Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 47

Search results for: discontinuous

47 Flood Modeling in Urban Area Using a Well-Balanced Discontinuous Galerkin Scheme on Unstructured Triangular Grids

Authors: Rabih Ghostine, Craig Kapfer, Viswanathan Kannan, Ibrahim Hoteit

Abstract:

Urban flooding resulting from a sudden release of water due to dam-break or excessive rainfall is a serious threatening environment hazard, which causes loss of human life and large economic losses. Anticipating floods before they occur could minimize human and economic losses through the implementation of appropriate protection, provision, and rescue plans. This work reports on the numerical modelling of flash flood propagation in urban areas after an excessive rainfall event or dam-break. A two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged shallow water model is used with a refined unstructured grid of triangles for representing the urban area topography. The 2D shallow water equations are solved using a second-order well-balanced discontinuous Galerkin scheme. Theoretical test case and three flood events are described to demonstrate the potential benefits of the scheme: (i) wetting and drying in a parabolic basin (ii) flash flood over a physical model of the urbanized Toce River valley in Italy; (iii) wave propagation on the Reyran river valley in consequence of the Malpasset dam-break in 1959 (France); and (iv) dam-break flood in October 1982 at the town of Sumacarcel (Spain). The capability of the scheme is also verified against alternative models. Computational results compare well with recorded data and show that the scheme is at least as efficient as comparable second-order finite volume schemes, with notable efficiency speedup due to parallelization.

Keywords: Flood modeling, dam-break, shallow water equations, Discontinuous Galerkin scheme, MUSCL scheme.

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46 Comparison of Different Discontinuous PWM Technique for Switching Losses Reduction in Modular Multilevel Converters

Authors: Kaumil B. Shah, Hina Chandwani

Abstract:

The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is one of the advanced topologies for medium and high-voltage applications. In high-power, high-voltage MMC, a large number of switching power devices are required. These switching power devices (IGBT) considerable switching losses. This paper analyzes the performance of different discontinuous pulse width modulation (DPWM) techniques and compares the results against a conventional carrier based pulse width modulation method, in order to reduce the switching losses of an MMC. The DPWM reference wave can be generated by adding the zero-sequence component to the original (sine) reference modulation signal. The result of the addition gives the reference signal of DPWM techniques. To minimize the switching losses of the MMC, the clamping period is controlled according to the absolute value of the output load current. No switching is generated in the clamping period so overall switching of the power device is reduced. The simulation result of the different DPWM techniques is compared with conventional carrier-based pulse-width modulation technique.

Keywords: Modular multilevel converter, discontinuous pulse width modulation, switching losses, zero-sequence voltage.

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45 Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Non-Convex Economic Power Dispatch Problem

Authors: Badr M. Alshammari, T. Guesmi

Abstract:

This study presents a modified version of the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm by including a local search technique for solving the non-convex economic power dispatch problem. The local search step is incorporated at the end of each iteration. Total system losses, valve-point loading effects and prohibited operating zones have been incorporated in the problem formulation. Thus, the problem becomes highly nonlinear and with discontinuous objective function. The proposed technique is validated using an IEEE benchmark system with ten thermal units. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed optimization algorithm has better convergence characteristics in comparison with the original ABC algorithm.

Keywords: Economic power dispatch, artificial bee colony, valve-point loading effects, prohibited operating zones.

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44 Mixed Integer Programing for Multi-Tier Rebate with Discontinuous Cost Function

Authors: Y. Long, L. Liu, K. V. Branin

Abstract:

One challenge faced by procurement decision-maker during the acquisition process is how to compare similar products from different suppliers and allocate orders among different products or services. This work focuses on allocating orders among multiple suppliers considering rebate. The objective function is to minimize the total acquisition cost including purchasing cost and rebate benefit. Rebate benefit is complex and difficult to estimate at the ordering step. Rebate rules vary for different suppliers and usually change over time. In this work, we developed a system to collect the rebate policies, standardized the rebate policies and developed two-stage optimization models for ordering allocation. Rebate policy with multi-tiers is considered in modeling. The discontinuous cost function of rebate benefit is formulated for different scenarios. A piecewise linear function is used to approximate the discontinuous cost function of rebate benefit. And a Mixed Integer Programing (MIP) model is built for order allocation problem with multi-tier rebate. A case study is presented and it shows that our optimization model can reduce the total acquisition cost by considering rebate rules.

Keywords: Discontinuous cost function, mixed integer programming, optimization, procurement, rebate.

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43 Batteryless DCM Boost Converter for Kinetic Energy Harvesting Applications

Authors: Andrés Gomez-Casseres, Rubén Contreras

Abstract:

In this paper, a bidirectional boost converter operated in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM) is presented as a suitable power conditioning circuit for tuning of kinetic energy harvesters without the need of a battery. A nonlinear control scheme, composed by two linear controllers, is used to control the average value of the input current, enabling the synthesization of complex loads. The converter, along with the control system, is validated through SPICE simulations using the LTspice tool. The converter model and the controller transfer functions are derived. From the simulation results, it was found that the input current distortion increases with the introduced phase shift and that, such distortion, is almost entirely present at the zero-crossing point of the input voltage.

Keywords: Average current control, boost converter, electrical tuning, energy harvesting.

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42 Numerical Investigation of Multiphase Flow in Pipelines

Authors: Gozel Judakova, Markus Bause

Abstract:

We present and analyze reliable numerical techniques for simulating complex flow and transport phenomena related to natural gas transportation in pipelines. Such kind of problems are of high interest in the field of petroleum and environmental engineering. Modeling and understanding natural gas flow and transformation processes during transportation is important for the sake of physical realism and the design and operation of pipeline systems. In our approach a two fluid flow model based on a system of coupled hyperbolic conservation laws is considered for describing natural gas flow undergoing hydratization. The accurate numerical approximation of two-phase gas flow remains subject of strong interest in the scientific community. Such hyperbolic problems are characterized by solutions with steep gradients or discontinuities, and their approximation by standard finite element techniques typically gives rise to spurious oscillations and numerical artefacts. Recently, stabilized and discontinuous Galerkin finite element techniques have attracted researchers’ interest. They are highly adapted to the hyperbolic nature of our two-phase flow model. In the presentation a streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin approach and a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for the numerical approximation of our flow model of two coupled systems of Euler equations are presented. Then the efficiency and reliability of stabilized continuous and discontinous finite element methods for the approximation is carefully analyzed and the potential of the either classes of numerical schemes is investigated. In particular, standard benchmark problems of two-phase flow like the shock tube problem are used for the comparative numerical study.

Keywords: Discontinuous Galerkin method, Euler system, inviscid two-fluid model, streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin method, two-phase flow.

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41 Integrated Power Saving for Multiple Relays and UEs in LTE-TDD

Authors: Chun-Chuan Yang, Jeng-Yueng Chen, Yi-Ting Mai, Chen-Ming Yang

Abstract:

In this paper, the design of integrated sleep scheduling for relay nodes and user equipments under a Donor eNB (DeNB) in the mode of Time Division Duplex (TDD) in LTE-A is presented. The idea of virtual time is proposed to deal with the discontinuous pattern of the available radio resource in TDD, and based on the estimation of the traffic load, three power saving schemes in the top-down strategy are presented. Associated mechanisms in each scheme including calculation of the virtual subframe capacity, the algorithm of integrated sleep scheduling, and the mapping mechanisms for the backhaul link and the access link are presented in the paper. Simulation study shows the advantage of the proposed schemes in energy saving over the standard DRX scheme.

Keywords: LTE-A, Relay, TDD, Power Saving.

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40 Discontinuous Spacetime with Vacuum Holes as Explanation for Gravitation, Quantum Mechanics and Teleportation

Authors: Constantin Z. Leshan

Abstract:

Hole Vacuum theory is based on discontinuous spacetime that contains vacuum holes. Vacuum holes can explain gravitation, some laws of quantum mechanics and allow teleportation of matter. All massive bodies emit a flux of holes which curve the spacetime; if we increase the concentration of holes, it leads to length contraction and time dilation because the holes do not have the properties of extension and duration. In the limited case when space consists of holes only, the distance between every two points is equal to zero and time stops - outside of the Universe, the extension and duration properties do not exist. For this reason, the vacuum hole is the only particle in physics capable of describing gravitation using its own properties only. All microscopic particles must 'jump' continually and 'vibrate' due to the appearance of holes (impassable microscopic 'walls' in space), and it is the cause of the quantum behavior. Vacuum holes can explain the entanglement, non-locality, wave properties of matter, tunneling, uncertainty principle and so on. Particles do not have trajectories because spacetime is discontinuous and has impassable microscopic 'walls' due to the simple mechanical motion is impossible at small scale distances; it is impossible to 'trace' a straight line in the discontinuous spacetime because it contains the impassable holes. Spacetime 'boils' continually due to the appearance of the vacuum holes. For teleportation to be possible, we must send a body outside of the Universe by enveloping it with a closed surface consisting of vacuum holes. Since a material body cannot exist outside of the Universe, it reappears instantaneously in a random point of the Universe. Since a body disappears in one volume and reappears in another random volume without traversing the physical space between them, such a transportation method can be called teleportation (or Hole Teleportation). It is shown that Hole Teleportation does not violate causality and special relativity due to its random nature and other properties. Although Hole Teleportation has a random nature, it can be used for colonization of extrasolar planets by the help of the method called 'random jumps': after a large number of random teleportation jumps, there is a probability that the spaceship may appear near a habitable planet. We can create vacuum holes experimentally using the method proposed by Descartes: we must remove a body from the vessel without permitting another body to occupy this volume.

Keywords: Border of the universe, causality violation, perfect isolation, quantum jumps.

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39 Development of Personal and Social Identity in Immigrant Deaf Adolescents

Authors: Marialuisa Gennari, Giancarlo Tamanza, Ilaria Montanari

Abstract:

Identity development in adolescence is characterized by many risks and challenges, and becomes even more complex by the situation of migration and deafness. In particular, the condition of the second generation of migrant adolescents involves the comparison between the family context in which everybody speaks a language and deals with a specific culture (usually parents’ and relatives’ original culture), the social context (school, peer groups, sports groups), where a foreign language is spoken and a new culture is faced, and finally in the context of the “deaf” world. It is a dialectic involving unsolved differences that have to be treated in a discontinuous process, which will give complex outcomes and chances depending on the process of elaboration of the themes of growth and development, culture and deafness. This paper aims to underline the problems and opportunities for each issue which immigrant deaf adolescents must deal with. In particular, it will highlight the importance of a multifactorial approach for the analysis of personal resources (both intra-psychic and relational); the level of integration of the family of origin in the migration context; the elaboration of the migration event, and finally, the tractability of the condition of deafness. Some psycho-educational support objectives will be also highlighted for the identity development of deaf immigrant adolescents, with particular emphasis on the construction of the adolescents’ useful abilities to decode complex emotions, to develop self-esteem and to get critical thoughts about the inevitable attempts to build their identity. Remarkably, and of importance, the construction of flexible settings which support adolescents in a supple, “decentralized” way in order to avoid the regressive defenses that do not allow for the development of an authentic self.

Keywords: Immigrant deaf adolescents, identity development, personal and social challenges, psycho-educational support.

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38 Effect of Model Dimension in Numerical Simulation on Assessment of Water Inflow to Tunnel in Discontinues Rock

Authors: Hadi Farhadian, Homayoon Katibeh

Abstract:

Groundwater inflow to the tunnels is one of the most important problems in tunneling operation. The objective of this study is the investigation of model dimension effects on tunnel inflow assessment in discontinuous rock masses using numerical modeling. In the numerical simulation, the model dimension has an important role in prediction of water inflow rate. When the model dimension is very small, due to low distance to the tunnel border, the model boundary conditions affect the estimated amount of groundwater flow into the tunnel and results show a very high inflow to tunnel. Hence, in this study, the two-dimensional universal distinct element code (UDEC) used and the impact of different model parameters, such as tunnel radius, joint spacing, horizontal and vertical model domain extent has been evaluated. Results show that the model domain extent is a function of the most significant parameters, which are tunnel radius and joint spacing.

Keywords: Water inflow, Tunnel, Discontinues rock, Numerical simulation.

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37 Micro Particles Effect on Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Ceramic Composites - A Review

Authors: S. I. Durowaye, O. P. Gbenebor, B. O. Bolasodun, I. O. Rufai, V. O. Durowaye

Abstract:

Particles are the most common and cheapest reinforcement producing discontinuous reinforced composites with isotropic properties. Conventional fabrication methods can be used to produce a wide range of product forms, making them relatively inexpensive. Optimising composite development must include consideration of all the fundamental aspect of particles including their size, shape, volume fraction, distribution and mechanical properties. Research has shown that the challenges of low fracture toughness, poor crack growth resistance and low thermal stability can be overcome by reinforcement with particles. The unique properties exhibited by micro particles reinforced ceramic composites have made them to be highly attractive in a vast array of applications.

Keywords: Ceramic composites, Mechanical properties, Microparticles, Thermal stability.

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36 Study on Discontinuity Properties of Phased-Array Ultrasound Transducer Affecting to Sound Pressure Fields Pattern

Authors: Tran Trong Thang, Nguyen Phan Kien, Trinh Quang Duc

Abstract:

The phased-array ultrasound transducer types are utilities for medical ultrasonography as well as optical imaging. However, their discontinuity characteristic limits the applications due to the artifacts contaminated into the reconstructed images. Because of the effects of the ultrasound pressure field pattern to the echo ultrasonic waves as well as the optical modulated signal, the side lobes of the focused ultrasound beam induced by discontinuity of the phased-array ultrasound transducer might the reason of the artifacts. In this paper, a simple method in approach of numerical simulation was used to investigate the limitation of discontinuity of the elements in phased-array ultrasound transducer and their effects to the ultrasound pressure field. Take into account the change of ultrasound pressure field patterns in the conditions of variation of the pitches between elements of the phased-array ultrasound transducer, the appropriated parameters for phased-array ultrasound transducer design were asserted quantitatively.

Keywords: Phased-array ultrasound transducer, sound pressure pattern, discontinuous sound field, numerical visualization.

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35 Effect on Physicochemical and Sensory Attributes of Bread Substituted with Different Levels of Matured Soursop (Anona muricata) Flour

Authors: Mardiana Ahamad Zabidi, Akmalluddin Md. Yunus

Abstract:

Soursop (Anona muricata) is one of the underutilized tropical fruits containing nutrients, particularly dietary fibre and antioxidant properties that are beneficial to human health. This objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of matured soursop pulp flour (SPF) to be substituted with high-protein wheat flour in bread. Bread formulation was substituted with different levels of SPF (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%). The effect on physicochemical properties and sensory attributes were evaluated. Higher substitution level of SPF resulted in significantly higher (p<0.05) fibre, protein and ash content, while fat and carbohydrate content reduced significantly (p<0.05). FESEM showed that the bread crumb surface of control and 5% SPF appeared to distribute evenly and coalesced by thin gluten film. However, higher SPF substitution level in bread formulation exhibited a deleterious effect by formation of discontinuous gluten network. For texture profile analysis, 5% SPF bread resulted in the lowest value of hardness. The score of sensory evaluation showed that 5% SPF bread received good acceptability and is comparable with control bread.

Keywords: Bread, Physicochemical properties, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Sensory attributes, Soursop pulp flour.

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34 Thermo-Mechanical Treatments of Cu-Ti Alloys

Authors: M. M. Morgham, A. A. Hameda, N. A. Zriba, H. A. Jawan

Abstract:

This paper aims to study the effect of cold work condition on the microstructure of Cu-1.5wt%Ti, and Cu-3.5wt%Ti and hence mechanical properties. The samples under investigation were machined, and solution heat treated. X-ray diffraction technique is used to identify the different phases present after cold deformation by compression and also different heat treatment and also measuring the relative quantities of phases present. The metallographic examination is used to study the microstructure of the samples. The hardness measurements were used to indicate the change in mechanical properties. The results are compared with the mechanical properties obtained by previous workers. Experiments on cold compression followed by aging of Cu-Ti alloys have indicated that the most efficient hardening of the material results from continuous precipitation of very fine particles within the matrix. These particles were reported to be β`-type, Cu4Ti phase. The β`-β transformation and particles coarsening within the matrix as well as long grain boundaries were responsible for the overaging of Cu-1.5wt%Ti and Cu-3.5wt%Ti alloys. It is well known that plate-like particles are β – type, Cu3Ti phase. Discontinuous precipitation was found to start at the grain boundaries and expand into grain interior. At the higher aging temperature, a classic Widmanstätten morphology forms giving rise to a coarse microstructure comprised of α and the equilibrium phase β. Those results were confirmed by X-ray analysis, which found that a few percent of Cu3Ti, β precipitates are formed during aging at high temperature for long time for both Cu- Ti alloys (i.e. Cu-1.5wt%Ti and Cu-3.5wt%Ti).

Keywords: Metallographic, hardness, precipitation, aging.

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33 Closed Loop Control of Bridgeless Cuk Converter Using Fuzzy Logic Controller for PFC Applications

Authors: Nesapriya. P., S. Rajalaxmi

Abstract:

This paper is based on the bridgeless single-phase Ac–Dc Power Factor Correction (PFC) converters with Fuzzy Logic Controller. High frequency isolated Cuk converters are used as a modular dc-dc converter in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM) of operation of Power Factor Correction. The aim of this paper is to simplify the program complexity of the controller by reducing the number of fuzzy sets of the Membership Functions (MFs) and to improve the efficiency and to eliminate the power quality problems. The output of Fuzzy controller is compared with High frequency triangular wave to generate PWM gating signals of Cuk converter. The proposed topologies are designed to work in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM) to achieve a unity power factor and low total harmonic distortion of the input current. The Fuzzy Logic Controller gives additional advantages such as accurate result, uncertainty and imprecision and automatic control circuitry. Performance comparisons between the proposed and conventional controllers and circuits are performed based on circuit simulations.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC), Bridgeless rectifier, Cuk converter, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), Power Factor Correction, Total Harmonic Distortion (THD).

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32 Influence of Laminated Textile Structures on Mechanical Performance of NF-Epoxy Composites

Authors: A. R. Azrin Hani, R. Ahmad, M. Mariatti

Abstract:

Textile structures are engineered and fabricated to meet worldwide structural applications. Nevertheless, research varying textile structure on natural fibre as composite reinforcement was found to be very limited. Most of the research is focusing on short fibre and random discontinuous orientation of the reinforcement structure. Realizing that natural fibre (NF) composite had been widely developed to be used as synthetic fibre composite replacement, this research attempted to examine the influence of woven and cross-ply laminated structure towards its mechanical performances. Laminated natural fibre composites were developed using hand lay-up and vacuum bagging technique. Impact and flexural strength were investigated as a function of fibre type (coir and kenaf) and reinforcement structure (imbalanced plain woven, 0°/90° cross-ply and +45°/-45° cross-ply). Multi-level full factorial design of experiment (DOE) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to impart data as to how fibre type and reinforcement structure parameters affect the mechanical properties of the composites. This systematic experimentation has led to determination of significant factors that predominant influences the impact and flexural properties of the textile composites. It was proven that both fibre type and reinforcement structure demonstrated significant difference results. Overall results indicated that coir composite and woven structure exhibited better impact and flexural strength. Yet, cross-ply composite structure demonstrated better fracture resistance.

Keywords: Cross-ply composite, Flexural strength, Impact strength, Textile natural fibre composite, Woven composite.

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31 Knowledge Continuity as a Part of Business Continuity Management

Authors: H. Urbancova, J. Urbanec

Abstract:

Today the intangible assets are the capital of knowledge and are the most important and the most valuable resource for organizations. All employees have knowledge independently of the kind of jobs they do. Knowledge is thus an asset, which influences business operations. The objective of this article is to identify knowledge continuity as an objective of business continuity management. The article has been prepared based on the analysis of secondary sources and the evaluation of primary sources of data by means of a quantitative survey conducted in the Czech Republic. The conclusion of the article is that organizations that apply business continuity management do not focus on the preservation of the knowledge of key employees. Organizations ensure knowledge continuity only intuitively, on a random basis, non-systematically and discontinuously. The non-ensuring of knowledge continuity represents a threat of loss of key knowledge for organizations and can also negatively affect business continuity.

Keywords: Business continuity, knowledge, organizations, survey.

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30 High Order Accurate Runge Kutta Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Numerical Solution of Linear Convection Equation

Authors: Faheem Ahmed, Fareed Ahmed, Yongheng Guo, Yong Yang

Abstract:

This paper deals with a high-order accurate Runge Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method for the numerical solution of the wave equation, which is one of the simple case of a linear hyperbolic partial differential equation. Nodal DG method is used for a finite element space discretization in 'x' by discontinuous approximations. This method combines mainly two key ideas which are based on the finite volume and finite element methods. The physics of wave propagation being accounted for by means of Riemann problems and accuracy is obtained by means of high-order polynomial approximations within the elements. High order accurate Low Storage Explicit Runge Kutta (LSERK) method is used for temporal discretization in 't' that allows the method to be nonlinearly stable regardless of its accuracy. The resulting RKDG methods are stable and high-order accurate. The L1 ,L2 and L∞ error norm analysis shows that the scheme is highly accurate and effective. Hence, the method is well suited to achieve high order accurate solution for the scalar wave equation and other hyperbolic equations.

Keywords: Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin Method, RKDG, Scalar Wave Equation, LSERK

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29 Periodic Solutions for Some Strongly Nonlinear Oscillators by He's Energy Balance Method

Authors: Meng Hu, Lili Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, applying He-s energy balance method to determine frequency formulation relations of nonlinear oscillators with discontinuous term or fractional potential. By calculation and computer simulations, compared with the exact solutions show that the results obtained are of high accuracy.

Keywords: He's energy balance method, periodic solution, nonlinear oscillator, discontinuous, fractional potential.

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28 Influence of Inter-tube Connections on the Stress-Strain Behavior of Nanotube-Polymer Composites: Molecular Dynamics

Authors: Jianwei Zhang, Dazhi Jiang, Huaxin Peng, Chunqi Wang

Abstract:

Stress-strain curve of inter-tube connected carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced polymer composite under axial loading generated from molecular dynamics simulation is presented. Comparison of the response to axial mechanical loading between this composite system with composite systems reinforced by long, continuous CNTs (replicated via periodic boundary conditions) and short, discontinuous CNTs has been made. Simulation results showed that the inter-tube connection improved the mechanical properties of short discontinuous CNTs dramatically. Though still weaker than long CNT/polymer composite, more remarkable increase in the stiffness relative to the polymer was observed in the inter-tube connected CNT/polymer composite than in the discontinuous CNT/polymer composite. The manually introduced bridge break process resulted in a stress-strain curve of ductile fracture mode, which is consistent with the experimental result.

Keywords: Carbon nanotube, inter-tube connection, molecular dynamics, stress-strain curve

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27 Numerical Studies of Galerkin-type Time-discretizations Applied to Transient Convection-diffusion-reaction Equations

Authors: Naveed Ahmed, Gunar Matthies

Abstract:

We deal with the numerical solution of time-dependent convection-diffusion-reaction equations. We combine the local projection stabilization method for the space discretization with two different time discretization schemes: the continuous Galerkin-Petrov (cGP) method and the discontinuous Galerkin (dG) method of polynomial of degree k. We establish the optimal error estimates and present numerical results which shows that the cGP(k) and dG(k)- methods are accurate of order k +1, respectively, in the whole time interval. Moreover, the cGP(k)-method is superconvergent of order 2k and dG(k)-method is of order 2k +1 at the discrete time points. Furthermore, the dependence of the results on the choice of the stabilization parameter are discussed and compared.

Keywords: Convection-diffusion-reaction equations, stabilized finite elements, discontinuous Galerkin, continuous Galerkin-Petrov.

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26 Typical Day Prediction Model for Output Power and Energy Efficiency of a Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaic System

Authors: Yan Su, L. C. Chan

Abstract:

A novel typical day prediction model have been built and validated by the measured data of a grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) system in Macau. Unlike conventional statistical method used by previous study on PV systems which get results by averaging nearby continuous points, the present typical day statistical method obtain the value at every minute in a typical day by averaging discontinuous points at the same minute in different days. This typical day statistical method based on discontinuous point averaging makes it possible for us to obtain the Gaussian shape dynamical distributions for solar irradiance and output power in a yearly or monthly typical day. Based on the yearly typical day statistical analysis results, the maximum possible accumulated output energy in a year with on site climate conditions and the corresponding optimal PV system running time are obtained. Periodic Gaussian shape prediction models for solar irradiance, output energy and system energy efficiency have been built and their coefficients have been determined based on the yearly, maximum and minimum monthly typical day Gaussian distribution parameters, which are obtained from iterations for minimum Root Mean Squared Deviation (RMSD). With the present model, the dynamical effects due to time difference in a day are kept and the day to day uncertainty due to weather changing are smoothed but still included. The periodic Gaussian shape correlations for solar irradiance, output power and system energy efficiency have been compared favorably with data of the PV system in Macau and proved to be an improvement than previous models.

Keywords: Grid Connected, RMSD, Solar PV System, Typical Day.

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25 Automated Algorithm for Removing Continuous Flame Spectrum Based On Sampled Linear Bases

Authors: Luis Arias, Jorge E. Pezoa, Daniel Sbárbaro

Abstract:

In this paper, an automated algorithm to estimate and remove the continuous baseline from measured spectra containing both continuous and discontinuous bands is proposed. The algorithm uses previous information contained in a Continuous Database Spectra (CDBS) to obtain a linear basis, with minimum number of sampled vectors, capable of representing a continuous baseline. The proposed algorithm was tested by using a CDBS of flame spectra where Principal Components Analysis and Non-negative Matrix Factorization were used to obtain linear bases. Thus, the radical emissions of natural gas, oil and bio-oil flames spectra at different combustion conditions were obtained. In order to validate the performance in the baseline estimation process, the Goodness-of-fit Coefficient and the Root Mean-squared Error quality metrics were evaluated between the estimated and the real spectra in absence of discontinuous emission. The achieved results make the proposed method a key element in the development of automatic monitoring processes strategies involving discontinuous spectral bands.

Keywords: Flame spectra, removing baseline, recovering spectrum.

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24 Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Total Variation Minimization on Inpainting Problem

Authors: Xijian Wang

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the numerical minimization of energy functionals in BV ( ) (the space of bounded variation functions) involving total variation for gray-scale 1-dimensional inpainting problem. Applications are shown by finite element method and discontinuous Galerkin method for total variation minimization. We include the numerical examples which show the different recovery image by these two methods.

Keywords: finite element method, discontinuous Galerkin method, total variation minimization, inpainting

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23 A New Time Discontinuous Expanded Mixed Element Method for Convection-dominated Diffusion Equation

Authors: Jinfeng Wang, Yuanhong Bi, Hong Li, Yang Liu, Meng Zhao

Abstract:

In this paper, a new time discontinuous expanded mixed finite element method is proposed and analyzed for two-order convection-dominated diffusion problem. The proofs of the stability of the proposed scheme and the uniqueness of the discrete solution are given. Moreover, the error estimates of the scalar unknown, its gradient and its flux in the L1( ¯ J,L2( )-norm are obtained.

Keywords: Convection-dominated diffusion equation, expanded mixed method, time discontinuous scheme, stability, error estimates.

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22 Target Trajectory Design of Parametrically Excited Inverted Pendulum for Efficient Bipedal Walking

Authors: Toyoyuki Honjo, Takeshi Hayashi, Akinori Nagano, Zhi-Wei Luo

Abstract:

For stable bipedal gait generation on the level floor, efficient restoring of mechanical energy lost by heel collision at the ground is necessary. Parametric excitation principle is one of the solutions. We dealt with the robot-s total center of mass as an inverted pendulum to consider the total dynamics of the robot. Parametrically excited walking requires the use of continuous target trajectory that is close to discontinuous optimal trajectory. In this paper, we proposed the new target trajectory based on a position in the walking direction. We surveyed relations between walking performance and the parameters that form the target trajectory via numerical simulations. As a result, it was found that our target trajectory has the similar characteristics of a parametrically excited inverted pendulum.

Keywords: Dynamic Bipedal Walking, Parametric Excitation, Target Trajectory Design.

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21 Chip Formation during Turning Multiphase Microalloyed Steel

Authors: V.Sivaraman, S. Sankaran, L. Vijayaraghavan

Abstract:

Machining through turning was carried out in a lathe to study the chip formation of Multiphase Ferrite (F-B-M) microalloyed steel. Taguchi orthogonal array was employed to perform the machining. Continuous and discontinuous chips were formed for different cutting parameters like speed, feed and depth of cut. Optical and scanning electron microscope was employed to identify the chip morphology.

Keywords: Multiphase microalloyed steel, chip formation, Taguchi technique, turning, cutting parameters

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20 Optimal Controller Design for Linear Magnetic Levitation Rail System

Authors: Tooraj Hakim Elahi, Abdolamir Nekoubin

Abstract:

In many applications, magnetic suspension systems are required to operate over large variations in air gap. As a result, the nonlinearities inherent in most types of suspensions have a significant impact on performance. Specifically, it may be difficult to design a linear controller which gives satisfactory performance, stability, and disturbance rejection over a wide range of operating points. in this paper an optimal controller based on discontinuous mathematical model of the system for an electromagnetic suspension system which is applied in magnetic trains has been designed . Simulations show that the new controller can adapt well to the variance of suspension mass and gap, and keep its dynamic performance, thus it is superior to the classic controller.

Keywords: Magnetic Levitation, optimal controller, mass and gap

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19 A Study on the Location and Range of Obstacle Region in Robot's Point Placement Task based on the Vision Control Algorithm

Authors: Jae Kyung Son, Wan Shik Jang, Sung hyun Shim, Yoon Gyung Sung

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the application of the vision control algorithm for robot's point placement task in discontinuous trajectory caused by obstacle. The presented vision control algorithm consists of four models, which are the robot kinematic model, vision system model, parameters estimation model, and robot joint angle estimation model.When the robot moves toward a target along discontinuous trajectory, several types of obstacles appear in two obstacle regions. Then, this study is to investigate how these changes will affect the presented vision control algorithm.Thus, the practicality of the vision control algorithm is demonstrated experimentally by performing the robot's point placement task in discontinuous trajectory by obstacle.

Keywords: Vision control algorithm, location of obstacle region, range of obstacle region, point placement.

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18 The Relationship between Employability and Training

Authors: X. Mamaqi, J.Miguel, P. Olave

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to provide an empirical evidence about the effects that the management of continuous training have on employability (or employment stability) in the Spanish labour market. With this purpose a binary logit model with interaction effect is been used. The dependent variable includes two situations of the active workers: continuous and discontinuous employability. To distinguish between them an Employability Index Stability (ESI) was calculated taking into account two factors: time worked and job security. Various aspects of the continuous training and personal workers data are used as independent variables. The data obtained from a survey of a sample of 918 employed have revealed a relationship between the likelihood of continuous employability and continuous training received. The empirical results support the positive and significant relationship between various aspects of the training provided by firms and employability likelihood of the workers, postulate alike from a theoretical point of view.

Keywords: training management, employability/employmentstability, binary logit model, interaction effect, Spanish marketlabour.

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