**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**181

# Search results for: Least Squares

##### 181 A Comparison of the Sum of Squares in Linear and Partial Linear Regression Models

**Authors:**
Dursun Aydın

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Partial Linear Regression Model,
Linear RegressionModel,
Residuals,
Deviance,
Smoothing Spline.

##### 180 Least Squares Method Identification of Corona Current-Voltage Characteristics and Electromagnetic Field in Electrostatic Precipitator

**Authors:**
H. Nouri,
I. E. Achouri,
A. Grimes,
H. Ait Said,
M. Aissou,
Y. Zebboudj

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Electrostatic precipitator,
current-voltage
characteristics,
Least Squares method,
electric field,
magnetic field.

##### 179 An Adaptive Least-squares Mixed Finite Element Method for Pseudo-parabolic Integro-differential Equations

**Authors:**
Zilong Feng,
Hong Li,
Yang Liu,
Siriguleng He

**Abstract:**

In this article, an adaptive least-squares mixed finite element method is studied for pseudo-parabolic integro-differential equations. The solutions of least-squares mixed weak formulation and mixed finite element are proved. A posteriori error estimator is constructed based on the least-squares functional and the posteriori errors are obtained.

**Keywords:**
Pseudo-parabolic integro-differential equation,
least squares mixed finite element method,
adaptive method,
a posteriori error estimates.

##### 178 Wavelet Based Identification of Second Order Linear System

**Authors:**
Sudipta Majumdar,
Harish Parthasarathy

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Least squares method,
linear system,
system identification,
wavelet transform.

##### 177 Some Constructions of Non-Commutative Latin Squares of Order n

**Authors:**
H. V. Chen,
A. Y. M. Chin,
S. Sharmini

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
group,
Latin square,
embedding.

##### 176 An Iterative Method for the Least-squares Symmetric Solution of AXB+CYD=F and its Application

**Authors:**
Minghui Wang

**Abstract:**

Based on the classical algorithm LSQR for solving (unconstrained) LS problem, an iterative method is proposed for the least-squares like-minimum-norm symmetric solution of AXB+CYD=E. As the application of this algorithm, an iterative method for the least-squares like-minimum-norm biymmetric solution of AXB=E is also obtained. Numerical results are reported that show the efficiency of the proposed methods.

**Keywords:**
Matrix equation,
bisymmetric matrix,
least squares problem,
like-minimum norm,
iterative algorithm.

##### 175 Order Reduction by Least-Squares Methods about General Point ''a''

**Authors:**
Integral square error,
Least-squares,
Markovparameters,
Moment matching,
Order reduction.

**Abstract:**

The concept of order reduction by least-squares moment matching and generalised least-squares methods has been extended about a general point ?a?, to obtain the reduced order models for linear, time-invariant dynamic systems. Some heuristic criteria have been employed for selecting the linear shift point ?a?, based upon the means (arithmetic, harmonic and geometric) of real parts of the poles of high order system. It is shown that the resultant model depends critically on the choice of linear shift point ?a?. The validity of the criteria is illustrated by solving a numerical example and the results are compared with the other existing techniques.

**Keywords:**
Integral square error,
Least-squares,
Markovparameters,
Moment matching,
Order reduction.

##### 174 Extended Least Squares LS–SVM

**Authors:**
József Valyon,
Gábor Horváth

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Function estimation,
Least–Squares Support VectorMachines,
Regression,
System Modeling

##### 173 Relationship between Sums of Squares in Linear Regression and Semi-parametric Regression

**Authors:**
Dursun Aydın,
Bilgin Senel

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Semi-parametric regression,
Penalized LeastSquares,
Residuals,
Deviance,
Smoothing Spline.

##### 172 Public Squares and Their Potential for Social Interactions: A Case Study of Historical Public Squares in Tehran

**Authors:**
Asma Mehan

**Abstract:**

Under the thrust of technological changes, population growth and vehicular traffic, Iranian historical squares have lost their significance and they are no longer the main social nodes of the society. This research focuses on how historical public squares can inspire designers to enhance social interactions among citizens in Iranian urban context. Moreover, the recent master plan of Tehran demonstrates the lack of public spaces designed for the purpose of people’s social gatherings. For filling this gap, first the current situation of 7 selected primary historical public squares in Tehran including Sabze Meydan, Arg, Topkhaneh, Baherstan, Mokhber-al-dole, Rah Ahan and Hassan Abad have been compared. Later, the influencing elements on social interactions of the public squares such as subjective factors (human relationships and memories) and objective factors (natural and built environment) have been investigated. As a conclusion, some strategies are proposed for improving social interactions in historical public squares like; holding cultural, national, athletic and religious events, defining different and new functions in public squares’ surrounding, increasing pedestrian routs, reviving the collective memory, demonstrating the historical importance of square, eliminating visual obstacles across the square, organization the natural elements of the square, appropriate pavement for social activities. Finally, it is argued that the combination of all influencing factors which are: human interactions, natural elements and built environment criteria will lead to enhance the historical public squares’ potential for social interaction.

**Keywords:**
Historical Square,
Iranian Public Square,
Social Interaction,
Tehran.

##### 171 Short Time Identification of Feed Drive Systems using Nonlinear Least Squares Method

**Authors:**
M.G.A. Nassef,
Linghan Li,
C. Schenck,
B. Kuhfuss

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
feed drive systems,
least squares algorithm,
onlineparameter identification,
short time window

##### 170 Recursive Least Squares Adaptive Filter a better ISI Compensator

**Authors:**
O. P. Sharma,
V. Janyani,
S. Sancheti

**Abstract:**

Inter-symbol interference if not taken care off may cause severe error at the receiver and the detection of signal becomes difficult. An adaptive equalizer employing Recursive Least Squares algorithm can be a good compensation for the ISI problem. In this paper performance of communication link in presence of Least Mean Square and Recursive Least Squares equalizer algorithm is analyzed. A Model of communication system having Quadrature amplitude modulation and Rician fading channel is implemented using MATLAB communication block set. Bit error rate and number of errors is evaluated for RLS and LMS equalizer algorithm, due to change in Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and fading component gain in Rician fading Channel.

**Keywords:**
Least mean square (LMS),
Recursive least squares(RLS),
Adaptive equalization,
Bit error rate (BER),
Rician fading channel,
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM),
Signal to noiseratio (SNR).

##### 169 Gauss-Seidel Iterative Methods for Rank Deficient Least Squares Problems

**Authors:**
Davod Khojasteh Salkuyeh,
Sayyed Hasan Azizi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
rank deficient least squares problems,
AOR iterativemethod,
Gauss-Seidel iterative method,
semiconvergence.

##### 168 Online Estimation of Clutch Drag Torque in Wet Dual Clutch Transmission Based on Recursive Least Squares

**Authors:**
Hongkui Li,
Tongli Lu ,
Jianwu Zhang

**Abstract:**

This paper focuses on developing an estimation method of clutch drag torque in wet DCT. The modelling of clutch drag torque is investigated. As the main factor affecting the clutch drag torque, dynamic viscosity of oil is discussed. The paper proposes an estimation method of clutch drag torque based on recursive least squares by utilizing the dynamic equations of gear shifting synchronization process. The results demonstrate that the estimation method has good accuracy and efficiency.

**Keywords:**
Clutch drag torque,
wet DCT,
dynamic viscosity,
recursive least squares.

##### 167 Electric Load Forecasting Using Genetic Based Algorithm, Optimal Filter Estimator and Least Error Squares Technique: Comparative Study

**Authors:**
Khaled M. EL-Naggar,
Khaled A. AL-Rumaih

**Abstract:**

This paper presents performance comparison of three estimation techniques used for peak load forecasting in power systems. The three optimum estimation techniques are, genetic algorithms (GA), least error squares (LS) and, least absolute value filtering (LAVF). The problem is formulated as an estimation problem. Different forecasting models are considered. Actual recorded data is used to perform the study. The performance of the above three optimal estimation techniques is examined. Advantages of each algorithms are reported and discussed.

**Keywords:**
Forecasting,
Least error squares,
Least absolute Value,
Genetic algorithms

##### 166 A Study on the Least Squares Reduced Parameter Approximation of FIR Digital Filters

**Authors:**
S. Seyedtabaii,
E. Seyedtabaii

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Digital filter,
filter approximation,
least squares,
model order reduction.

##### 165 Variogram Fitting Based on the Wilcoxon Norm

**Authors:**
Hazem Al-Mofleh,
John Daniels,
Joseph McKean

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Non-Linear Wilcoxon,
robust estimation,
Variogram
estimation.

##### 164 Hybrid Artificial Bee Colony and Least Squares Method for Rule-Based Systems Learning

**Authors:**
Ahcene Habbi,
Yassine Boudouaoui

**Abstract:**

This paper deals with the problem of automatic rule generation for fuzzy systems design. The proposed approach is based on hybrid artificial bee colony (ABC) optimization and weighted least squares (LS) method and aims to find the structure and parameters of fuzzy systems simultaneously. More precisely, two ABC based fuzzy modeling strategies are presented and compared. The first strategy uses global optimization to learn fuzzy models, the second one hybridizes ABC and weighted least squares estimate method. The performances of the proposed ABC and ABC-LS fuzzy modeling strategies are evaluated on complex modeling problems and compared to other advanced modeling methods.

**Keywords:**
Automatic design,
learning,
fuzzy rules,
hybrid,
swarm optimization.

##### 163 A Modified Genetic Based Technique for Solving the Power System State Estimation Problem

**Authors:**
A. A. Hossam-Eldin,
E. N. Abdallah,
M. S. El-Nozahy

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Genetic algorithms,
ill-conditioning,
state
estimation,
weighted least squares.

##### 162 Short-Term Electric Load Forecasting Using Multiple Gaussian Process Models

**Authors:**
Tomohiro Hachino,
Hitoshi Takata,
Seiji Fukushima,
Yasutaka Igarashi

**Abstract:**

This paper presents a Gaussian process model-based short-term electric load forecasting. The Gaussian process model is a nonparametric model and the output of the model has Gaussian distribution with mean and variance. The multiple Gaussian process models as every hour ahead predictors are used to forecast future electric load demands up to 24 hours ahead in accordance with the direct forecasting approach. The separable least-squares approach that combines the linear least-squares method and genetic algorithm is applied to train these Gaussian process models. Simulation results are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed electric load forecasting.

**Keywords:**
Direct method,
electric load forecasting,
Gaussian process model,
genetic algorithm,
separable least-squares method.

##### 161 Calibration Method for an Augmented Reality System

**Authors:**
S. Malek,
N. Zenati-Henda,
M. Belhocine,
S. Benbelkacem

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Camera calibration,
pinhole model,
least squares
method,
augmented reality,
strong calibration.

##### 160 Transformer Top-Oil Temperature Modeling and Simulation

**Authors:**
T. C. B. N. Assunção,
J. L. Silvino,
P. Resende

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Artificial Neural Networks,
Hot-spot Temperature,
Least Squares Support Vector,
Top-oil Temperature.

##### 159 Dynamic Process Monitoring of an Ammonia Synthesis Fixed-Bed Reactor

**Authors:**
Bothinah Altaf,
Gary Montague,
Elaine B. Martin

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Ammonia synthesis fixed-bed reactor,
dynamic partial least squares modeling,
recursive partial least squares,
robust modeling.

##### 158 A Robust LS-SVM Regression

**Authors:**
József Valyon,
Gábor Horváth

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Support Vector Machines,
Least Squares SupportVector Machines,
Regression,
Sparse approximation.

##### 157 Application of the Least Squares Method in the Adjustment of Chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-142b) Regression Models

**Authors:**
L. J. de Bessa Neto,
V. S. Filho,
J. V. Ferreira Nunes,
G. C. Bergamo

**Abstract:**

There are many situations in which human activities have significant effects on the environment. Damage to the ozone layer is one of them. The objective of this work is to use the Least Squares Method, considering the linear, exponential, logarithmic, power and polynomial models of the second degree, to analyze through the coefficient of determination (R²), which model best fits the behavior of the chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-142b) in parts per trillion between 1992 and 2018, as well as estimates of future concentrations between 5 and 10 periods, i.e. the concentration of this pollutant in the years 2023 and 2028 in each of the adjustments. A total of 809 observations of the concentration of HCFC-142b in one of the monitoring stations of gases precursors of the deterioration of the ozone layer during the period of time studied were selected and, using these data, the statistical software Excel was used for make the scatter plots of each of the adjustment models. With the development of the present study, it was observed that the logarithmic fit was the model that best fit the data set, since besides having a significant R² its adjusted curve was compatible with the natural trend curve of the phenomenon.

**Keywords:**
Chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-142b),
ozone (O3),
least squares method,
regression models.

##### 156 Voltage Problem Location Classification Using Performance of Least Squares Support Vector Machine LS-SVM and Learning Vector Quantization LVQ

**Authors:**
Khaled Abduesslam. M,
Mohammed Ali,
Basher H Alsdai,
Muhammad Nizam,
Inayati

**Abstract:**

This paper presents the voltage problem location classification using performance of Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) and Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) in electrical power system for proper voltage problem location implemented by IEEE 39 bus New- England. The data was collected from the time domain simulation by using Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT). Outputs from simulation data such as voltage, phase angle, real power and reactive power were taken as input to estimate voltage stability at particular buses based on Power Transfer Stability Index (PTSI).The simulation data was carried out on the IEEE 39 bus test system by considering load bus increased on the system. To verify of the proposed LS-SVM its performance was compared to Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ). The results showed that LS-SVM is faster and better as compared to LVQ. The results also demonstrated that the LS-SVM was estimated by 0% misclassification whereas LVQ had 7.69% misclassification.

**Keywords:**
IEEE 39 bus,
Least Squares Support Vector Machine,
Learning Vector Quantization,
Voltage Collapse.

##### 155 Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Spectroscopy to Detect Microplastics and Pieces of Plastic in Almond Flour

**Authors:**
H. Apaza,
L. Chévez,
H. Loro

**Abstract:**

Plastic and microplastic pollution in human food chain is a big problem for human health that requires more elaborated techniques that can identify their presences in different kinds of food. Hyperspectral imaging technique is an optical technique than can detect the presence of different elements in an image and can be used to detect plastics and microplastics in a scene. To do this statistical techniques are required that need to be evaluated and compared in order to find the more efficient ones. In this work, two problems related to the presence of plastics are addressed, the first is to detect and identify pieces of plastic immersed in almond seeds, and the second problem is to detect and quantify microplastic in almond flour. To do this we make use of the analysis hyperspectral images taken in the range of 900 to 1700 nm using 4 unmixing techniques of hyperspectral imaging which are: least squares unmixing (LSU), non-negatively constrained least squares unmixing (NCLSU), fully constrained least squares unmixing (FCLSU), and scaled constrained least squares unmixing (SCLSU). NCLSU, FCLSU, SCLSU techniques manage to find the region where the plastic is found and also manage to quantify the amount of microplastic contained in the almond flour. The SCLSU technique estimated a 13.03% abundance of microplastics and 86.97% of almond flour compared to 16.66% of microplastics and 83.33% abundance of almond flour prepared for the experiment. Results show the feasibility of applying near-infrared hyperspectral image analysis for the detection of plastic contaminants in food.

**Keywords:**
Food,
plastic,
microplastic,
NIR hyperspectral imaging,
unmixing.

##### 154 An Accurate Method for Phylogeny Tree Reconstruction Based on a Modified Wild Dog Algorithm

**Authors:**
Essam Al Daoud

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Least squares,
neighbor joining,
phylogenetic tree,
wild dogpack.

##### 153 An Iterative Method for the Symmetric Arrowhead Solution of Matrix Equation

**Authors:**
Minghui Wang,
Luping Xu,
Juntao Zhang

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Symmetric arrowhead matrix,
iterative method,
like-minimum norm,
minimum norm,
Algorithm LSQR.

##### 152 Solving SPDEs by a Least Squares Method

**Authors:**
Hassan Manouzi

**Abstract:**

We present in this paper a useful strategy to solve stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) involving stochastic coefficients. Using the Wick-product of higher order and the Wiener-Itˆo chaos expansion, the SPDEs is reformulated as a large system of deterministic partial differential equations. To reduce the computational complexity of this system, we shall use a decomposition-coordination method. To obtain the chaos coefficients in the corresponding deterministic equations, we use a least square formulation. Once this approximation is performed, the statistics of the numerical solution can be easily evaluated.

**Keywords:**
Least squares,
Wick product,
SPDEs,
finite element,
Wiener chaos expansion,
gradient method.