Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 49

Search results for: microstructures

49 Comparative Studies of the Effects of Microstructures on the Corrosion Behavior of Micro-Alloyed Steels in Unbuffered 3.5 Wt% NaCl Saturated with CO2

Authors: Lawrence I. Onyeji, Girish M. Kale, M. Bijan Kermani

Abstract:

Corrosion problem which exists in every stage of oil and gas production has been a great challenge to the operators in the industry. The conventional carbon steel with all its inherent advantages has been adjudged susceptible to the aggressive corrosion environment of oilfield. This has aroused increased interest in the use of micro alloyed steels for oil and gas production and transportation. The corrosion behavior of three commercially supplied micro alloyed steels designated as A, B, and C have been investigated with API 5L X65 as reference samples. Electrochemical corrosion tests were conducted in an unbuffered 3.5 wt% NaCl solution saturated with CO2 at 30 0C for 24 hours. Pre-corrosion analyses revealed that samples A, B and X65 consist of ferrite-pearlite microstructures but with different grain sizes, shapes and distribution whereas sample C has bainitic microstructure with dispersed acicular ferrites. The results of the electrochemical corrosion tests showed that within the experimental conditions, the corrosion rate of the samples can be ranked as CR(A)< CR(X65)< CR(B)< CR(C). These results are attributed to difference in microstructures of the samples as depicted by ASTM grain size number in accordance with ASTM E112-12 Standard and ferrite-pearlite volume fractions determined by ImageJ Fiji grain size analysis software.

Keywords: Carbon dioxide corrosion, corrosion behavior, micro-alloyed steel, microstructures.

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48 Effects of Formic Acid on the Chemical State and Morphology of As-synthesized and Annealed ZnO Films

Authors: Chueh-Jung Huang, Chia-Hung Li, Hsueh-Lung Wang, Tsun-Nan Lin

Abstract:

Zinc oxide thin films with various microstructures were grown on substrates by using HCOOH-sols. The reaction mechanism of the sol system was investigated by performing an XPS analysis of as-synthesized films, due to the products of hydrolysis and condensation in the sol system contributing to the chemical state of the as-synthesized films. The chemical structures of the assynthesized films related to the microstructures of the final annealed films were also studied. The results of the Zn 2p3/2, C 1s and O1s XPS patterns indicate that the hydrolysis reaction in the sol system is strongly influenced by the HCOOH agent. The results of XRD and FE-SEM demonstrated the microstructures of the annealed films are related to the content of hydrolyzed zinc hydrate (Zn-OH) species present, and that content of the Zn-OH species in the sol system increases the HCOOH adding, and these Zn-OH species existing in the sol phase are responsible for large ZnO crystallites in the final annealed films.

Keywords: zinc oxide, hydrolysis catalyst, zinc acetate source, formic acid.

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47 Behavior of Cu-WC-Ti Metal Composite Afterusing Planetary Ball Milling

Authors: A.T.Z. Mahamat, A.M. A Rani, Patthi Husain

Abstract:

Copper based composites reinforced with WC and Ti particles were prepared using planetary ball-mill. The experiment was designed by using Taguchi technique and milling was carried out in an air for several hours. The powder was characterized before and after milling using the SEM, TEM and X-ray for microstructure and for possible new phases. Microstructures show that milled particles size and reduction in particle size depend on many parameters. The distance d between planes of atoms estimated from X-ray powder diffraction data and TEM image. X-ray diffraction patterns of the milled powder did not show clearly any new peak or energy shift, but the TEM images show a significant change in crystalline structure of corporate on titanium in the composites.

Keywords: ball milling, microstructures, titanium, tungstencarbides, X-ray

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46 Thermo-Mechanical Treatment of Chromium Alloyed Low Carbon Steel

Authors: L. Kučerová, M. Bystrianský, V. Kotěšovec

Abstract:

Thermo-mechanical processing with various processing parameters was applied to 0.2%C-0.6%Mn-2S%i-0.8%Cr low alloyed high strength steel. The aim of the processing was to achieve the microstructures typical for transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels. Thermo-mechanical processing used in this work incorporated two or three deformation steps. The deformations were in all the cases carried out during the cooling from soaking temperatures to various bainite hold temperatures. In this way, 4-10% of retained austenite were retained in the final microstructures, consisting further of ferrite, bainite, martensite and pearlite. The complex character of TRIP steel microstructure is responsible for its good strength and ductility. The strengths achieved in this work were in the range of 740 MPa – 836 MPa with ductility A5mm of 31-41%.

Keywords: Pearlite, retained austenite, thermo-mechanical treatment, TRIP steel.

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45 A Preliminary X-Ray Study on Human-Hair Microstructures for a Health-State Indicator

Authors: Phannee Saengkaew, Weerasak Ussawawongaraya, Sasiphan Khaweerat, Supagorn Rugmai, Sirisart Ouajai, Jiraporn Luengviriya, Sakuntam Sanorpim, Manop Tirarattanasompot, Somboon Rhianphumikarakit

Abstract:

We present a preliminary x-ray study on human-hair microstructures for a health-state indicator, in particular a cancer case. As an uncomplicated and low-cost method of x-ray technique, the human-hair microstructure was analyzed by wide-angle x-ray diffractions (XRD) and small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The XRD measurements exhibited the simply reflections at the d-spacing of 28 Å, 9.4 Å and 4.4 Å representing to the periodic distance of the protein matrix of the human-hair macrofibrous and the diameter and the repeated spacing of the polypeptide alpha helixes of the photofibrils of the human-hair microfibrous, respectively. When compared to the normal cases, the unhealthy cases including to the breast- and ovarian-cancer cases obtained higher normalized ratios of the x-ray diffracting peaks of 9.4 Å and 4.4 Å. This likely resulted from the varied distributions of microstructures by a molecular alteration. As an elemental analysis by x-ray fluorescence (XRF), the normalized quantitative ratios of zinc(Zn)/calcium(Ca) and iron(Fe)/calcium(Ca) were determined. Analogously, both Zn/Ca and Fe/Ca ratios of the unhealthy cases were obtained higher than both of the normal cases were. Combining the structural analysis by XRD measurements and the elemental analysis by XRF measurements exhibited that the modified fibrous microstructures of hair samples were in relation to their altered elemental compositions. Therefore, these microstructural and elemental analyses of hair samples will be benefit to associate with a diagnosis of cancer and genetic diseases. This functional method would lower a risk of such diseases by the early diagnosis. However, the high-intensity x-ray source, the highresolution x-ray detector, and more hair samples are necessarily desired to develop this x-ray technique and the efficiency would be enhanced by including the skin and fingernail samples with the human-hair analysis.

Keywords: Human-hair analysis, XRD, SAXS, breast cancer, health-state indicator

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44 High Optical Properties and Rectifying Behavior of ZnO (Nano and Microstructures)/Si Heterostructures

Authors: Ramin Yousefi, Muhamad. Rasat. Muhamad

Abstract:

We investigated a modified thermal evaporation method in the growth process of ZnO nanowires. ZnO nanowires were fabricated on p-type silicon substrates without using a metal catalyst. A simple horizontal double-tube system along with chemical vapor diffusion of the precursor was used to grow the ZnO nanowires. The substrates were placed in different temperature zones, and ZnO nanowires with different diameters were obtained for the different substrate temperatures. In addition to the nanowires, ZnO microdiscs with different diameters were obtained on another substrate, which was placed at a lower temperature than the other substrates. The optical properties and crystalline quality of the ZnO nanowires and microdiscs were characterized by room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectrometers. The PL and Raman studies demonstrated that the ZnO nanowires and microdiscs grown using such set-up had good crystallinity with excellent optical properties. Rectifying behavior of ZnO/Si heterostructures was characterized by a simple DC circuit.

Keywords: ZnO nano and microstructures, Photoluminescence, Raman, Rectifying behavior.

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43 Optimization of Heat Treatment Due to Austenising Temperature, Time and Quenching Solution in Hadfield Steels

Authors: Sh. Hosseini, M. B. Limooei, M. Hossein Zade, E. Askarnia, Z. Asadi

Abstract:

Manganese steel (Hadfield) is one of the important alloys in industry due to its special properties. High work hardening ability with appropriate toughness and ductility are the properties that caused this alloy to be used in wear resistance parts and in high strength condition. Heat treatment is the main process through which the desired mechanical properties and microstructures are obtained in Hadfield steel. In this study various heat treatment cycles, differing in austenising temperature, time and quenching solution are applied. For this purpose, the same samples of manganese steel was heat treated in 9 different cycles, and then the mechanical properties and microstructures were investigated. Based on the results of the study, the optimum heat treatment cycle was obtained.

Keywords: Manganese steel (Hadfield), heat treatment, austenising temperature, austenising time, quenching solution, mechanical properties.

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42 Production of Spherical Cementite within Bainitic Matrix Microstructures in High Carbon Powder Metallurgy Steels

Authors: O. Altuntaş, A. Güral

Abstract:

The hardness-microstructure relationships of spherical cementite in bainitic matrix obtained by a different heat treatment cycles carried out to high carbon powder metallurgy (P/M) steel were investigated. For this purpose, 1.5 wt.% natural graphite powder admixed in atomized iron powders and the mixed powders were compacted under 700 MPa at room temperature and then sintered at 1150 °C under a protective argon gas atmosphere. The densities of the green and sintered samples were measured via the Archimedes method. A density of 7.4 g/cm3 was obtained after sintering and a density of 94% was achieved. The sintered specimens having primary cementite plus lamellar pearlitic structures were fully quenched from 950 °C temperature and then over-tempered at 705 °C temperature for 60 minutes to produce spherical-fine cementite particles in the ferritic matrix. After by this treatment, these samples annealed at 735 °C temperature for 3 minutes were austempered at 300 °C salt bath for a period of 1 to 5 hours. As a result of this process, it could be able to produced spherical cementite particle in the bainitic matrix. This microstructure was designed to improve wear and toughness of P/M steels. The microstructures were characterized and analyzed by SEM and micro and macro hardness.

Keywords: Powder metallurgy steel, heat treatment, bainite, spherical cementite.

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41 Semisolid Structure and Parameters for A360 Aluminum Alloy Prepared by Mechanical Stirring

Authors: MM.Kaykha, A. Kamarei, M. Safari, V. Arbabi

Abstract:

Semisolid metal processing uses solid–liquid slurries containing fine and globular solid particles uniformly distributed in a liquid matrix, which can be handled as a solid and flow like a liquid. In the recent years, many methods have been introduced for the production of semisolid slurries since it is scientifically sound and industrially viable with such preferred microstructures called thixotropic microstructures as feedstock materials. One such process that needs very low equipment investment and running costs is the cooling slope. In this research by using a mechanical stirrer slurry maker constructed by the authors, the effects of mechanical stirring parameters such as: stirring time, stirring temperature and stirring Speed on micro-structure and mechanical properties of A360 aluminum alloy in semi-solid forming, are investigated. It is determined that mold temperature and holding time of part in temperature of 580ºC have a great effect on micro-structure and mechanical properties(stirring temperature of 585ºC, stirring time of 20 minutes and stirring speed of 425 RPM). By optimizing the forming parameters, dendrite microstructure changes to globular and mechanical properties improves. This is because of breaking and globularzing dendrites of primary α-AL.

Keywords: Semi-Solid Forming, Mechanical properties, Shear Rate.

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40 In-Situ EBSD Observations of Bending for Single-Crystalline Pure Copper

Authors: Takashi Sakai, Saori Yoshikawa, Hideo Morimoto

Abstract:

To understand the material characteristics of singleand poly-crystals of pure copper, the respective relationships between crystallographic orientations and microstructures, and the bending and mechanical properties were examined. And texture distribution is also analyzed. A bending test is performed in a SEM apparatus and while its behaviors are observed in situ. Furthermore, some analytical results related to crystal direction maps, inverse pole figures, and textures were obtained from EBSD analyses.

Keywords: Pure Copper, Bending, Single Crystal, SEM-EBSD Analysis, Texture, Microstructure

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39 In-situ Observations Using SEM-EBSD for Bending Deformation in Single-Crystal Materials

Authors: Yuko Matayoshi, Takashi Sakai, Ying-jun Jin, Jun-ichi Koyama

Abstract:

To elucidate the material characteristics of single crystals of pure aluminum and copper, the respective relations between crystallographic orientations and microstructures were examined, along with bending and mechanical properties. The texture distribution was also analysed. Bending tests were performed in a SEM apparatus while its behaviors were observed. Some analytical results related to crystal direction maps, inverse pole figures, and textures were obtained from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses.

Keywords: Pure aluminum, Pure copper, Single crystal, Bending, SEM-EBSD analysis, Texture, Microstructure.

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38 Nanoindentation of Thin Films Prepared by Physical Vapor Deposition

Authors: Dhiflaoui Hafedh, Khlifi Kaouthar, Ben Cheikh Larbi Ahmed

Abstract:

These Monolayer and multilayer coatings of CrN and AlCrN deposited on 100Cr6 (AISI 52100) substrate by PVD magnetron sputtering system. The microstructures of the coatings were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM analysis revealed the presence of domes and craters that are uniformly distributed over all surfaces of the various layers. Nanoindentation measurement of CrN coating showed maximum hardness (H) and modulus (E) of 14 GPa and 190 GPa, respectively. The measured H and E values of AlCrN coatings were found to be 30 GPa and 382 GPa, respectively. The improved hardness in both the coatings was attributed mainly to a reduction in crystallite size and decrease in surface roughness. The incorporation of Al into the CrN coatings has improved both hardness and Young’s modulus.

Keywords: CrN/AlCrN, coatings, hardness, nano-indentation.

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37 Wear and Mechanical Properties of Nodular Iron Modified with Copper

Authors: J. Ramos, V. Gil, A. F. Torres

Abstract:

In this research (using induction furnace process) nodular iron with three different percentages of copper (residual, 0.5% and 1,2%) was obtained. Chemical analysis was performed by mass spectrometry and microstructures were characterized by Optical Microscopy (ASTM E3) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The study of mechanical behavior was carried out in a mechanical test machine (ASTM E8) and a Pin on disk tribometer (ASTM G99) was used to assess wear resistance. It is observed that the dissolution of copper in crystal lattice increases the pearlite structure improving the wear and hardness behavior, but producing a contrary effect on the energy absorption.

Keywords: Ferritic and perlite structure, mechanical properties, nodular iron, wear.

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36 Springback Property and Texture Distribution of Grained Pure Copper

Authors: Takashi Sakai, Hitoshi Omata, Jun-Ichi Koyama

Abstract:

To improve the material characteristics of single- and poly-crystals of pure copper, the respective relationships between crystallographic orientations and microstructures, and the bending and mechanical properties were examined. And texture distribution is also analyzed. A grain refinement procedure was performed to obtain a grained structure. Furthermore, some analytical results related to crystal direction maps, inverse pole figures, and textures were obtained from SEM-EBSD analyses. Results showed that these grained metallic materials have peculiar springback characteristics with various bending angles.

Keywords: Pure Copper, Grain Refinement, Environmental Materials, SEM-EBSD Analysis, Texture, Microstructure

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35 Study of Mechanical Properties for the Aluminum Bronze Matrix Composites of Hot Pressing

Authors: Shenq Yih Luo, Chung Hsien Lu

Abstract:

The aluminum bronze matrix alumina composites using hot press and resin infiltration were investigated to study their porosities, hardness, bending strengths, and microstructures. The experiment results show that the hardness of the sintered composites with the decrease of porosity increases. The composites without and with resin infiltration have about HRF 42-61 of about 34-40% of porosity and about HRF 62-83 of about 30-36% of porosity, respectively. Besides, the alumina composites contain a more amount of iron and nickel powders would cause a lower bending strength due to forming some weaker bonding among the iron, nickel, copper, aluminum under this hot pressing of shorter time.

Keywords: Aluminum bronze matrix composite, bending strength, hot pressing, porosity.

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34 Size Controlled Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Anatase TiO2 Hollow Microspheres

Authors: Charu Dwivedi, V. Dutta

Abstract:

Titanium oxide hollow microspheres were synthesized from organic precursor titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) using continuous spray pyrolysis reactor. Effects of precursor concentration, applied voltage and annealing have been investigated. It was observed that the annealing of the as-synthesized TiO2 hollow microspheres at 2500C, which had an average external diameter of 200 nm, leads to an increase in the size and also more spherical shape. The precursor concentration was found to have a direct impact on the size of the microspheres, which is also evident in the absorption spectrum. The as-prepared TiO2 hollow microspheres exhibited good photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MO.

Keywords: TiO2 hollow microspheres, spray pyrolysis, electric field, microscopy, microstructures.

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33 Study of Fast Etching of Silicon for the Fabrication of Bulk Micromachined MEMS Structures

Authors: V. Swarnalatha, A. V. Narasimha Rao, P. Pal

Abstract:

The present research reports the investigation of fast etching of silicon for the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) structures using silicon wet bulk micromachining. Low concentration tetramethyl-ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and hydroxylamine (NH2OH) are used as main etchant and additive, respectively. The concentration of NH2OH is varied to optimize the composition to achieve best etching characteristics such as high etch rate, significantly high undercutting at convex corner for the fast release of the microstructures from the substrate, and improved etched surface morphology. These etching characteristics are studied on Si{100} and Si{110} wafers as they are most widely used in the fabrication of MEMS structures as wells diode, transistors and integrated circuits.

Keywords: KOH, MEMS, micromachining, silicon, TMAH, wet anisotropic etching.

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32 Construction of Green Aggregates from Waste Processing

Authors: Fahad K. Alqahtani

Abstract:

Nowadays construction industry is developing means to incorporate waste products in concrete to ensure sustainability. To meet the need of construction industry, a synthetic aggregate was developed using optimized technique called compression moulding press technique. The manufactured aggregate comprises mixture of plastic, waste which acts as binder, together with by-product waste which acts as fillers. The physical properties and microstructures of the inert materials and the manufactured aggregate were examined and compared with the conventional available aggregates. The outcomes suggest that the developed aggregate has potential to be used as substitution of conventional aggregate due to its less weight and water absorption. The microstructure analysis confirmed the efficiency of the manufacturing process where the final product has the same mixture of binder and filler.

Keywords: Fly ash, plastic waste, quarry fine, red sand, synthetic aggregate.

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31 Effects of Hydrogen-Ion Irritation on the Microstructure and Hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V Alloy

Authors: Jing Zhang, Yongqin Chang, Yongwei Wang, Xiaolin Li, Shaoning Jiang, Farong Wan, Yi Long

Abstract:

Microstructural and hardening changes of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe irradiated with 100 keV hydrogen ions at room temperature were investigated. It was found that dislocation density varies dramatically after irradiation, ranging from dislocation free to dense areas with tangled and complex dislocation configuration. As the irradiated Fe-0.2wt.%V samples were annealed at 773 K, the irradiation-induced dislocation loops disappear, while many small precipitates with enriched C distribute in the matrix. Some large precipitates with enriched V were also observed. The hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe increases after irradiation, which ascribes to the formation of dislocation loops in the irradiated specimens. Compared with pure Fe, the size of the irradiation-introduced dislocation loops in Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy decreases and the density increases, the change of the hardness also decreases.

Keywords: Irradiation, Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy, microstructures, hardness.

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30 Effect of Heat Treatment on the Portevin-Le Chatelier Effect of Al-2.5%Mg Alloy

Authors: A. Chatterjee, A. Sarkar, N. Gayathri, P. Mukherjee, P. Barat

Abstract:

An experimental study is presented on the effect of microstructural change on the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect behaviour of Al-2.5%Mg alloy. Tensile tests are performed on the as received and heat treated (at 400 ºC for 16 hours) samples for a wide range of strain rates. The serrations observed in the stress-time curve are investigated from statistical analysis point of view. Microstructures of the samples are characterized by optical metallography and X-ray diffraction. It is found that the excess vacancy generated due to heat treatment leads to decrease in the strain rate sensitivity and the increase in the number of stress drop occurrences per unit time during the PLC effect. The microstructural parameters like domain size, dislocation density have no appreciable effect on the PLC effect as far as the statistical behavior of the serrations is considered.

Keywords: Dynamic strain ageing, Heat treatment, Portevin-LeChatelier effect

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29 Effect of Zinc Oxide on Characteristics of Active Flux TIG Welds of 1050 Aluminum Plates

Authors: H. Fazlinejad, A. Halvaee

Abstract:

In this study, characteristics of ATIG welds using ZnO flux on aluminum was investigated and compared with TIG welds. Autogenously AC-ATIG bead on plate welding was applied on Al1050 plate with a coating of ZnO as the flux. Different levels of welding current and flux layer thickness was considered to study the effect of heat input and flux quantity on ATIG welds and was compared with those of TIG welds. Geometrical investigation of the weld cross sections revealed that penetration depth of the ATIG welds with ZnO flux, was increased up to 2 times in some samples compared to the TIG welds. Optical metallographic and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations revealed similar microstructures in TIG and ATIG welds. Composition of the ATIG welds slag was also analyzed using X-ray diffraction. In both TIG and ATIG samples, the lowest values of microhardness were observed in the HAZ.

Keywords: ATIG, active flux, weld penetration, Al 1050, ZnO.

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28 Preparation and Bioactivity Evaluation of Bone like Hydroxyapatite - Bioglass Composite

Authors: Seema Kapoor, Uma Batra

Abstract:

In this study, hydroxyapatite (HA) composites are prepared on addition of 30%CaO-30%P2O5-40%Na2 O based glass to pure HA, in proportion of 2, 5, and 10 wt %. Each composition was sintered over a range of temperatures. The quantitative phase analysis was carried out using XRD and the microstructures were studied using SEM. The density, microhardness, and compressive strength have shown increase with the increasing amount of glass addition. The resulting composites have chemical compositions that are similar to the inorganic constituent of the mineral part of bone, and constitutes trace elements like Na. X-ray diffraction showed no decomposition of HA to secondary phases, however, the glass reinforced-HA composites contained a HA phase and variable amounts of tricalcium phosphate phase, depending on the amount of bioglass added. The HA-composite material exhibited higher compressive strength compared to sintered HA. The HA composite reinforced with 10 wt % bioglass showed highest bioactivity level.

Keywords: Bioactivity, Bioglass, Compressive strength, Hydroxyapatite.

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27 Development of AA2024 Matrix Composites Reinforced with Micro Yttrium through Cold Compaction with Superior Mechanical Properties

Authors: C. H. S. Vidyasagar, D. B. Karunakar

Abstract:

In this present work, five different composite samples with AA2024 as matrix and varying amounts of yttrium (0.1-0.5 wt.%) as reinforcement are developed through cold compaction. The microstructures of the developed composite samples revealed that the yttrium reinforcement caused grain refinement up to 0.3 wt.% and beyond which the refinement is not effective. The microstructure revealed Al2Cu precipitation which strengthened the composite up to 0.3 wt.% yttrium reinforcement. Upon further increase in yttrium reinforcement, the intermetallics and the precipitation coarsen and their corresponding strengthening effect decreases. The mechanical characterization revealed that the composite sample reinforced with 0.3 wt.% yttrium showed highest mechanical properties like 82 HV of hardness, 276 MPa Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS), 229 MPa Yield Strength (YS) and an elongation (EL) of 18.9% respectively. However, the relative density of the developed composites decreased with the increase in yttrium reinforcement.

Keywords: Mechanical properties, AA 2024 matrix, yttrium reinforcement, cold compaction, precipitation.

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26 Effect of 2wt% Cu Addition on the Tensile Properties and Fracture Behavior of Peak Aged Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni Alloy at Various Strain Rates

Authors: A. Hossain, A. S. W. Kurny, M. A. Gafur

Abstract:

Effect of 2wt% Cu addition on tensile properties and fracture behavior of Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni alloy at various strain rates were studied. The solution treated Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni (-2Cu) alloys, were aged isochronally for 1 hour at temperatures up to 300oC. The uniaxial tension test was carried out at strain rate ranging from 10-4s-1 to 10-2s-1 in order to investigate the strain rate dependence of tensile properties. Tensile strengths were found to increase with ageing temperature and the maximum being attained ageing for 1 hr at 225oC (peak aged condition). Addition of 2wt% Cu resulted in an increase in tensile properties at all strain rates. Evaluation of tensile properties at three different strain rates (10-4, 10-3 and 10-2 s-1) showed that strain rates affected the tensile properties significantly. At higher strain rates the strength was better but ductility was poor. Microstructures of broken specimens showed that both the void coalescence and the interface debonding affect the fracture behavior of the alloys

Keywords: Al-Si-Mg-Ni-Cu alloy, tensile properties, strain rate, SEM.

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25 Characterising the Effects of Heat Treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 Stainless Steels

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi

Abstract:

This paper reports on the effects of heat treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 stainless steel grades. Heat treatment was conducted on the steel grades and cooled using two different media; air and water in order to study the effect of each medium on the evolving properties of the samples. The heat treated samples were characterized through the evolving microstructure and hardness. It was found that there was a significant grain size reduction in both the heat treated stainless steel specimens compared to the parent materials. The finer grain sizes were achieved as a result of impediment to growth of one phase by the other. The Vickers microhardness values of the heat treated samples were higher compared to the parent materials due to the fact that each of the steel grades had a proportion of martensitic structures in their microstructures thereby improving the integrity of the material.

Keywords: Austenite, Ferrite, Grain size, Hardness, Martensite, Microstructure and stainless steel.

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24 Preparation of Vanadium Powder by Hydrogenation and Dehydrogenation

Authors: Weicai Yang, Xianfeng Dong, Dapeng Zeng, Bo Lin, Jun Tang

Abstract:

Low oxygen content vanadium powder was prepared by hydrogenation dehydrogenization (HDH). The effect of purification treatment on hydrogen absorption kinetics of dendritic vanadium was tested, and the effects of milling technique on powder yield and grain size were studied. The crystal phase, oxygen and nitrgen content, and grain size of prepared powder were characterized and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), oxygen and nitrogen analyzer and grain size analyzer. The results show that the alkaline cleaning can improve the hydrogen absorption of vanadium. The yield of vanadium hydride powder can reach as high as 90% by 4h ball-milling, The resultant product also have an oxygen content less than 600μg/g, and the grain size is smaller than 37μm. Meanwhile, the XRD results show that the phase of hydride vanadium powder is mainly VH0.81. After a hydrogen desorption treatment in vacuum at 700Ôäâ, the phase of the powder converts into V and a little of V2H.

Keywords: V-5Cr-5Ti alloy, HDH, microstructures, mechanical properties.

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23 The Effects of Electromagnetic Stirring on Microstructure and Properties of γ-TiAl Based Alloys Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting Technique

Authors: A. Ismaeel, C. S. Wang, D. S. Xu

Abstract:

The γ-TiAl based Ti-Al-Mn-Nb alloys were fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) on the TC4 substrate. The microstructures of the alloys were investigated in detail. The results reveal that the alloy without electromagnetic stirring (EMS) consists of γ-TiAl phase with tetragonal structure and α2-Ti3Al phase with hcp structure, while the alloy with applied EMS consists of γ-TiAl, α2-Ti3Al and α-Ti with hcp structure, and the morphological structure of the alloy without EMS which exhibits near lamellar structure and the alloy with EMS shows duplex structure, the alloy without EMS shows some microcracks and pores while they are not observed in the alloy without EMS. The microhardness and wear resistance values decrease with applied EMS.

Keywords: Selective laser melting, γ-TiAl based alloys, microstructure, properties, electromagnetic stirring.

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22 Preparation of n-type Bi2Te3 Films by Electrophoretic Deposition

Authors: Tahereh Talebi, Reza Ghomashchi, Pejman Talemi, Sima Aminorroaya

Abstract:

A high quality crack-free film of Bi2Te3 material has been deposited for the first time using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) and microstructures of various films have been investigated. One of the most important thermoelectric (TE) applications is Bi2Te3 to manufacture TE generators (TEG) which can convert waste heat into electricity targeting the global warming issue. However, the high cost of the manufacturing process of TEGs keeps them expensive and out of reach for commercialization. Therefore, utilizing EPD as a simple and cost-effective method will open new opportunities for TEG’s commercialization. This method has been recently used for advanced materials such as microelectronics and has attracted a lot of attention from both scientists and industry. In this study, the effect of media of suspensions has been investigated on the quality of the deposited films as well as their microstructure. In summary, finding an appropriate suspension is a critical step for a successful EPD process and has an important effect on both the film’s quality and its future properties.

Keywords: Bi2Te3, electrical conductivity, electrophoretic deposition, thermoelectric materials, thick films.

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21 Hydrogen Permeability of BSCY Proton-Conducting Perovskite Membrane

Authors: M. Heidari, A. Safekordi, A. Zamaniyan, E. Ganji Babakhani, M. Amanipour

Abstract:

Perovskite-type membrane Ba0.5Sr0.5Ce0.9Y0.1O3-δ (BSCY) was successfully synthesized by liquid citrate method. The hydrogen permeation and stability of BSCY perovskite-type membranes were studied at high temperatures. The phase structure of the powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize microstructures of the membrane sintered under various conditions. SEM results showed that increasing in sintering temperature, formed dense membrane with clear grains. XRD results for BSCY membrane that sintered in 1150 °C indicated single phase perovskite structure with orthorhombic configuration, and SEM results showed dense structure with clear grain size which is suitable for permeation tests. Partial substitution of Sr with Ba in SCY structure improved the hydrogen permeation flux through the membrane due to the larger ionic radius of Ba2+. BSCY membrane shows high hydrogen permeation flux of 1.6 ml/min.cm2 at 900 °C and partial pressure of 0.6.

Keywords: Hydrogen separation, perovskite, proton conducting membrane.

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20 Synthesis and Foam Power of New Biodegradable Surfactant

Authors: R. Mousli, A. Tazerouti

Abstract:

This work deals with the synthesis and the determination of some surface properties of a new anionic surfactant belonging to sulfonamide derivatives. The interest in this new surfactant is that its behavior in aqueous solution is interesting both from a fundamental and a practice point of view. Indeed, it is well known that this kind of surfactant leads to the formation of bilayer structures, and the microstructures obtained have applications in various fields, ranging from cosmetics to detergents, to biological systems such as cell membranes and bioreactors. The surfactant synthesized from pure n-alkane by photosulfochlorination and derivatized using N-ethanol amine is a mixture of position isomers. These compounds have been analyzed by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry by Electron Impact mode (GC -MS/IE), and IR. The surface tension measurements were carried out, leading to the determination of the critical micelle concentration (CMC), surface excess and the area occupied per molecule at the interface. The foaming power has also been determined by Bartsch method, and the results have been compared to those of commercial surfactants. The stability of the foam formed has also been evaluated. These compounds show good foaming power characterized in most cases by dry foam.

Keywords: Non ionic surfactants, GC-MS, surface properties, CMC, foam power.

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