Search results for: Zohreh Orshesh
14 Numerical Study of Oxygen Enrichment on NO Pollution Spread in a Combustion Chamber
Authors: Zohreh Orshesh
Abstract:In this study, a 3D combustion chamber was simulated using FLUENT 6.32. Aim to obtain detailed information on combustion characteristics and _ nitrogen oxides in the furnace and the effect of oxygen enrichment in a combustion process. Oxygenenriched combustion is an effective way to reduce emissions. This paper analyzes NO emission, including thermal NO and prompt NO. Flow rate ratio of air to fuel is varied as 1.3, 3.2 and 5.1 and the oxygen enriched flow rates are 28, 54 and 68 lit/min. The 3D Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations with standard k-ε turbulence model are solved together by Fluent 6.32 software. First order upwind scheme is used to model governing equations and the SIMPLE algorithm is used as pressure velocity coupling. Results show that for AF=1.3, increase the oxygen flow rate of oxygen reduction in NO emissions is Lance. Moreover, in a fixed oxygen enrichment condition, increasing the air to fuel ratio will increase the temperature peak, but not the NO emission rate. As a result, oxygen enrichment can reduce the NO emission at this kind of furnace in low air to fuel rates.
Keywords: Combustion chamber, Oxygen enrichment, Reynolds Averaged Navier- Stokes, NO emissionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1504
13 Numerical Study on CO2 Pollution in an Ignition Chamber by Oxygen Enrichment
Authors: Zohreh Orshesh
Abstract:In this study, a 3D combustion chamber was simulated using FLUENT 6.32. Aims to obtain accurate information about the profile of the combustion in the furnace and also check the effect of oxygen enrichment on the combustion process. Oxygen enrichment is an effective way to reduce combustion pollutant. The flow rate of air to fuel ratio is varied as 1.3, 3.2 and 5.1 and the oxygen enriched flow rates are 28, 54 and 68 lit/min. Combustion simulations typically involve the solution of the turbulent flows with heat transfer, species transport and chemical reactions. It is common to use the Reynolds-averaged form of the governing equation in conjunction with a suitable turbulence model. The 3D Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations with standard k-ε turbulence model are solved together by Fluent 6.3 software. First order upwind scheme is used to model governing equations and the SIMPLE algorithm is used as pressure velocity coupling. Species mass fractions at the wall are assumed to have zero normal gradients.Results show that minimum mole fraction of CO2 happens when the flow rate ratio of air to fuel is 5.1. Additionally, in a fixed oxygen enrichment condition, increasing the air to fuel ratio will increase the temperature peak. As a result, oxygen-enrichment can reduce the CO2 emission at this kind of furnace in high air to fuel rates.
Keywords: Combustion chamber, Oxygen enrichment, Reynolds Averaged Navier- Stokes, CO2 emissionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1425
12 The Effect of a Muscarinic Antagonist on the Lipase Activity
Authors: Zohreh Bayat, Dariush Minai-Tehrani
Lipases constitute one of the most important groups of industrial enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol to glycerol and fatty acids. Muscarinic antagonist relieves smooth muscle spasm of the gastrointestinal tract and effect on the cardiovascular system. In this research the effect of a muscarinic antagonist on the lipase activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied. Lineweaver–Burk plot showed that the drug inhibited the enzyme by competitive inhibition. The IC50 value (0.16 mM) and Ki (0.03 mM) of the drug revealed the drug bound to enzyme with high affinity. Determination of enzyme activity in various pH and temperature showed that the maximum activity of lipase was at pH 8 and 60oC both in presence and absence of the drug.
Keywords: Bacteria, inhibition, kinetics, lipase.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2076
11 A Deterministic Polynomial-time Algorithm for the Clique Problem and the Equality of P and NP Complexity Classes
Authors: Zohreh O. Akbari
Abstract:In this paper a deterministic polynomial-time algorithm is presented for the Clique problem. The case is considered as the problem of omitting the minimum number of vertices from the input graph so that none of the zeroes on the graph-s adjacency matrix (except the main diagonal entries) would remain on the adjacency matrix of the resulting subgraph. The existence of a deterministic polynomial-time algorithm for the Clique problem, as an NP-complete problem will prove the equality of P and NP complexity classes.
Keywords: Clique problem, Deterministic Polynomial-time Algorithm, Equality of P and NP Complexity Classes.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1694
10 Evaluation Framework for Agent-Oriented Methodologies
Authors: Zohreh O. Akbari, Ahmad Faraahi
Abstract:Many agent-oriented software engineering methodologies have been proposed for software developing; however their application is still limited due to their lack of maturity. Evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of these methodologies plays an important role in improving them and in developing new stronger methodologies. This paper presents an evaluation framework for agent-oriented methodologies, which addresses six major areas: concepts, notation, process, pragmatics, support for software engineering and marketability. The framework is then used to evaluate the Gaia methodology to identify its strengths and weaknesses, and to prove the ability of the framework for promoting the agent-oriented methodologies by detecting their weaknesses in detail.
Keywords: Agent-Oriented Software Engineering, Evaluation Framework, Methodology.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1958
9 Antibacterial Activity of the Chennopodium album Leaves and Flowers Extract
Authors: Leila Amjad, Zohreh Alizad
Abstract:Recent years have instance that there is a invigoration of interest in drug discovery from medicinal plants for the support of health in all parts of the world . This study was designed to examine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the flowers and leaves methanolic and ethanolic extracts of Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium album Linn. flowers and leaves were collected from East Esfahan, Iran. The effects of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were tested against 4 bacterial strains by using disc,well-diffusion method. Results showed that flowers and leaves methanolic and ethanolic extracts of C.album don-t have any activity against the selected bacterial strains. Our study has indicated that ,there are effective different factors on antimicrobial properties of plant extracts
Keywords: Chennopodium album, antibacterial activity, extractProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3045
8 Comparative Study of Ecological City Criteria in Traditional Iranian Cities
Authors: Zahra Yazdani Paraii, Zohreh Yazdani Paraei
Many urban designers and planners have been involved in the design of environmentally friendly or nature adaptable urban development models due to increase in urban populations in the recent century, limitation on natural resources, climate change, and lack of enough water and food. Ecological city is one of the latest models proposed to accomplish the latter goal. In this work, the existing establishing indicators of the ecological city are used regarding energy, water, land use and transportation issues. The model is used to compare the function of traditional settlements of Iran. The result of investigation shows that the specifications and functions of the traditional settlements of Iran fit well into the ecological city model. It is found that the inhabitants of the old cities and villages in Iran had founded ecological cities based on their knowledge of the environment and its natural opportunities and limitations.
Keywords: Ecological city, traditional city, urban design, environment.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 995
7 Modified Hybrid Genetic Algorithm-Based Artificial Neural Network Application on Wall Shear Stress Prediction
Authors: Zohreh Sheikh Khozani, Wan Hanna Melini Wan Mohtar, Mojtaba Porhemmat
Prediction of wall shear stress in a rectangular channel, with non-homogeneous roughness distribution, was studied. Estimation of shear stress is an important subject in hydraulic engineering, since it affects the flow structure directly. In this study, the Genetic Algorithm Artificial (GAA) neural network is introduced as a hybrid methodology of the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and modified Genetic Algorithm (GA) combination. This GAA method was employed to predict the wall shear stress. Various input combinations and transfer functions were considered to find the most appropriate GAA model. The results show that the proposed GAA method could predict the wall shear stress of open channels with high accuracy, by Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 0.064 in the test dataset. Thus, using GAA provides an accurate and practical simple-to-use equation.
Keywords: Artificial neural network, genetic algorithm, genetic programming, rectangular channel, shear stress.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 494
6 Information Security in E-Learning through Identification of Humans
Authors: Hassan Haleh, Zohreh Nasiri, Parisa Farahpour
Abstract:During recent years, the traditional learning approaches have undergone fundamental changes due to the emergence of new technologies such as multimedia, hypermedia and telecommunication. E-learning is a modern world phenomenon that has come into existence in the information age and in a knowledgebased society. E-learning has developed significantly within a short period of time. Thus it is of a great significant to secure information, allow a confident access and prevent unauthorized accesses. Making use of individuals- physiologic or behavioral (biometric) properties is a confident method to make the information secure. Among the biometrics, fingerprint is more acceptable and most countries use it as an efficient methods of identification. This article provides a new method to compare the fingerprint comparison by pattern recognition and image processing techniques. To verify fingerprint, the shortest distance method is used together with perceptronic multilayer neural network functioning based on minutiae. This method is highly accurate in the extraction of minutiae and it accelerates comparisons due to elimination of false minutiae and is more reliable compared with methods that merely use directional images.
Keywords: Fingerprint, minutiae, extraction of properties, multilayer neural networkProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1543
5 Sustainable Architecture Analyses of Walls in Miyaneh Village Houses, Iran
Authors: Zohreh Salavatizadeh, Feridoun NahidiAzar, Sara Salavatizadeh, Seyyed Hossein Salehi, Ahadollah Azami
Abstract:Even though so many efforts have been taken to renovate and renew the architecture of Miyaneh villages in cold and dry regions of Iran-s northwest, these efforts failed due to lack of significant study and ignoring the past and sustainable history of those villages. Considering the overpopulation of Iran-s villages as well as the importance in preventing their immigration to cities, recognizing village architecture and its construction technology is of great significance to attain sustainable residence in villages. As the only vertical surface in the space, wall possesses its unique special characteristics, and it is also a very important architectural element able to provide the immunity and comfort space for the residents. This article analyzes the characteristics of this vertical element, main types of adobe and stone walls, locally constructed technologies, implementation, the elements forming the walls in the frame of village house typology of Miyaneh, which has the most villages in East Azerbaijan, based on sustainable architectural construction materials of walls.
Keywords: Typology, Sustainable Construction, Wall ArchitectureProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1830
4 The Mediating Role of Level of Education and Income on the Relationship between Political Ideology and Attitude towards Immigration
Authors: Zohreh Bang Tavakoli, Shuktika Chatterjee
This study is investigating the impact of ideological structures in terms of conservative and liberal on shaping immigration acceptance attitudes under the contribution of socio-economic status. According to motivated reasoning theory, political ideology is identified as a recurrent impact on the formation of attitude, while conservatives tend to express more hostility toward immigrants in comparison to liberals which are proposed to be more tolerant towards immigrants. Our finding suggests that political ideology will structure individual attitudes when citizens socio-economic vulnerability and level of education are low enough to consider immigrants as a threat. Therefore, economic vulnerability is proposed to weaken the ideological predispositions’ resistance. There has been some threats and factors such as level of education and economic condition proposed by group competition theory and labor market competition theory as fundamental factors which can strengthen or weaken the effects of political ideology on individuals’ attitudes towards immigration; those mechanisms for liberals and conservatives will be operated differently.
Keywords: Conservative, immigration, liberal, political ideology.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 428
3 Impact of Fiscal Policy on Economic Growth under the Contributions of Level of External Debt in Developing Countries
Authors: Zohreh Bang Tavakoli, Shuktika Chatterjee
This study investigates the fiscal policy impact on countries’ economic growth in developing countries with a different external debt level. The fiscal policy effectiveness has been re-emphasized in the global financial crisis of 2008 with the external debt as its new contemporary driver. Different theories have proposed the economic consequence of fiscal policy, specifically for developing countries. However, fiscal policy literature is lacking research regarding the fiscal policy’s effectiveness with the external debt’s contributions through comprehensive study. Also, high levels of external debt will influence economic growth. Through foreign resources and channel of investment in which high level of debt decreases the amount of foreign investment in the developing countries. The finding of this study suggests that only countries with a low external debt level and appropriate fiscal policies and good quality institutions can gain the proper quantity and quality of foreign investors in which will help the economic growth. For this, this research is examining the impact of fiscal policy on developing countries' economic growth in the situation of different external debt levels.
Keywords: fiscal policy, external debt, gross domestic product, developing countriesProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 302
2 Investigating the Effect of Refinancing on Financial Behavior of Energy Efficiency Projects
Authors: Zohreh Soltani, Seyedmohammadhossein Hosseinian
Abstract:Reduction of energy consumption in built infrastructure, through the installation of energy-efficient technologies, is a major approach to achieving sustainability. In practice, the viability of energy efficiency projects strongly depends on the cost reimbursement and profitability. These projects are subject to failure if the actual cost savings do not reimburse the project cost promptly. In such cases, refinancing could be a solution to benefit from the long-term returns of the project, if implemented wisely. However, very little is still known about the effect of refinancing options on financial performance of energy efficiency projects. In order to fill this gap, the present study investigates the financial behavior of energy efficiency projects with focus on refinancing options, such as Leveraged Loans. A System Dynamics (SD) model is introduced, and the model application is presented using an actual case-study data. The case study results indicate that while high-interest start-ups make using Leveraged Loan inevitable, refinancing can rescue the project and bring about profitability. This paper also presents some managerial implications of refinancing energy efficiency projects based on the case-study analysis. Results of this study help to implement financially viable energy efficiency projects so that the community could benefit from their environmental advantages widely.
Keywords: Energy efficiency projects, leveraged loan, refinancing, sustainability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1101
1 Replacement of Commercial Anti-Corrosion Material with a More Effective and Cost Efficient Compound Based on Electrolytic System Simulation
Authors: Saeid Khajehmandali, Fattah Mollakarimi, Zohreh Seyf
Abstract:There was a high rate of corrosion in Pyrolysis Gasoline Hydrogenation (PGH) unit of Arak Petrochemical Company (ARPC), and it caused some operational problem in this plant. A commercial chemical had been used as anti-corrosion in the depentanizer column overhead in order to control the corrosion rate. Injection of commercial corrosion inhibitor caused some operational problems such as fouling in some heat exchangers. It was proposed to replace this commercial material with another more effective trouble free, and well-known additive by R&D and operation specialists. At first, the system was simulated by commercial simulation software in electrolytic system to specify low pH points inside the plant. After a very comprehensive study of the situation and technical investigations ,ammonia / monoethanol amine solution was proposed as neutralizer or corrosion inhibitor to be injected in a suitable point of the plant. For this purpose, the depentanizer column and its accessories system was simulated again in case of this solution injection. According to the simulation results, injection of new anticorrosion substance has no any side effect on C5 cut product and operating conditions of the column. The corrosion rate will be cotrolled, if the pH remains at the range of 6.5 to 8 . Aactual plant test run was also carried out by injection of ammonia / monoethanol amine solution at the rate of 0.6 Kg/hr and the results of iron content of water samples and corrosion test coupons confirmed the simulation results. Now, ammonia / monoethanol amine solution is injected to a suitable pint inside the plant and corrosion rate has decreased significantly.
Keywords: Corrosion, Pyrolysis Gasoline, Simulation, Corrosion test copoun.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2260