.

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133 Augmented Lyapunov Approach to Robust Stability of Discrete-time Stochastic Neural Networks with Time-varying Delays

Authors: Shu Lü, Shouming Zhong, Zixin Liu

Abstract:

In this paper, the robust exponential stability problem of discrete-time uncertain stochastic neural networks with timevarying delays is investigated. By introducing a new augmented Lyapunov function, some delay-dependent stable results are obtained in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique. Compared with some existing results in the literature, the conservatism of the new criteria is reduced notably. Three numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the less conservatism and effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Robust exponential stability, delay-dependent stability, discrete-time neural networks, stochastic, time-varying delays.

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132 Unsteady Reversed Stagnation-Point Flow over a Flat Plate

Authors: Vai Kuong Sin, Chon Kit Chio

Abstract:

This paper investigates the nature of the development of two-dimensional laminar flow of an incompressible fluid at the reversed stagnation-point. ". In this study, we revisit the problem of reversed stagnation-point flow over a flat plate. Proudman and Johnson (1962) first studied the flow and obtained an asymptotic solution by neglecting the viscous terms. This is no true in neglecting the viscous terms within the total flow field. In particular it is pointed out that for a plate impulsively accelerated from rest to a constant velocity V0 that a similarity solution to the self-similar ODE is obtained which is noteworthy completely analytical.

Keywords: reversed stagnation-point flow, similarity solutions, analytical solution, numerical solution

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131 The Countabilities of Soft Topological Spaces

Authors: Weijian Rong

Abstract:

Soft topological spaces are considered as mathematical tools for dealing with uncertainties, and a fuzzy topological space is a special case of the soft topological space. The purpose of this paper is to study soft topological spaces. We introduce some new concepts in soft topological spaces such as soft first-countable spaces, soft second-countable spaces and soft separable spaces, and some basic properties of these concepts are explored.

Keywords: soft sets, soft first-countable spaces, soft second countable spaces, soft separable spaces, soft Lindelöf.

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130 An H1-Galerkin Mixed Method for the Coupled Burgers Equation

Authors: Xianbiao Jia, Hong Li, Yang Liu, Zhichao Fang

Abstract:

In this paper, an H1-Galerkin mixed finite element method is discussed for the coupled Burgers equations. The optimal error estimates of the semi-discrete and fully discrete schemes of the coupled Burgers equation are derived.

Keywords: The coupled Burgers equation, H1-Galerkin mixed finite element method, Backward Euler's method, Optimal error estimates.

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129 New Delay-Dependent Stability Criteria for Neural Networks With Two Additive Time-varying Delay Components

Authors: Xingyuan Qu, Shouming Zhong

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of stability criteria of neural networks (NNs) with two-additive time-varying delay compenents is investigated. The relationship between the time-varying delay and its lower and upper bounds is taken into account when estimating the upper bound of the derivative of Lyapunov functional. As a result, some improved delay stability criteria for NNs with two-additive time-varying delay components are proposed. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Delay-dependent stability, time-varying delays, Lyapunov functional, linear matrix inequality (LMI).

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128 On the Maximum Theorem: A Constructive Analysis

Authors: Yasuhito Tanaka

Abstract:

We examine the maximum theorem by Berge from the point of view of Bishop style constructive mathematics. We will show an approximate version of the maximum theorem and the maximum theorem for functions with sequentially locally at most one maximum.

Keywords: Maximum theorem, Constructive mathematics, Sequentially locally at most one maximum.

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127 A Parametric Study: Frame Analysis Method for Masonry Arch Bridges

Authors: M. E. Rahman, D. Sujan, V. Pakrashi, P. Fanning

Abstract:

The predictability of masonry arch bridges and their behaviour is widely considered doubtful due to the lack of knowledge about the conditions of a given masonry arch bridge. The assessment methods for masonry arch bridges are MEXE, ARCHIE, RING and Frame Analysis Method. The material properties of the masonry and fill material are extremely difficult to determine accurately. Consequently, it is necessary to examine the effect of load dispersal angle through the fill material, the effect of variations in the stiffness of the masonry, the tensile strength of the masonry mortar continuum and the compressive strength of the masonry mortar continuum. It is also important to understand the effect of fill material on load dispersal angle to determine their influence on ratings. In this paper a series of parametric studies, to examine the sensitivity of assessment ratings to the various sets of input data required by the frame analysis method, are carried out.

Keywords: Arch Bridge, Frame Analyses Method, Masonry

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126 Experimental Studies on Treated Sub-base Soil with Fly Ash and Cement for Sustainable Design Recommendations

Authors: M. Jayakumar, Lau Chee Sing

Abstract:

The pavement constructions on soft and expansive soils are not durable and unable to sustain heavy traffic loading. As a result, pavement failures and settlement problems will occur very often even under light traffic loading due to cyclic and rolling effects. Geotechnical engineers have dwelled deeply into this matter, and adopt various methods to improve the engineering characteristics of soft fine-grained soils and expansive soils. The problematic soils are either replaced by good and better quality material or treated by using chemical stabilization with various binding materials. Increased the strength and durability are also the part of the sustainability drive to reduce the environment footprint of the built environment by the efficient use of resources and waste recycle materials. This paper presents a series of laboratory tests and evaluates the effect of cement and fly ash on the strength and drainage characteristics of soil in Miri. The tests were performed at different percentages of cement and fly ash by dry weight of soil. Additional tests were also performed on soils treated with the combinations of fly ash with cement and lime. The results of this study indicate an increase in unconfined compression strength and a decrease in hydraulic conductivity of the treated soil.

Keywords: Pavement failure, soft soil, sustainability, stabilization, fly ash, strength and permeability.

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125 Modeling and Stability Analysis of Delayed Game Network

Authors: Zixin Liu, Jian Yu, Daoyun Xu

Abstract:

This paper aims to establish a delayed dynamical relationship between payoffs of players in a zero-sum game. By introducing Markovian chain and time delay in the network model, a delayed game network model with sector bounds and slope bounds restriction nonlinear function is first proposed. As a result, a direct dynamical relationship between payoffs of players in a zero-sum game can be illustrated through a delayed singular system. Combined with Finsler-s Lemma and Lyapunov stable theory, a sufficient condition guaranteeing the unique existence and stability of zero-sum game-s Nash equilibrium is derived. One numerical example is presented to illustrate the validity of the main result.

Keywords: Game networks, zero-sum game, delayed singular system, nonlinear perturbation, time delay.

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124 Loop-free Local Path Repair Strategy for Directed Diffusion

Authors: Basma M. Mohammad El-Basioni, Sherine M. Abd El-kader, Hussein S. Eissa

Abstract:

This paper proposes an implementation for the directed diffusion paradigm aids in studying this paradigm-s operations and evaluates its behavior according to this implementation. The directed diffusion is evaluated with respect to the loss percentage, lifetime, end-to-end delay, and throughput. From these evaluations some suggestions and modifications are proposed to improve the directed diffusion behavior according to this implementation with respect to these metrics. The proposed modifications reflect the effect of local path repair by introducing a technique called Loop-free Local Path Repair (LLPR) which improves the directed diffusion behavior especially with respect to packet loss percentage by about 92.69%. Also LLPR improves the throughput and end-to-end delay by about 55.31% and 14.06% respectively, while the lifetime decreases by about 29.79%.

Keywords: Attribute-value based naming scheme, data gathering, data-centric routing, energy-efficiency, locality, wireless sensor network.

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123 Clustering Methods Applied to the Tracking of user Traces Interacting with an e-Learning System

Authors: Larbi Omar, Elberrichi Zakaria

Abstract:

Many research works are carried out on the analysis of traces in a digital learning environment. These studies produce large volumes of usage tracks from the various actions performed by a user. However, to exploit these data, compare and improve performance, several issues are raised. To remedy this, several works deal with this problem seen recently. This research studied a series of questions about format and description of the data to be shared. Our goal is to share thoughts on these issues by presenting our experience in the analysis of trace-based log files, comparing several approaches used in automatic classification applied to e-learning platforms. Finally, the obtained results are discussed.

Keywords: Classification, , e-learning platform, log file, Trace.

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122 FSM-based Recognition of Dynamic Hand Gestures via Gesture Summarization Using Key Video Object Planes

Authors: M. K. Bhuyan

Abstract:

The use of human hand as a natural interface for humancomputer interaction (HCI) serves as the motivation for research in hand gesture recognition. Vision-based hand gesture recognition involves visual analysis of hand shape, position and/or movement. In this paper, we use the concept of object-based video abstraction for segmenting the frames into video object planes (VOPs), as used in MPEG-4, with each VOP corresponding to one semantically meaningful hand position. Next, the key VOPs are selected on the basis of the amount of change in hand shape – for a given key frame in the sequence the next key frame is the one in which the hand changes its shape significantly. Thus, an entire video clip is transformed into a small number of representative frames that are sufficient to represent a gesture sequence. Subsequently, we model a particular gesture as a sequence of key frames each bearing information about its duration. These constitute a finite state machine. For recognition, the states of the incoming gesture sequence are matched with the states of all different FSMs contained in the database of gesture vocabulary. The core idea of our proposed representation is that redundant frames of the gesture video sequence bear only the temporal information of a gesture and hence discarded for computational efficiency. Experimental results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed scheme for key frame extraction, subsequent gesture summarization and finally gesture recognition.

Keywords: Hand gesture, MPEG-4, Hausdorff distance, finite state machine.

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121 Changes of