Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1728

Search results for: metal matrix composites

1728 Utilization of Agro-Industrial Waste in Metal Matrix Composites: Towards Sustainability

Authors: L. Lancaster, M. H. Lung, D. Sujan

Abstract:

The application of agro-industrial waste in Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites has been getting more attention as they can reinforce particles in metal matrix which enhance the strength properties of the composites. In addition, by applying these agroindustrial wastes in useful way not only save the manufacturing cost of products but also reduce the pollutions on environment. This paper represents a literature review on a range of industrial wastes and their utilization in metal matrix composites. The paper describes the synthesis methods of agro-industrial waste filled metal matrix composite materials and their mechanical, wear, corrosion, and physical properties. It also highlights the current application and future potential of agro-industrial waste reinforced composites in aerospace, automotive and other construction industries.

Keywords: Bond layer, Interfacial shear stress, Bi-layered assembly, Thermal mismatch, Flip Chip Ball Grid Array.

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1727 Production of (V-B) Reinforced Fe Matrix Composites

Authors: Kerim Emre Öksüz, Mehmet Çevik, A. Enbiya Bozdağ, Ali Özer, Mehmet Simsir

Abstract:

Metal matrix composites (MMCs) have gained a considerable interest in the last three decades. Conventional powder metallurgy production route often involves the addition of reinforcing phases into the metal matrix directly, which leads to poor wetting behavior between ceramic phase and metal matrix and the segregation of reinforcements. The commonly used elements for ceramic phase formation in iron based MMCs are Ti, Nb, Mo, W, V and C, B. The aim of the present paper is to investigate the effect of sintering temperature and V-B addition on densification, phase development, microstructure, and hardness of Fe–V-B composites (Fe-(5-10) wt. %B – 25 wt. %V alloys) prepared by powder metallurgy process. Metal powder mixes were pressed uniaxial and sintered at different temperatures (ranging from 1300 to 1400ºC) for 1h. The microstructure of the (V, B) Fe composites was studied with the help of high magnification optical microscope and XRD. Experimental results show that (V, B) Fe composites can be produced by conventional powder metallurgy route.

Keywords: Hardness, Metal matrix composite (MMC), Microstructure, Powder Metallurgy.

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1726 Influence of Fiber Packing on Transverse Plastic Properties of Metal Matrix Composites

Authors: Mohammad Tahaye Abadi

Abstract:

The present paper concerns with the influence of fiber packing on the transverse plastic properties of metal matrix composites. A micromechanical modeling procedure is used to predict the effective mechanical properties of composite materials at large tensile and compressive deformations. Microstructure is represented by a repeating unit cell (RUC). Two fiber arrays are considered including ideal square fiber packing and random fiber packing defined by random sequential algorithm. The micromechanical modeling procedure is implemented for graphite/aluminum metal matrix composite in which the reinforcement behaves as elastic, isotropic solids and the matrix is modeled as an isotropic elastic-plastic solid following the von Mises criterion with isotropic hardening and the Ramberg-Osgood relationship between equivalent true stress and logarithmic strain. The deformation is increased to a considerable value to evaluate both elastic and plastic behaviors of metal matrix composites. The yields strength and true elastic-plastic stress are determined for graphite/aluminum composites.

Keywords: Fiber packing, metal matrix composites, micromechanics, plastic deformation, random

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1725 Wear Behaviors of B4C and SiC Particle Reinforced AZ91 Magnesium Matrix Metal Composites

Authors: M. E. Turan, H. Zengin, E. Cevik, Y. Sun, Y. Turen, H. Ahlatci

Abstract:

In this study, the effects of B4C and SiC particle reinforcements on wear properties of magnesium matrix metal composites produced by pressure infiltration method were investigated. AZ91 (9%Al-1%Zn) magnesium alloy was used as a matrix. AZ91 magnesium alloy was melted under an argon atmosphere. The melt was infiltrated to the particles with an appropriate pressure. Wear tests, hardness tests were performed respectively. Microstructure characterizations were examined by light optical (LOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that uniform particle distributions were achieved in both B4C and SiC reinforced composites. Wear behaviors of magnesium matrix metal composites changed as a function of type of particles. SiC reinforced composite has better wear performance and higher hardness than B4C reinforced composite.

Keywords: Magnesium matrix composite, pressure infiltration, SEM, wear.

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1724 Physio-mechanical Properties of Aluminium Metal Matrix Composites Reinforced with Al2O3 and SiC

Authors: D. Sujan, Z. Oo, M. E. Rahman, M. A. Maleque, C. K. Tan

Abstract:

Particulate reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) are potential materials for various applications due to their advantageous of physical and mechanical properties. This paper presents a study on the performance of stir cast Al2O3 SiC reinforced metal matrix composite materials. The results indicate that the composite materials exhibit improved physical and mechanical properties, such as, low coefficient of thermal expansion, high ultimate tensile strength, high impact strength, and hardness. It has been found that with the increase of weight percentage of reinforcement particles in the aluminium metal matrix, the new material exhibits lower wear rate against abrasive wearing. Being extremely lighter than the conventional gray cast iron material, the Al-Al2O3 and Al-SiC composites could be potential green materials for applications in the automobile industry, for instance, in making car disc brake rotors.

Keywords: Metal Matrix Composite, Strength to Weight Ratio, Wear Rate

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1723 Fabrication and Analysis of Bulk SiCp Reinforced Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites using Friction Stir Process

Authors: M.Puviyarasan, C.Praveen

Abstract:

In this study, Friction Stir Processing (FSP) a recent grain refinement technique was employed to disperse micron-sized (2 *m) SiCp particles into aluminum alloy AA6063. The feasibility to fabricate bulk composites through FSP was analyzed and experiments were conducted at different traverse speeds and wider volumes of the specimens. Micro structural observation were carried out by employing optical microscopy test of the cross sections in both parallel and perpendicular to the tool traverse direction. Mechanical property including micro hardness was evaluated in detail at various regions on the specimen. The composites had an excellent bonding with aluminum alloy substrate and a significant increase of 30% in the micro hardness value of metal matrix composite (MMC) as to that of the base metal has observed. The observations clearly indicate that SiC particles were uniformly distributed within the aluminum matrix.

Keywords: Friction Stir Processing, Metal matrix composite, Bulk composite.

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1722 Development of Predictive Model for Surface Roughness in End Milling of Al-SiCp Metal Matrix Composites using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: M. Chandrasekaran, D. Devarasiddappa

Abstract:

Metal matrix composites have been increasingly used as materials for components in automotive and aerospace industries because of their improved properties compared with non-reinforced alloys. During machining the selection of appropriate machining parameters to produce job for desired surface roughness is of great concern considering the economy of manufacturing process. In this study, a surface roughness prediction model using fuzzy logic is developed for end milling of Al-SiCp metal matrix composite component using carbide end mill cutter. The surface roughness is modeled as a function of spindle speed (N), feed rate (f), depth of cut (d) and the SiCp percentage (S). The predicted values surface roughness is compared with experimental result. The model predicts average percentage error as 4.56% and mean square error as 0.0729. It is observed that surface roughness is most influenced by feed rate, spindle speed and SiC percentage. Depth of cut has least influence.

Keywords: End milling, fuzzy logic, metal matrix composites, surface roughness

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1721 Carbon Nanotubes Based Porous Framework for Filtration Applications Using Industrial Grinding Waste

Authors: V. J. Pillewan, D. N. Raut, K. N. Patil, D. K. Shinde

Abstract:

Forging, milling, turning, grinding and shaping etc. are the various industrial manufacturing processes which generate the metal waste. Grinding is extensively used in the finishing operation. The waste generated contains significant impurities apart from the metal particles. Due to these significant impurities, it becomes difficult to process and gets usually dumped in the landfills which create environmental problems. Therefore, it becomes essential to reuse metal waste to create value added products. Powder injection molding process is used for producing the porous metal matrix framework. This paper discusses the presented design of the porous framework to be used for the liquid filter application. Different parameters are optimized to obtain the better strength framework with variable porosity. Carbon nanotubes are used as reinforcing materials to enhance the strength of the metal matrix framework.

Keywords: Grinding waste, powder injection molding, carbon nanotubes, metal matrix composites.

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1720 Properties Modification of Fiber Metal Laminates by Nanofillers

Authors: R. Eslami-Farsani, S. M. S. Mousavi Bafrouyi

Abstract:

During past decades, increasing demand of modified Fiber Metal Laminates (FMLs) has stimulated a strong trend towards the development of these structures. FMLs contain several thin layers of metal bonded with composite materials. Characteristics of FMLs such as low specific mass, high bearing strength, impact resistance, corrosion resistance and high fatigue life are attractive. Nowadays, increasing development can be observed to promote the properties of polymer-based composites by nanofillers. By dispersing strong, nanofillers in polymer matrix, modified composites can be developed and tailored to individual applications. On the other hand, the synergic effects of nanoparticles such as graphene and carbon nanotube can significantly improve the mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of nanocomposites. In present paper, the modifying of FMLs by nanofillers and the dispersing of nanoparticles in the polymers matrix are discussed. The evaluations have revealed that this approach is acceptable. Finally, a prospect is presented. This paper will lead to further work on these modified FML species.

Keywords: Fiber metal laminate, nanofiller, polymer matrix, property modification.

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1719 FEA Modeling of Material Removal Rate in Electrical Discharge Machining of Al6063/SiC Composites

Authors: U. K. Vishwakarma , A. Dvivedi, P. Kumar

Abstract:

Metal matrix composites (MMC) are generating extensive interest in diverse fields like defense, aerospace, electronics and automotive industries. In this present investigation, material removal rate (MRR) modeling has been carried out using an axisymmetric model of Al-SiC composite during electrical discharge machining (EDM). A FEA model of single spark EDM was developed to calculate the temperature distribution.Further, single spark model was extended to simulate the second discharge. For multi-discharge machining material removal was calculated by calculating the number of pulses. Validation of model has been done by comparing the experimental results obtained under the same process parameters with the analytical results. A good agreement was found between the experimental results and the theoretical value.

Keywords: Electrical Discharge Machining, FEA, Metal matrix composites, Multi-discharge

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1718 Burnishing of Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite Composites

Authors: Mohammed T. Hayajneh, Adel Mahmood Hassan, Moath AL-Qudah

Abstract:

Burnishing is increasingly used as a finishing operation to improve surface roughness and surface hardness. This can be achieved by applying a hard ball or roller onto metallic surfaces under pressure, in order to achieve many advantages in the metallic surface. In the present work, the feed rate, speed and force have been considered as the basic burnishing parameters to study the surface roughness and surface hardness of metallic matrix composites. The considered metal matrix composites were made from Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite with five different weight percentage of graphite. Both effects of burnishing parameters mentioned above and the graphite percentage on the surface hardness and surface roughness of the metallic matrix composites were studied. The results of this investigation showed that the surface hardness of the metallic composites increases with the increase of the burnishing force and decreases with the increase in the burnishing feed rate and burnishing speed. The surface roughness of the metallic composites decreases with the increasing of the burnishing force, feed rate, and speed to certain values, then it starts to increase. On the other hand, the increase in the weight percentage of the graphite in the considered composites causes a decrease in the surface hardness and an increase in the surface roughness.

Keywords: Burnishing process, Al-Mg-Graphite composites, Surface hardness, Surface roughness.

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1717 An Overview on Aluminum Matrix Composites: Liquid State Processing

Authors: S. P. Jordan, G. Christian, S. P. Jeffs

Abstract:

Modern composite materials are increasingly being chosen in replacement of heavier metallic material systems within many engineering fields including aerospace and automotive industries. The increasing push towards satisfying environmental targets are fuelling new material technologies and manufacturing processes. This paper will introduce materials and manufacturing processes using metal matrix composites along with manufacturing processes optimized at Alvant Ltd., based in Basingstoke in the UK which offers modern, cost effective, selectively reinforced composites for light-weighting applications within engineering. An overview and introduction into modern optimized manufacturing methods capable of producing viable replacements for heavier metallic and lower temperature capable polymer composites are offered. A review of the capabilities and future applications of this viable material is discussed to highlight the potential involved in further optimization of old manufacturing techniques, to fully realize the potential to lightweight material using cost-effective methods.

Keywords: Aluminum matrix composites, light-weighting, hybrid squeeze casting, strategically placed reinforcements.

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1716 Influence of Technology Parameters on Properties of AA6061/SiC Composites Produced By Kobo Method

Authors: J. Wozniak, M. Kostecki, K. Broniszewski, W. Bochniak, A. Olszyna

Abstract:

The influence of extrusion parameters on surface quality and properties of AA6061+x% vol. SiC (x = 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5;10) composites was discussed in this paper. The averages size of AA6061 and SiC particles were 10.6 μm and 0.42 μm, respectively. Two series of composites (I - compacts were preheated at extrusion temperature through 0.5 h and cooled by water directly after process; II - compacts were preheated through 3 hours and were not cooled) were consolidated via powder metallurgy processing and extruded by KoBo method. High values of density for both series of composites were achieved. Better surface quality was observed for II series of composites. Moreover, for these composites lower (compared to I series) but more uniform strength properties over the cross-section of the bar were noticed. Microstructure and Young-s modulus investigations were made.

Keywords: aluminum alloy, extrusion, metal matrix composites, microstructure

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1715 Characterization of Aluminium Alloy 6063 Hybrid Metal Matrix Composite by Using Stir Casting Method

Authors: Balwinder Singh

Abstract:

The present research is a paper on the characterization of aluminum alloy-6063 hybrid metal matrix composites using three different reinforcement materials (SiC, red mud, and fly ash) through stir casting method. The red mud was used in solid form, and particle size range varies between 103-150 µm. During this investigation, fly ash is received from Guru Nanak Dev Thermal Plant (GNDTP), Bathinda. The study has been done by using Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array by taking fraction wt.% (SiC 5%, 7.5%, and 10% and Red Mud and Fly Ash 2%, 4%, and 6%) as input parameters with their respective levels. The study of the mechanical properties (tensile strength, impact strength, and microhardness) has been done by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with the help of MINITAB 17 software. It is revealed that silicon carbide is the most significant parameter followed by red mud and fly ash affecting the mechanical properties, respectively. The fractured surface morphology of the composites using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) shows that there is a good mixing of reinforcement particles in the matrix. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was performed to know the presence of the phases of the reinforced material.

Keywords: Reinforcement, silicon carbide, fly ash, red mud.

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1714 Study of Mechanical Properties for the Aluminum Bronze Matrix Composites of Hot Pressing

Authors: Shenq Yih Luo, Chung Hsien Lu

Abstract:

The aluminum bronze matrix alumina composites using hot press and resin infiltration were investigated to study their porosities, hardness, bending strengths, and microstructures. The experiment results show that the hardness of the sintered composites with the decrease of porosity increases. The composites without and with resin infiltration have about HRF 42-61 of about 34-40% of porosity and about HRF 62-83 of about 30-36% of porosity, respectively. Besides, the alumina composites contain a more amount of iron and nickel powders would cause a lower bending strength due to forming some weaker bonding among the iron, nickel, copper, aluminum under this hot pressing of shorter time.

Keywords: Aluminum bronze matrix composite, bending strength, hot pressing, porosity.

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1713 Fabrication of Powdery Composites Based Alumina and Its Consolidation by Hot Pressing Method in OXY-GON Furnace

Authors: T. Kuchukhidze, N. Jalagonia, T. Korkia, V. Gabunia, N. Jalabadze, R. Chedia

Abstract:

In this work, obtaining methods of ultrafine alumina powdery composites and high temperature pressing technology of matrix ceramic composites with different compositions have been discussed. Alumina was obtained by solution combustion synthesis and sol-gel methods. Metal carbides containing powdery composites were obtained by homogenization of finishing powders in nanomills, as well as by their single-step high temperature synthesis .Different types of matrix ceramics composites (α-Al2O3-ZrO2-Y2O3, α-Al2O3- Y2O3-MgO, α-Al2O3-SiC-Y2O3, α-Al2O3-WC-Co-Y2O3, α-Al2O3- B4C-Y2O3, α-Al2O3- B4C-TiB2 etc.) were obtained by using OXYGON furnace. Consolidation of powders were carried out at 1550- 1750°C (hold time - 1 h, pressure - 50 MPa). Corundum ceramics samples have been obtained and characterized by high hardness and fracture toughness, absence of open porosity, high corrosion resistance. Their density reaches 99.5-99.6% TD. During the work, the following devices have been used: High temperature vacuum furnace OXY-GON Industries Inc (USA), Electronic Scanning Microscopes Nikon Eclipse LV 150, Optical Microscope NMM- 800TRF, Planetary mill Pulverisette 7 premium line, Shimadzu Dynamic Ultra Micro Hardness Tester DUH-211S, Analysette 12 Dynasizer.

Keywords: α-Alumina, Consolidation, Matrix Ceramics, Powdery composites.

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1712 Wear Regimes of Al-Cu-Mg Matrix Composites

Authors: R. N. Rao, S. L. Tulasi Devi

Abstract:

Tribological behavior and wear regimes of ascast and heattreted Al-Cu-Mg matrix composites containing SiC particles were studied using a pin-on-disc wear testing apparatus against an EN32 steel counterface giving emphasis on wear rate as a function of applied pressures (0.2, 0.6, 1.0 and 1.4 MPa) at different sliding distances (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 meters) and at a fixed sliding speed of 3.35m/s. The results showed that the composite exhibited lower wear rate than that of the matrix alloy and the wear rate of the composites is noted to be invariant to the sliding distance and is reducing by heat treatment. Wear regimes such as low, mild and severe wear were observed as per the Archard-s wear calculations. It is very interesting to note that the mild wear is almost constant in all the wear regimes.

Keywords: Aluminum, matrix, regimes, wear.

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1711 Enhanced Thermal Properties of Rigid PVC Foams Using Fly Ash

Authors: Nidal H. Abu-Zahra, Parisa Khoshnoud, Murtatha Jamel, Subhashini Gunashekar

Abstract:

PVC foam-fly ash composites (PVC-FA) are characterized for their structural, morphological, mechanical and thermal properties. The tensile strength of the composites increased modestly with higher fly ash loading, while there was a significant increase in the elastic modulus for the same composites. On the other hand, a decrease in elongation at UTS was observed upon increasing fly ash content due to increased rigidity of the composites. Similarly, the flexural modulus increased as the fly ash loading increased, where the composites containing 25 phr fly ash showed the highest flexural strength. Thermal properties of PVC-fly ash composites were determined by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The microstructural properties were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). SEM results confirm that fly ash particles were mechanically interlocked in PVC matrix with good interfacial interaction with the matrix. Particle agglomeration and debonding was observed in samples containing higher amounts of fly ash.

Keywords: PVC Foam, Polyvinyl Chloride, Rigid PVC, Fly Ash Composites.

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1710 Investigation of New Method to Achieve Well Dispersed Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Al Matrix Composites

Authors: A.H.Javadi, Sh.Mirdamadi, M.A.Faghisani, S.Shakhesi

Abstract:

Nanostructured materials have attracted many researchers due to their outstanding mechanical and physical properties. For example, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or carbon nanofibres (CNFs) are considered to be attractive reinforcement materials for light weight and high strength metal matrix composites. These composites are being projected for use in structural applications for their high specific strength as well as functional materials for their exciting thermal and electrical characteristics. The critical issues of CNT-reinforced MMCs include processing techniques, nanotube dispersion, interface, strengthening mechanisms and mechanical properties. One of the major obstacles to the effective use of carbon nanotubes as reinforcements in metal matrix composites is their agglomeration and poor distribution/dispersion within the metallic matrix. In order to tap into the advantages of the properties of CNTs (or CNFs) in composites, the high dispersion of CNTs (or CNFs) and strong interfacial bonding are the key issues which are still challenging. Processing techniques used for synthesis of the composites have been studied with an objective to achieve homogeneous distribution of carbon nanotubes in the matrix. Modified mechanical alloying (ball milling) techniques have emerged as promising routes for the fabrication of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced metal matrix composites. In order to obtain a homogeneous product, good control of the milling process, in particular control of the ball movement, is essential. The control of the ball motion during the milling leads to a reduction in grinding energy and a more homogeneous product. Also, the critical inner diameter of the milling container at a particular rotational speed can be calculated. In the present work, we use conventional and modified mechanical alloying to generate a homogenous distribution of 2 wt. % CNT within Al powders. 99% purity Aluminium powder (Acros, 200mesh) was used along with two different types of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) having different aspect ratios to produce Al-CNT composites. The composite powders were processed into bulk material by compaction, and sintering using a cylindrical compaction and tube furnace. Field Emission Scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and Vickers macro hardness tester were used to evaluate CNT dispersion, powder morphology, CNT damage, phase analysis, mechanical properties and crystal size determination. Despite the success of ball milling in dispersing CNTs in Al powder, it is often accompanied with considerable strain hardening of the Al powder, which may have implications on the final properties of the composite. The results show that particle size and morphology vary with milling time. Also, by using the mixing process and sonication before mechanical alloying and modified ball mill, dispersion of the CNTs in Al matrix improves.

Keywords: multiwall carbon nanotube, Aluminum matrixcomposite, dispersion, mechanical alloying, sintering

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1709 Characterization of Fabricated A 384.1-MgO Based Metal Matrix Composite and Optimization of Tensile Strength using Taguchi Techniques

Authors: Nripjit, Anand K Tyagi, Nirmal Singh

Abstract:

The present work consecutively on synthesis and characterization of composites, Al/Al alloy A 384.1 as matrix in which the main ingredient as Al/Al-5% MgO alloy based metal matrix composite. As practical implications the low cost processing route for the fabrication of Al alloy A 384.1 and operational difficulties of presently available manufacturing processes based in liquid manipulation methods. As all new developments, complete understanding of the influence of processing variables upon the final quality of the product. And the composite is applied comprehensively to the acquaintance for achieving superiority of information concerning the specific heat measurement of a material through the aid of thermographs. Products are evaluated concerning relative particle size and mechanical behavior under tensile strength. Furthermore, Taguchi technique was employed to examine the experimental optimum results are achieved, owing to effectiveness of this approach.

Keywords: MMC, Thermographs, Tensile strength, Taguchi technique, Optimal parameters

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1708 Ablation, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Fiber/Phenolic Matrix Composites

Authors: N. Winya, S. Chankapoe, C. Kiriratnikom

Abstract:

In this study, an ablation, mechanical and thermal properties of a rocket motor insulation from phenolic/ fiber matrix composites forming a laminate with different fiber between fiberglass and locally available synthetic fibers. The phenolic/ fiber matrix composites was mechanics and thermal properties by means of tensile strength, ablation, TGA and DSC. The design of thermal insulation involves several factors.Determined the mechanical properties according to MIL-I-24768: Density >1.3 g/cm3, Tensile strength >103 MPa and Ablation <0.14 mm/s to optimization formulation of phenolic binder, fiber glass reinforcement and other ingredients were conducted after that the insulation prototype was formed and cured. It was found that the density of phenolic/fiberglass composites and phenolic/ synthetic fiber composite was 1.66 and 1.41 g/cm3 respectively. The ablative of phenolic/fiberglass composites and phenolic/ synthetic fiber composite was 0.13 and 0.06 mm/s respectively.

Keywords: Phenolic Resin, Ablation, Rocket Motor, Insulation

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1707 On the Standardizing the Metal Die of Punchand Matrix by Mechanical Desktop Software

Authors: A. M. R. Mosalman Yazdi, B. A. R. Mosalman Yazdi

Abstract:

In industry, on of the most important subjects is die and it's characteristics in which for cutting and forming different mechanical pieces, various punch and matrix metal die are used. whereas the common parts which form the main frame die are not often proportion with pieces and dies therefore using a part as socalled common part for frames in specified dimension ranges can decrease the time of designing, occupied space of warehouse and manufacturing costs. Parts in dies with getting uniform in their shape and dimension make common parts of dies. Common parts of punch and matrix metal die are as bolster, guide bush, guide pillar and shank. In this paper the common parts and effective parameters in selecting each of them as the primary information are studied, afterward for selection and design of mechanical parts an introduction and investigation based on the Mech. Desk. software is done hence with developing this software can standardize the metal common parts of punch and matrix. These studies will be so useful for designer in their designing and also using it has with very much advantage for manufactures of products in decreasing occupied spaces by dies.

Keywords: Die, Matrix, Punch, Standardize.

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1706 Comparative Study of Tensile Properties of Cast and Hot Forged Alumina Nanoparticle Reinforced Composites

Authors: S. Ghanaraja, Subrata Ray, S. K. Nath

Abstract:

Particle reinforced Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) succeeds in synergizing the metallic matrix with ceramic particle reinforcements to result in improved strength, particularly at elevated temperatures, but adversely it affects the ductility of the matrix because of agglomeration and porosity. The present study investigates the outcome of tensile properties in a cast and hot forged composite reinforced simultaneously with coarse and fine particles. Nano-sized alumina particles have been generated by milling mixture of aluminum and manganese dioxide powders. Milled particles after drying are added to molten metal and the resulting slurry is cast. The microstructure of the composites shows good distribution of both the size categories of particles without significant clustering. The presence of nanoparticles along with coarser particles in a composite improves both strength and ductility considerably. Delay in debonding of coarser particles to higher stress is due to reduced mismatch in extension caused by increased strain hardening in presence of the nanoparticles. However, higher addition of powder mix beyond a limit results in deterioration of mechanical properties, possibly due to clustering of nanoparticles. The porosity in cast composite generally increases with the increasing addition of powder mix as observed during process and on forging it has got reduced. The base alloy and nanocomposites show improvement in flow stress which could be attributed to lowering of porosity and grain refinement as a consequence of forging.

Keywords: Aluminum, alumina, nanoparticle reinforced composites, porosity.

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1705 Cold-pressed Kenaf and Fibreglass Hybrid Composites Laminates: Effect of Fibre Types

Authors: Z. Salleh, M. N. Berhan, Koay Mei Hyie, D. H. Isaac

Abstract:

Natural fibres have emerged as the potential reinforcement material for composites and thus gain attraction by many researchers. This is mainly due to their applicable benefits as they offer low density, low cost, renewable, biodegradability and environmentally harmless and also comparable mechanical properties with synthetic fibre composites. The properties of hybrid composites highly depends on several factors, including the interaction of fillers with the polymeric matrix, shape and size (aspect ratio), and orientation of fillers [1]. In this study, natural fibre kenaf composites and kenaf/fibreglass hybrid composites were fabricated by a combination of hand lay-up method and cold-press method. The effect of different fibre types (powder, short and long) on the tensile properties of composites is investigated. The kenaf composites with and without the addition of fibreglass were then characterized by tensile testing and scanning electron microscopy. A significant improvement in tensile strength and modulus were indicated by the introduction of long kenaf/woven fibreglass hybrid composite. However, the opposite trends are observed in kenaf powder composite. Fractographic observation shows that fibre/matrix debonding causes the fibres pull out. This phenomenon results in the fibre and matrix fracture.

Keywords: Kenaf, Fibreglass, Hybrid Composite, Tensile Strength, Tensile Modulus.

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1704 Deformation Mechanisms at Elevated Temperatures: Influence of Momenta and Energy in the Single Impact Test

Authors: Harald Rojacz, Markus Varga, Horst Winkelmann

Abstract:

Within this work High Temperature Single Impact Studies were performed to evaluate deformation mechanisms at different energy and momentum levels. To show the influence of different microstructures and hardness levels and their response to single impacts four different materials were tested at various temperatures up to 700°C. One carbide reinforced NiCrBSi based Metal Matrix Composite and three different steels were tested. The aim of this work is to determine critical energies for fracture appearance and the materials response at different energy and momenta levels. Critical impact loadings were examined at elevated temperatures to limit operating conditions in impact dominated regimes at elevated temperatures. The investigations on the mechanisms were performed using different means of microscopy at the surface and in metallographic cross sections. Results indicate temperature dependence of the occurrence of cracks in hardphase rich materials, such as Metal Matrix Composites High Speed Steels and the influence of different impact momenta at constant energies on the deformation of different steels.

Keywords: Deformation, High Temperature, Metal Matrix Composite, Single Impact Test, Steel.

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1703 Spark Plasma Sintering of Aluminum-Based Composites Reinforced by Nanocrystalline Carbon-Coated Intermetallic Particles

Authors: B. Z. Manuel, H. D. Esmeralda, H. S. Felipe, D. R. Héctor, D. de la Torre Sebastián, R. L. Diego

Abstract:

Aluminum Matrix Composites reinforced with nanocrystalline Ni3Al carbon-coated intermetallic particles, were synthesized by powder metallurgy. Powder mixture of aluminum with 0.5-volume fraction of reinforcement particles was compacted by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique and the compared with conventional sintering process. The better results for SPS technique were obtained in 520ºC-5kN-3min.The hardness (70.5±8 HV) and the elastic modulus (95 GPa) were evaluated in function of sintering conditions for SPS technique; it was found that the incorporation of these kind of reinforcement particles in aluminum matrix improve its mechanical properties. The densities were about 94% and 97% of the theoretical density. The carbon coating avoided the interfacial reaction between matrix-particle at high temperature (520°C) without show composition change either intermetallic dissolution.

Keywords: Aluminum matrix composites, Intermetallics Spark plasma sintering.

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1702 Properties of Bio-Phenol Formaldehyde Composites Filled with Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber

Authors: Sharifah Nabihah Syed Jaafar, Umar Adli Amran, Rasidi Roslan, Chia Chin Hua, Sarani Zakaria

Abstract:

Bio-composites derived from plant fiber and/or bioderived polymer, are likely more ecofriendly and demonstrate competitive performance with petroleum based composites. In this research, the bio phenol-formaldehyde (bio-PF) was used as a matrix and oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (EFB) as reinforcement. The matrix was synthesized via liquefaction and condensation to enhance the combination of phenol and formaldehyde, during the process. Then, the bio-PF was mixed with different percentage of EFB (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) and molded at 180oC. The samples that viewed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed an excellent wettability and interaction between EFB and matrix. Samples of 10% EFB gave the optimum properties of impact and hardness meanwhile sample 15% of EFB gave the highest reading of flexural modulus (MOE) and flexural strength (MOR). For thermal stability analysis, it was found that the weight loss and the activation energy (Ea) of the bio-composites samples were decreased as the filler content increased.

Keywords: EFB, liquefaction, phenol formaldehyde, lignin.

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1701 Polymerisation Shrinkage of Light−Cured Hydroxyapatite (HA)−Reinforced Dental Composites

Authors: Bilge S. Oduncu, Sevil Yucel, Ismail Aydin, Isil D. Sener, Gokhan Yamaner

Abstract:

The dental composites are preferably used as filling materials due to their esthetic appearances. Nevertheless one of the major problems, during the application of the dental composites, is shape change named as “polymerisation shrinkage" affecting clinical success of the dental restoration while photo-polymerisation. Polymerisation shrinkage of composites arises basically from the formation of a polymer due to the monomer transformation which composes of an organic matrix phase. It was sought, throughout this study, to detect and evaluate the structural polymerisation shrinkage of prepared dental composites in order to optimize the effects of various fillers included in hydroxyapatite (HA)-reinforced dental composites and hence to find a means to modify the properties of these dental composites prepared with defined parameters. As a result, the shrinkage values of the experimental dental composites were decreased by increasing the filler content of composites and the composition of different fillers used had effect on the shrinkage of the prepared composite systems.

Keywords: Dental composites, hydroxyapatite (HA), BisGMA, shrinkage.

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1700 Effect of Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties and Wear Behavior of Al7075 Alloy Reinforced with Beryl and Graphene Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites

Authors: Shanawaz Patil, Mohamed Haneef, K. S. Narayanaswamy

Abstract:

In the recent years, aluminum metal matrix composites were most widely used, which are finding wide applications in various field such as automobile, aerospace defense etc., due to their outstanding mechanical properties like low density, light weight, exceptional high levels of strength, stiffness, wear resistance, high temperature resistance, low coefficient of thermal expansion and good formability. In the present work, an effort is made to study the effect of heat treatment on mechanical properties of aluminum 7075 alloy reinforced with constant weight percentage of naturally occurring mineral beryl and varying weight percentage of graphene. The hybrid composites are developed with 0.5 wt. %, 1wt.%, 1.5 wt.% and 2 wt.% of graphene and 6 wt.% of beryl  by stir casting liquid metallurgy route. The cast specimens of unreinforced aluminum alloy and hybrid composite samples were prepared for heat treatment process and subjected to solutionizing treatment (T6) at a temperature of 490±5 oC for 8 hours in a muffle furnace followed by quenching in boiling water. The microstructure analysis of as cast and heat treated hybrid composite specimens are examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tensile test and hardness test of unreinforced aluminum alloy and hybrid composites are examined. The wear behavior is examined by pin-on disc apparatus. The results of as cast specimens and heat treated specimens were compared. The heat treated Al7075-Beryl-Graphene hybrid composite had better properties and significantly improved the ultimate tensile strength, hardness and reduced wear loss when compared to aluminum alloy and  as cast hybrid composites.

Keywords: Beryl, graphene, heat treatment, mechanical properties.

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1699 Fabrication Characteristics and Mechanical Behavior of Fly Ash-Alumina Reinforced Zn-27Al Alloy Matrix Hybrid Composite Using Stir-Casting Technique

Authors: Oluwagbenga B. Fatile, Felix U. Idu, Olajide T. Sanya

Abstract:

This paper reports the viability of developing Zn-27Al alloy matrix hybrid composites reinforced with alumina, graphite and fly ash (solid waste bye product of coal in thermal power plants). This research work was aimed at developing low cost-high performance Zn-27Al matrix composite with low density. Alumina particulates (Al2O3), graphite added with 0, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt% fly ash were utilized to prepare 10wt% reinforcing phase with Zn-27Al alloy as matrix using two-step stir casting method. Density measurement, estimated percentage porosity, tensile testing, micro hardness measurement and optical microscopy were used to assess the performance of the composites produced. The results show that the hardness, ultimate tensile strength, and percent elongation of the hybrid composites decrease with increase in fly ash content. The maximum decrease in hardness and ultimate tensile strength of 13.72% and 15.25% respectively were observed for composite grade containing 5wt% fly ash. The percentage elongation of composite sample without fly ash is 8.9% which is comparable with that of the sample containing 2wt% fly ash with percentage elongation of 8.8%. The fracture toughness of the fly ash containing composites was however superior to those of composites without fly ash with 5wt% fly ash containing composite exhibiting the highest fracture toughness. The results show that fly ash can be utilized as complementary reinforcement in ZA-27 alloy matrix composite to reduce cost.

Keywords: Fly ash, hybrid composite, mechanical behaviour, stir-cast.

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