Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: Central Asia

22 Assessment of Water Resources and Inculcation of Controlled Water Consumption System

Authors: Vakhtang Geladze, Nana Bolashvili, Tamazi Karalashvili, Nino Machavariani, Vajha Neidze, Nana Kvirkvelia, Tamar Chichinadze

Abstract:

Deficiency of fresh water is a vital global problem today. It must be taken into consideration that in the nearest future fresh water crisis will become even more acute owing to the global climate warming and fast desertification processes in the world. Georgia has signed the association agreement with Euro Union last year where the priority spheres of cooperation are the management of water resources, development of trans-boundary approach to the problem and active participation in the “Euro Union water initiative” component of “the East Europe, Caucasus and the Central Asia”. Fresh water resources are the main natural wealth of Georgia. According to the average water layer height, Georgia is behind such European countries only as Norway, Switzerland and Austria. The annual average water provision of Georgia is 4-8 times higher than in its neighbor countries Armenia and Azerbaijan. Despite abundant water resources in Georgia, there is considerable discrepancy between their volume and use in some regions because of the uneven territorial distribution. In the East Georgia, water supply of the territory and population is four times less than in the West Georgia.

Keywords: GIS, sociological survey, water consumption, water resources.

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21 The Impact of Water Reservoirs on Biodiversity and Food Security and the Creation of Adaptation Mechanisms

Authors: Inom S. Normatov, Abulqosim Muminov, Parviz I. Normatov

Abstract:

Problems of food security and the preservation of reserved zones in the region of Central Asia under the conditions of the climate change induced by the placement and construction of large reservoirs are considered. The criteria for the optimum placement and construction of reservoirs that entail the minimum impact on the environment are established. The need for the accounting of climatic parameters is shown by the calculation of the water quantity required for the irrigation of agricultural lands.

Keywords: Reservoir, Central Asia, food, reserved zones, adaptation, agriculture.

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20 Attitude and Knowledge of Primary Health Care Physicians and Local Inhabitants about Leishmaniasis and Sandfly in West Alexandria

Authors: Randa M. Ali, Naguiba F. Loutfy, Osama M. Awad

Abstract:

Leishmaniasis is the collective name for a number of diseases caused by protozoan flagellates of the genus Leishmania, which is transmitted by Phlebotomine sandfly, the disease has diverse clinical manifestations and found in many areas of the world, particularly in Africa, Latin America, South and Central Asia, the Mediterranean basin and the Middle East. This study was done to assess primary health care physicians’ knowledge (PHP) and attitude about leishmaniasis and to assess awareness of local inhabitants about the disease and its vector in four areas in west Alexandria, Egypt. It is a cross sectional survey that was conducted in four PHC units in west Alexandria. All physicians currently working in these units during the study period were invited to participate in the study; only 20 PHP completed the questionnaire. 60 local inhabitants were selected randomly from the four areas of the study, 15 from each area; Data was collected through two different specially designed questionnaires. Results showed that 11 (55%) percent of the physicians had satisfactory knowledge; they answered more than 9 (60%) questions out of a total 14 questions about leishmaniasis and sandfly. On the other hand when attitude of the primary health care physicians about leishmaniasis was measured, results showed that 17 (85%) had good attitude and 3 (15%) had poor attitude. The second questionnaire showed that the awareness of local inhabitants about leishmaniasis and sandfly as a vector of the disease is poor and needs to be corrected. (90%) of the interviewed inhabitants had not heard about leishmaniasis, Only 3 (5%) of them said they know sandfly and its role in transmission of leishmaniasis. Thus we conclude that knowledge and attitudes of physicians are acceptable. However, there is, room for improvement and could be done through formal training courses and distribution of guidelines. In addition to raising the awareness of primary health care physicians about the importance of early detection and notification of cases of leishmaniasis, health education for raising awareness of the public regarding the vector and the disease is necessary because related studies have demonstrated that for inhabitants to take enough protective measures against the vector, they should perceive that it is responsible for causing a disease.

Keywords: Attitude, knowledge, PHP, leishmaniasis, sandfly, local inhabitants, inside and outside housing conditions.

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19 FengShui Paradigm as Philosophy of Sustainable Design

Authors: E. Erdogan, H. A. Erdogan

Abstract:

FengShui, an old Chinese discipline, dates back to more than 5000 years, is one of the design principles that aim at creating habitable and sustainable spaces in harmony with nature by systematizing data within its own structure. Having emerged from Chinese mysticism and embodying elements of faith in its principles, FengShui argues that the positive energy in the environment channels human behavior and psychology. This argument is supported with the thesis of quantum physics that ‘everything is made up of energy’ and gains an important place. In spaces where living and working take place with several principles and systematized rules, FengShui promises a happier, more peaceful and comfortable life by influencing human psychology, acts, and soul as well as the professional and social life of the individual. Observing these design properties in houses, workplaces, offices, the environment, and daily life as a design paradigm is significant. In this study, how FengShui, a Central Asian culture emanated from Chinese mysticism, shapes design and how it is used as an element of sustainable design will be explained.

Keywords: FengShui, design principle, sustainability.

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18 Sustainability through Self-Restriction: Livelihood Strategies of Urban Households in Kazakhstan

Authors: Daurenbek Kuleimenov

Abstract:

Urban life is characterized by rapid changes and high influence of market institutions on livelihood strategies of households to get sustainability, especially in countries of former Soviet Union challenged transformation of economy to the market type. Moving from socialistic worldviews to capitalistic ones which as usual regulated by free markets has been enough big challenge for households in urban area, which have to face with adaptation to new systems. Influence of market institutions on everyday life and planning system of households can destroy traditional household dispositions of the sustainable managing of a family budget. New changes of economy system can lead to splitting up large social networks and appearing new risky livelihood strategies of households. Urban households from Astana that is the capital city of Kazakhstan were interviewed within international research project “Livelihoods Strategies of Private Households in Central Asia. A Rural-Urban Comparison in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan”, which enables to explore urgent issues of livelihood strategies of urban households in current Kazakhstan under influence of the spreading of market institutions from the micro level research focus of their everyday life.

Keywords: Market institutions, Sustainability, Transformation economy, Urban households.

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17 Japan’s Policy towards the Countries of Central Asia

Authors: R. Sadykova

Abstract:

This article analyses the peculiarities of Japan’s policy toward the countries of Central Asia. The increasing role of Central Asia in the system of international relations engendered an objective need for understanding of the policy of leading states, including Japan, in the region in the twenty-first century. The purpose of the study is to investigate the peculiarities of the formation and development of Japan policy in Central Asia and to identify the problems and prospects of Japan’s policy toward the countries of the region on the basis of experts’ opinions. In this article, the method of analysis of the situation and a systematic method were used. Prognostic methods, the collective expert assessment and scenarios were used in the study to determine the prospects of Japan’s policy toward the countries of Central Asia.

Keywords: Japan, Central Asia, the Eurasian concept, ‘Central Asia plus Japan’ Dialogue.

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16 Repatriates in the Kazakhstan: The Problems of Migration and Adaptation to the Historic Homeland

Authors: B.K. Kalshabayeva, A.S. Seisenbayeva

Abstract:

The article is devoted to Kazakh repatriates and their migration to Kazakhstan as historical homeland, and also addresses the problem of migrants- adaptation in the republic, particularly in Almaty oblast (region). The authors used up-to-date statictics and materials of the Department of Migration Committee to analyze the newcomers- number and features of the repatriate-s location in this oblast. Having studied this region they were able to identify the main reasons why Kazakh Diaspora in Central Asia, Iran, Avganistana and Turkey is eager to come back to their historic homeland along with repatriates adaptation to the republic.

Keywords: Kazakh diaspora, repatriates, migration, adaptation, Central Asia, Iran, Avganistan, Migration Committee.

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15 Some Laws of Rhythm Formulas of Ussuli in the Dancing Culture of People in the Middle and the Central Asia

Authors: G. Saitova, A. Mashurova, F. Mashurova

Abstract:

In the national and professional music of oral tradition of many people in the East there is the metric formula called “ussuli", that is to say rhythmic constructions of different character and a composition. Ussuli in translation from Arabic means the law. The cultural contacts of the ancient and medieval inhabitants of the Central Asia, India, China, East Turkestan, Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkey, and Iran have played a certain role in formation of both musical and dancing heritage of each of these people. During theatrical shows many dances were performed under the accompaniment of percussion instruments as nagra, dayulpaz, doll. The abovementioned tools are used as the obligatory accompanying tool in an orchestra and at support of dancing acts as the solo tool. Dynamics of development of a dancing composition, at times execution of technique of movement depends on various combinations of ussuli and their receptions of execution.

Keywords: Dancing, plastic, rhythm, ussuli.

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14 Regional Security Issue: Central Asian Countries and NATO Cooperation (On the Example of Kazakhstan)

Authors: Karakulov Y., Baizakova K.

Abstract:

Kazakhstan attaches the great importance to cooperation with European countries within the framework of multilateral security organizations such as NATO. Cooperation of Kazakhstan with the NATO is a prominent aspect of strengthening of regional security of republic. It covers a wide spectrum of areas, such as reform of sector of defense and security, military operative compatibility of armed forces of NATO member-countries and Kazakhstan, civil emergency planning and scientific cooperation. The cooperation between Kazakhstan and NATO is based on the mutual interests of neighboring republics in the region so that the existing forms of cooperation between Kazakhstan and NATO will not be negatively perceived both in Asia as well as among CIS countries. Kazakhstan tailors its participation in the PfP programme through an annual Individual Partnership Programme, selecting those activities that will help achieve the goals it has set in the IPAP. Level of cooperation within the limits of PfP essentially differs on each republic. Cooperation with Kazakhstan progressed most of all since has been signed IPAP from the NATO

Keywords: Central Asia, Kazakhstan, NATO cooperation, regional security

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13 Features of Following the Customs and Traditions in Turkestan in the Late XIXth and Early XXth Centuries

Authors: M. Nogaibayeva, Zh. Kumganbayev

Abstract:

This article discusses the customs and traditions in Turkestan in the late XIXth and early XXth centuries. Having a long history, Turkestan is well-known as the birthplace of many nations and nationalities. The name of Turkestan is also given to it for a reason - the land of the Turkic peoples who inhabited Central Asia and united under together. Currently, nations and nationalities of the Turkestan region formed their own sovereign states, and every year they prove their country names in the world community. Political, economic importance of Turkestan, which became the gold wire between Asia and Europe was always very high. So systematically various aggressive actions were made by several great powers. As a result of expansionary policy of colonization of the Russian Empire - the Turkestan has appeared.

Keywords: Turkestan, Turkic people, Asia and Europe, Russian Empire, democracy.

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12 Regionalism and Regionalization in Central Asia

Authors: L. Delovarova, A. Davar, S. Asanov, F. Kukeyeva

Abstract:

This article is dedicated to the question of regionalism and regionalization in contemporary international relations, with a specific focus on Central Asia. The article addresses the question of whether or not Central Asia can be referred to as a true geopolitical region. In addressing this question, the authors examine particular factors that are essential for the formation of a region, including those tied to the economy, energy, culture, and labor migration.

Keywords: Central Asia, integration, regionalization, regionalism.

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11 Territorial Availability of Social and Economic Infrastructure in Kazakhstan: Comparative Analysis of Urban and Rural Households

Authors: Nazym Shedenova, Aigul Beimisheva

Abstract:

The market transformation in Kazakhstan during the last two decades has essentially strengthened a gap between development of urban and rural areas. Implementation of market institutes, transition from public financing to paid rendering of social services, change of forms of financing of social and economic infrastructure have led to strengthening of an economic inequality of social groups, including growth of stratification of the city and the village. Sociological survey of urban and rural households in Almaty city and villages of Almaty region has been carried out within the international research project “Livelihoods Strategies of Private Households in Central Asia: A Rural–Urban Comparison in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan" (Germany, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan). The analysis of statistical data and results of sociological research of urban and rural households allows us to reveal issues of territorial development, to investigate an availability of medical, educational and other services in the city and the village, to reveal an evaluation urban and rural dwellers of living conditions, to compare economic strategies of households in the city and the village.

Keywords: Urban and rural households, social and economic infrastructure, territorial availability.

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10 Social Organization of Kazakhstani Business under Conditions of Customs Union and Common Free Market Zone: Empirical Study Practice

Authors: Zh. Nurbekova, Z. Zhanazarova, A. Beissenova

Abstract:

This article is devoted to the analysis of results of sociological researches carried out by authors directed on studying of opinion of representatives of small, medium and big business on formation of the Customs Union, Common Free Market Zone with participation of Kazakhstan, Russia and Belarus. It-s forecasted that companies, their branches will interpenetrate with registration and moving their businesses to regions with more beneficial conditions. They say that in Kazakhstan there are more profitable geo-strategic operating environment for business and lower taxes. Russia using this opportunity will create new conditions for expansion into other countries of Central Asia and China. Opinions of participants of questionnaire and expert poll different in estimation of value of these two integration mechanisms since market segments on the one hand extend, but also on the other hand - loss of exclusive influence in certain fields of activity.

Keywords: Customs Union, Kazakhstan, sociological research.

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9 The Shanghai Cooperation Organization: China's Grand Strategy in Central Asia

Authors: Mara Gubaidullina, Aigerim Yelibayeva

Abstract:

The Shanghai Cooperation Organization is one of the successful outcomes of China's foreign policy since the end of the Cold war. The expansion of multilateral ties all over the world by dint of pursuing institutional strategies as SCO, identify China as a more constructive power. SCO became a new model of cooperation that was formed on remains of collapsed Soviet system, and predetermined China's geopolitical role in the region. As the fast developing effective regional mechanism, SCO today has more of external impact on the international system and forms a new type of interaction for promoting China's grand strategy of 'peaceful rise'.

Keywords: Central Asia, China's grand strategy, Shanghai Cooperation Organization.

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8 Eurasian Economic Integration: Eurasian Economic Community and Shanghai Cooperation Organization

Authors: Azhar E. Serikkaliyeva, Nurzhamal A. Aldabek

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to analyze economic and political tendencies of development of integration processes with different developing level and speed on the Eurasian space, by considering two organizations at the region – Eurasian Economic Community and Shanghai Cooperation Organization, by considering the interests of participations in organizations of Russia and China as a global powers and Kazakhstan as a leader among the Central Asian countries. This article investigates what certain goals Eurasian countries (especially Russia, Kazakhstan and China) are waiting from integration within the SCO and the EurAsEC, linking the process with the theories of regional integration. After European debt crisis it is more topically to research the integration within the specific region's conditions.

Keywords: Eurasian Economic Community, China, Kazakhstan, Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Regional integration, Russia.

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7 Central Asia and Kazakhstan: In Search of Civic Identity

Authors: Elnura Assyltayeva, Zhanar Aldubasheva, Zhengisbek Tolen, Ziyakul Assyltayeva, Aliya Alimzhanova

Abstract:

Mankind has entered into an extremely complex and controversial stage of its development: the world is simultaneously organized and chaoticized, globalized and localized, combined and split. Analysts point out that globalization as a process of strengthening economic, cultural, financial and other ties of states cause many problems. In the economic sphere, it creates the danger of growing gap between the states, in the sphere of politics it leads to the weakening of political power and influence of nation-states.

Keywords: Civic identity, globalization, identity crisis, culture identity

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6 The U.S. and Central Asia: Religion, Politics, Ideology

Authors: Zhanar Aldubasheva, Elnura Assyltayeva, Mukhtar Senggirbay, Gаzizа Aldubаshovа

Abstract:

Numerous facts evidence the increasing religiosity of the population and the intensification of religious movements in various countries in the last decade of the 20th century. The number of international religious institutions and foundations; religious movements; parties and sects operating worldwide is increasing as well. Some ethnic and inter-state conflicts are obviously of a religious origin. All of this make a number of analysts to conclude that the religious factor is becoming an important part of international life, including the formation and activities of terrorist organizations. Most of all is said and written about Islam, the second, after Christianity, world religions professed according to various estimates by 1.5 bln. individuals in 127 countries.

Keywords: USA, Central Asia, Religion, Politics, Ideology Terrorism, Regional Security

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5 The U.S. and Western Europe Role in Resolving the Religious Conflicts in Central Asia

Authors: Zhanar Aldubasheva, Mukhtar Senggirbay, Elnura Assyltayeva

Abstract:

The modern world is experiencing fundamental and dynamic changes. The transformation of international relations; the end of confrontation and successive overcoming of the Cold War consequences have expanded possible international cooperation. The global nuclear conflict threat has been minimized, while a tendency to establish a unipolar world structure with the U.S. economic and power domination is growing. The current world system of international relations, apparently is secular. However, the religious beliefs of one or another nations play a certain (sometimes a key) role, both in the domestic affairs of the individual countries and in the development of bilateral ties. Political situation in Central Asia has been characterized by new factors such as international terrorism; religious extremism and radicalism; narcotrafficking and illicit arms trade of a global character immediately threaten to peace and political stability in Central Asia. The role and influence of Islamic fundamentalism is increasing; political ethnocentrism and the associated aggravation of inter-ethnic relations, the ambiguity of national interests and objectives of major geo-political groups in the Central Asian region regarding the division the political influence, emerge. This article approaches the following issues: the role of Islam in Central Asia; destabilizing factors in Central Asia; Islamic movements in Central Asia, Western Europe and the United States; the United States, Western Europe and Central Asia: religion, politics, ideology, and the US-Central Asia antiterrorism and religious extremism cooperation.

Keywords: USA, Central Asia, religious conflict, terrorism, regional security.

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4 The Role of State in Combating Religious Extremism and Terrorism

Authors: Kadyrzhan Smagulov, Mukhtar Senggirbay, Sholpan Zhandossova, Lyaila Ivatova, Gulnar Nassimova

Abstract:

terrorism and extremism are among the most dangerous and difficult to forecast the phenomena of our time, which are becoming more diverse forms and rampant. Terrorist attacks often produce mass casualties, involve the destruction of material and spiritual values, beyond the recovery times, sow hatred among nations, provoke war, mistrust and hatred between the social and national groups, which sometimes can not be overcome within a generation. Currently, the countries of Central Asia are a topical issue – the threat of terrorism and religious extremism, which grow not only in our area, but throughout the world. Of course, in each of the terrorist threat is assessed differently. In our country the problem of terrorism should not be acutely. Thus, after independence and sovereignty of Kazakhstan has chosen the path of democracy, progress and free economy. With the policy of the President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev and well-organized political and economic reforms, there has been economic growth and rising living standards, socio-political stability, ensured civil peace and accord in society [1].

Keywords: Kazakhstan, national security, religious extremism and terrorism, ethnic conflict

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3 The Cultural and Anthropological Bases of Culture Ecology of the Turkic Peoples in Central Asia

Authors: S.Kaupenbayeva, A. Tashagil, A.Kanagatova, Zh. Suleimenova

Abstract:

this scientific article considers the peculiarities of ecology of culture and ecological outlook from cultural and anthropological aspect of Turkic languages speaking peoples in the Central Asia. The ecology of culture of Turkic languages speaking peoples in the Central Asia, formed under the influence of climatic, geographical, economic, religious, ethno cultural and political factors and defining the originality of traditions which have laid down in its basis and functioned, as its components, causes an interest and urgency simultaneously, representing the sample of life of the Person in the World by which it is necessary to be guided today.

Keywords: ecology of culture, civilization, the Eurasian civilization, Turkic languages speaking peoples, space-time characteristics, the Central Asia

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2 Atmosphere Water Vapour As Main Sweet Water Resource in the Arid Zones of Central Asia

Authors: S.I.Nikolaeva, Yu.V. Petrov, L.Ye.Skipnikova

Abstract:

It has been shown that the solution of water shortage problem in Central Asia closely connected with inclusion of atmosphere water vapour into the system of response and water resources management. Some methods of water extraction from atmosphere have been discussed.

Keywords: potable water, water resources, water problems, water scarcity.

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1 Conflicts and Compromise at the Management of Transboundry Water Resources (The Case of the Central Asia)

Authors: Sobir T. Navruzov

Abstract:

The problem of complex use of water resources in Central Asia by taking into consideration the sovereignty of the states and increasing demand on use of water for economic aspects are considered. Complex program with appropriate mathematical software intended for calculation of possible variants of using the Amudarya up-stream water resources according to satisfaction of incompatible requirements of the national economics in irrigation and energy generation is proposed.

Keywords: water resources, national economics, irrigation, transboundry, energy generation, optimal solution, program complex, up-stream, down-stream, compensating services.

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