Search results for: Moving node
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 842

Search results for: Moving node

842 A Mesh Free Moving Node Method To Analyze Flow Through Spirals of Orbiting Scroll Pump

Authors: I.Banerjee, A.K.Mahendra, T.K.Bera, B.G.Chandresh

Abstract:

The scroll pump belongs to the category of positive displacement pump can be used for continuous pumping of gases at low pressure apart from general vacuum application. The shape of volume occupied by the gas moves and deforms continuously as the spiral orbits. To capture flow features in such domain where mesh deformation varies with time in a complicated manner, mesh less solver was found to be very useful. Least Squares Kinetic Upwind Method (LSKUM) is a kinetic theory based mesh free Euler solver working on arbitrary distribution of points. Here upwind is enforced in molecular level based on kinetic flux vector splitting scheme (KFVS). In the present study we extended the LSKUM to moving node viscous flow application. This new code LSKUM-NS-MN for moving node viscous flow is validated for standard airfoil pitching test case. Simulation performed for flow through scroll pump using LSKUM-NS-MN code agrees well with the experimental pumping speed data.

Keywords: Least Squares, Moving node, Pitching, Spirals.

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841 Imposter Detection Based on Location in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network

Authors: Sanjoy Das, Akash Arya, Rishi Pal Singh

Abstract:

Vehicular Ad hoc Network is basically the solution of several problems associated while vehicles are plying on the road. In this paper, we have focused on the detection of imposter node while it has stolen the ID's of the authenticated vehicle in the network. The purpose is to harm the network through imposter messages. Here, we have proposed a protocol namely Imposter Detection based on Location (IDBL), which will store the location coordinate of the each vehicle as the key of the authenticity of the message so that imposter node can be detected. The imposter nodes send messages from a stolen ID and show that it is from an authentic node ID. So, to detect this anomaly, the first location is checked and observed different from original vehicle location. This node is known as imposter node. We have implemented the algorithm through JAVA and tested various types of node distribution and observed the detection probability of imposter node.

Keywords: Authentication, detection, IDBL protocol, imposter node, node detection.

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840 Estimating Localization Network Node Positions with a Multi-Robot System

Authors: Mikko Elomaa, Aarne Halme

Abstract:

A novel method using bearing-only SLAM to estimate node positions of a localization network is proposed. A group of simple robots are used to estimate the position of each node. Each node has a unique ID, which it can communicate to a robot close by. Initially the node IDs and positions are unknown. A case example using RFID technology in the localization network is introduced.

Keywords: Localization network, Multi-robot, RFID, SLAM

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839 Application of Novel Conserving Immersed Boundary Method to Moving Boundary Problem

Authors: S. N. Hosseini, S. M. H. Karimian

Abstract:

A new conserving approach in the context of Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) is presented to simulate one dimensional, incompressible flow in a moving boundary problem. The method employs control volume scheme to simulate the flow field. The concept of ghost node is used at the boundaries to conserve the mass and momentum equations. The Present method implements the conservation laws in all cells including boundary control volumes. Application of the method is studied in a test case with moving boundary. Comparison between the results of this new method and a sharp interface (Image Point Method) IBM algorithm shows a well distinguished improvement in both pressure and velocity fields of the present method. Fluctuations in pressure field are fully resolved in this proposed method. This approach expands the IBM capability to simulate flow field for variety of problems by implementing conservation laws in a fully Cartesian grid compared to other conserving methods.

Keywords: Immersed Boundary Method, conservation of mass and momentum laws, moving boundary, boundary condition.

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838 A Car Parking Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

This paper presents a car parking monitoring system using wireless sensor networks. Multiple sensor nodes and a sink node, a gateway, and a server constitute a wireless network for monitoring a parking lot. Each of the sensor nodes is equipped with a 3-axis AMR sensor and deployed in the center of a parking space. Each sensor node reads its sensor values periodically and transmits the data to the sink node if the current and immediate past sensor values show a difference exceeding a threshold value. The sensor nodes and sink node use the 448 MHz band for wireless communication. Since RF transmission only occurs when sensor values show abrupt changes, the number of RF transmission operations is reduced and battery power can be conserved. The data from the sensor nodes reach the server via the sink node and gateway. The server determines which parking spaces are taken by cars based upon the received sensor data and reference values. The reference values are average sensor values measured by each sensor node when the corresponding parking spot is not occupied by a vehicle. Because the decision making is done by the server, the computational burden of the sensor node is relieved, which helps reduce the duty cycle of the sensor node.

Keywords: Car parking monitoring, magnetometer, sensor node, wireless sensor network.

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837 Suitable Partner Node Selection and Resource Allocation in Cooperative Wireless Communication Using the Trade-Off Game

Authors: Oluseye A. Adeleke, Mohd. F. M. Salleh

Abstract:

The performance of any cooperative communication system depends largely on the selection of a proper partner. Another important factor to consider is an efficient allocation of resource like power by the source node to help it in forwarding information to the destination. In this paper, we look at the concepts of partner selection and resource (power) allocation for a distributed communication network. A type of non-cooperative game referred to as Trade-Off game is employed so as to jointly consider the utilities of the source and relay nodes, where in this case, the source is the node that requires help with forwarding of its information while the partner is the node that is willing to help in forwarding the source node’s information, but at a price. The approach enables the source node to maximize its utility by selecting a partner node based on (i) the proximity of the partner node to the source and destination nodes, and (ii) the price the partner node will charge for the help being rendered. Our proposed scheme helps the source locate and select the relay nodes at ‘better’ locations and purchase power optimally from them. It also aids the contending relay nodes maximize their own utilities as well by asking proper prices. Our game scheme is seen to converge to unique equilibrium.

Keywords: Cooperative communication, game theory, node, power allocation, trade-off, utility.

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836 Numerical Simulation of a Three-Dimensional Framework under the Action of Two-Dimensional Moving Loads

Authors: Jia-Jang Wu

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to develop a general technique so that one may predict the dynamic behaviour of a three-dimensional scale crane model subjected to time-dependent moving point forces by means of conventional finite element computer packages. To this end, the whole scale crane model is divided into two parts: the stationary framework and the moving substructure. In such a case, the dynamic responses of a scale crane model can be predicted from the forced vibration responses of the stationary framework due to actions of the four time-dependent moving point forces induced by the moving substructure. Since the magnitudes and positions of the moving point forces are dependent on the relative positions between the trolley, moving substructure and the stationary framework, it can be found from the numerical results that the time histories for the moving speeds of the moving substructure and the trolley are the key factors affecting the dynamic responses of the scale crane model.

Keywords: Moving load, moving substructure, dynamic responses, forced vibration responses.

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835 Adding Edges between One Node and Every Other Node with the Same Depth in a Complete K-ary Tree

Authors: Kiyoshi Sawada, Takashi Mitsuishi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a model of adding relations between members of the same level in a pyramid organization structure which is a complete K-ary tree such that the communication of information between every member in the organization becomes the most efficient. When edges between one node and every other node with the same depth N in a complete K-ary tree of height H are added, an optimal depth N* = H is obtained by minimizing the total path length which is the sum of lengths of shortest paths between every pair of all nodes.

Keywords: complete K-ary tree, organization structure, shortest path

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834 Tree Based Data Aggregation to Resolve Funneling Effect in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: G. Rajesh, B. Vinayaga Sundaram, C. Aarthi

Abstract:

In wireless sensor network, sensor node transmits the sensed data to the sink node in multi-hop communication periodically. This high traffic induces congestion at the node which is present one-hop distance to the sink node. The packet transmission and reception rate of these nodes should be very high, when compared to other sensor nodes in the network. Therefore, the energy consumption of that node is very high and this effect is known as the “funneling effect”. The tree based-data aggregation technique (TBDA) is used to reduce the energy consumption of the node. The throughput of the overall performance shows a considerable decrease in the number of packet transmissions to the sink node. The proposed scheme, TBDA, avoids the funneling effect and extends the lifetime of the wireless sensor network. The average case time complexity for inserting the node in the tree is O(n log n) and for the worst case time complexity is O(n2).

Keywords: Data Aggregation, Funneling Effect, Traffic Congestion, Wireless Sensor Network.

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833 New Multipath Node-Disjoint Routing Based on AODV Protocol

Authors: V. Zangeneh, S. Mohammadi

Abstract:

Today, node-disjoint routing becomes inessential technique in communication of packets among various nodes in networks. Meanwhile AODV (Ad Hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector) creates single-path route between a pair of source and destination nodes. Some researches has done so far to make multipath node-disjoint routing based on AODV protocol. But however their overhead and end-to-end delay are relatively high, while the detail of their code is not available too. This paper proposes a new approach of multipath node-disjoint routing based on AODV protocol. Then the algorithm of analytical model is presented. The extensive results of this algorithm will be presented in the next paper.

Keywords: AODV; MANET; Multipath Routing; Node-disjoint;transmission delay.

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832 Moving Area Filter to Detect Object in Video Sequence from Moving Platform

Authors: Sallama Athab, Hala Bahjat

Abstract:

Detecting object in video sequence is a challenging mission for identifying, tracking moving objects. Background removal considered as a basic step in detected moving objects tasks. Dual static cameras placed in front and rear moving platform gathered information which is used to detect objects. Background change regarding with speed and direction moving platform, so moving objects distinguished become complicated. In this paper, we propose framework allows detection moving object with variety of speed and direction dynamically. Object detection technique built on two levels the first level apply background removal and edge detection to generate moving areas. The second level apply Moving Areas Filter (MAF) then calculate Correlation Score (CS) for adjusted moving area. Merging moving areas with closer CS and marked as moving object. Experiment result is prepared on real scene acquired by dual static cameras without overlap in sense. Results showing accuracy in detecting objects compared with optical flow and Mixture Module Gaussian (MMG), Accurate ratio produced to measure accurate detection moving object.

Keywords: Background Removal, Correlation, Mixture Module Gaussian, Moving Platform, Object Detection.

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831 Internal Node Stabilization for Voltage Sense Amplifiers in Multi-Channel Systems

Authors: Sanghoon Park, Ki-Jin Kim, Kwang-Ho Ahn

Abstract:

This paper discusses the undesirable charge transfer by the parasitic capacitances of the input transistors in a voltage sense amplifier. Due to its intrinsic rail-to-rail voltage transition, the input sides are inevitably disturbed. It can possible disturb the stabilities of the reference voltage levels. Moreover, it becomes serious in multi-channel systems by altering them for other channels, and so degrades the linearity of the systems. In order to alleviate the internal node voltage transition, the internal node stabilization technique is proposed by utilizing an additional biasing circuit. It achieves 47% and 43% improvements for node stabilization and input referred disturbance, respectively.

Keywords: Voltage sense amplifier, voltage transition, node stabilization, and biasing circuits.

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830 Position Based Routing Protocol with More Reliability in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

Authors: Mahboobeh Abdoos, Karim Faez, Masoud Sabaei

Abstract:

Position based routing protocols are the kinds of routing protocols, which they use of nodes location information, instead of links information to routing. In position based routing protocols, it supposed that the packet source node has position information of itself and it's neighbors and packet destination node. Greedy is a very important position based routing protocol. In one of it's kinds, named MFR (Most Forward Within Radius), source node or packet forwarder node, sends packet to one of it's neighbors with most forward progress towards destination node (closest neighbor to destination). Using distance deciding metric in Greedy to forward packet to a neighbor node, is not suitable for all conditions. If closest neighbor to destination node, has high speed, in comparison with source node or intermediate packet forwarder node speed or has very low remained battery power, then packet loss probability is increased. Proposed strategy uses combination of metrics distancevelocity similarity-power, to deciding about giving the packet to which neighbor. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy has lower lost packets average than Greedy, so it has more reliability.

Keywords: Mobile Ad Hoc Network, Position Based, Reliability, Routing.

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829 An Efficient MIPv6 Return Routability Scheme Based on Geometric Computing

Authors: Yen-Cheng Chen, Fu-Chen Yang

Abstract:

IETF defines mobility support in IPv6, i.e. MIPv6, to allow nodes to remain reachable while moving around in the IPv6 internet. When a node moves and visits a foreign network, it is still reachable through the indirect packet forwarding from its home network. This triangular routing feature provides node mobility but increases the communication latency between nodes. This deficiency can be overcome by using a Binding Update (BU) scheme, which let nodes keep up-to-date IP addresses and communicate with each other through direct IP routing. To further protect the security of BU, a Return Routability (RR) procedure was developed. However, it has been found that RR procedure is vulnerable to many attacks. In this paper, we will propose a lightweight RR procedure based on geometric computing. In consideration of the inherent limitation of computing resources in mobile node, the proposed scheme is developed to minimize the cost of computations and to eliminate the overhead of state maintenance during binding updates. Compared with other CGA-based BU schemes, our scheme is more efficient and doesn-t need nonce tables in nodes.

Keywords: Mobile IPv6, Binding update, Geometric computing.

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828 Performance Comparison of Single and Multi-Path Routing Protocol in MANET with Selfish Behaviors

Authors: Abdur Rashid Sangi, Jianwei Liu, Zhiping Liu

Abstract:

Mobile Ad Hoc network is an infrastructure less network which operates with the coordination of each node. Each node believes to help another node, by forwarding its data to/from another node. Unlike a wired network, nodes in an ad hoc network are resource (i.e. battery, bandwidth computational capability and so on) constrained. Such dependability of one node to another and limited resources of nodes can result in non cooperation by any node to accumulate its resources. Such non cooperation is known as selfish behavior. This paper discusses the performance analysis of very well known MANET single-path (i.e. AODV) and multi-path (i.e. AOMDV) routing protocol, in the presence of selfish behaviors. Along with existing selfish behaviors, a new variation is also studied. Extensive simulations were carried out using ns-2 and the study concluded that the multi-path protocol (i.e. AOMDV) with link disjoint configuration outperforms the other two configurations.

Keywords: performance analysis, single and multi path protocol, selfish behaviors.

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827 Stabilization Technique for Multi-Inputs Voltage Sense Amplifiers in Node Sharing Converters

Authors: Sanghoon Park, Ki-Jin Kim, Kwang-Ho Ahn

Abstract:

This paper discusses the undesirable charge transfer through the parasitic capacitances of the input transistors in a multi-inputs voltage sense amplifier. Its intrinsic rail-to-rail voltage transitions at the output nodes inevitably disturb the input sides through the capacitive coupling between the outputs and inputs. Then, it can possible degrade the stabilities of the reference voltage levels. Moreover, it becomes more serious in multi-channel systems by altering them for other channels, and so degrades the linearity of the overall systems. In order to alleviate the internal node voltage transition, the internal node stabilization techniques are proposed. It achieves 45% and 40% improvements for node stabilization and input referred disturbance, respectively.

Keywords: Voltage sense amplifier, multi-inputs, voltage transition, node stabilization, and biasing circuits.

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826 An AI-Based Dynamical Resource Allocation Calculation Algorithm for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Zhou Luchen, Wu Yubing, Burra Venkata Durga Kumar

Abstract:

As the scale of the network becomes larger and more complex than before, the density of user devices is also increasing. The development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) networks is able to collect and transform data in an efficient way by using software-defined networks (SDN) technology. This paper proposed a three-layer distributed and dynamic cluster architecture to manage UAVs by using an AI-based resource allocation calculation algorithm to address the overloading network problem. Through separating services of each UAV, the UAV hierarchical cluster system performs the main function of reducing the network load and transferring user requests, with three sub-tasks including data collection, communication channel organization, and data relaying. In this cluster, a head node and a vice head node UAV are selected considering the CPU, RAM, and ROM memory of devices, battery charge, and capacity. The vice head node acts as a backup that stores all the data in the head node. The k-means clustering algorithm is used in order to detect high load regions and form the UAV layered clusters. The whole process of detecting high load areas, forming and selecting UAV clusters, and moving the selected UAV cluster to that area is proposed as offloading traffic algorithm.

Keywords: k-means, resource allocation, SDN, UAV network, unmanned aerial vehicles.

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825 Relay Node Selection Algorithm for Cooperative Communications in Wireless Networks

Authors: Sunmyeng Kim

Abstract:

IEEE 802.11a/b/g standards support multiple transmission rates. Even though the use of multiple transmission rates increase the WLAN capacity, this feature leads to the performance anomaly problem. Cooperative communication was introduced to relieve the performance anomaly problem. Data packets are delivered to the destination much faster through a relay node with high rate than through direct transmission to the destination at low rate. In the legacy cooperative protocols, a source node chooses a relay node only based on the transmission rate. Therefore, they are not so feasible in multi-flow environments since they do not consider the effect of other flows. To alleviate the effect, we propose a new relay node selection algorithm based on the transmission rate and channel contention level. Performance evaluation is conducted using simulation, and shows that the proposed protocol significantly outperforms the previous protocol in terms of throughput and delay.

Keywords: Cooperative communications, MAC protocol, Relay node, WLAN.

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824 Utilizing 5G Mobile Connection as a Node in Layer 1 Proof of Authority Blockchain Used for Microtransaction

Authors: Frode van der Laak

Abstract:

The paper contributes to the feasibility of using a 5G mobile connection as a node for a Proof of Authority (PoA) blockchain, which is used for microtransactions at the same time. It uses the phone number identity of the users that are linked to the crypto wallet address. It also proposed a consensus protocol based on PoA blockchain; PoA is a permission blockchain where consensus is achieved through a set of designated authority rather than through mining, as is the case with a Proof of Work (PoW) blockchain. This report will first explain the concept of a PoA blockchain and how it works. It will then discuss the potential benefits and challenges of using a 5G mobile connection as a node in such a blockchain, and finally, the main open problem statement and proposed solutions with the requirements.

Keywords: 5G, mobile, connection, node, PoA, blockchain, microtransaction.

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823 Loading and Unloading Scheduling Problem in a Multiple-Multiple Logistics Network: Modeling and Solving

Authors: Yasin Tadayonrad, Alassane Ballé Ndiaye

Abstract:

Most of the supply chain networks have many nodes starting from the suppliers’ side up to the customers’ side that each node sends/receives the raw materials/products from/to the other nodes. One of the major concerns in this kind of supply chain network is finding the best schedule for loading/unloading the shipments through the whole network by which all the constraints in the source and destination nodes are met and all the shipments are delivered on time. One of the main constraints in this problem is the loading/unloading capacity in each source/destination node at each time slot (e.g., per week/day/hour). Because of the different characteristics of different products/groups of products, the capacity of each node might differ based on each group of products. In most supply chain networks (especially in the Fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) industry), there are different planners/planning teams working separately in different nodes to determine the loading/unloading timeslots in source/destination nodes to send/receive the shipments. In this paper, a mathematical problem has been proposed to find the best timeslots for loading/unloading the shipments minimizing the overall delays subject to respecting the capacity of loading/unloading of each node, the required delivery date of each shipment (considering the lead-times), and working-days of each node. This model was implemented on Python and solved using Python-MIP on a sample data set. Finally, the idea of a heuristic algorithm has been proposed as a way of improving the solution method that helps to implement the model on larger data sets in real business cases, including more nodes and shipments.

Keywords: Supply chain management, transportation, multiple-multiple network, timeslots management, mathematical modeling, mixed integer programming.

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822 Balancing Neural Trees to Improve Classification Performance

Authors: Asha Rani, Christian Micheloni, Gian Luca Foresti

Abstract:

In this paper, a neural tree (NT) classifier having a simple perceptron at each node is considered. A new concept for making a balanced tree is applied in the learning algorithm of the tree. At each node, if the perceptron classification is not accurate and unbalanced, then it is replaced by a new perceptron. This separates the training set in such a way that almost the equal number of patterns fall into each of the classes. Moreover, each perceptron is trained only for the classes which are present at respective node and ignore other classes. Splitting nodes are employed into the neural tree architecture to divide the training set when the current perceptron node repeats the same classification of the parent node. A new error function based on the depth of the tree is introduced to reduce the computational time for the training of a perceptron. Experiments are performed to check the efficiency and encouraging results are obtained in terms of accuracy and computational costs.

Keywords: Neural Tree, Pattern Classification, Perceptron, Splitting Nodes.

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821 An Enhanced Key Management Scheme Based on Key Infection in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Han Park, JooSeok Song

Abstract:

We propose an enhanced key management scheme based on Key Infection, which is lightweight scheme for tiny sensors. The basic scheme, Key Infection, is perfectly secure against node capture and eavesdropping if initial communications after node deployment is secure. If, however, an attacker can eavesdrop on the initial communications, they can take the session key. We use common neighbors for each node to generate the session key. Each node has own secret key and shares it with its neighbor nodes. Then each node can establish the session key using common neighbors- secret keys and a random number. Our scheme needs only a few communications even if it uses neighbor nodes- information. Without losing the lightness of basic scheme, it improves the resistance against eavesdropping on the initial communications more than 30%.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Key Management

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820 Finite Element Analysis of Thermally-Induced Bistable Plate Using Four Plate Elements

Authors: Jixiao Tao, Xiaoqiao He

Abstract:

The present study deals with the finite element (FE) analysis of thermally-induced bistable plate using various plate elements. The quadrilateral plate elements include the 4-node conforming plate element based on the classical laminate plate theory (CLPT), the 4-node and 9-node Mindlin plate element based on the first-order shear deformation laminated plate theory (FSDT), and a displacement-based 4-node quadrilateral element (RDKQ-NL20). Using the von-Karman’s large deflection theory and the total Lagrangian (TL) approach, the nonlinear FE governing equations for plate under thermal load are derived. Convergence analysis for four elements is first conducted. These elements are then used to predict the stable shapes of thermally-induced bistable plate. Numerical test shows that the plate element based on FSDT, namely the 4-node and 9-node Mindlin, and the RDKQ-NL20 plate element can predict two stable cylindrical shapes while the 4-node conforming plate predicts a saddles shape. Comparing the simulation results with ABAQUS, the RDKQ-NL20 element shows the best accuracy among all the elements.

Keywords: Finite element method, geometrical nonlinearity, bistable, quadrilateral plate elements.

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819 Design and Manufacture of Non-Contact Moving Load for Experimental Analysis of Beams

Authors: FiroozBakhtiari-Nejad, Hamidreza Rostami, MeysamMirzaee, Mona Zandbaf

Abstract:

Dynamic tests are an important step of the design of engineering structures, because the accuracy of predictions of theoretical–numerical procedures can be assessed. In experimental test of moving loads that is one of the major research topics, the load is modeled as a simple moving mass or a small vehicle. This paper deals with the applicability of Non-contact Moving Load (NML) for vibration analysis. For this purpose, an experimental set-up is designed to generate the different types of NML including constant and harmonic. The proposed method relies on pressurized air which is useful, especially when dealing with fragile or sensitive structures. To demonstrate the performance of this system, the set-up is employedfor a modal analysis of a beam and detecting crack of the beam.The obtained results indicate that the experimental set-up for NML can be an attractive alternative to the moving load problems.

Keywords: Experimental analysis, Moving load, Non-contact excitation.

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818 An Elaborate Survey on Node Replication Attack in Static Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: N. S. Usha, E. A. Mary Anita

Abstract:

Recent innovations in the field of technology led to the use of   wireless sensor networks in various applications, which consists of a number of small, very tiny, low-cost, non-tamper proof and resource constrained sensor nodes. These nodes are often distributed and deployed in an unattended environment, so as to collaborate with each other to share data or information. Amidst various applications, wireless sensor network finds a major role in monitoring battle field in military applications. As these non-tamperproof nodes are deployed in an unattended location, they are vulnerable to many security attacks. Amongst many security attacks, the node replication attack seems to be more threatening to the network users. Node Replication attack is caused by an attacker, who catches one true node, duplicates the first certification and cryptographic materials, makes at least one or more copies of the caught node and spots them at certain key positions in the system to screen or disturb the network operations. Preventing the occurrence of such node replication attacks in network is a challenging task. In this survey article, we provide the classification of detection schemes and also explore the various schemes proposed in each category. Also, we compare the various detection schemes against certain evaluation parameters and also its limitations. Finally, we provide some suggestions for carrying out future research work against such attacks.

Keywords: Clone node, data security, detection schemes, node replication attack, wireless sensor networks.

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817 Multiple Regression based Graphical Modeling for Images

Authors: Pavan S., Sridhar G., Sridhar V.

Abstract:

Super resolution is one of the commonly referred inference problems in computer vision. In the case of images, this problem is generally addressed using a graphical model framework wherein each node represents a portion of the image and the edges between the nodes represent the statistical dependencies. However, the large dimensionality of images along with the large number of possible states for a node makes the inference problem computationally intractable. In this paper, we propose a representation wherein each node can be represented as acombination of multiple regression functions. The proposed approach achieves a tradeoff between the computational complexity and inference accuracy by varying the number of regression functions for a node.

Keywords: Belief propagation, Graphical model, Regression, Super resolution.

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816 The Development of Flying Type Moving Robot Using Image Processing

Authors: Suriyon Tansuriyavong, Yuuta Suzuki, Boonmee Choompol

Abstract:

Wheel-running type moving robot has the restriction on the moving range caused by obstacles or stairs. Solving this weakness, we studied the development of moving robot using airship. Our airship robot moves by recognizing arrow marks on the path. To have the airship robot recognize arrow marks, we used edge-based template matching. To control propeller units, we used PID and PD controller. The results of experiments demonstrated that the airship robot can move along the marks and can go up and down the stairs. It is shown the possibility that airship robot can become a robot which can move at wide range facilities.

Keywords: Template matching, moving robot, airship robot, PID control.

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815 An Efficient Data Collection Approach for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Hanieh Alipour, Alireza Nemaney Pour

Abstract:

One of the most important applications of wireless sensor networks is data collection. This paper proposes as efficient approach for data collection in wireless sensor networks by introducing Member Forward List. This list includes the nodes with highest priority for forwarding the data. When a node fails or dies, this list is used to select the next node with higher priority. The benefit of this node is that it prevents the algorithm from repeating when a node fails or dies. The results show that Member Forward List decreases power consumption and latency in wireless sensor networks.

Keywords: Data Collection, Wireless Sensor Network, SensorNode, Tree-Based

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814 Simulation and Statistical Analysis of Motion Behavior of a Single Rockfall

Authors: Iau-Teh Wang, Chin-Yu Lee

Abstract:

The impact force of a rockfall is mainly determined by its moving behavior and velocity, which are contingent on the rock shape, slope gradient, height, and surface roughness of the moving path. It is essential to precisely calculate the moving path of the rockfall in order to effectively minimize and prevent damages caused by the rockfall. By applying the Colorado Rockfall Simulation Program (CRSP) program as the analysis tool, this research studies the influence of three shapes of rock (spherical, cylindrical and discoidal) and surface roughness on the moving path of a single rockfall. As revealed in the analysis, in addition to the slope gradient, the geometry of the falling rock and joint roughness coefficient ( JRC ) of the slope are the main factors affecting the moving behavior of a rockfall. On a single flat slope, both the rock-s bounce height and moving velocity increase as the surface gradient increases, with a critical gradient value of 1:m = 1 . Bouncing behavior and faster moving velocity occur more easily when the rock geometry is more oval. A flat piece tends to cause sliding behavior and is easily influenced by the change of surface undulation. When JRC <1.4 the moving velocity decreases and the bounce height increases as JRC increases. If the gradient is fixed, when JRC is greater, the bounce height will be higher, while the moving velocity will experience a downward trend. Therefore, the best protecting point and facilities can be chosen if the moving paths of rockfalls are precisely estimated.

Keywords: rock shape, surface roughness, moving path.

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813 Performance Evaluation of QoS Based Forwarding and Non Forwarding Energetic Node Selection Algorithm for Reducing the Flooding in Multihop Routing in Highly Dynamic MANET

Authors: R. Reka, R. S. D. Wahidabanu

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to propose a novel technique to guarantee Quality of Service (QoS) in a highly dynamic environment. The MANET changes its topology dynamically as the nodes are moved frequently. This will cause link failure between mobile nodes. MANET cannot ensure reliability without delay. The relay node is selected based on achieving QoS in previous transmission. It considers one more factor Connection Existence Period (CEP) to ensure reliability. CEP is to find out the period during that connection exists between the nodes. The node with highest CEP becomes a next relay node. The relay node is selected dynamically to avoid frequent failure. The bandwidth of each link changed dynamically based on service rate and request rate. This paper proposes Active bandwidth setting up algorithm to guarantee the QoS. The series of results obtained by using the Network Simulator (NS-2) demonstrate the viability of our proposed techniques.

Keywords: Bandwidth, Connection Existence Period (CEP), Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET), Quality of Service (QoS), Relay node.

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