Search results for: Affine
41 The Variable Step-Size Gauss-Seidel Pseudo Affine Projection Algorithm
Authors: F. Albu, C. Paleologu
Abstract:In this paper, a new pseudo affine projection (AP) algorithm based on Gauss-Seidel (GS) iterations is proposed for acoustic echo cancellation (AEC). It is shown that the algorithm is robust against near-end signal variations (including double-talk).
Keywords: pseudo affine projection algorithm, acoustic echo cancellation, double-talk.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1318
40 Image Segment Matching Using Affine- Invariant Regions
Authors: Ibrahim El rube'
Abstract:In this paper, a method for matching image segments using triangle-based (geometrical) regions is proposed. Triangular regions are formed from triples of vertex points obtained from a keypoint detector (SIFT). However, triangle regions are subject to noise and distortion around the edges and vertices (especially acute angles). Therefore, these triangles are expanded into parallelogramshaped regions. The extracted image segments inherit an important triangle property; the invariance to affine distortion. Given two images, matching corresponding regions is conducted by computing the relative affine matrix, rectifying one of the regions w.r.t. the other one, then calculating the similarity between the reference and rectified region. The experimental tests show the efficiency and robustness of the proposed algorithm against geometrical distortion.
Keywords: Image matching, key point detection, affine invariant, triangle-shaped segments.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1782
39 Data-Reusing Adaptive Filtering Algorithms with Adaptive Error Constraint
Authors: Young-Seok Choi
Abstract:We present a family of data-reusing and affine projection algorithms. For identification of a noisy linear finite impulse response channel, a partial knowledge of a channel, especially noise, can be used to improve the performance of the adaptive filter. Motivated by this fact, the proposed scheme incorporates an estimate of a knowledge of noise. A constraint, called the adaptive noise constraint, estimates an unknown information of noise. By imposing this constraint on a cost function of data-reusing and affine projection algorithms, a cost function based on the adaptive noise constraint and Lagrange multiplier is defined. Minimizing the new cost function leads to the adaptive noise constrained (ANC) data-reusing and affine projection algorithms. Experimental results comparing the proposed schemes to standard data-reusing and affine projection algorithms clearly indicate their superior performance.
Keywords: Data-reusing, affine projection algorithm, error constraint, system identification.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1285
38 A Family of Affine Projection Adaptive Filtering Algorithms With Selective Regressors
Authors: Mohammad Shams Esfand Abadi, Nader Hadizadeh Kashani, Vahid Mehrdad
Abstract:In this paper we present a general formalism for the establishment of the family of selective regressor affine projection algorithms (SR-APA). The SR-APA, the SR regularized APA (SR-RAPA), the SR partial rank algorithm (SR-PRA), the SR binormalized data reusing least mean squares (SR-BNDR-LMS), and the SR normalized LMS with orthogonal correction factors (SR-NLMS-OCF) algorithms are established by this general formalism. We demonstrate the performance of the presented algorithms through simulations in acoustic echo cancellation scenario.
Keywords: Adaptive filter, affine projection, selective regressor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1456
37 Combination Scheme of Affine Projection Algorithm Filters with Complementary Order
Authors: Young-Seok Choi
This paper proposes a complementary combination scheme of affine projection algorithm (APA) filters with different order of input regressors. A convex combination provides an interesting way to keep the advantage of APA having different order of input regressors. Consequently, a novel APA which has the rapid convergence and the reduced steady-state error is derived. Experimental results show the good properties of the proposed algorithm.
Keywords: Adaptive filter, affine projection algorithm, convex combination, input order.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1562
36 Affine Projection Algorithm with Variable Data-Reuse Factor
Authors: ChangWoo Lee, Young Kow Lee, Sung Jun Ban, SungHoo Choi, Sang Woo Kim
This paper suggests a new Affine Projection (AP) algorithm with variable data-reuse factor using the condition number as a decision factor. To reduce computational burden, we adopt a recently reported technique which estimates the condition number of an input data matrix. Several simulations show that the new algorithm has better performance than that of the conventional AP algorithm.
Keywords: Affine projection algorithm, variable data-reuse factor, condition number, convergence rate, misalignment.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1438
35 Affine Projection Adaptive Filter with Variable Regularization
Authors: Young-Seok Choi
Abstract:We propose two affine projection algorithms (APA) with variable regularization parameter. The proposed algorithms dynamically update the regularization parameter that is fixed in the conventional regularized APA (R-APA) using a gradient descent based approach. By introducing the normalized gradient, the proposed algorithms give birth to an efficient and a robust update scheme for the regularization parameter. Through experiments we demonstrate that the proposed algorithms outperform conventional R-APA in terms of the convergence rate and the misadjustment error.
Keywords: Affine projection, regularization, gradient descent, system identification.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1348
34 Sparsity-Aware Affine Projection Algorithm for System Identification
Authors: Young-Seok Choi
Abstract:This work presents a new type of the affine projection (AP) algorithms which incorporate the sparsity condition of a system. To exploit the sparsity of the system, a weighted l1-norm regularization is imposed on the cost function of the AP algorithm. Minimizing the cost function with a subgradient calculus and choosing two distinct weighting for l1-norm, two stochastic gradient based sparsity regularized AP (SR-AP) algorithms are developed. Experimental results exhibit that the SR-AP algorithms outperform the typical AP counterparts for identifying sparse systems.
Keywords: System identification, adaptive filter, affine projection, sparsity, sparse system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1305
33 Copy-Move Image Forgery Detection in Virtual Electrostatic Field
Authors: Michael Zimba, Darlison Nyirenda
A novel copy-move image forgery, CMIF, detection method is proposed. The proposed method presents a new approach which relies on electrostatic field theory, EFT. Solely for the purpose of reducing the dimension of a suspicious image, the proposed algorithm firstly performs discrete wavelet transform, DWT, of the suspicious image and extracts only the approximation subband. The extracted subband is then bijectively mapped onto a virtual electrostatic field where concepts of EFT are utilized to extract robust features. The extracted features are invariant to additive noise, JPEG compression, and affine transformation. Finally, same affine transformation selection, SATS, a duplication verification method, is applied to detect duplicated regions. SATS is a better option than the common shift vector method because SATS is insensitive to affine transformation. Consequently, the proposed CMIF algorithm is not only fast but also more robust to attacks compared to the existing related CMIF algorithms. The experimental results show high detection rates, as high as 100% in some cases.
Keywords: Affine transformation, Radix sort, SATS, Virtual electrostatic field.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1704
32 A Novel Multiresolution based Optimization Scheme for Robust Affine Parameter Estimation
Authors: J.Dinesh Peter
Abstract:This paper describes a new method for affine parameter estimation between image sequences. Usually, the parameter estimation techniques can be done by least squares in a quadratic way. However, this technique can be sensitive to the presence of outliers. Therefore, parameter estimation techniques for various image processing applications are robust enough to withstand the influence of outliers. Progressively, some robust estimation functions demanding non-quadratic and perhaps non-convex potentials adopted from statistics literature have been used for solving these. Addressing the optimization of the error function in a factual framework for finding a global optimal solution, the minimization can begin with the convex estimator at the coarser level and gradually introduce nonconvexity i.e., from soft to hard redescending non-convex estimators when the iteration reaches finer level of multiresolution pyramid. Comparison has been made to find the performance of the results of proposed method with the results found individually using two different estimators.
Keywords: Image Processing, Affine parameter estimation, Outliers, Robust Statistics, Robust M-estimatorsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1348
31 Variable Step-Size Affine Projection Algorithm With a Weighted and Regularized Projection Matrix
Authors: Tao Dai, Andy Adler, Behnam Shahrrava
This paper presents a forgetting factor scheme for variable step-size affine projection algorithms (APA). The proposed scheme uses a forgetting processed input matrix as the projection matrix of pseudo-inverse to estimate system deviation. This method introduces temporal weights into the projection matrix, which is typically a better model of the real error's behavior than homogeneous temporal weights. The regularization overcomes the ill-conditioning introduced by both the forgetting process and the increasing size of the input matrix. This algorithm is tested by independent trials with coloured input signals and various parameter combinations. Results show that the proposed algorithm is superior in terms of convergence rate and misadjustment compared to existing algorithms. As a special case, a variable step size NLMS with forgetting factor is also presented in this paper.
Keywords: Adaptive signal processing, affine projection algorithms, variable step-size adaptive algorithms, regularization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1514
30 Affine Combination of Splitting Type Integrators, Implemented with Parallel Computing Methods
Authors: Adrian Alvarez, Diego Rial
Abstract:In this work we present a family of new convergent type methods splitting high order no negative steps feature that allows your application to irreversible problems. Performing affine combinations consist of results obtained with Trotter Lie integrators of different steps. Some examples where applied symplectic compared with methods, in particular a pair of differential equations semilinear. The number of basic integrations required is comparable with integrators symplectic, but this technique allows the ability to do the math in parallel thus reducing the times of which exemplify exhibiting some implementations with simple schemes for its modularity and scalability process.
Keywords: Lie Trotter integrators, Irreversible Problems, Splitting Methods without negative steps, MPI, HPC.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 923
29 On Convergence of Affine Thin Plate Bending Element
Authors: Rado Flajs, Miran Saje
In the present paper the displacement-based nonconforming quadrilateral affine thin plate bending finite element ARPQ4 is presented, derived directly from non-conforming quadrilateral thin plate bending finite element RPQ4 proposed by Wanji and Cheung . It is found, however, that element RPQ4 is only conditionally unisolvent. The new element is shown to be inherently unisolvent. This convenient property results in the element ARPQ4 being more robust and thus better suited for computations than its predecessor. The convergence is proved and the rate of convergence estimated. The mathematically rigorous proof of convergence presented in the paper is based on Stummel-s generalized patch test and the consideration of the element approximability condition, which are both necessary and sufficient for convergence.
Keywords: Quadrilateral thin plate bending element, convergence, generalized patch test.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1218
28 DWT-SATS Based Detection of Image Region Cloning
Authors: Michael Zimba
A duplicated image region may be subjected to a number of attacks such as noise addition, compression, reflection, rotation, and scaling with the intention of either merely mating it to its targeted neighborhood or preventing its detection. In this paper, we present an effective and robust method of detecting duplicated regions inclusive of those affected by the various attacks. In order to reduce the dimension of the image, the proposed algorithm firstly performs discrete wavelet transform, DWT, of a suspicious image. However, unlike most existing copy move image forgery (CMIF) detection algorithms operating in the DWT domain which extract only the low frequency subband of the DWT of the suspicious image thereby leaving valuable information in the other three subbands, the proposed algorithm simultaneously extracts features from all the four subbands. The extracted features are not only more accurate representation of image regions but also robust to additive noise, JPEG compression, and affine transformation. Furthermore, principal component analysis-eigenvalue decomposition, PCA-EVD, is applied to reduce the dimension of the features. The extracted features are then sorted using the more computationally efficient Radix Sort algorithm. Finally, same affine transformation selection, SATS, a duplication verification method, is applied to detect duplicated regions. The proposed algorithm is not only fast but also more robust to attacks compared to the related CMIF detection algorithms. The experimental results show high detection rates.
Keywords: Affine Transformation, Discrete Wavelet Transform, Radix Sort, SATS.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1803
27 Super Resolution Blind Reconstruction of Low Resolution Images using Wavelets based Fusion
Authors: Liyakathunisa, V. K. Ananthashayana
Abstract:Crucial information barely visible to the human eye is often embedded in a series of low resolution images taken of the same scene. Super resolution reconstruction is the process of combining several low resolution images into a single higher resolution image. The ideal algorithm should be fast, and should add sharpness and details, both at edges and in regions without adding artifacts. In this paper we propose a super resolution blind reconstruction technique for linearly degraded images. In our proposed technique the algorithm is divided into three parts an image registration, wavelets based fusion and an image restoration. In this paper three low resolution images are considered which may sub pixels shifted, rotated, blurred or noisy, the sub pixel shifted images are registered using affine transformation model; A wavelet based fusion is performed and the noise is removed using soft thresolding. Our proposed technique reduces blocking artifacts and also smoothens the edges and it is also able to restore high frequency details in an image. Our technique is efficient and computationally fast having clear perspective of real time implementation.
Keywords: Affine Transforms, Denoiseing, DWT, Fusion, Image registration.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2558
26 A Hyperbolic Characterization of Projective Klingenberg Planes
Authors: Basri Çelik
Abstract:In this paper, the notion of Hyperbolic Klingenberg plane is introduced via a set of axioms like as Affine Klingenberg planes and Projective Klingenberg planes. Models of such planes are constructed by deleting a certain number m of equivalence classes of lines from a Projective Klingenberg plane. In the finite case, an upper bound for m is established and some combinatoric properties are investigated.
Keywords: Hyperbolic planes, Klingenberg planes, Projective planes.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1217
25 SURF Based Image Matching from Different Angle of Viewpoints using Rectification and Simplified Orientation Correction
Authors: K.M.Goh, M.M.Mokji, S.A.R. Abu-Bakar
Speeded-Up Robust Feature (SURF) is commonly used for feature matching in stereovision because of their robustness towards scale changes and rotational changes. However, SURF feature cannot cope with large viewpoint changes or skew distortion. This paper introduces a method which can help to improve the wide baseline-s matching performance in term of accuracy by rectifying the image using two vanishing points. Simplified orientation correction was used to remove the false matching..
Keywords: Affine, orientation, projective, SURF.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2189
24 Variable Step-Size APA with Decorrelation of AR Input Process
Authors: Jae Wook Shin, Ju-man Song, Hyun-Taek Choi, Poo Gyeon Park
This paper introduces a new variable step-size APA with decorrelation of AR input process is based on the MSD analysis. To achieve a fast convergence rate and a small steady-state estimation error, he proposed algorithm uses variable step size that is determined by minimising the MSD. In addition, experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is achieved better performance than the other algorithms.
Keywords: adaptive filter, affine projection algorithm, variable step size.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1774
23 New Data Reuse Adaptive Filters with Noise Constraint
Authors: Young-Seok Choi
Abstract:We present a new framework of the data-reusing (DR) adaptive algorithms by incorporating a constraint on noise, referred to as a noise constraint. The motivation behind this work is that the use of the statistical knowledge of the channel noise can contribute toward improving the convergence performance of an adaptive filter in identifying a noisy linear finite impulse response (FIR) channel. By incorporating the noise constraint into the cost function of the DR adaptive algorithms, the noise constrained DR (NC-DR) adaptive algorithms are derived. Experimental results clearly indicate their superior performance over the conventional DR ones.
Keywords: Adaptive filter, data-reusing, least-mean square (LMS), affine projection (AP), noise constraint.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1264
22 Nonlinear Acoustic Echo Cancellation Using Volterra Filtering with a Variable Step-Size GS-PAP Algorithm
Authors: J. B. Seo, K. J. Kim, S. W. Nam
Abstract:In this paper, a nonlinear acoustic echo cancellation (AEC) system is proposed, whereby 3rd order Volterra filtering is utilized along with a variable step-size Gauss-Seidel pseudo affine projection (VSSGS-PAP) algorithm. In particular, the proposed nonlinear AEC system is developed by considering a double-talk situation with near-end signal variation. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach yields better nonlinear AEC performance than conventional approaches.
Keywords: Acoustic echo cancellation (AEC), Volterra filtering, variable step-size, GS-PAP.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1674
21 Moment Invariants in Image Analysis
Authors: Jan Flusser
Abstract:This paper aims to present a survey of object recognition/classification methods based on image moments. We review various types of moments (geometric moments, complex moments) and moment-based invariants with respect to various image degradations and distortions (rotation, scaling, affine transform, image blurring, etc.) which can be used as shape descriptors for classification. We explain a general theory how to construct these invariants and show also a few of them in explicit forms. We review efficient numerical algorithms that can be used for moment computation and demonstrate practical examples of using moment invariants in real applications.
Keywords: Object recognition, degraded images, moments, moment invariants, geometric invariants, invariants to convolution, moment computation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3737
20 The Effect of Directional Search Using Iterated Functional System for Matching Range and Domain Blocks
Authors: Shimal Das, Dibyendu Ghoshal
Abstract:The effect of directional search using iterated functional system has been studied on four images taken from databases. The images are portioned successively towards smaller dimension. Presented method provides the faster rate of convergence with respect to processing time in the flat region, but the same has been found to be slower at the border of the images and edges. It has also been revealed that the PSNR is lower at the edges and border portions of the image, and it is found to be higher in the uniform gray region, under the same external illumination and external noise environment.
Keywords: Iterated functional system, fractal compression, structural similarity index measure, fractal block coding, affine transformations.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 796
19 Comparative Analysis of Classical and Parallel Inpainting Algorithms Based on Affine Combinations of Projections on Convex Sets
Authors: Irina Maria Artinescu, Costin Radu Boldea, Eduard-Ionut Matei
The paper is a comparative study of two classical vari-ants of parallel projection methods for solving the convex feasibility problem with their equivalents that involve variable weights in the construction of the solutions. We used a graphical representation of these methods for inpainting a convex area of an image in order to investigate their effectiveness in image reconstruction applications. We also presented a numerical analysis of the convergence of these four algorithms in terms of the average number of steps and execution time, in classical CPU and, alternativaly, in parallel GPU implementation.
Keywords: convex feasibility problem, convergence analysis, ınpainting, parallel projection methodsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 263
18 Complex Energy Signal Model for Digital Human Fingerprint Matching
Authors: Jason Zalev, Reza Sedaghat
Abstract:This paper describes a complex energy signal model that is isomorphic with digital human fingerprint images. By using signal models, the problem of fingerprint matching is transformed into the signal processing problem of finding a correlation between two complex signals that differ by phase-rotation and time-scaling. A technique for minutiae matching that is independent of image translation, rotation and linear-scaling, and is resistant to missing minutiae is proposed. The method was tested using random data points. The results show that for matching prints the scaling and rotation angles are closely estimated and a stronger match will have a higher correlation.
Keywords: Affine Invariant, Fingerprint Recognition, Matching, Minutiae.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1195
17 Dual Pyramid of Agents for Image Segmentation
Authors: K. Idir, H. Merouani, Y. Tlili.
Abstract:An effective method for the early detection of breast cancer is the mammographic screening. One of the most important signs of early breast cancer is the presence of microcalcifications. For the detection of microcalcification in a mammography image, we propose to conceive a multiagent system based on a dual irregular pyramid. An initial segmentation is obtained by an incremental approach; the result represents level zero of the pyramid. The edge information obtained by application of the Canny filter is taken into account to affine the segmentation. The edge-agents and region-agents cooper level by level of the pyramid by exploiting its various characteristics to provide the segmentation process convergence.
Keywords: Dual Pyramid, Image Segmentation, Multi-agent System, Region/Edge Cooperation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1824
16 Minimal Residual Method for Adaptive Filtering with Finite Termination
Authors: Noor Atinah Ahmad, Shazia Javed
Abstract:We present a discussion of three adaptive filtering algorithms well known for their one-step termination property, in terms of their relationship with the minimal residual method. These algorithms are the normalized least mean square (NLMS), Affine Projection algorithm (APA) and the recursive least squares algorithm (RLS). The NLMS is shown to be a result of the orthogonality condition imposed on the instantaneous approximation of the Wiener equation, while APA and RLS algorithm result from orthogonality condition in multi-dimensional minimal residual formulation. Further analysis of the minimal residual formulation for the RLS leads to a triangular system which also possesses the one-step termination property (in exact arithmetic)
Keywords: Adaptive filtering, minimal residual method, projection method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1432
15 Influence of Replacement Used Reference Coordinate System for Georeferencing of the Old Map of Europe
Authors: Jakub Havlicek, Jiri Cajthaml
Abstract:The article describes the effect of the replacement of the used reference coordinate system in the georeferencing of an old map of Europe. The map was georeferenced into three types of projection – the equal-area conic (original cartographic projection), cylindrical Plate Carrée and cylindrical Mercator map projection. The map was georeferenced by means of the affine and the second-order polynomial transformation. The resulting georeferenced raster datasets from the Plate Carrée and Mercator projection were projected into the equal-area conic projection by means of projection equations. The output is the comparison of drawn graphics, the magnitude of standard deviations for individual projections and types of transformation.
Keywords: Georeferencing, reference coordinate system, transformation, standard deviation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1335
14 Identification of a PWA Model of a Batch Reactor for Model Predictive Control
Authors: Gorazd Karer, Igor Skrjanc, Borut Zupancic
The complex hybrid and nonlinear nature of many processes that are met in practice causes problems with both structure modelling and parameter identification; therefore, obtaining a model that is suitable for MPC is often a difficult task. The basic idea of this paper is to present an identification method for a piecewise affine (PWA) model based on a fuzzy clustering algorithm. First we introduce the PWA model. Next, we tackle the identification method. We treat the fuzzy clustering algorithm, deal with the projections of the fuzzy clusters into the input space of the PWA model and explain the estimation of the parameters of the PWA model by means of a modified least-squares method. Furthermore, we verify the usability of the proposed identification approach on a hybrid nonlinear batch reactor example. The result suggest that the batch reactor can be efficiently identified and thus formulated as a PWA model, which can eventually be used for model predictive control purposes.
Keywords: Batch reactor, fuzzy clustering, hybrid systems, identification, nonlinear systems, PWA systems.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2065
13 Recognition of Grocery Products in Images Captured by Cellular Phones
Authors: Farshideh Einsele, Hassan Foroosh
In this paper, we present a robust algorithm to recognize extracted text from grocery product images captured by mobile phone cameras. Recognition of such text is challenging since text in grocery product images varies in its size, orientation, style, illumination, and can suffer from perspective distortion. Pre-processing is performed to make the characters scale and rotation invariant. Since text degradations can not be appropriately defined using well-known geometric transformations such as translation, rotation, affine transformation and shearing, we use the whole character black pixels as our feature vector. Classification is performed with minimum distance classifier using the maximum likelihood criterion, which delivers very promising Character Recognition Rate (CRR) of 89%. We achieve considerably higher Word Recognition Rate (WRR) of 99% when using lower level linguistic knowledge about product words during the recognition process.
Keywords: Camera-based OCR, Feature extraction, Document and image processing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2300
12 Dual Band Fractal Antenna for Wireless Sensor Network Application
Authors: M. Shanmugapriya, M. A. Maluk Mohamed, J. William
A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a collection of sensor nodes organized into a cooperative network. These nodes communicate through a wireless antenna. Reduction in physical size and multiband operation is an important requirement of WSN antenna. Fractal antenna is used for miniaturization and multiband operation. The self-similar or self-affine and space filling property of fractal geometry increases the effective electrical length of the antenna, reduces the size and make them frequency independent. This paper elaborates on Dual band fractal antenna with Coplanar Waveguide (CPW) feed for WSN. The proposed antenna is designed on a FR4 substrate with the dimension of 27mm x 28.5mm x 1.6mm, resonates at 2.4GHz and 5.2GHz with a return loss less than -10dB. The design and simulation process is carried out using IE3D simulation software. The simulated and measured results are found in good agreement.
Keywords: CPW, Fractal, Iterations, Miniaturization, Space filling, Self Similar, WSN, WLAN.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2363