Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 56

Search results for: sediment

56 A World Map of Seabed Sediment Based on 50 Years of Knowledge

Authors: T. Garlan, I. Gabelotaud, S. Lucas, E. Marchès

Abstract:

Production of a global sedimentological seabed map has been initiated in 1995 to provide the necessary tool for searches of aircraft and boats lost at sea, to give sedimentary information for nautical charts, and to provide input data for acoustic propagation modelling. This original approach had already been initiated one century ago when the French hydrographic service and the University of Nancy had produced maps of the distribution of marine sediments of the French coasts and then sediment maps of the continental shelves of Europe and North America. The current map of the sediment of oceans presented was initiated with a UNESCO's general map of the deep ocean floor. This map was adapted using a unique sediment classification to present all types of sediments: from beaches to the deep seabed and from glacial deposits to tropical sediments. In order to allow good visualization and to be adapted to the different applications, only the granularity of sediments is represented. The published seabed maps are studied, if they present an interest, the nature of the seabed is extracted from them, the sediment classification is transcribed and the resulted map is integrated in the world map. Data come also from interpretations of Multibeam Echo Sounder (MES) imagery of large hydrographic surveys of deep-ocean. These allow a very high-quality mapping of areas that until then were represented as homogeneous. The third and principal source of data comes from the integration of regional maps produced specifically for this project. These regional maps are carried out using all the bathymetric and sedimentary data of a region. This step makes it possible to produce a regional synthesis map, with the realization of generalizations in the case of over-precise data. 86 regional maps of the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Indian Ocean have been produced and integrated into the world sedimentary map. This work is permanent and permits a digital version every two years, with the integration of some new maps. This article describes the choices made in terms of sediment classification, the scale of source data and the zonation of the variability of the quality. This map is the final step in a system comprising the Shom Sedimentary Database, enriched by more than one million punctual and surface items of data, and four series of coastal seabed maps at 1:10,000, 1:50,000, 1:200,000 and 1:1,000,000. This step by step approach makes it possible to take into account the progresses in knowledge made in the field of seabed characterization during the last decades. Thus, the arrival of new classification systems for seafloor has improved the recent seabed maps, and the compilation of these new maps with those previously published allows a gradual enrichment of the world sedimentary map. But there is still a lot of work to enhance some regions, which are still based on data acquired more than half a century ago.

Keywords: Marine sedimentology, seabed map, sediment classification, World Ocean.

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55 A New Approach for Effect Evaluation of Sediment Management

Authors: Jazaul Ikhsan, Masaharu Fujita

Abstract:

Safety, river environment, and sediment utilization are the elements of the target of sediment management. As a change in an element by sediment management, may affect the other two elements, and the priority among three elements depends on stakeholders. It is necessary to develop a method to evaluate the effect of sediment management on each element and an integrated evaluation method for socio-economic effect. In this study, taking Mount Merapi basin as an investigation field, the method for an active volcanic basin was developed. An integrated evaluation method for sediment management was discussed from a socio-economic point on safety, environment, and sediment utilization and a case study of sediment management was evaluated by means of this method. To evaluate the effect of sediment management, some parameters on safety, utilization, and environment have been introduced. From a utilization point of view, job opportunity, additional income of local people, and tax income to local government were used to evaluate the effectiveness of sediment management. The risk degree of river infrastructure was used to describe the effect of sediment management on a safety aspect. To evaluate the effects of sediment management on environment, the mean diameter of grain size distribution of riverbed surface was used. On the coordinate system designating these elements, the direction of change in basin condition by sediment management can be predicted, so that the most preferable sediment management can be decided. The results indicate that the cases of sediment management tend to give the negative impacts on sediment utilization. However, these sediment managements will give positive impacts on safety and environment condition. Evaluation result from a social-economic point of view shows that the case study of sediment management reduces job opportunity and additional income for inhabitants as well as tax income for government. Therefore, it is necessary to make another policy for creating job opportunity for inhabitants to support these sediment managements.

Keywords: Merapi, sediment, management, evaluation

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54 Predictive Modelling Techniques in Sediment Yield and Hydrological Modelling

Authors: Adesoji T. Jaiyeola, Josiah Adeyemo

Abstract:

This paper presents an extensive review of literature relevant to the modelling techniques adopted in sediment yield and hydrological modelling. Several studies relating to sediment yield are discussed. Many research areas of sedimentation in rivers, runoff and reservoirs are presented. Different types of hydrological models, different methods employed in selecting appropriate models for different case studies are analysed. Applications of evolutionary algorithms and artificial intelligence techniques are discussed and compared especially in water resources management and modelling. This review concentrates on Genetic Programming (GP) and fully discusses its theories and applications. The successful applications of GP as a soft computing technique were reviewed in sediment modelling. Some fundamental issues such as benchmark, generalization ability, bloat, over-fitting and other open issues relating to the working principles of GP are highlighted. This paper concludes with the identification of some research gaps in hydrological modelling and sediment yield.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, evolutionary algorithm, genetic programming, sediment yield.

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53 Theoretical and Analytical Approaches for Investigating the Relations between Sediment Transport and Channel Shape

Authors: Nidal Hadadin

Abstract:

This study investigated the effect of cross sectional geometry on sediment transport rate. The processes of sediment transport are generally associated to environmental management, such as pollution caused by the forming of suspended sediment in the channel network of a watershed and preserving physical habitats and native vegetations, and engineering applications, such as the influence of sediment transport on hydraulic structures and flood control design. Many equations have been proposed for computing the sediment transport, the influence of many variables on sediment transport has been understood; however, the effect of other variables still requires further research. For open channel flow, sediment transport capacity is recognized to be a function of friction slope, flow velocity, grain size, grain roughness and form roughness, the hydraulic radius of the bed section and the type and quantity of vegetation cover. The effect of cross sectional geometry of the channel on sediment transport is one of the variables that need additional investigation. The width-depth ratio (W/d) is a comparative indicator of the channel shape. The width is the total distance across the channel and the depth is the mean depth of the channel. The mean depth is best calculated as total cross-sectional area divided by the top width. Channels with high W/d ratios tend to be shallow and wide, while channels with low (W/d) ratios tend to be narrow and deep. In this study, the effects of the width-depth ratio on sediment transport was demonstrated theoretically by inserting the shape factor in sediment continuity equation and analytically by utilizing the field data sets for Yalobusha River. It was found by utilizing the two approaches as a width-depth ratio increases the sediment transport decreases.

Keywords: Sediment transport, shape factor, hydraulicgeometry, flow discharge, width depth ratio.

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52 Geochemical Assessment of Heavy Metals Concentration in Surface Sediment of West Port, Malaysia

Authors: B.Tavakoly Sany, A. Salleh, A.H .Sulaiman, A. Mehdinia, GH. Monazami

Abstract:

One year (November 2009-October 2010) sediment monitoring was used to evaluate pollution status, concentration and distribution of heavy metals (As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) in West Port of Malaysia. Sediment sample were collected from nine stations every four months. Geo-accumulation factor and Pollution Load Index (PLI) were estimated to better understand the pollution level in study area. The heavy metal concentration (Mg/g dry weight) were ranged from 20.2 to 162 for As, 7.4 to 27.6 for Cu, 0.244 to 3.53 for Cd, 11.5 to 61.5 for Cr, 0.11 to 0.409 for Hg, 7.2 to 22.2 for Ni, 22.3 to 80 for Pb and 23 to 98.3 for Zn. In general, concentration some metals (As,Cd, Hg and Pb) was higher than background values that are considered as serious concern for aquatic life and the human health.

Keywords: Heavy metals, Sediment Quality, geo-accumulationindex, Pollution Load Index

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51 Assessment of Sediment Quality in the West Port Based On the Index Analysis Approach

Authors: S.B. Tavakoly Sany, A. Salleh, A.H. Sulaiman, G.H. Monazami

Abstract:

The coastal sediments of West Port of Malaysia was monitored from Nov. 2009 to Oct. 2010 to assess spatial distribution of heavy metals As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Zn and Pb. Sediment samples were collected from 10 stations in dry and rainy season in West Port. The range concentrations measured (Mg/g dry weight ) were from 23.4 to 98.3 for Zn, 22.3 to 80 for Pb, 7.4 to 27.6 Cu, 0.244 to 3.53 for Cd, 7.2 to 22.2 for Ni, 20.2 to 162 for As, 0.11 to 0.409 for Hg and 11.5 to 61.5 for Cr. The geochemical indexes used in this study were Geoaccumulation (Igeo), Contamination Factor (CF) and Pollution Load Index (PLI); these indexes were used to evaluate the levels of sediment contaminations. The results of these indexes show that, the status of West Port sediment quality are moderately polluted by heavy metals except in arsenic which shows the high level of pollution.

Keywords: Heavy metals, Sediment Quality, West Port.

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50 An Assessment of Water and Sediment Quality of the Danube River: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Trace Metals

Authors: A. Szabó Nagy, J. Szabó, I. Vass

Abstract:

Water and sediment samples from the Danube River and Moson Danube Arm (Hungary) have been collected and analyzed for contamination by 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and eight trace metal(loid)s (As, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd, Hg and Zn) in the period of 2014-2015. Moreover, the trace metal(loid) concentrations were measured in the Rába and Marcal rivers (parts of the tributary system feeding the Danube). Total PAH contents in water were found to vary from 0.016 to 0.133 µg/L and concentrations in sediments varied in the range of 0.118 mg/kg and 0.283 mg/kg. Source analysis of PAHs using diagnostic concentration ratios indicated that PAHs found in sediments were of pyrolytic origins. The dissolved trace metal and arsenic concentrations were relatively low in the surface waters. However, higher concentrations were detected in the water samples of Rába (Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb) and Marcal (As, Cu, Ni, Pb) compared to the Danube and Moson Danube. The concentrations of trace metals in sediments were higher than those found in water samples.

Keywords: Surface water, sediment, PAH, trace metal.

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49 Impact of Coal Mining on River Sediment Quality in the Sydney Basin, Australia

Authors: A. Ali, V. Strezov, P. Davies, I. Wright, T. Kan

Abstract:

The environmental impacts arising from mining activities affect the air, water, and soil quality. Impacts may result in unexpected and adverse environmental outcomes. This study reports on the impact of coal production on sediment in Sydney region of Australia. The sediment samples upstream and downstream from the discharge points from three mines were taken, and 80 parameters were tested. The results were assessed against sediment quality based on presence of metals. The study revealed the increment of metal content in the sediment downstream of the reference locations. In many cases, the sediment was above the Australia and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council and international sediment quality guidelines value (SQGV). The major outliers to the guidelines were nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn).

Keywords: Coal mine, environmental impact, produced water, sediment quality guidelines value.

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48 Sediment Transport Experiments: The Influence of the Furrow Geometry

Authors: S. Haddad, M. Bouhadef

Abstract:

In this experimental work, we have shown that the geometric shape of the grooves (furrows) plays an important role in sediment dynamics. In addition, the rheological behaviour of solid discharge does not depend only on the velocity discharge but also on the geometric shape.

Keywords: Laboratory experiments, soil erosion, groove, furrow, sediment transport

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47 Depth-Averaged Modelling of Erosion and Sediment Transport in Free-Surface Flows

Authors: Thomas Rowan, Mohammed Seaid

Abstract:

A fast finite volume solver for multi-layered shallow water flows with mass exchange and an erodible bed is developed. This enables the user to solve a number of complex sediment-based problems including (but not limited to), dam-break over an erodible bed, recirculation currents and bed evolution as well as levy and dyke failure. This research develops methodologies crucial to the under-standing of multi-sediment fluvial mechanics and waterway design. In this model mass exchange between the layers is allowed and, in contrast to previous models, sediment and fluid are able to transfer between layers. In the current study we use a two-step finite volume method to avoid the solution of the Riemann problem. Entrainment and deposition rates are calculated for the first time in a model of this nature. In the first step the governing equations are rewritten in a non-conservative form and the intermediate solutions are calculated using the method of characteristics. In the second stage, the numerical fluxes are reconstructed in conservative form and are used to calculate a solution that satisfies the conservation property. This method is found to be considerably faster than other comparative finite volume methods, it also exhibits good shock capturing. For most entrainment and deposition equations a bed level concentration factor is used. This leads to inaccuracies in both near bed level concentration and total scour. To account for diffusion, as no vertical velocities are calculated, a capacity limited diffusion coefficient is used. The additional advantage of this multilayer approach is that there is a variation (from single layer models) in bottom layer fluid velocity: this dramatically reduces erosion, which is often overestimated in simulations of this nature using single layer flows. The model is used to simulate a standard dam break. In the dam break simulation, as expected, the number of fluid layers utilised creates variation in the resultant bed profile, with more layers offering a higher deviation in fluid velocity . These results showed a marked variation in erosion profiles from standard models. The overall the model provides new insight into the problems presented at minimal computational cost.

Keywords: Erosion, finite volume method, sediment transport, shallow water equations.

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46 Utilizing Dredged Sediment for Enhancing Growth of Eelgrass in Artificially Prepared Substrates

Authors: Amelia B. Hizon-Fradejas, Yoichi Nakano, Satoshi Nakai, Wataru Nishijima, Mitsumasa Okada

Abstract:

Dredged sediment (DS) was utilized as source of silt-clay and organic matter in artificially prepared eelgrass substrates with mountain sand (MS) as the sand media. Addition of DS showed improved growth of eelgrass in the mixed substrates. Increase in added DS up to 15% silt-clay showed increased shoot growth but additional DS in 20% silt-clay mixture didn-t result to further increase in eelgrass growth. Improved root establishment were also found for plants in pots with added DS as shown by the increased resistance to uprooting, increased number of rhizome nodes and longer roots. Results demonstrated that addition of DS may be beneficial to eelgrass up to a certain extent only and too much of it might be harmful to eelgrass plants.

Keywords: Dredged sediment, eelgrass, eelgrass bed restoration, mountain sand, Zostera marina.

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45 Assessment of Sediment Quality According To Heavy Metal Status in the West Port of Malaysia

Authors: B.Tavakoly Sany, A.H .Sulaiman, GH. Monazami, A. Salleh

Abstract:

Eight heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Zn, Hg, Pb, Cd, Ni and As) were analyzed in sediment samples in the dry and wet seasons from November 2009 to October 2010 in West Port of Peninsular Malaysia. The heavy metal concentrations (mg/kg dry weight) were ranged from 23.4 to 98.3 for Zn, 22.3 to 80 for Pb, 7.4 to 27.6 Cu, 0.244 to 3.53 for Cd, 7.2 to 22.2 for Ni, 20.2 to 162 for As, 0.11 to 0.409 for Hg and 11.5 to 61.5 for Cr. Metals concentrations in dry season were higher than the rainy season except in cupper and chromium. Analysis of variance with Statistical Analysis System (SAS) shows that the mean concentration of metals in the two seasons (α level=0.05) are not significantly different which shows that the metals were held firmly in the matrix of sediment. Also there are significant differences between control point station with other stations. According to the Interim Sediment Quality guidelines (ISQG), the metal concentrations are moderately polluted, except in arsenic which shows the highest level of pollution.

Keywords: Heavy metals, sediment quality guidelines, west port.

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44 Application of GIS and Statistical Multivariate Techniques for Estimation of Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield

Authors: Masoud Nasri, Ali Gholami, Ali Najafi

Abstract:

In recent years, most of the regions in the world are exposed to degradation and erosion caused by increasing population and over use of land resources. The understanding of the most important factors on soil erosion and sediment yield are the main keys for decision making and planning. In this study, the sediment yield and soil erosion were estimated and the priority of different soil erosion factors used in the MPSIAC method of soil erosion estimation is evaluated in AliAbad watershed in southwest of Isfahan Province, Iran. Different information layers of the parameters were created using a GIS technique. Then, a multivariate procedure was applied to estimate sediment yield and to find the most important factors of soil erosion in the model. The results showed that land use, geology, land and soil cover are the most important factors describing the soil erosion estimated by MPSIAC model.

Keywords: land degradation, Soil erosion, Sediment yield, Aliabad, GIS technique, Land use.

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43 Assessment of Sediment Remediation Potential using Microbial Fuel Cell Technology

Authors: S. W. Hong, Y. S. Choi, T. H. Chung, J. H. Song, H. S. Kim

Abstract:

Bio-electrical responses obtained from freshwater sediments by employing microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology were investigated in this experimental study. During the electricity generation, organic matter in the sediment was microbially oxidized under anaerobic conditions with an electrode serving as a terminal electron acceptor. It was found that the sediment organic matter (SOM) associated with electrochemically-active electrodes became more humified, aromatic, and polydispersed, and had a higher average molecular weight, together with the decrease in the quantity of SOM. The alteration of characteristics of the SOM was analogous to that commonly observed in the early stage of SOM diagenetic process (i.e., humification). These findings including an elevation of the sediment redox potential present a possibility of the MFC technology as a new soil/sediment remediation technique based on its potential benefits: non-destructive electricity generation and bioremediation.

Keywords: Anaerobic oxidation, microbial fuel cell, remediation, sediment.

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42 Residue and Ecological Risk Assessment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Sediment from CauBay River, Vietnam

Authors: Toan Vu Duc, Son Ha Viet

Abstract:

This research presents the first comprehensive survey of congener profiles (7 indicator congeners) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediment samples covering ten sites in CauBay River, Vietnam. Chemical analyses were carried out in gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) for tri- to hepta- brominated congeners. Results pointed out a non-homogenous contamination of the sediment with ∑7 PBDE values ranging from 8.93 to 25.64ng g−1, reflecting moderate to low contamination closely in conformity to other Asian aquatic environments. The general order of decreasing congener contribution to the total load was: BDE 47 > 99 > 100 > 154, similar to the distribution pattern worldwide. PBDEs had rare risks in the sediment of studied area.  However, due to the propensity of PBDEs to accumulate in various compartments of wildlife and human food webs, evaluation of biological tissues should be undertaken as a high priority. 

Keywords: Residue, Risk assessment, PBDEs, Sediment.

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41 Distribution and Source of PAHs in Surface Sediments of Canon River Mouth, Taiwan

Authors: Chiu-Wen Chen, Chih-Feng Chen, Cheng-Di Dong

Abstract:

Surface sediment samples were collected from the Canon River mouth, Taiwan and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total PAHs concentrations varied from 337 to 1,252 ng/g dry weight, with a mean concentration of 827 ng/g dry weight. The spatial distribution of PAHs reveals that the PAHs concentration is relatively high in the river mouth region, and gradually diminishes toward the harbor region. Diagnostic ratios showed that the possible source of PAHs in the Canon River mouth could be petroleum combustion. The toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQcarc) of PAHs varied from 47 to 112 ng TEQ/g dry weight. Higher total TEQcarc values were found in the river mouth region. As compared with the US Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs), the observed levels of PAHs at Canon River mouth were lower than the effects range low (ERL), and would probably not exert adverse biological effects.

Keywords: PAHs, sediment, river mouth, sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), toxic equivalent (TEQcarc)

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40 Sediment Patterns from Fluid-Bed Interactions: A Direct Numerical Simulations Study on Fluvial Turbulent Flows

Authors: Nadim Zgheib, Sivaramakrishnan Balachandar

Abstract:

We present results on the initial formation of ripples from an initially flattened erodible bed. We use direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent open channel flow over a fixed sinusoidal bed coupled with hydrodynamic stability analysis. We use the direct forcing immersed boundary method to account for the presence of the sediment bed. The resolved flow provides the bed shear stress and consequently the sediment transport rate, which is needed in the stability analysis of the Exner equation. The approach is different from traditional linear stability analysis in the sense that the phase lag between the bed topology, and the sediment flux is obtained from the DNS. We ran 11 simulations at a fixed shear Reynolds number of 180, but for different sediment bed wavelengths. The analysis allows us to sweep a large range of physical and modelling parameters to predict their effects on linear growth. The Froude number appears to be the critical controlling parameter in the early linear development of ripples, in contrast with the dominant role of particle Reynolds number during the equilibrium stage.

Keywords: Direct numerical simulation, immersed boundary method, sediment-bed interactions, turbulent multiphase flow, linear stability analysis.

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39 Prognostic and Diagnostic Modes of Mathematical Model for the Pre-operation of Suspended Sediment Transport model in Estuaries and Coastal areas

Authors: Worachat Wannawong, Chaiwat Ekkawatpanit, Sanit Wongsa

Abstract:

Both prognostic and diagnostic modes of a 3D baroclinic model in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) were conducted to separate prognose and diagnose effects of different hydrodynamic factors on transport of suspended sediment discharged from the rivers to the Gulf of Thailand (GoT). Both transport modes of suspended sediment distribution in the GoT were numerically simulated. It could be concluded that the suspended sediment discharged from the rivers around the GoT. Most of sediments in estuaries and coastal areas are deposited outside the GoT under the condition of wind-driven current, and very small amount of the sediments of them are transported faraway. On the basis of wind forcing, sediments from the lower GoT to the upper GoT are mainly transported south-northwestward and also continuously moved north-southwestward. An obvious 3D characteristic of suspended sediment transport is produced in the wind-driven current residual circulation condition. In this study, the transport patterns at the third layer are generally consistent with the typhoon-induced strong currents in two case studies of Typhoon Linda 1997. The case studies presented the prognostic and diagnostic modes during 00UTC28OCT1997 to 12UTC06NOV1997 in a short period with the current condition for pre-operation of the suspended sediment transport model in estuaries and coastal areas.

Keywords: prognostic, diagnostic, baroclinic, sediment transport, estuaries.

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38 Sensitivity of the SHARC Model to Variations of Manning Coefficient and Effect of “n“ on the Sediment Materials Entry into the Eastern Water intake- A Case in the Dez Diversion Weir in Iran

Authors: M.R.Mansoujian, A.Rohani, N.Hedayat , M.Qamari, M. Osroosh

Abstract:

Permanent rivers are the main sources of renewable water supply for the croplands under the irrigation and drainage schemes. They are also the major source of sediment loads transport into the storage reservoirs of the hydro-electrical dams, diversion weirs and regulating dams. Sedimentation process results from soil erosion which is related to poor watershed management and human intervention ion in the hydraulic regime of the rivers. These could change the hydraulic behavior and as such, leads to riverbed and river bank scouring, the consequences of which would be sediment load transport into the dams and therefore reducing the flow discharge in water intakes. The present paper investigate sedimentation process by varying the Manning coefficient "n" by using the SHARC software along the watercourse in the Dez River. Results indicated that the optimum "n" within that river range is 0.0315 at which quantity minimum sediment loads are transported into the Eastern intake. Comparison of the model results with those obtained by those from the SSIIM software within the same river reach showed a very close proximity between them. This suggests a relative accuracy with which the model can simulate the hydraulic flow characteristics and therefore its suitability as a powerful analytical tool for project feasibility studies and project implementation.

Keywords: Sediment transport, Manning coefficient, Eastern Intake, SHARC, Dez River.

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37 Sediment Transport Monitoring in the Port of Veracruz Expansion Project

Authors: Francisco Liaño-Carrera, José Isaac Ramírez-Macías, David Salas-Monreal, Mayra Lorena Riveron-Enzastiga, Marcos Rangel-Avalos, Adriana Andrea Roldán-Ubando

Abstract:

The construction of most coastal infrastructure developments around the world are usually made considering wave height, current velocities and river discharges; however, little effort has been paid to surveying sediment transport during dredging or the modification to currents outside the ports or marinas during and after the construction. This study shows a complete survey during the construction of one of the largest ports of the Gulf of Mexico. An anchored Acoustic Doppler Current Velocity profiler (ADCP), a towed ADCP and a combination of model outputs were used at the Veracruz port construction in order to describe the hourly sediment transport and current modifications in and out of the new port. Owing to the stability of the system the new port was construction inside Vergara Bay, a low wave energy system with a tidal range of up to 0.40 m. The results show a two-current system pattern within the bay. The north side of the bay has an anticyclonic gyre, while the southern part of the bay shows a cyclonic gyre. Sediment transport trajectories were made every hour using the anchored ADCP, a numerical model and the weekly data obtained from the towed ADCP within the entire bay. The sediment transport trajectories were carefully tracked since the bay is surrounded by coral reef structures which are sensitive to sedimentation rate and water turbidity. The survey shows that during dredging and rock input used to build the wave breaker sediments were locally added (< 2500 m2) and local currents disperse it in less than 4 h. While the river input located in the middle of the bay and the sewer system plant may add more than 10 times this amount during a rainy day or during the tourist season. Finally, the coastal line obtained seasonally with a drone suggests that the southern part of the bay has not been modified by the construction of the new port located in the northern part of the bay, owing to the two subsystem division of the bay.

Keywords: Acoustic Doppler current profiler, time series, port construction, construction around coral reefs, sediment transport monitoring.

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36 Spatio-temporal Variations in Heavy Metal Concentrations in Sediment of Qua Iboe River Estuary, Nigeria

Authors: Justina I. R. Udotong, Ime R. Udotong, Offiong U. Eka

Abstract:

The concentrations of heavy metals in sediments of Qua Iboe River Estuary (QIRE) were monitored at four different sampling locations in wet and dry seasons. A preliminary survey to determine the four sampling stations along the river continuum showed that the area spanned between <0.1‰ salinity at the control station and 21.5‰ at the fourth station along the river continuum. A preliminary survey to determine the four sampling locations along the river estuary showed variations in salinity and other physicochemical parameters. The estuary was found to be polluted with heavy metals from point and nonpoint sources at varying degrees. Mean values of 7.80 mg/kg, 4.97 mg/kg and 2.80 mg/kg of nickel were obtained for sediment samples from Douglas creek, Qua Iboe and Atlantic sampling locations, respectively in the dry season. The wet season nickel concentrations were however lower. The entire study area was grossly contaminated by iron. At Douglas creek, the concentration of iron in sediment was 9274 ± 9.54mg/kg while copper, nickel, lead and vanadium were <0.5mg/kg each as compared to iron. Bioaccumulation was therefore suspected within the study area as values of 31.00 ± 0.79, 36.00 ± 0.10 and 55.00 ± 0.05 mg/kg of zinc were recorded in sediment at Douglas creek, Atlantic and the control sampling locations. The results from this study showed that the source of these heavy metals were from point sources like the corrosion of metal steel pipes from old bridges as well as oily sludge wastes from the Qua Iboe Terminal / tank farm located within the vicinity of the study area.

Keywords: Heavy metal, Qua Iboe River Estuary, seasonal variations, sediment.

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35 Formulation of Mortars with Marine Sediments

Authors: Nor-Edine Abriak, Mouhamadou Amar, Mahfoud Benzerzour

Abstract:

The transition to a more sustainable economy is directed by a reduction in the consumption of raw materials in equivalent production. The recovery of byproducts and especially the dredged sediment as mineral addition in cements matrix represents an alternative to reduce raw material consumption and construction sector’s carbon footprint. However, the efficient use of sediment requires adequate and optimal treatment. Several processing techniques have so far been applied in order to improve some physicochemical properties. The heat treatment by calcination was effective in removing the organic fraction and activates the pozzolanic properties. In this article, the effect of the optimized heat treatment of marine sediments in the physico-mechanical and environmental properties of mortars are shown. A finding is that the optimal substitution of a portion of cement by treated sediments by calcination at 750 °C helps to maintain or improve the mechanical properties of the cement matrix in comparison with a standard reference mortar. The use of calcined sediment enhances mortar behavior in terms of mechanical strength and durability. From an environmental point of view and life cycle, mortars formulated containing treated sediments are considered inert with respect to the inert waste storage facilities reference (ISDI-France).

Keywords: Sediment, calcination, cement, reuse.

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34 Heavy Metals in Marine Sediments of Gulf of Izmir

Authors: E. Kam, Z. U. Yümün, D. Kurt

Abstract:

In this study, sediment samples were collected from four sampling sites located on the shores of the Gulf of İzmir. In the samples, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were determined using inductively coupled, plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The average heavy metal concentrations were: Cd < LOD (limit of detection); Co 14.145 ± 0.13 μg g−1; Cr 112.868 ± 0.89 μg g−1; Cu 34.045 ± 0.53 μg g−1; Mn 481.43 ± 7.65 μg g−1; Ni 76.538 ± 3.81 μg g−1; Pb 11.059 ± 0.53 μg g−1 and Zn 140.133 ± 1.37 μg g−1, respectively. The results were compared with the average abundances of these elements in the Earth’s crust. The measured heavy metal concentrations can serve as reference values for further studies carried out on the shores of the Aegean Sea.

Keywords: Heavy metal, Aegean Sea, ICP-OES, sediment.

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33 Artificial Neural Networks Modeling in Water Resources Engineering: Infrastructure and Applications

Authors: M. R. Mustafa, M. H. Isa, R. B. Rezaur

Abstract:

The use of artificial neural network (ANN) modeling for prediction and forecasting variables in water resources engineering are being increasing rapidly. Infrastructural applications of ANN in terms of selection of inputs, architecture of networks, training algorithms, and selection of training parameters in different types of neural networks used in water resources engineering have been reported. ANN modeling conducted for water resources engineering variables (river sediment and discharge) published in high impact journals since 2002 to 2011 have been examined and presented in this review. ANN is a vigorous technique to develop immense relationship between the input and output variables, and able to extract complex behavior between the water resources variables such as river sediment and discharge. It can produce robust prediction results for many of the water resources engineering problems by appropriate learning from a set of examples. It is important to have a good understanding of the input and output variables from a statistical analysis of the data before network modeling, which can facilitate to design an efficient network. An appropriate training based ANN model is able to adopt the physical understanding between the variables and may generate more effective results than conventional prediction techniques.

Keywords: ANN, discharge, modeling, prediction, sediment,

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32 Numerical Modeling of Waves and Currents by Using a Hydro-Sedimentary Model

Authors: Mustapha Kamel Mihoubi, Hocine Dahmani

Abstract:

Over recent years much progress has been achieved in the fields of numerical modeling shoreline processes: waves, currents, waves and current. However, there are still some problems in the existing models to link the on the first, the hydrodynamics of waves and currents and secondly, the sediment transport processes and due to the variability in time, space and interaction and the simultaneous action of wave-current near the shore. This paper is the establishment of a numerical modeling to forecast the sediment transport from development scenarios of harbor structure. It is established on the basis of a numerical simulation of a water-sediment model via a 2D model using a set of codes calculation MIKE 21-DHI software. This is to examine the effect of the sediment transport drivers following the dominant incident wave in the direction to pass input harbor work under different variants planning studies to find the technical and economic limitations to the sediment transport and protection of the harbor structure optimum solution.

Keywords: Swell, current, radiation, stress, mesh, MIKE21, sediment.

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31 Evolution of Developing Flushing Cone during the Pressurized Flushing in Reservoir Storage

Authors: Meshkati M. E., Dehghani A. A., Naser G., E mamgholizadeh S., Mosaedi A.

Abstract:

Sedimentation in reservoirs and the corresponding loss of storage capacity is one of the most serious problems in dam engineering. Pressurized flushing, a way to remove sediments from the reservoir, is flushing under a pressurized flow condition and nearly constant water level. Pressurized flushing has only local effects around the outlet. Sediment in the vicinity of the outlet openings is scoured and a funnel shaped crater is created. In this study, the temporal development of flushing cone under various hydraulic conditions was studied experimentally. Time variations of parameters such as maximum length and width of flushing and also depth of scouring cone was measured. Results indicated that an increase in flow velocity (and consequently in Froude number) established new hydraulically conditions for flushing mechanism and so a sudden growth was observed in the amount of sediment released and also scouring dimenssions. In addition, a set of nondimensional relationships were identified for temporal variations of flushing scour dimenssions, which can eventuallt be used to estimate the development of flushing cone.

Keywords: Pressure Flushing, Dam, Sediment, Scouring.

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30 Issues Problems of Sedimentation in Reservoir Siazakh Dam Case Study

Authors: Reza Gharehkhani

Abstract:

Sedimentation in reservoirs lowers the quality of consumed water, reduce the volume of reservoir, lowers the controllable amount of flood, increases the risk of water overflow during possible floods and the risk of reversal and reduction of dam's useful life. So in all stages of dam establishment such as cognitive studies, phase-1 studies of design, control, construction and maintenance, the problem of sedimentation in reservoir should be considered. What engineers need to do is examine and develop the methods to keep effective capacity of a reservoir, however engineers should also consider the influences of the methods on the flood disaster, functions of water use facilities and environmental issues.This article first examines the sedimentation in reservoirs and shows how to control it and then discusses the studies about the sedimens in Siazakh Dam.

Keywords: Sedimentation, Reservoir, Sediment Control, Dam

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29 A Comparison of Artificial Neural Networks for Prediction of Suspended Sediment Discharge in River- A Case Study in Malaysia

Authors: M.R. Mustafa, M.H. Isa, R.B. Rezaur

Abstract:

Prediction of highly non linear behavior of suspended sediment flow in rivers has prime importance in the field of water resources engineering. In this study the predictive performance of two Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) namely, the Radial Basis Function (RBF) Network and the Multi Layer Feed Forward (MLFF) Network have been compared. Time series data of daily suspended sediment discharge and water discharge at Pari River was used for training and testing the networks. A number of statistical parameters i.e. root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), coefficient of efficiency (CE) and coefficient of determination (R2) were used for performance evaluation of the models. Both the models produced satisfactory results and showed a good agreement between the predicted and observed data. The RBF network model provided slightly better results than the MLFF network model in predicting suspended sediment discharge.

Keywords: ANN, discharge, modeling, prediction, suspendedsediment,

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28 Mechanical Characterization and Impact Study on the Environment of Raw Sediments and Sediments Dehydrated by Addition of Polymer

Authors: A. Kasmi, N. E. Abriak, M. Benzerzour, I. Shahrour

Abstract:

Large volumes of river sediments are dredged each year in Europe in order to maintain harbour activities and prevent floods. The management of this sediment has become increasingly complex. Several European projects were implemented to find environmentally sound solutions for these materials. The main objective of this study is to show the ability of river sediment to be used in road. Since sediments contain a high amount of water, then a dehydrating treatment by addition of the flocculation aid has been used. Firstly, a lot of physical characteristics are measured and discussed for a better identification of the raw sediment and this dehydrated sediment by addition the flocculation aid. The identified parameters are, for example, the initial water content, the density, the organic matter content, the grain size distribution, the liquid limit and plastic limit and geotechnical parameters. The environmental impacts of the used material were evaluated. The results obtained show that there is a slight change on the physical-chemical and geotechnical characteristics of sediment after dehydration by the addition of polymer. However, these sediments cannot be used in road construction.

Keywords: River sediment, dehydration, flocculation aid, characteristics, environmental impacts, road construction.

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27 Copper Contamination in the Sediments of Northern Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan

Authors: Chiu-Wen Chen, Chih-Feng Chen, Cheng-Di Dong

Abstract:

The distribution, enrichment, accumulation, and potential ecological risk of copper (Cu) in the surface sediments of northern Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan were investigated. Sediment samples from 12 locations of northern Kaohsiung Harbor were collected and characterized for Cu, aluminum, water content, organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorous, total grease and grain size. Results showed that the Cu concentrations varied from 6.9–244 mg/kg with an average of 109±66 mg/kg. The spatial distribution of Cu reveals that the Cu concentration is relatively high in the river mouth region, and gradually diminishes toward the harbor entrance region. This indicates that upstream industrial and municipal wastewater discharges along the river bank are major sources of Cu pollution. Results from the enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index analyses imply that the sediments collected from the river mouth can be characterized between moderate and moderately severe degree enrichment and between none to medium and moderate accumulation of Cu, respectively. However, results of potential ecological risk index indicate that the sediment has low ecological potential risk.

Keywords: Accumulation, ecological risk, enrichment, copper, sediment.

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