Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: bolt clamping

34 An Experimental Method for Measuring Clamping Force in Bolted Connections and Effect of Bolt Threads Lubrication on Its Value

Authors: E. Hemmati Vand, R. H. Oskouei, T. N. Chakherlou

Abstract:

In this paper, the details of an experimental method to measure the clamping force value at bolted connections due to application of wrenching torque to tighten the nut have been presented. A simplified bolted joint including a holed plate with a single bolt was considered to carry out the experiments. This method was designed based on Hooke-s law by measuring compressive axial strain of a steel bush placed between the nut and the plate. In the experimental procedure, the values of clamping force were calculated for seven different levels of applied torque, and this process was repeated three times for each level of the torque. Moreover, the effect of lubrication of threads on the clamping value was studied using the same method. In both conditions (dry and lubricated threads), relation between the torque and the clamping force have been displayed in graphs.

Keywords: Clamping force, Bolted joints, Experimental method, Lubrication.

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33 Investigating the Fatigue Crack Initiation Location in Interference Fitted and/or bolt Clamped Al 2024-T3 Double Shear Lap Joints

Authors: Babak Abazadeh, Hadi Rezghi Maleki

Abstract:

In this paper the fatigue crack initiation location of double shear lap joints, treated by interference fit and bolt clamping, have been investigated both experimentally and numerically. To do so, using the fracture section of available fatigue tested specimens of interference fitted and torque tightened Aluminum 2024-T3 plates, the crack initiation location was determined. The stress distribution attained from the finite element analysis was used to help explain the results observed in the experimental tests. The results showed that the fatigue crack initiation location changes from top and mid plane at the hole edge to somewhere far from the hole edge (stress concentration region) in different combination of clamping force, interference fit size and applied cyclic load ranges. It is worth mentioning that the fatigue crack initiation location affects the fatigue life of the specimens too.

Keywords: Fatigue crack initiation, interference fit, bolt clamping, double shear lap joint.

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32 Numerical Simulation for Self-Loosening Phenomenon Analysis of Bolt Joint under Vibration

Authors: Long Kim Vu, Ban Dang Nguyen

Abstract:

In this paper, the finite element method (FEM) is utilized to simulate the comprehensive process including tightening, releasing and self-loosening of a bolt joint under transverse vibration. Following to the accurate geometry of helical threads, an absolutely hexahedral meshing is implemented. The accuracy of simulation process is verified and validated by comparison with the experimental results on clamping force-vibration relationship, which shows the sufficient correlation. Further analysis with different amplitude and frequency of transverse vibration is done to determine the dominant factor inducing the failure.

Keywords: Bolt self-loosening, contact state, FEM, transverse vibration.

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31 Fretting Fatigue behavior of Bolted Single Lap Joints of Aluminum Alloys

Authors: Hadi Rezghi Maleki, Babak Abazadeh

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of bolt clamping force on the fatigue behavior of bolted single lap joints of aluminum alloy 2024- T3 have been studied using numerical finite element method. To do so, a three dimensional model according to the bolted single lap joint has been created and numerical analysis has been carried out using finite element based package. Then the stress distribution and also the slip amplitudes have been calculated in the critical regions and the outcome have been compared with the available experimental fatigue tests results. The numerical results show that in low applied clamping force, the fatigue failure of the specimens occur around the stress concentration location (the bolted hole edge) due to the tensile stresses and thus fatigue crack propagation, but with increase of the clamping force, the fatigue life increases and the cracks nucleate and propagate far from the hole edge because of fretting fatigue. In other words, with the further increase of clamping force value of the joint, the fatigue life reduces due to occurrence of the fretting fatigue in the critical location where the slip amplitude is within its critical occurs earlier.

Keywords: Fretting fatigue, bolted single lap joint, torque tightening, finite element method.

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30 The Effect of Clamping Restrain on the Prediction of Drape Simulation Software Tool

Authors: T.A. Adegbola, IEA Aghachi, E.R. Sadiku

Abstract:

To investigates the effect of fiberglass clamping process improvement on drape simulation prediction. This has great effect on the mould and the fiber during manufacturing process. This also, improves the fiber strain, the quality of the fiber orientation in the area of folding and wrinkles formation during the press-forming process. Drape simulation software tool was used to digitalize the process, noting the formation problems on the contour sensitive part. This was compared with the real life clamping processes using single and double frame set-ups to observe the effects. Also, restrains are introduced by using clips, and the G-clamps with predetermine revolution to; restrain the fabric deformation during the forming process.The incorporation of clamping and fabric restrain deformation improved on the prediction of the simulation tool. Therefore, for effective forming process, incorporation of clamping process into the drape simulation process will assist in the development of fiberglass application in manufacturing process.

Keywords: clamping, fiberglass, drape simulation, pressforming.

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29 An Empirical Model to Calculate the Threads Stripping of a Bolt Installed in a Tapped Part

Authors: Manuel Martínez Martínez, Daniel Zavala Ríos

Abstract:

To determine the length of engagement threads of a bolt installed in a tapped part in order to avoid the threads stripping remains a very current problem in the design of the thread assemblies. It does not exist a calculation method formalized for the cases where the bolt is screwed directly in a ductile material. In this article, we study the behavior of the threads stripping of a loaded assembly by using a modelling by finite elements and a rupture criterion by damage. This modelling enables us to study the different parameters likely to influence the behavior of this bolted connection. We study in particular, the influence of couple of materials constituting the connection, of the bolt-s diameter and the geometrical characteristics of the tapped part, like the external diameter and the length of engagement threads. We established an experiments design to know the most significant parameters. That enables us to propose a simple expression making possible to calculate the resistance of the threads whatever the metallic materials of the bolt and the tapped part. We carried out stripping tests in order to validate our model. The estimated results are very close to those obtained by the tests.

Keywords: Bolt, damage, plasticity, stripping, thread assemblies.

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28 Optimization for the Hydraulic Clamping System of an Internal Circulation Two-Platen Injection Molding Machine

Authors: Jian Wang, Lu Yang, Jiong Peng

Abstract:

Internal circulation two-platen clamping system for injection molding machine (IMM) has many potential advantages on energy-saving. In order to estimate its properties, experiments were carried out in this paper. Displacement and pressure of the components were measured. In comparison, the model of hydraulic clamping system was established by using AMESim. The related parameters as well as the energy consumption could be calculated. According to the analysis, the hydraulic system was optimized in order to reduce the energy consumption.

Keywords: AMESim, energy-saving, injection molding machine, internal circulation.

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27 Study on the Effect of Bolt Locking Method on the Deformation of Bipolar Plate in PEMFC

Authors: Tao Chen, ShiHua Liu, JiWei Zhang

Abstract:

Assembly of the proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) has a very important influence on its performance and efficiency. The various components of PEMFC stack are usually locked and fixed by bolts. Locking bolt will cause the deformation of the bipolar plate and the other components, which will affect directly the deformation degree of the integral parts of the PEMFC as well as the performance of PEMFC. This paper focuses on the object of three-cell stack of PEMFC. Finite element simulation is used to investigate the deformation of bipolar plate caused by quantity and layout of bolts, bolt locking pressure, and bolt locking sequence, etc. Finally, we made a conclusion that the optimal combination packaging scheme was adopted to assemble the fuel cell stack. The scheme was in use of 3.8 MPa locking pressure imposed on the fuel cell stack, type Ⅱ of four locking bolts and longitudinal locking method. The scheme was obtained by comparatively analyzing the overall displacement contour of PEMFC stack, absolute displacement curve of bipolar plate along the given three paths in the Z direction and the polarization curve of fuel cell. The research results are helpful for the fuel cell stack assembly.

Keywords: Bipolar plate, deformation, finite element simulation, fuel cell, locking bolt.

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26 An Experimental Study on Development of the Connection System of Concrete Barriers Applicable to Modular Bridge

Authors: Seung-Kyung Kye, Sang-Seung Lee, Dooyong Cho, Sun-Kyu Park

Abstract:

Although many studies on the assembly technology of the bridge construction have dealt mostly with on the pier, girder or the deck of the bridge, studies on the prefabricated barrier have rarely been performed. For understanding structural characteristics and application of the concrete barrier in the modular bridge, which is an assembly of structure members, static loading test was performed. Structural performances as a road barrier of the three methods, conventional cast-in-place(ST), vertical bolt connection(BVC) and horizontal bolt connection(BHC) were evaluated and compared through the analyses of load-displacement curves, strain curves of the steel, concrete strain curves and the visual appearances of crack patterns. The vertical bolt connection(BVC) method demonstrated comparable performance as an alternative to conventional cast-in-place(ST) while providing all the advantages of prefabricated technology. Necessities for the future improvement in nuts enforcement as well as legal standard and regulation are also addressed.

Keywords: Modular Bridge, Concrete Barrier, Bolt Connection

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25 The Application of Distributed Optical Strain Sensing to Measure Rock Bolt Deformation Subject to Bedding Shear

Authors: Thomas P. Roper, Brad Forbes, Jurij Karlovšek

Abstract:

Shear displacement along bedding defects is a well-recognised behaviour when tunnelling and mining in stratified rock. This deformation can affect the durability and integrity of installed rock bolts. In-situ monitoring of rock bolt deformation under bedding shear cannot be accurately derived from traditional strain gauge bolts as sensors are too large and spaced too far apart to accurately assess concentrated displacement along discrete defects. A possible solution to this is the use of fiber optic technologies developed for precision monitoring. Distributed Optic Sensor (DOS) embedded rock bolts were installed in a tunnel project with the aim of measuring the bolt deformation profile under significant shear displacements. This technology successfully measured the 3D strain distribution along the bolts when subjected to bedding shear and resolved the axial and lateral strain constituents in order to determine the deformational geometry of the bolts. The results are compared well with the current visual method for monitoring shear displacement using borescope holes, considering this method as suitable.

Keywords: Distributed optical strain sensing, geotechnical monitoring, rock bolt stain measurement, bedding shear displacement.

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24 Design and Analysis of a Piezoelectric Linear Motor Based on Rigid Clamping

Authors: Chao Yi, Cunyue Lu, Lingwei Quan

Abstract:

Piezoelectric linear motors have the characteristics of great electromagnetic compatibility, high positioning accuracy, compact structure and no deceleration mechanism, which make it promising to applicate in micro-miniature precision drive systems. However, most piezoelectric motors are employed by flexible clamping, which has insufficient rigidity and is difficult to use in rapid positioning. Another problem is that this clamping method seriously affects the vibration efficiency of the vibrating unit. In order to solve these problems, this paper proposes a piezoelectric stack linear motor based on double-end rigid clamping. First, a piezoelectric linear motor with a length of only 35.5 mm is designed. This motor is mainly composed of a motor stator, a driving foot, a ceramic friction strip, a linear guide, a pre-tightening mechanism and a base. This structure is much simpler and smaller than most similar motors, and it is easy to assemble as well as to realize precise control. In addition, the properties of piezoelectric stack are reviewed and in order to obtain the elliptic motion trajectory of the driving head, a driving scheme of the longitudinal-shear composite stack is innovatively proposed. Finally, impedance analysis and speed performance testing were performed on the piezoelectric linear motor prototype. The motor can measure speed up to 25.5 mm/s under the excitation of signal voltage of 120 V and frequency of 390 Hz. The result shows that the proposed piezoelectric stacked linear motor obtains great performance. It can run smoothly in a large speed range, which is suitable for various precision control in medical images, aerospace, precision machinery and many other fields.

Keywords: Elliptical trajectory, linear motor, piezoelectric stack, rigid clamping.

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23 Reliability Analysis for Cyclic Fatigue Life Prediction in Railroad Bolt Hole

Authors: Hasan Keshavarzian, Tayebeh Nesari

Abstract:

Bolted rail joint is one of the most vulnerable areas in railway track. A comprehensive approach was developed for studying the reliability of fatigue crack initiation of railroad bolt hole under random axle loads and random material properties. The operation condition was also considered as stochastic variables. In order to obtain the comprehensive probability model of fatigue crack initiation life prediction in railroad bolt hole, we used FEM, response surface method (RSM), and reliability analysis. Combined energy-density based and critical plane based fatigue concept is used for the fatigue crack prediction. The dynamic loads were calculated according to the axle load, speed, and track properties. The results show that axle load is most sensitive parameter compared to Poisson’s ratio in fatigue crack initiation life. Also, the reliability index decreases slowly due to high cycle fatigue regime in this area.

Keywords: Rail-wheel tribology, rolling contact mechanic, finite element modeling, reliability analysis.

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22 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Duplex Stainless steel for Anchor Bolt Application

Authors: Gil Hwan Na , Woo Young Jung , Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Most buildings have been using anchor bolts commonly for installing outdoor advertising structures. Anchor bolts of common carbon steel are widely used and often installed indiscriminately by inadequate installation standards. In the area where strong winds frequently blow, falling accidents of outdoor advertising structures can occur and cause a serious disaster, which is very dangerous and to be prevented. In this regard, the development of high-performance anchor bolts is urgently required. In the present study, 25Cr-8Ni-1.5Si-1Mn-0.4C alloy was produced by traditional vacuum induction melting (VIM) for the application of anchor bolt. The alloy composition is revealed as a duplex microstructure from thermodynamic phase analysis by FactSage® and confirmed by metallographic experiment. Addition of Nitrogen to the alloy was found to reduce the ferritic phase domain and significantly increase the hardness and the tensile strength. Microstructure observation revealed mixed structure of austenite and ferrite with fine carbide distributed along the grain and phase boundaries.

Keywords: Anchor bolt, Duplex stainless steel, FactSage®, Hardness, Thermodynamic phase analysis.

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21 Fatigue Tests of New Assembly Bolt Connections for Perspective Temporary Steel Railway Bridges

Authors: Marcela Karmazínová, Michal Štrba, Milan Pilgr

Abstract:

The paper deals with the problems of the actual behavior, failure mechanism and load-carrying capacity of the special bolt connection developed and intended for the assembly connections of truss main girders of perspective railway temporary steel bridges. Within the framework of this problem solution, several types of structural details of assembly joints have been considered as the conceptual structural design. Based on the preliminary evaluation of advantages or disadvantages of these ones, in principle two basic structural configurations – so-called “tooth” and “splice-plate” connections have been selected for the subsequent detailed investigation. This investigation is mainly based on the experimental verification of the actual behavior, strain and failure mechanism and corresponding strength of the connection, and on its numerical modeling using FEM. This paper is focused only on the cyclic loading (fatigue) tests results of “splice-plate” connections and their evaluation, which have already been finished. Simultaneously with the fatigue tests, the static loading tests have been realized too, but these ones, as well as FEM numerical modeling, are not the subject of this paper.

Keywords: Bolt assembly connection, Cyclic loading, Failure mechanisms, Fatigue strength, Steel structure, Structural detail category, Temporary railway bridge.

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20 Finite Element Modeling for Clamping Stresses Developed in Hot-Driven Steel Structural Riveted Connections

Authors: Jackeline Kafie-Martinez, Peter B. Keating

Abstract:

A three-dimensional finite element model is developed to capture the stress field generated in connected plates during the installation of hot-driven rivets. Clamping stress is generated when a steel rivet heated to approximately 1000 °C comes in contact with the material to be fastened at ambient temperature. As the rivet cools, thermal contraction subjects the rivet into tensile stress, while the material being fastened is subjected to compressive stress. Model characteristics and assumptions, as well as steel properties variation with respect to temperature are discussed. The thermal stresses developed around the rivet hole are assessed and reported. Results from the analysis are utilized to detect possible regions for fatigue crack propagation under cyclic loads.

Keywords: Jackeline Kafie-Martinez, Peter B. Keating.

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19 The Effects of Bolt Spacing on Composite Shear Wall Behavior

Authors: Amir Ayazi, Hamde Ahmadi, Soheil Shafaei

Abstract:

Composite steel shear wall is a lateral load resisting system which consists of a steel plate with concrete wall attached to one or both sides to prevent it from elastic buckling. The composite behavior is ensured by utilizing high-strength bolts. This paper investigates the effect of distance between bolts, and for this purpose 14 one-story one-bay specimens with various bolts spacing were modeled by finite element code which is developed by the authors. To verify the model, numerical results were compared with a valid experiment which illustrate proper agreement. Results depict increasing the distance between bolts would improve the seismic ever, this increase must be limited, because of large distances will cause widespread buckling of the steel plate in free subpanels between bolts and would result in no improvement. By comparing the results in elastic region, it was observed initial stiffness is not affected by changing the distance.

Keywords: Composite steel shear wall, bolt, buckling, finite element.

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18 Strengthen of Cold-Formed Steel Column with Ferrocement Jacket: Push out Tests

Authors: Khaled Alenezi, Talal Alhajri, M. M. Tahir, Mohamed Ragaee K. Badr, S. O. Bamaga

Abstract:

The population growth in the world requires an increase in demand of residential and housing construction. Using lightweight construction materials such as cold formed steel sections and ferrocement could be an alternate solution to foster the construction industry. In this study, a new composite column is introduced. It consists of cold formed steel section and ferrocement jacket. The ferrocement jacket was constructed using self-compacting mortar with two wire steel mesh of 550 MPa yield strength. Experimental push out tests was conducted to investigate the strength capacities and behavior of proposed shear connectors namely, bolt, bar-angle and self-drilling screw shear connectors. It was found that bolt connector showed the best behavior followed by bar-angle. Also, it was concluded that the ferrocement could be used to strength and improve the behavior of cold formed steel column.

Keywords: Cold formed steel, composite column, push out test, shear connector, ferrocement, strengthen method.

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17 Comparison of Different Discontinuous PWM Technique for Switching Losses Reduction in Modular Multilevel Converters

Authors: Kaumil B. Shah, Hina Chandwani

Abstract:

The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is one of the advanced topologies for medium and high-voltage applications. In high-power, high-voltage MMC, a large number of switching power devices are required. These switching power devices (IGBT) considerable switching losses. This paper analyzes the performance of different discontinuous pulse width modulation (DPWM) techniques and compares the results against a conventional carrier based pulse width modulation method, in order to reduce the switching losses of an MMC. The DPWM reference wave can be generated by adding the zero-sequence component to the original (sine) reference modulation signal. The result of the addition gives the reference signal of DPWM techniques. To minimize the switching losses of the MMC, the clamping period is controlled according to the absolute value of the output load current. No switching is generated in the clamping period so overall switching of the power device is reduced. The simulation result of the different DPWM techniques is compared with conventional carrier-based pulse-width modulation technique.

Keywords: Modular multilevel converter, discontinuous pulse width modulation, switching losses, zero-sequence voltage.

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16 Design of Novel SCR-based ESD Protection Device for I/O Clamp in BCD Process

Authors: Yong-Seo Koo, Jin-Woo Jung, Byung-Seok Lee, Dong-Su Kim, Yil-Suk Yang

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel LVTSCR-based device for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection of integrated circuits (ICs) is designed, fabricated and characterized. The proposed device is similar to the conventional LVTSCR but it has an embedded PMOSFET in the anode n-well to enhance the turn on speed, the clamping capability and the robustness. This is possible because the embedded PMOSFET provides the sub-path of ESD discharge current. The TLP, HBM and MM testing are carried out to verify the ESD performance of the proposed devices, which are fabricated in 0.35um (Bipolar-CMOS-DMOS) BCDMOS process. The device has the robustness of 70mA/um that is higher about 60mA/um than the LVTSCR, approximately.

Keywords: ESD Protection, grounded gate NMOS (GGNMOS), low trigger voltage SCR (LVTSCR)

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15 Design of AC Electronics Load Surge Protection

Authors: N. Mungkung, S. Wongcharoen, C. Sukkongwari, Somchai Arunrungrasmi

Abstract:

This study examines the design and construction of AC Electronics load surge protection in order to carry electric surge load arisen from faults in low voltage electricity system (single phase/220V) by using the principle of electronics load clamping voltage during induction period so that electric voltage could go through to safe load and continue to work. The qualification of the designed device could prevent both transient over voltage and voltage swell. Both will work in cooperation, resulting in the ability to improve and modify the quality of electrical power in Thailand electricity distribution system more effective than the past and help increase the lifetime of electric appliances, electric devices, and electricity protection equipments.

Keywords: Electronics Load, Transient Over Voltage, Voltage Swell.

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14 Designs of Temperature Measuring Device for a Re-Configured Milling Machine

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi

Abstract:

The design of temperature measuring approach for a re-configured milling machine to produce friction stir welds is reported in this paper. The product design specifications for the redesigning of a milling machine were first outlined and the ranking criteria were determined. Three different concepts were generated for the temperature measurement on the reconfigured system and the preferred or the best concept was selected based on the set design ranking criteria. Further simulation and performance analysis was then conducted on the concept. The Infrared Thermography (IRT) concept was selected for the temperature measurement among other concepts generated because it is an ideal and most effective system of measurement in this regard.

Keywords: Clamping system, Friction Stir Welding, Reconfiguration, Support systems.

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13 Contact Problem for an Elastic Layered Composite Resting on Rigid Flat Supports

Authors: T. S. Ozsahin, V. Kahya, A. Birinci, A. O. Cakiroglu

Abstract:

In this study, the contact problem of a layered composite which consists of two materials with different elastic constants and heights resting on two rigid flat supports with sharp edges is considered. The effect of gravity is neglected. While friction between the layers is taken into account, it is assumed that there is no friction between the supports and the layered composite so that only compressive tractions can be transmitted across the interface. The layered composite is subjected to a uniform clamping pressure over a finite portion of its top surface. The problem is reduced to a singular integral equation in which the contact pressure is the unknown function. The singular integral equation is evaluated numerically and the results for various dimensionless quantities are presented in graphical forms.

Keywords: Frictionless contact, Layered composite, Singularintegral equation, The theory of elasticity.

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12 An Example of Open Robot Controller Architecture - For Power Distribution Line Maintenance Robot System -

Authors: Yingxin He, Kyouichi Tatsuno

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an architecture for easily constructing a robot controller. The architecture is a multi-agent system which has eight agents: the Man-machine interface, Task planner, Task teaching editor, Motion planner, Arm controller, Vehicle controller, Vision system and CG display. The controller has three databases: the Task knowledge database, the Robot database and the Environment database. Based on this controller architecture, we are constructing an experimental power distribution line maintenance robot system and are doing the experiment for the maintenance tasks, for example, “Bolt insertion task".

Keywords: Robot controller, Software library, Maintenance robot, Robot language, Agent system.

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11 Research of the Behavior of Solar Module Frame Installed by Solar Clamping System by Finite Element Method

Authors: Li-Chung Su, Chia-Yu Chen, Tzu-Yuan Lai, Sheng-Jye Hwang

Abstract:

Mechanical design of the thin-film solar framed module and mounting system is important to enhance module reliability and to increase areas of applications. The stress induced by different mounting positions played a main role controlling the stability of the whole mechanical structure. From the finite element method, under the pressure from the back of module, the stress at Lc (center point of the Long frame) increased and the stresses at Center, Corner and Sc (center point of the Short frame) decreased while the mounting position was away from the center of the module. In addition, not only the stress of the glass but also the stress of the frame decreased. Accordingly it was safer to mount in the position away from the center of the module. The emphasis of designing frame system of the module was on the upper support of the Short frame. Strength of the overall structure and design of the corner were also important due to the complexity of the stress in the Long frame.

Keywords: Finite element method, Framed module, Mountingposition

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10 Effect of Vibration Amplitude and Welding Force on Weld Strength of Ultrasonic Metal Welding

Authors: Ziad. Sh. Al Sarraf

Abstract:

Ultrasonic metal welding has been the subject of ongoing research and development, most recently concentrating on metal joining in miniature devices, for example to allow solder-free wire bonding. As well as at the small scale, there are also opportunities to research the joining of thicker sheet metals and to widen the range of similar and dissimilar materials that can be successfully joined using this technology. This study presents the design, characterisation and test of a lateral-drive ultrasonic metal spot welding device. The ultrasonic metal spot welding horn is modelled using finite element analysis (FEA) and its vibration behaviour is characterised experimentally to ensure ultrasonic energy is delivered effectively to the weld coupon. The welding stack and fixtures are then designed and mounted on a test machine to allow a series of experiments to be conducted for various welding and ultrasonic parameters. Weld strength is subsequently analysed using tensile-shear tests. The results show how the weld strength is particularly sensitive to the combination of clamping force and ultrasonic vibration amplitude of the welding tip, but there are optimal combinations of these and also limits that must be clearly identified.

Keywords: Ultrasonic welding, vibration amplitude, welding force, weld strength.

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9 Pin type Clamping Attachment for Remote Setup of Machining Process

Authors: Afzeri, R. Muhida, Darmawan, A. N. Berahim

Abstract:

Sharing the manufacturing facility through remote operation and monitoring of a machining process is challenge for effective use the production facility. Several automation tools in term of hardware and software are necessary for successfully remote operation of a machine. This paper presents a prototype of workpiece holding attachment for remote operation of milling process by self configuration the workpiece setup. The prototype is designed with mechanism to reorient the work surface into machining spindle direction with high positioning accuracy. Variety of parts geometry is hold by attachment to perform single setup machining. Pin type with array pattern additionally clamps the workpiece surface from two opposite directions for increasing the machining rigidity. Optimum pins configuration for conforming the workpiece geometry with minimum deformation is determined through hybrid algorithms, Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). Prototype with intelligent optimization technique enables to hold several variety of workpiece geometry which is suitable for machining low of repetitive production in remote operation.

Keywords: Optimization, Remote machining, GeneticAlgorithms, Machining Fixture.

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8 Stress Intensity Factors for Plates with Collinear and Non-Aligned Straight Cracks

Authors: Surendran M, Palani G. S, Nagesh R. Iyer

Abstract:

Multi-site damage (MSD) has been a challenge to aircraft, civil and power plant structures. In real life components are subjected to cracking at many vulnerable locations such as the bolt holes. However, we do not consider for the presence of multiple cracks. Unlike components with a single crack, these components are difficult to predict. When two cracks approach one another, their stress fields influence each other and produce enhancing or shielding effect depending on the position of the cracks. In the present study, numerical studies on fracture analysis have been conducted by using the developed code based on the modified virtual crack closure integral (MVCCI) technique and finite element analysis (FEA) software ABAQUS for computing SIF of plates with multiple cracks. Various parametric studies have been carried out and the results have been compared with literature where ever available and also with the solution, obtained by using ABAQUS. By conducting extensive numerical studies expressions for SIF have been obtained for collinear cracks and non-aligned cracks.

Keywords: Crack interaction, Fracture mechanics, Multiple site damage, stress intensity factor, collinear cracks, non-aligned cracks.

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7 Numerical Investigation for External Strengthening of Dapped-End Beams

Authors: A. Abdel-Moniem, H. Madkour, K. Farah, A. Abdullah

Abstract:

The reduction in dapped end beams depth nearby the supports tends to produce stress concentration and hence results in shear cracks, if it does not have an adequate reinforcement detailing. This study investigates numerically the efficiency of applying different external strengthening techniques to the dapped end of such beams. A two-dimensional finite element model was built to predict the structural behavior of dapped ends strengthened with different techniques. The techniques included external bonding of the steel angle at the re-entrant corner, un-bounded bolt anchoring, external steel plate jacketing, exterior carbon fiber wrapping and/or stripping and external inclined steel plates. The FE analysis results are then presented in terms of the ultimate load capacities, load-deflection and crack pattern at failure. The results showed that the FE model, at various stages, was found to be comparable to the available test data. Moreover, it enabled the capture of the failure progress, with acceptable accuracy, which is very difficult in a laboratory test.

Keywords: Dapped-end beams, finite element, shear failure, strengthening techniques, reinforced concrete, numerical investigation.

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6 Evaluating and Measuring the Performance Parameters of Agricultural Wheels

Authors: Ali Roozbahani, Aref Mardani, Roohollah Jokar, Hamid Taghavifar

Abstract:

Evaluating and measuring the performance parameters of wheels and tillage equipments under controlled conditions obligates the use of soil bin facility. In this research designing, constructing and evaluating a single-wheel tester has been studied inside a soil bin. The tested wheel was directly driven by the electric motor. Vertical load was applied by a power bolt on wheel. This tester can measure required draft force, the depth of tire sinkage, contact area between wheel and soil, and soil stress at different depths and in the both alongside and perpendicular to the direction of traversing. In order to evaluate the system preparation, traction force was measured by the connected S-shaped load cell as arms between the wheel-tester and carriage. Treatments of forward speed, slip, and vertical load at a constant pressure were investigated in a complete randomized block design. The results indicated that the traction force increased at constant wheel load. The results revealed that the maximum traction force was observed within the %15 of slip.

Keywords: Slip, single wheel-tester, soil bin, soil–machine, speed, traction.

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5 Applying Similarity Theory and Hilbert Huang Transform for Estimating the Differences of Pig-s Blood Pressure Signals between Situations of Intestinal Artery Blocking and Unblocking

Authors: Jia-Rong Yeh, Tzu-Yu Lin, Jiann-Shing Shieh, Yun Chen

Abstract:

A mammal-s body can be seen as a blood vessel with complex tunnels. When heart pumps blood periodically, blood runs through blood vessels and rebounds from walls of blood vessels. Blood pressure signals can be measured with complex but periodic patterns. When an artery is clamped during a surgical operation, the spectrum of blood pressure signals will be different from that of normal situation. In this investigation, intestinal artery clamping operations were conducted to a pig for simulating the situation of intestinal blocking during a surgical operation. Similarity theory is a convenient and easy tool to prove that patterns of blood pressure signals of intestinal artery blocking and unblocking are surely different. And, the algorithm of Hilbert Huang Transform can be applied to extract the character parameters of blood pressure pattern. In conclusion, the patterns of blood pressure signals of two different situations, intestinal artery blocking and unblocking, can be distinguished by these character parameters defined in this paper.

Keywords: Blood pressure, spectrum, intestinal artery, similarity theory and Hilbert Huang Transform.

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