Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: biosensor

34 Fabrication of ZnO Nanorods Based Biosensor via Hydrothermal Method

Authors: Muhammad Tariq, Jafar Khan Kasi, Samiullah, Ajab Khan Kasi

Abstract:

Biosensors are playing vital role in industrial, clinical, and chemical analysis applications. Among other techniques, ZnO based biosensor is an easy approach due to its exceptional chemical and electrical properties. ZnO nanorods have positively charged isoelectric point which helps immobilize the negative charge glucose oxides (GOx). Here, we report ZnO nanorods based biosensors for the immobilization of GOx. The ZnO nanorods were grown by hydrothermal method on indium tin oxide substrate (ITO). The fabrication of biosensors was carried through batch processing using conventional photolithography. The buffer solutions of GOx were prepared in phosphate with a pH value of around 7.3. The biosensors effectively immobilized the GOx and result was analyzed by calculation of voltage and current on nanostructures.

Keywords: Hydrothermal growth, zinc dioxide, biosensors.

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33 Increase of Sensitivity in 3D Suspended Polymeric Microfluidic Platform through Lateral Misalignment

Authors: Ehsan Yazdanpanah Moghadam, Muthukumaran Packirisamy

Abstract:

In the present study, a design of the suspended polymeric microfluidic platform is introduced that is fabricated with three polymeric layers. Changing the microchannel plane to be perpendicular to microcantilever plane, drastically decreases moment of inertia in that direction. In addition, the platform is made of polymer (around five orders of magnitude less compared to silicon). It causes significant increase in the sensitivity of the cantilever deflection. Next, although the dimensions of this platform are constant, by misaligning the embedded microchannels laterally in the suspended microfluidic platform, the sensitivity can be highly increased. The investigation is studied on four fluids including water, seawater, milk, and blood for flow ranges from low rate of 5 to 70 µl/min to obtain the best design with the highest sensitivity. The best design in this study shows the sensitivity increases around 50% for water, seawater, milk, and blood at the flow rate of 70 µl/min by just misaligning the embedded microchannels in the suspended polymeric microfluidic platform.

Keywords: Microfluidic, biosensor, MEMS.

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32 Microfluidic Paper-Based Electrochemical Biosensor

Authors: Ahmad Manbohi, Seyyed Hamid Ahmadi

Abstract:

A low-cost paper-based microfluidic device (PAD) for the multiplex electrochemical determination of glucose, uric acid, and dopamine in biological fluids was developed. Using wax printing, PAD containing a central zone, six channels, and six detection zones was fabricated, and the electrodes were printed on detection zones using pre-made electrodes template. For each analyte, two detection zones were used. The carbon working electrode was coated with chitosan-BSA (and enzymes for glucose and uric acid). To detect glucose and uric acid, enzymatic reactions were employed. These reactions involve enzyme-catalyzed redox reactions of the analytes and produce free electrons for electrochemical measurement. Calibration curves were linear (R² > 0.980) in the range of 0-80 mM for glucose, 0.09–0.9 mM for dopamine, and 0–50 mM for uric acid, respectively. Blood samples were successfully analyzed by the proposed method.

Keywords: Multiplex, microfluidic paper-based electrochemical biosensors, biomarkers, biological fluids.

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31 Iron(III)-Tosylate Doped PEDOT and PEG: A Nanoscale Conductivity Study of an Electrochemical System with Biosensing Applications

Authors: Giulio Rosati, Luciano Sappia, Rossana Madrid, Noemi Rozlòsnik

Abstract:

The addition of PEG of different molecular weights has important effects on the physical, electrical and electrochemical properties of iron(III)-tosylate doped PEDOT. This particular polymer can be easily spin coated over plastic discs, optimizing thickness and uniformity of the PEDOT-PEG films. The conductivity and morphological analysis of the hybrid PEDOT-PEG polymer by 4-point probe (4PP), 12-point probe (12PP), and conductive AFM (C-AFM) show strong effects of the PEG doping. Moreover, the conductive films kinetics at the nanoscale, in response to different bias voltages, change radically depending on the PEG molecular weight. The hybrid conductive films show also interesting electrochemical properties, making the PEDOT PEG doping appealing for biosensing applications both for EIS-based and amperometric affinity/catalytic biosensors.

Keywords: Atomic force microscopy, biosensors, four-point probe, nano-films, PEDOT.

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30 Nanomaterial Based Electrochemical Sensors for Endocrine Disrupting Compounds

Authors: Gaurav Bhanjana, Ganga Ram Chaudhary, Sandeep Kumar, Neeraj Dilbaghi

Abstract:

Main sources of endocrine disrupting compounds in the ecosystem are hormones, pesticides, phthalates, flame retardants, dioxins, personal-care products, coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), bisphenol A, and parabens. These endocrine disrupting compounds are responsible for learning disabilities, brain development problems, deformations of the body, cancer, reproductive abnormalities in females and decreased sperm count in human males. Although discharge of these chemical compounds into the environment cannot be stopped, yet their amount can be retarded through proper evaluation and detection techniques. The available techniques for determination of these endocrine disrupting compounds mainly include high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectroscopy (MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). These techniques are accurate and reliable but have certain limitations like need of skilled personnel, time consuming, interference and requirement of pretreatment steps. Moreover, these techniques are laboratory bound and sample is required in large amount for analysis. In view of above facts, new methods for detection of endocrine disrupting compounds should be devised that promise high specificity, ultra sensitivity, cost effective, efficient and easy-to-operate procedure. Nowadays, electrochemical sensors/biosensors modified with nanomaterials are gaining high attention among researchers. Bioelement present in this system makes the developed sensors selective towards analyte of interest. Nanomaterials provide large surface area, high electron communication feature, enhanced catalytic activity and possibilities of chemical modifications. In most of the cases, nanomaterials also serve as an electron mediator or electrocatalyst for some analytes.

Keywords: Sensors, endocrine disruptors, nanoparticles, electrochemical, microscopy.

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29 Synthesis of Highly Sensitive Molecular Imprinted Sensor for Selective Determination of Doxycycline in Honey Samples

Authors: Nadia El Alami El Hassani, Soukaina Motia, Benachir Bouchikhi, Nezha El Bari

Abstract:

Doxycycline (DXy) is a cycline antibiotic, most frequently prescribed to treat bacterial infections in veterinary medicine. However, its broad antimicrobial activity and low cost, lead to an intensive use, which can seriously affect human health. Therefore, its spread in the food products has to be monitored. The scope of this work was to synthetize a sensitive and very selective molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for DXy detection in honey samples. Firstly, the synthesis of this biosensor was performed by casting a layer of carboxylate polyvinyl chloride (PVC-COOH) on the working surface of a gold screen-printed electrode (Au-SPE) in order to bind covalently the analyte under mild conditions. Secondly, DXy as a template molecule was bounded to the activated carboxylic groups, and the formation of MIP was performed by a biocompatible polymer by the mean of polyacrylamide matrix. Then, DXy was detected by measurements of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). A non-imprinted polymer (NIP) prepared in the same conditions and without the use of template molecule was also performed. We have noticed that the elaborated biosensor exhibits a high sensitivity and a linear behavior between the regenerated current and the logarithmic concentrations of DXy from 0.1 pg.mL−1 to 1000 pg.mL−1. This technic was successfully applied to determine DXy residues in honey samples with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 pg.mL−1 and an excellent selectivity when compared to the results of oxytetracycline (OXy) as analogous interfering compound. The proposed method is cheap, sensitive, selective, simple, and is applied successfully to detect DXy in honey with the recoveries of 87% and 95%. Considering these advantages, this system provides a further perspective for food quality control in industrial fields.

Keywords: Electrochemical sensor, molecular imprinted polymer, doxycycline, food control.

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28 A Sensitive Approach on Trace Analysis of Methylparaben in Wastewater and Cosmetic Products Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymer

Authors: Soukaina Motia, Nadia El Alami El Hassani, Alassane Diouf, Benachir Bouchikhi, Nezha El Bari

Abstract:

Parabens are the antimicrobial molecules largely used in cosmetic products as a preservative agent. Among them, the methylparaben (MP) is the most frequently used ingredient in cosmetic preparations. Nevertheless, their potential dangers led to the development of sensible and reliable methods for their determination in environmental samples. Firstly, a sensitive and selective molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) based on screen-printed gold electrode (Au-SPE), assembled on a polymeric layer of carboxylated poly(vinyl-chloride) (PVC-COOH), was developed. After the template removal, the obtained material was able to rebind MP and discriminate it among other interfering species such as glucose, sucrose, and citric acid. The behavior of molecular imprinted sensor was characterized by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Then, the biosensor was found to have a linear detection range from 0.1 pg.mL-1 to 1 ng.mL-1 and a low limit of detection of 0.12 fg.mL-1 and 5.18 pg.mL-1 by DPV and EIS, respectively. For applications, this biosensor was employed to determine MP content in four wastewaters in Meknes city and two cosmetic products (shower gel and shampoo). The operational reproducibility and stability of this biosensor were also studied. Secondly, another MIP biosensor based on tungsten trioxide (WO3) functionalized by gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) assembled on a polymeric layer of PVC-COOH was developed. The main goal was to increase the sensitivity of the biosensor. The developed MIP biosensor was successfully applied for the MP determination in wastewater samples and cosmetic products.

Keywords: Cosmetic products, methylparaben, molecularly imprinted polymer, wastewater.

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27 Biosensor Design through Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: Wenjun Zhang, Yunqing Du, Steven W. Cranford, Ming L. Wang

Abstract:

The beginning of 21st century has witnessed new advancements in the design and use of new materials for biosensing applications, from nano to macro, protein to tissue. Traditional analytical methods lack a complete toolset to describe the complexities introduced by living systems, pathological relations, discrete hierarchical materials, cross-phase interactions, and structure-property dependencies. Materiomics – via systematic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation – can provide structureprocess- property relations by using a materials science approach linking mechanisms across scales and enables oriented biosensor design. With this approach, DNA biosensors can be utilized to detect disease biomarkers present in individuals’ breath such as acetone for diabetes. Our wireless sensor array based on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) has successfully detected trace amount of various chemicals in vapor differentiated by pattern recognition. Here, we present how MD simulation can revolutionize the way of design and screening of DNA aptamers for targeting biomarkers related to oral diseases and oral health monitoring. It demonstrates great potential to be utilized to build a library of DNDA sequences for reliable detection of several biomarkers of one specific disease, and as well provides a new methodology of creating, designing, and applying of biosensors.

Keywords: Biosensor, design, DNA, molecular dynamics simulation.

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26 A DNA-Based Nanobiosensor for the Rapid Detection of the Dengue Virus in Mosquito

Authors: Lilia M. Fernando, Matthew K. Vasher, Evangelyn C. Alocilja

Abstract:

This paper describes the development of a DNA-based nanobiosensor to detect the dengue virus in mosquito using electrically active magnetic (EAM) nanoparticles as concentrator and electrochemical transducer. The biosensor detection encompasses two sets of oligonucleotide probes that are specific to the dengue virus: the detector probe labeled with the EAM nanoparticles and the biotinylated capture probe. The DNA targets are double hybridized to the detector and the capture probes and concentrated from nonspecific DNA fragments by applying a magnetic field. Subsequently, the DNA sandwiched targets (EAM-detector probe– DNA target–capture probe-biotin) are captured on streptavidin modified screen printed carbon electrodes through the biotinylated capture probes. Detection is achieved electrochemically by measuring the oxidation–reduction signal of the EAM nanoparticles. Results indicate that the biosensor is able to detect the redox signal of the EAM nanoparticles at dengue DNA concentrations as low as 10 ng/μl.

Keywords: Dengue, magnetic nanoparticles, mosquito, nanobiosensor.

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25 Characterization of the Dispersion Phenomenon in an Optical Biosensor

Authors: An-Shik Yang, Chin-Ting Kuo, Yung-Chun Yang, Wen-Hsin Hsieh, Chiang-Ho Cheng

Abstract:

Optical biosensors have become a powerful detection and analysis tool for wide-ranging applications in biomedical research, pharmaceuticals and environmental monitoring. This study carried out the computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based simulations to explore the dispersion phenomenon in the micro channel of an optical biosensor. The predicted time sequences of concentration contours were utilized to better understand the dispersion development occurred in different geometric shapes of micro channels. The simulation results showed the surface concentrations at the sensing probe (with the best performance of a grating coupler) in respect of time to appraise the dispersion effect and therefore identify the design configurations resulting in minimum dispersion.

Keywords: CFD simulations, dispersion, microfluidic, optical waveguide sensors.

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24 Modified Poly(pyrrole) Film Based Biosensors for Phenol Detection

Authors: S. Korkut, M. S. Kilic, E. Erhan

Abstract:

In order to detect and quantify the phenolic contents of a wastewater with biosensors, two working electrodes based on modified Poly(Pyrrole) films were fabricated. Enzyme horseradish peroxidase was used as biomolecule of the prepared electrodes. Various phenolics were tested at the biosensor. Phenol detection was realized by electrochemical reduction of quinones produced by enzymatic activity. Analytical parameters were calculated and the results were compared with each other.

Keywords: Carbon nanotube, Phenol biosensor, Polypyrrole, Poly(glutaraldehyde).

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23 Development of a New Polymeric Material with Controlled Surface Micro-Morphology Aimed for Biosensors Applications

Authors: Elham Farahmand, Fatimah Ibrahim, Samira Hosseini, Ivan Djordjevic, Leo. H. Koole

Abstract:

Compositions of different molar ratios of polymethylmethacrylate-co-methacrylic acid (PMMA-co-MAA) were synthesized via free-radical polymerization. Polymer coated surfaces have been produced on silicon wafers. Coated samples were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results have shown that the roughness of the surfaces have increased by increasing the molar ratio of monomer methacrylic acid (MAA). This study reveals that the gradual increase in surface roughness is due to the fact that carboxylic functional groups have been generated by MAA segments. Such surfaces can be desirable platforms for fabrication of the biosensors for detection of the viruses and diseases.

Keywords: Polymethylmethacrylate-co-methacrylic acid (PMMA-co-MAA), Polymeric material, Atomic Force Microscopy, roughness, carboxylic functional groups.

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22 A Nanosensor System Based On Disuccinimydyl–CYP2E1 for Amperometric Detection of the Anti-Tuberculosis Drug, Pyrazinamide

Authors: R. F. Ajayi, U. Sidwaba, U. Feleni, S. F. Douman, E. Nxusani, L. Wilson, C. Rassie, O. Tovide, P. G. L. Baker, S. L. Vilakazi, R. Tshikhudo, E. I. Iwuoha

Abstract:

Pyrazinamide (PZA) is among the first-line pro-drugs  in the tuberculosis (TB) combination chemotherapy used to treat  Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Numerous reports have suggested that  hepatotoxicity due to pyrazinamide in patients is due to inappropriate  dosing. It is, therefore necessary to develop sensitive and reliable  techniques for determining the PZA metabolic profile of diagnosed  patients promptly and at point-of-care. This study reports the  determination of PZA based on nanobiosensor systems developed  from disuccinimidyl octanedioate modified Cytochrome P450-2E1  (CYP2E1) electrodeposited on gold substrates derivatised with  (poly(8-anilino-1-napthalene sulphonic acid) PANSA/PVP-AgNPs  nanocomposites. The rapid and sensitive amperometric PZA  detection gave a dynamic linear range of 2µM to 16µM revealing a  limit of detection of 0.044µM and a sensitivity of 1.38µA/µM. The  Michaelis-Menten parameters; KM, KM app and IMAX were calculated to  be 6.0µM, 1.41µM and 1.51x10-6 A, respectively, indicating a  nanobiosensor suitable for use in serum.

Keywords: Cytochrome P450-2E1, Disuccinimidyl octanedioate, Pyrazinamide, Tuberculosis.

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21 Quantitative Analysis of Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Using Micromechanical Piezoresistive Cantilever

Authors: Meisam Omidi, M. Mirijalili, Mohammadmehdi Choolaei, Z. Sharifi, F. Haghiralsadat, F. Yazdian

Abstract:

In this work, we have used arrays of micromechanical piezoresistive cantilever with different geometries to detect carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), which is known as an important biomarker associated with various cancers such as colorectal, lung, breast, pancreatic, and bladder cancer. The sensing principle is based on the surface stress changes induced by antigen–antibody interaction on the microcantilevers surfaces. Different concentrations of CEA in a human serum albumin (HSA) solution were detected as a function of deflection of the beams. According to the experiments, it was revealed that microcantilevers have surface stress sensitivities in the order of 8 (mJ/m). This matter allows them to detect CEA concentrations as low as 3 ng/mL or 18 pM. This indicates the fact that the self-sensing microcantilevers approach is beneficial for pathological tests.

Keywords: Micromechanical biosensors, Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), surface stress.

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20 Characterization of ZrO2/PEG Composite Film as Immobilization Matrix for Glucose Oxidase

Authors: N. M. Ahmad, J. Abdullah, N. I. Ramli, S. Abd Rahman, N. E. Azmi, Z. Hamzah, A. Saat, N. H. Rahman

Abstract:

A biosensor based on glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized onto nanoparticles zirconium oxide with polyethylene nanocomposite for glucose monitoring has been designed. The CTAB/PEG/ZrO2/GOx nanocomposite was deposited onto screen printed carbon paste (SPCE) electrode via spin coating technique. The properties of CTAB/PEG/ZrO2/GOx were study using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SPE modified with the CTAB/PEG/ZrO2/GOx showed electrocatalytical response to the oxidation of glucose when ferrocene carboxaldehyde was used as an artificial redox mediator, which was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Several parameters such as working potential, effect of pH and effect of ZrO2/PEG layers that governed the analytical performance of the biosensor, have been studied. The biosensor was applied to detect glucose with a linear range of 0.4 to 2.0 mmol L−1 with good repetability and reproducibility.

Keywords: Nanocomposite, Nanoparticles, Modified SPE, Ferrocenecarboxaldehyde.

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19 Integration of CMOS Biosensor into a Polymeric Lab-on-a-Chip System

Authors: T. Brettschneider, C. Dorrer, H. Suy, T. Braun, E. Jung, R. Hoofman, M. Bründel, R. Zengerle, F. Lärmer

Abstract:

We present an integration approach of a CMOS biosensor into a polymer based microfluidic environment suitable for mass production. It consists of a wafer-level-package for the silicon die and laser bonding process promoted by an intermediate hot melt foil to attach the sensor package to the microfluidic chip, without the need for dispensing of glues or underfiller. A very good condition of the sensing area was obtained after introducing a protection layer during packaging. A microfluidic flow cell was fabricated and shown to withstand pressures up to Δp = 780 kPa without leakage. The employed biosensors were electrically characterized in a dry environment.

Keywords: CMOS biosensor, laser bonding, silicon polymer integration, wafer level packaging.

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18 Real-Time Detecting Concentration of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis by CNTFET Biosensor

Authors: Hsiao-Wei Wang, Jung-Tang Huang, Chun-Chiang Lin

Abstract:

Aptamers are useful tools in microorganism researches, diagnoses, and treatment. Aptamers are specific target molecules formed by oligonucleic acid molecules, and are not decomposed by alcohol. Aptamers used to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) have been proved to have specific affinity to the outer membrane proteins of MTB. This article presents a biosensor chip set with aptamers for early detection of MTB with high specificity and sensitivity, even in very low concentration. Meanwhile, we have already made a modified hydrophobic facial mask module with internal rendering hydrophobic for effectively collecting M. tuberculosis.

Keywords: Aptamers, CNTFET, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, early detection.

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17 Antioxidant Biosensor Using Microbe

Authors: Dyah Iswantini, Trivadila, Novik Nurhidayat, Waras Nurcholis

Abstract:

The antioxidant compounds are needed for the food, beverages, and pharmaceuticals industry. For this purpose, an appropriate method is required to measure the antioxidant properties in various types of samples. Spectrophotometric method usually used has some weaknesses, including the high price, long sample preparation time, and less sensitivity. Among the alternative methods developed to overcome these weaknesses is antioxidant biosensor based on superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme. Therefore, this study was carried out to measure the SOD activity originating from Deinococcus radiodurans and to determine its kinetics properties. Carbon paste electrode modified with ferrocene and immobilized SOD exhibited anode and cathode current peak at potential of +400 and +300mv respectively, in both pure SOD and SOD of D. radiodurans. This indicated that the current generated was from superoxide catalytic dismutation reaction by SOD. Optimum conditions for SOD activity was at pH 9 and temperature of 27.50C for D. radiodurans SOD, and pH 11 and temperature of 200C for pure SOD. Dismutation reaction kinetics of superoxide catalyzed by SOD followed the Lineweaver-Burk kinetics with D. radiodurans SOD KMapp value was smaller than pure SOD. The result showed that D. radiodurans SOD had higher enzyme-substrate affinity and specificity than pure SOD. It concluded that D. radiodurans SOD had a great potential as biological recognition component for antioxidant biosensor.

Keywords: Antioxidant biosensor, Deinococcus radiodurans, enzyme kinetic, superoxide dismutase (SOD).

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16 Development of a Brain Glutamate Microbiosensor

Authors: Kartika S. Hamdan, Zainiharyati M. Zain, Mohamed I. A. Halim, Jafri M. Abdullah, Robert D. O'Neill

Abstract:

This work attempts to improve the permselectivity of poly-ortho-phenylenediamine (PPD) coating for glutamate biosensor applications on Pt microelectrode, using constant potential amperometry and cyclic voltammetry. Percentage permeability of the modified PPD microelectrode was carried out towards hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ascorbic acid (AA) whereas permselectivity represents the percentage interference by AA in H2O2 detection. The 50-μm diameter Pt disk microelectrode showed a good permeability value toward H2O2 (95%) and selectivity against AA (0.01%) compared to other sizes of electrode studied here. The electrode was further modified with glutamate oxidase (GluOx) that was immobilized and cross linked with glutaraldehyde (GA, 0.125%), resulting in Pt/PPD/GluOx-GA electrode design. The maximum current density Jmax and apparent Michaelis constant, KM, obtained on Pt/PPD/GluOx-GA electrodes were 48 μA cm-2 and 50 μM, respectively. The linear region slope (LRS) was 0.96 μA cm-2 mM-1. The detection limit (LOD) for glutamate was 3.0 ± 0.6 μM. This study shows a promising glutamate microbiosensor for brain glutamate detection. 

Keywords: Brain, Glutamate, Microbiosensor.

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15 Langmuir–Blodgett Films of Polyaniline for Efficient Detection of Uric Acid

Authors: Kashima Arora, Monika Tomar, Vinay Gupta

Abstract:

Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films of polyaniline (PANI) grown onto ITO coated glass substrates were utilized for the fabrication of Uric acid biosensor for efficient detection of uric acid by immobilizing Uricase via EDC–NHS coupling. The modified electrodes were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The response characteristics after immobilization of uricase were studied using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The uricase/PANI/ITO/glass bioelectrode studied by CV and EIS techniques revealed detection of uric acid in a wide range of 0.05 mM to 1.0 mM, covering the physiological range in blood. A low Michaelis–Menten constant (Km) of 0.21 mM indicates the higher affinity of immobilized Uricase towards its analyte (uric acid). The fabricated uric acid biosensor based on PANI LB films exhibits excellent sensitivity of 0.21 mA/mM with a response time of 4 s, good reproducibility, long shelf life (8 weeks) and high selectivity.

Keywords: Uric acid; biosensor, PANI, Langmuir Blodgett films deposition.

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14 Processing the Medical Sensors Signals Using Fuzzy Inference System

Authors: S. Bouharati, I. Bouharati, C. Benzidane, F. Alleg, M. Belmahdi

Abstract:

Sensors possess several properties of physical measures. Whether devices that convert a sensed signal into an electrical signal, chemical sensors and biosensors, thus all these sensors can be considered as an interface between the physical and electrical equipment. The problem is the analysis of the multitudes of saved settings as input variables. However, they do not all have the same level of influence on the outputs. In order to identify the most sensitive parameters, those that can guide users in gathering information on the ground and in the process of model calibration and sensitivity analysis for the effect of each change made. Mathematical models used for processing become very complex. In this paper a fuzzy rule-based system is proposed as a solution for this problem. The system collects the available signals information from sensors. Moreover, the system allows the study of the influence of the various factors that take part in the decision system. Since its inception fuzzy set theory has been regarded as a formalism suitable to deal with the imprecision intrinsic to many problems. At the same time, fuzzy sets allow to use symbolic models. In this study an example was applied for resolving variety of physiological parameters that define human health state. The application system was done for medical diagnosis help. The inputs are the signals expressed the cardiovascular system parameters, blood pressure, Respiratory system paramsystem was done, it will be able to predict the state of patient according any input values.

Keywords: Sensors, Sensivity, fuzzy logic, analysis, physiological parameters, medical diagnosis.

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13 Highly Sensitive Label Free Biosensor for Tumor Necrosis Factor

Authors: Tze Sian Pui, Tushar Bansal, Patthara Kongsuphol, Sunil K. Arya

Abstract:

We present a label-free biosensor based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for the detection of proinflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α). Secretion of TNF-α has been correlated to the onset of various diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn-s disease etc. Gold electrodes were patterned on a silicon substrate and self assembled monolayer of dithiobis-succinimidyl propionate was used to develop the biosensor which achieved a detection limit of ~57fM. A linear relationship was also observed between increasing TNF-α concentrations and chargetransfer resistance within a dynamic range of 1pg/ml – 1ng/ml.

Keywords: Tumor necrosis factor, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, label free, self assembled monolayer

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12 Modeling of Sensitivity for SPR Biosensors- New Aspects

Authors: Volodymyr Chegel

Abstract:

The computer modeling is carried out for parameter of sensitivity of optoelectronic chemical and biosensors, using phenomena of surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The physical model of SPR-sensor-s is described with (or without) of modifications of sensitive gold film surface by a dielectric layer. The variants of increasing of sensitivity for SPR-biosensors, constructed on the principle gold – dielectric – biomolecular layer are considered. Two methods of mathematical treatment of SPR-curve are compared – traditional, with estimation of sensor-s response as shift of the SPRcurve minimum and proposed, for system with dielectric layer, using calculating of the derivative in the point of SPR-curve half-width.

Keywords: Surface Plasmon Resonance, modeling, sensitivity, biosensor

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11 Biosensor Measurement of Urea Coonncentration in Human Blood Serum

Authors: O. L. Kukla, S. V. Marchenko, O. A. Zinchenko, O. S. Pavluchenko, O. M. KKuukla, S. V. Dzyadevych, O. P. Soldatkin

Abstract:

An application of the highly biosensor based on pH-sensitive field immobilized urease for urea analysis was demo The main analytical characteristics of the bios determined; the conditions of urea measureme blood were optimized. A conceptual possibility biosensor for detection of urea concentratio patients suffering from renal insufficiency was sensitive and selective effect transistor and monstrated in this work. iosensor developed were ment in real samples of ility of application of the tion in blood serum of as shown.

Keywords: Biosensor, blood serum, pH transistor, urea, urease, field-effect

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10 Electrophoretic Motion of a Liquid Droplet within an Uncharged Cylindrical Pore

Authors: Cheng-Hsuan Huang, Eric Lee

Abstract:

Electrophoretic motion of a liquid droplet within an uncharged cylindrical pore is investigated theoretically in this study. It is found that the boundary effect in terms of the reduction of droplet mobility (droplet velocity per unit strength of the applied electric field) is very significant when the double layer surrounding the droplet is thick, and diminishes as it gets very thin. Moreover, the viscosity ratio of the ambient fluid to the internal one, σ, is a crucial factor in determining its electrophoretic behavior. The boundary effect is less significant as the viscosity ratio gets high. Up to 70% mobility reduction is observed when this ratio is low (σ = 0.01), whereas only 40% reduction when it is high (σ = 100). The results of this study can be utilized in various fields of biotechnology, such as a biosensor or a lab-on-a-chip device.

Keywords: Cylindrical pore, Electrophoresis, Lab-on-a-chip, Liquid droplet

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9 Variable Input Range Continuous-time Switched Current Delta-sigma Analog Digital Converter for RFID CMOS Biosensor Applications

Authors: Boram Kim, Shigeyasu Uno, Kazuo Nakazato

Abstract:

Continuous-time delta-sigma analog digital converter (ADC) for radio frequency identification (RFID) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) biosensor has been reported. This delta-sigma ADC is suitable for digital conversion of biosensor signal because of small process variation, and variable input range. As the input range of continuous-time switched current delta-sigma ADC (Dynamic range : 50 dB) can be limited by using current reference, amplification of biosensor signal is unnecessary. The input range is switched to wide input range mode or narrow input range mode by command of current reference. When the narrow input range mode, the input range becomes ± 0.8 V. The measured power consumption is 5 mW and chip area is 0.31 mm^2 using 1.2 um standard CMOS process. Additionally, automatic input range detecting system is proposed because of RFID biosensor applications.

Keywords: continuous time, delta sigma, A/D converter, RFID, biosensor, CMOS

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8 Electrical Characteristics of Biomodified Electrodes using Nonfaradaic Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

Authors: Yusmeeraz Yusof, Yoshiyuki Yanagimoto, Shigeyasu Uno, Kazuo Nakazato

Abstract:

We demonstrate a nonfaradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement of biochemically modified gold plated electrodes using a two-electrode system. The absence of any redox indicator in the impedance measurements provide more precise and accurate characterization of the measured bioanalyte at molecular resolution. An equivalent electrical circuit of the electrodeelectrolyte interface was deduced from the observed impedance data of saline solution at low and high concentrations. The detection of biomolecular interactions was fundamentally correlated to electrical double-layer variation at modified interface. The investigations were done using 20mer deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strands without any label. Surface modification was performed by creating mixed monolayer of the thiol-modified single-stranded DNA and a spacer thiol (mercaptohexanol) by a two-step self-assembly method. The results clearly distinguish between the noncomplementary and complementary hybridization of DNA, at low frequency region below several hundreds Hertz.

Keywords: Biosensor, electrical double-layer, impedance spectroscopy, label free DNA.

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7 Profile Controlled Gold Nanostructures Fabricated by Nanosphere Lithography for Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance

Authors: Xiaodong Zhou, Nan Zhang

Abstract:

Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is the coherent oscillation of conductive electrons confined in noble metallic nanoparticles excited by electromagnetic radiation, and nanosphere lithography (NSL) is one of the cost-effective methods to fabricate metal nanostructures for LSPR. NSL can be categorized into two major groups: dispersed NSL and closely pack NSL. In recent years, gold nanocrescents and gold nanoholes with vertical sidewalls fabricated by dispersed NSL, and silver nanotriangles and gold nanocaps on silica nanospheres fabricated by closely pack NSL, have been reported for LSPR biosensing. This paper introduces several novel gold nanostructures fabricated by NSL in LSPR applications, including 3D nanostructures obtained by evaporating gold obliquely on dispersed nanospheres, nanoholes with slant sidewalls, and patchy nanoparticles on closely packed nanospheres, all of which render satisfactory sensitivity for LSPR sensing. Since the LSPR spectrum is very sensitive to the shape of the metal nanostructures, formulas are derived and software is developed for calculating the profiles of the obtainable metal nanostructures by NSL, for different nanosphere masks with different fabrication conditions. The simulated profiles coincide well with the profiles of the fabricated gold nanostructures observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM), which proves that the software is a useful tool for the process design of different LSPR nanostructures.

Keywords: Nanosphere lithography, localized surface plasmonresonance, biosensor, simulation.

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6 Inductance Characteristic of Annealed Titanium Dioxide on Silicon Substrate

Authors: Chih Chin Yang, Lan Hui Huang, Bo Shum Chen, Jia Liang Ke, Chung Lun Tsai

Abstract:

The control of oxygen flow rate during growth of titanium dioxide by mass flow controller in DC plasma sputtering growth system is studied. The impedance of TiO2 films for inductance effect is influenced by annealing time and oxygen flow rate. As annealing time is increased, the inductance of TiO2 film is the more. The growth condition of optimum and maximum inductance for TiO2 film to serve as sensing device are oxygen flow rate of 15 sccm and large annealing time. The large inductance of TiO2 film will be adopted to fabricate the biosensor to obtain the high sensitivity of sensing in biology.

Keywords: Annealed, Inductance, Silicon substarte, Titanium dioxide

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5 Comparison of Different Advanced Oxidation Processes for Degrading 4-Chlorophenol

Authors: M.D. Murcia, M. Gomez, E. Gomez, J.L. Gomez, N. Christofi

Abstract:

The removal efficiency of 4-chlorophenol with different advanced oxidation processes have been studied. Oxidation experiments were carried out using two 4-chlorophenol concentrations: 100 mg L-1 and 250 mg L-1 and UV generated from a KrCl excilamp with (molar ratio H2O2: 4-chlorophenol = 25:1) and without H2O2, and, with Fenton process (molar ratio H2O2:4- chlorophenol of 25:1 and Fe2+ concentration of 5 mg L-1). The results show that there is no significant difference in the 4- chlorophenol conversion when using one of the three assayed methods. However, significant concentrations of the photoproductos still remained in the media when the chosen treatment involves UV without hydrogen peroxide. Fenton process removed all the intermediate photoproducts except for the hydroquinone and the 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene. In the case of UV and hydrogen peroxide all the intermediate photoproducts are removed. Microbial bioassays were carried out utilising the naturally luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and a genetically modified Pseudomonas putida isolated from a waste treatment plant receiving phenolic waste. The results using V. fischeri show that with samples after degradation, only the UV treatment showed toxicity (IC50 =38) whereas with H2O2 and Fenton reactions the samples exhibited no toxicity after treatment in the range of concentrations studied. Using the Pseudomonas putida biosensor no toxicity could be detected for all the samples following treatment due to the higher tolerance of the organism to phenol concentrations encountered.

Keywords: 4-chlorophenol, Fenton, photodegradation, UV, excilamp.

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