Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 75

Search results for: microstructure

75 Microstructure Changes of Machined Surfaceson Austenitic 304 Stainless Steel

Authors: Lin. Yan, Wenyu. Yang, Hongping. Jin, Zhiguang Wang

Abstract:

This paper presents a experiment to estimate the influences of cutting conditions in microstructure changes of machining austenitic 304 stainless steel, especially for wear insert. The wear insert were prefabricated with a width of 0.5 mm. And the forces, temperature distribution, RS, and microstructure changes were measured by force dynamometer, infrared thermal camera, X-ray diffraction, XRD, SEM, respectively. The results told that the different combinations of machining condition have a significant influence on machined surface microstructure changes. In addition to that, the ANOVA and AOMwere used to tell the different influences of cutting speed, feed rate, and wear insert.

Keywords: Microstructure Changes, Wear width, Stainless steel

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74 Microstructure Parameters of a Super-Ionic Sample (Csag2i3)

Authors: Samir Osman M., Mohammed Hassan S.

Abstract:

Sample of CsAg2I3 was prepared by solid state reaction. Then, microstructure parameters of this sample have been determined using wide angle X-ray scattering WAXS method. As well as, Cell parameters of crystal structure have been refined using CHEKCELL program. This analysis states that the lattice intrinsic strainof the sample is so small and the crystal size is on the order of 559Å.

Keywords: WAXS, Microstructure parameters, super-ionic conductor.

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73 Metallographic Analysis of Laser and Mechanically Formed HSLA Steel

Authors: L.C. Kgomari, R.K.K.Mbaya

Abstract:

This research was conducted to develop a correlation between microstructure of HSLA steel and the mechanical properties that occur as a result of both laser and mechanical forming processes of the metal. The technique of forming flat metals by applying laser beams is a relatively new concept in the manufacturing industry. However, the effects of laser energy on the stability of metal alloy phases have not yet been elucidated in terms of phase transformations and microhardness. In this work, CO2 laser source was used to irradiate the surface of a flat metal then the microstructure and microhardness of the metal were studied on the formed specimen. The extent to which the microstructure changed depended on the heat inputs of up to 1000 J/cm2 with cooling rates of about 4.8E+02 K/s. Experimental results revealed that the irradiated surface of a HSLA steel had transformed to austenitic structure during the heating process.

Keywords: Laser, Forming, Microstructure

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72 The Effect of Laser Surface Melting on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Low Carbon Steel

Authors: Suleiman M. Elhamali, K. M. Etmimi, A. Usha

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of microhardness and microstructure of low carbon steel surface melted using carbon dioxide laser with a wavelength of 10.6μm and a maximum output power of 2000W. The processing parameters such as the laser power, and the scanning rate were investigated in this study. After surface melting two distinct regions formed corresponding to the melted zone MZ, and the heat affected zone HAZ. The laser melted region displayed a cellular fine structures while the HAZ displayed martensite or bainite structure. At different processing parameters, the original microstructure of this steel (Ferrite+Pearlite) has been transformed to new phases of martensitic and bainitic structures. The fine structure and the high microhardness are evidence of the high cooling rates which follow the laser melting. The melting pool and the transformed microstructure in the laser surface melted region of carbon steel showed clear dependence on laser power and scanning rate.

Keywords: Carbon steel, laser surface melting, microstructure, microhardness.

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71 The Effect of Ageing on Impact Toughness and Microstructure of 2024 Al-Cu-Mg Alloy

Authors: Swami Naidu Gurugubelli

Abstract:

The present study aims at determining the effect of ageing on the impact toughness and microstructure of 2024 Al-Cu - Mg alloy. Following the 2 h solutionizing treatment at 450°C and water quench, the specimens were aged at 200°C for various periods (1 to 18 h). The precipitation stages during ageing were monitored by hardness measurements. For each specimen group, Charpy impact and hardness tests were carried out. During ageing the impact toughness of the alloy first increased, and then, following a maxima decreased due to the precipitation of intermediate phases, finally it reached its minimum at the peak hardness. Correlations between hardness and impact toughness were investigated.

Keywords: Ageing, alloy, hardness, microstructure.

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70 Effects of Carbonation on the Microstructure and Macro Physical Properties of Cement Mortar

Authors: Son Tung Pham, William Prince

Abstract:

The objective of this work was to examine the changes in the microstructure and macro physical properties caused by the carbonation of normalised CEM II mortar. Samples were prepared and subjected to accelerated carbonation at 20°C, 65% relative humidity and 20% CO2 concentration. On the microstructure scale, the evolutions of the cumulative pore volume, pore size distribution, and specific surface area during carbonation were calculated from the adsorption desorption isotherms of nitrogen. We also examined the evolution of macro physical properties such as the porosity accessible to water, the gas permeability, and thermal conductivity. The conflict between the results of nitrogen porosity and water porosity indicated that the porous domains explored using these two techniques are different and help to complementarily evaluate the effects of carbonation. This is a multi-scale study where results on microstructural changes can help to explain the evolution of macro physical properties.

Keywords: Carbonation, cement mortar, microstructure, physical properties.

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69 Homogeneity of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties in Horizontal Continuous Cast Billet

Authors: V. Arbabi , I. Ebrahimzadeh, H. Ghanbari, M.M. Kaykha

Abstract:

Horizontal continuous casting is widely used to produce semi-finished non-Ferrous products. Homogeneity in the metallurgical characteristics and mechanical properties for this product is vital for industrial application. In the present work, the microstructure and mechanical properties of a horizontal continuous cast two-phase brass billet have been studied. Impact strength and hardness variations were examined and the phase composition and porosity studied with image analysis software. Distinct differences in mechanical properties were observed between the upper, middle and lower parts of the billet, which are explained in terms of the morphology and size of the phase in the microstructure. Hardness variation in the length of billet is higher in upper area but impact strength is higher in lower areas.

Keywords: Horizontal Continuous Casting, Two-phase brasses, CuZn40Al1 alloy, Microstructure, Impact Strength.

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68 The Photo-Absorption and Surface Feature of Nano-Structured TIO2 Coatings

Authors: Maryamossadat Bozorgtabar, Mohammadreza Rahimipour, Mehdi Salehi, Mohammadreza Jafarpour

Abstract:

Titanium dioxide coatings were deposited by utilizing atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) system. The agglomerated nanopowder and different spraying parameters were used to determine their influences on the microstructure surface feature and photoabsorption of the coatings. The microstructure of as-sprayed TiO2 coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Surface characteristics were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR). The photo absorption was determined by UV-VIS spectrophotometer. It is found that the spray parameters have an influence on the microstructure, surface feature and photo-absorption of the TiO2 coatings.

Keywords: APS, TiO2, Nanostructured Coating, Photoabsorption

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67 Parametric Investigation of Diode and CO2 Laser in Direct Metal Deposition of H13 Tool Steel on Copper Substrate

Authors: M. Khalid Imran, Syed Masood, Milan Brandt, Sudip Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy Mazumder

Abstract:

In the present investigation, H13 tool steel has been deposited on copper alloy substrate using both CO2 and diode laser. A detailed parametric analysis has been carried out in order to find out optimum processing zone for coating defect free H13 tool steel on copper alloy substrate. Followed by parametric optimization, the microstructure and microhardness of the deposited clads have been evaluated. SEM micrographs revealed dendritic microstructure in both clads. However, the microhardness of CO2 laser deposited clad was much higher compared to diode laser deposited clad.

Keywords: CO2 laser, Diode laser, Direct Metal Deposition, Microstructure, Microhardness, Porosity.

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66 The Effect of Interlamellar Distance in Pearlite on CGI Machining

Authors: Anders Berglund, Cornel Mihai Nicolescu, Henrik Svensson

Abstract:

Swedish truck industry is investigating the possibility for implementing the use of Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI) in their heavy duty diesel engines. Compared to the alloyed gray iron used today, CGI has superior mechanical properties but not as good machinability. Another issue that needs to be addressed when implementing CGI is the inhomogeneous microstructure when the cast component has different section thicknesses, as in cylinder blocks. Thinner sections results in finer pearlite, in the material, with higher strength. Therefore an investigation on its influence on machinability was needed. This paper focuses on the effect that interlamellar distance in pearlite has on CGI machinability and material physical properties. The effect of pearlite content and nodularity is also examined. The results showed that interlamellar distance in pearlite did not have as large effect on the material physical properties or machinability as pearlite content. The paper also shows the difficulties of obtaining a homogeneous microstructure in inhomogeneous workpieces.

Keywords: Compacted graphite iron (CGI), machinability, microstructure, milling, interlamellar distance in pearlite.

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65 Post Elevated Temperature Effect on the Strength and Microstructure of Thin High Performance Cementitious Composites (THPCC)

Authors: A. Q. Sobia, A. Shyzleen, M. S. Hamidah, I. Azmi, S. F. A. Rafeeqi, S. Ahmad

Abstract:

Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) lack in thermal resistance under elevated temperatures in the event of fire. This phenomenon led to the lining of strengthened concrete with thin high performance cementitious composites (THPCC) to protect the substrate against elevated temperature. Elevated temperature effects on THPCC, based on different cementitious materials have been studied in the past but high-alumina cement (HAC)-based THPCC have not been well characterized. This research study will focus on the THPCC based on HAC replaced by 60%, 70%, 80% and 85% of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). Samples were evaluated by the measurement of their mechanical strength (28 & 56 days of curing) after exposed to 400°C, 600°C and 28°C of room temperature for comparison and corroborated by their microstructure study. Results showed that among all mixtures, the mix containing only HAC showed the highest compressive strength after exposed to 600°C as compared to other mixtures. However, the tensile strength of THPCC made of HAC and 60% GGBS content was comparable to the THPCC with HAC only after exposed to 600°C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images of THPCC accompanying Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis revealed that the microstructure deteriorated considerably after exposure to elevated temperatures which led to the decrease in mechanical strength.

Keywords: Ground granulated blast furnace slag, high aluminacement, microstructure at elevated temperature and residual strength.

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64 Fabrication of Al/Cu Clad Sheet by Shear Extrusion

Authors: Joon Ho Kim, Duck Su Kim, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Aluminum/Copper clad sheet has been fabricated using asymmetric extrusion method, which caused severe shear deformation between Al and Cu plate to easily bond to each other. Interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of Al/Cu clad were studied by scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detector, micro-hardness, and tension tests. The asymmetric extrusion bonding was very effective to provide a good interface for atoms diffusion during subsequent annealing. The strength of bonding was higher with the increasing extrusion ratio.

Keywords: Aluminum/Copper clad sheet, Asymmetric extrusion, Interfacial microstructure, Annealing, Tensile test.

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63 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Duplex Stainless steel for Anchor Bolt Application

Authors: Gil Hwan Na , Woo Young Jung , Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Most buildings have been using anchor bolts commonly for installing outdoor advertising structures. Anchor bolts of common carbon steel are widely used and often installed indiscriminately by inadequate installation standards. In the area where strong winds frequently blow, falling accidents of outdoor advertising structures can occur and cause a serious disaster, which is very dangerous and to be prevented. In this regard, the development of high-performance anchor bolts is urgently required. In the present study, 25Cr-8Ni-1.5Si-1Mn-0.4C alloy was produced by traditional vacuum induction melting (VIM) for the application of anchor bolt. The alloy composition is revealed as a duplex microstructure from thermodynamic phase analysis by FactSage® and confirmed by metallographic experiment. Addition of Nitrogen to the alloy was found to reduce the ferritic phase domain and significantly increase the hardness and the tensile strength. Microstructure observation revealed mixed structure of austenite and ferrite with fine carbide distributed along the grain and phase boundaries.

Keywords: Anchor bolt, Duplex stainless steel, FactSage®, Hardness, Thermodynamic phase analysis.

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62 Effect of Friction Stir Welding on Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Copper Alloy

Authors: Dhananjayulu Avula, Ratnesh Kumar Raj Singh, D.K.Dwivedi, N.K.Mehta

Abstract:

This study demonstrates the feasibility of joining the commercial pure copper plates by friction stir welding (FSW). Microstructure, microhardness and tensile properties in terms of the joint efficiency were found 94.03 % compare to as receive base material (BM). The average hardness at the top was higher than bottom. Hardness of weld zone was higher than the base material. Different microstructure zones were revealed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The stirred zone (SZ) exhibited primary two phases namely, recrystallized grains and fine precipitates in matrix of copper.

Keywords: Welding; FSW, Commercial Copper, Mechanical properties

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61 Group Velocity Dispersion Management of Microstructure Optical Fibers

Authors: S. M. Abdur Razzak, M. A. Rashid, Y. Namihira, A. Sayeem

Abstract:

A simple microstructure optical fiber design based on an octagonal cladding structure is presented for simultaneously controlling dispersion and leakage properties. The finite difference method with anisotropic perfectly matched boundary layer is used to investigate the guiding properties. It is demonstrated that octagonal photonic crystal fibers with four rings can assume negative ultra-flattened dispersion of -19 + 0.23 ps/nm/km in the wavelength range of 1.275 μm to 1.68 μm, nearly zero ultra-flattened dispersion of 0 ± 0.40 ps/nm/km in a 1.38 to 1.64 μm, and low confinement losses less than 10-3 dB/km in the entire band of interest.

Keywords: Finite difference modeling, group velocity dispersion, optical fiber design, photonic crystal fiber.

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60 Study of Reactive Wetting of Sn–0.7Cu and Sn–0.3Ag–0.7Cu Lead Free Solders during Solidification on Nickel Coated Al Substrates

Authors: Satyanarayana, K.N. Prabhu

Abstract:

Microstructure, wetting behavior and interfacial reactions between Sn–0.7Cu and Sn–0.3Ag–0.7Cu (SAC0307) solders solidified on Ni coated Al substrates were compared and investigated. Microstructure of Sn–0.7Cu alloy exhibited a eutectic matrix composed of primary β-Sn dendrites with a fine dispersion of Cu6Sn5 intermetallics whereas microstructure of SAC0307 alloy exhibited coarser Cu6Sn5 and finer Ag3Sn precipitates of IMCs with decreased tin dendrites. Contact angles ranging from 22° to 26° were obtained for Sn–0.7Cu solder solidified on substrate surface whereas for SAC0307 solder alloy contact angles were found to be in the range of 20° to 22°. Sn–0.7Cu solder/substrate interfacial region exhibited faceted (Cu, Ni)6Sn5 IMCs protruding into the solder matrix and a small amount of (Cu, Ni)3Sn4 intermetallics at the interface. SAC0307 solder/substrate interfacial region showed mainly (Cu, Ni)3Sn4 intermetallics adjacent to the coating layer and (Cu, Ni)6Sn5 IMCs in the solder matrix. The improvement in the wettability of SAC0307 solder alloy on substrate surface is attributed to the formation of cylindrical shape (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 and a layer of (Cu, Ni)3Sn4 IMCs at the interface.

Keywords: Lead-free solder, wetting, contact angle, intermetallics.

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59 Effect of Zr Addition on Mechanical Properties of Cr-Mo Plastic Mold Steels

Authors: Hyun-Ho Kim, Seok-Jae Lee, Oh-Yeon Lee

Abstract:

We investigated the effects of the additions of Zr and other alloying elements on the mechanical properties and microstructure in Cr-Mo plastic mold steels. The addition of alloying elements changed the microstructure of the normalized samples from the upper bainite to lower bainite due to the increased hardenability. The tempering temperature influenced the strength and hardness values, especially the phenomenon of 350oC embrittlement was observed. The alloy additions of Cr, Mo, and V improved the resistance to the temper embrittlement. The addition of Zr improved the tensile strength and yield strength, but the impact energy was sharply decreased. It may be caused by the formation of Zr-MnS inclusion and rectangular-shaped Zr inclusion due to the Zr addition.

Keywords: Inclusions, mechanical properties, plastic mold steel, Zr addition.

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58 Correlation of Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Martensitic Stainless Steel Surgical Grade AISI 420A Exposed to 980-1035oC

Authors: Taqi Zahid Butt, Tanveer Ahmad Tabish

Abstract:

Martensitic stainless steels have been extensively used for their good corrosion resistance and better mechanical properties. Heat treatment was suggested as one of the most excellent ways to this regard; hence, it affects the microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of the steel. In the current research work the microstructural changes and corrosion behavior in an AISI 420A stainless steel exposed to temperatures in the 980-1035oC range were investigated. The heat treatment is carried out in vacuum furnace within the said temperature range. The quenching of the samples was carried out in oil, brine and water media. The formation and stability of passive film was studied by Open Circuit Potential, Potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Scratch Tests. The Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy results simulated with Equivalent Electrical Circuit suggested bilayer structure of outer porous and inner barrier oxide films. The quantitative data showed thick inner barrier oxide film retarded electrochemical reactions. Micrographs of the quenched samples showed sigma and chromium carbide phases which prove the corrosion resistance of steel alloy.

Keywords: Martensitic stainless steel corrosion, microstructure, vacuum furnace.

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57 Influence of Technology Parameters on Properties of AA6061/SiC Composites Produced By Kobo Method

Authors: J. Wozniak, M. Kostecki, K. Broniszewski, W. Bochniak, A. Olszyna

Abstract:

The influence of extrusion parameters on surface quality and properties of AA6061+x% vol. SiC (x = 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5;10) composites was discussed in this paper. The averages size of AA6061 and SiC particles were 10.6 μm and 0.42 μm, respectively. Two series of composites (I - compacts were preheated at extrusion temperature through 0.5 h and cooled by water directly after process; II - compacts were preheated through 3 hours and were not cooled) were consolidated via powder metallurgy processing and extruded by KoBo method. High values of density for both series of composites were achieved. Better surface quality was observed for II series of composites. Moreover, for these composites lower (compared to I series) but more uniform strength properties over the cross-section of the bar were noticed. Microstructure and Young-s modulus investigations were made.

Keywords: aluminum alloy, extrusion, metal matrix composites, microstructure

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56 Evaluation of Alloying Additions on the Microstructure and IMC Formation of Sn-Ag-Cu Solder on Cu and Ni (P) Substrates

Authors: S.O. Shazlin, M.S. Nurulakmal

Abstract:

Studies have shown that the SnAgCu solder family has been widely used as a replacement for conventional Sn-Pb solders. An attractive approach is by introducing alloying additives (rare earth elements (RE), Zn, Co, Fe, Ni, Sb) into the SnAgCu solder, which helps in refining the microstructure also improving the mechanical and wetting properties of the solder. The present work focuses on the effect of additions of 0.5% Ce and Fe into Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder, in attempt to reduce the intermetallic compound (IMC) growth and reflow properties of the solder on Cu and Ni (P) surface finish, as well as effects thermal aging on the formation of intermetallic compound (IMC) on different surface finish. Excessive intermetallic compound growth may effect the interface and solder joint due to the brittle nature of the intermetallic compounds. Thus, by introducing alloying elements, IMC layer thickness can be decrease, resulting in better joint and solder reliability.

Keywords: Alloying Elements, Cu and Ni (P) Substrate, Intermetallic Compound (IMC), Reflow, Thermal Aging.

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55 Wear Mechanisms in High Speed Steel Gear Cutting Tools

Authors: M. Jalali Azizpour, H. Mohammadi majd

Abstract:

In this paper, the wear of high speed steel hobs during hobbing has been studied. The wear mechanisms are strongly influenced by the choice of cutting speed. At moderate and high cutting speeds three major wear mechanisms were identified: abrasion, mild adhesive and severe adhesive. The microstructure and wear behavior of two high speed steel grades (M2 and ASP30) has been compared. In contrast, a variation in chemical composition or microstructure of HSS tool material generally did not change the dominant wear mechanism. However, the tool material properties determine the resistance against the operating wear mechanism and consequently the tool life. The metallographic analysis and wear measurement at the tip of hob teeth included scanning electron microscopy and stereoscope microscopy. Roughness profilometery is used for measuring the gear surface roughness.

Keywords: abrasion, adhesion, cutting speed, hobbing, wear mechanism

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54 Effect of Heat Input on the Weld Metal Toughness of Chromium-Molybdenum Steel

Authors: M. S. Kaiser

Abstract:

An attempt has been made to determine the strength and impact properties of Cr-Mo steel weld and base materials by varying the current during manual metal arc welding. Toughness over a temperature range from -32 to 100°C of base, heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld zones at three current settings are made. It is observed that the deterioration in notch toughness at any zone with the temperature decreases. The values of notch toughness for all zones at -32°C are almost same for any current settings. The values of notch toughness at HAZ area are higher than that of weld area due to the coarsening of ferrite grain of HAZ occurs with higher heat input. From microhardness and microstructure result, it can be concluded that large inclusion content in weld deposit is the cause of lower notch toughness value.

Keywords: Chromium-Molybdenum steel, post-weld heat treatment, heat affected zone, microstructure.

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53 Effects of the Sintering Process on Properties of Triaxial Electrical Porcelain from Ugandan Ceramic Minerals

Authors: Peter W. Olupot, Stefan Jonsson, Joseph K. Byaruhanga

Abstract:

Porcelain specimens were fired at 6C/min to 1250C (dwell time 0.5-3h) and cooled at 6C/min to room temperature. Additionally, three different slower firing/cooling cycles were tried. Sintering profile and effects on MOR, crystalline phase content and morphology were investigated using dilatometry, 4-point bending strength, XRD and FEG-SEM respectively. Industrial-sized specimens prepared using the promising cycle were tested basing on the ANSI standards. Increasing dwell time from 1h to 3h at peak temperature of 1250C resulted in neither a significant effect on the quartz and mullite content nor MOR. Reducing the firing/cooling rate to below 6C/min, for peak temperature of 1250C (dwell time of 1h) does not result in improvement of strength of porcelain. The industrial sized specimen exhibited flashover voltages of 20.3kV (dry) and 9.3kV (wet) respectively, transverse strength of 12.5kN and bulk density of 2.27g/cm3, which are satisfactory. There was however dye penetration during porosity test. KeywordsDwell time, Microstructure, Porcelain, Strength.

Keywords: Dwell time, Microstructure, Porcelain, Strength.

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52 Fiber Microstructure in Solanum Found in Thailand

Authors: Aree Thongpukdee, Chockpisit Thepsithar, Sujitra Timchookul

Abstract:

The study aimed to investigate characteristics of vegetative tissue for taxonomic purpose and possibly trend of waste application in industry. Stems and branches of 15 species in Solanum found in Thailand were prepared for fiber and examined by light microscopy. Microstructural characteristic data of fiber i.e. fiber length and width, fiber lumen diameter and fiber cell wall thickness were recorded. The longest average fiber cell length (>3.9 mm.) were obtained in S. lycopersicum L. and S. tuberosum L. Fiber cells from S. lycopersicum also revealed the widest average diameter of whole cell and its lumen at >45.5 μm and >29 μm respectively. However fiber cells with thickest wall of > 9.6 μm were belonged to the ornamental tree species, S. wrightii Benth. The results showed that the slenderness ratio, Runkel ratio, and flexibility coefficient, with potentially suitable for feedstock in paper industry fell in 4 exotic species, i.e. Solanumamericanum L., S. lycopersicum, S. seaforthianum Andr., and S. tuberosum L

Keywords: Fiber, microstructure, Solanaceae, Solanum.

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51 Microstructure and Mechanical Behaviuor of Rotary Friction Welded Titanium Alloys

Authors: M. Avinash, G. V. K. Chaitanya, Dhananjay Kumar Giri, Sarala Upadhya, B. K. Muralidhara

Abstract:

Ti-6Al-4V alloy has demonstrated a high strength to weight ratio as well as good properties at high temperature. The successful application of the alloy in some important areas depends on suitable joining techniques. Friction welding has many advantageous features to be chosen for joining Titanium alloys. The present work investigates the feasibility of producing similar metal joints of this Titanium alloy by rotary friction welding method. The joints are produced at three different speeds and the performances of the welded joints are evaluated by conducting microstructure studies, Vickers Hardness and tensile tests at the joints. It is found that the weld joints produced are sound and the ductile fractures in the tensile weld specimens occur at locations away from the welded joints. It is also found that a rotational speed of 1500 RPM can produce a very good weld, with other parameters kept constant.

Keywords: Rotary friction weld, rotational speed, Ti-6Al-4V, weld structures.

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50 A Study for Carbonation Degree on Concrete using a Phenolphthalein Indicator and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Ho Jae Lee, Do Gyeum Kim, Jang Hwa Lee, Myoung Suk Cho

Abstract:

A concrete structure is designed and constructed for its purpose of use, and is expected to maintain its function for the target durable years from when it was planned. Nevertheless, as time elapses the structure gradually deteriorates and then eventually degrades to the point where the structure cannot exert the function for which it was planned. The performance of concrete that is able to maintain the level of the performance required over the designed period of use as it has less deterioration caused by the elapse of time under the designed condition is referred to as Durability. There are a number of causes of durability degradation, but especially chloride damage, carbonation, freeze-thaw, etc are the main causes. In this study, carbonation, one of the main causes of deterioration of the durability of a concrete structure, was investigated via a microstructure analysis technique. The method for the measurement of carbonation was studied using the existing indicator method, and the method of measuring the progress of carbonation in a quantitative manner was simultaneously studied using a FT-IR (Fourier-Transform Infrared) Spectrometer along with the microstructure analysis technique.

Keywords: Concrete, Carbonation, Microsturcture, FT-IR

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49 Study of Stress Wave Propagation with NHDMOC

Authors: G.Y. Zhang , M.L. Xu, R.Q. Zhang, W.H. Tang

Abstract:

MOC (method of cell) is a new method of investigating wave propagating in material with periodic microstructure, and can reflect the effect of microstructure. Wave propagation in periodically laminated medium consisting of linearly elastic layers can be treated as a special application of this method. In this paper, it was used to simulate the dynamic response of carbon-phenolic to impulsive loading under certain boundary conditions. From the comparison between the results obtained from this method and the exact results based on propagator matrix theory, excellent agreement is achieved. Conclusion can be made that the oscillation periodicity is decided by the thickness of sub-cells. In the end, the NHDMOC method, which permits studying stress wave propagation with one dimensional strain, was applied to study the one-dimensional stress wave propagation. In this paper, the ZWT nonlinear visco-elastic constitutive relationship with 7 parameters, NHDMOC, and corresponding equations were deduced. The equations were verified, comparing the elastic stress wave propagation in SHPB with, respectively, the elastic and the visco-elastic bar. Finally the dispersion and attenuation of stress wave in SHPB with visco-elastic bar was studied.

Keywords: MOC, NHDMOC, visco-elastic, wave propagation

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48 Experimental Determination of Large Strain Localization in Cut Steel Chips

Authors: A. Simoneau

Abstract:

Metal cutting is a severe plastic deformation process involving large strains, high strain rates, and high temperatures. Conventional analysis of the chip formation process is based on bulk material deformation disregarding the inhomogeneous nature of the material microstructure. A series of orthogonal cutting tests of AISI 1045 and 1144 steel were conducted which yielded similar process characteristics and chip formations. With similar shear angles and cut chip thicknesses, shear strains for both chips were found to range from 2.0 up to 2.8. The manganese-sulfide (MnS) precipitate in the 1144 steel has a very distinct and uniform shape which allows for comparison before and after chip formation. From close observations of MnS precipitates in the cut chips it is shown that the conventional approach underestimates plastic strains in metal cutting. Experimental findings revealed local shear strains around a value of 6. These findings and their implications are presented and discussed.

Keywords: Machining, metal cutting, microstructure, plastic strains, local strain.

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47 Influence of Ti, B, and Sr on Microstructure, Mechanical and Tribological Properties of as Cast, Cast Aged, and Forge Aged A356 Alloy – A Comparative Study

Authors: R. V. Kurahatti, D. G. Mallapur, K. Rajendra Udupa

Abstract:

In the present work, a comparative study on the microstructure and mechanical properties of as cast, cast aged and forged aged A356 alloy has been investigated. The study reveals that mechanical properties of A356 alloy are highly influenced by melt treatment and solid state processing. Cast aged alloys achieve highest strength and hardness compared to as cast and forge aged ones. Ones treated with combined addition of grain refiners and modifiers achieve maximum strength and hardness. Cast aged A356 alloy possesses higher wear resistance compared to as cast and forge aged ones. Forging improves both strength and ductility of alloys over as cast ones. However, the improvement in ductility is perceptible only for properly grain refined and modified alloys. Ones refined with 0.65% Al-3Ti shows highest improvement in ductility while ones treated with 0.20% Al-10Sr exhibits less improvement in ductility.

Keywords: Forged A356 alloy, Grain refinement, Modification, Wear

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46 Effect of Superplasticizer and NaOH Molarity on Workability, Compressive Strength and Microstructure Properties of Self-Compacting Geopolymer Concrete

Authors: M. Fadhil Nuruddin, Samuel Demie, M. Fareed Ahmed, Nasir Shafiq

Abstract:

The research investigates the effects of super plasticizer and molarity of sodium hydroxide alkaline solution on the workability, microstructure and compressive strength of self compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGC). SCGC is an improved way of concreting execution that does not require compaction and is made by complete elimination of ordinary Portland cement content. The parameters studied were superplasticizer (SP) dosage and molarity of NaOH solution. SCGC were synthesized from low calcium fly ash, activated by combinations of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solutions, and by incorporation of superplasticizer for self compactability. The workability properties such as filling ability, passing ability and resistance to segregation were assessed using slump flow, T-50, V-funnel, L-Box and J-ring test methods. It was found that the essential workability requirements for self compactability according to EFNARC were satisfied. Results showed that the workability and compressive strength improved with the increase in superplasticizer dosage. An increase in strength and a decrease in workability of these concrete samples were observed with the increase in molarity of NaOH solution from 8M to 14M. Improvement of interfacial transition zone (ITZ) and micro structure with the increase of SP and increase of concentration from 8M to 12M were also identified.

Keywords: Compressive strength, Fly ash, Geopolymer concrete, Workability

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