Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 86

Search results for: Microwave

86 Produced Gas Conversion of Microwave Carbon Receptor Reforming

Authors: Young Nam Chun, Mun Sup Lim

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide and methane, the major components of biomass pyrolysis/gasification gas and biogas, top the list of substances that cause climate change, but they are also among the most important renewable energy sources in modern society. The purpose of this study is to convert carbon dioxide and methane into high-quality energy using char and commercial activated carbon obtained from biomass pyrolysis as a microwave receptor. The methane reforming process produces hydrogen and carbon. This carbon is deposited in the pores of the microwave receptor and lowers catalytic activity, thereby reducing the methane conversion rate. The deposited carbon was removed by carbon gasification due to the supply of carbon dioxide, which solved the problem of microwave receptor inactivity. In particular, the conversion rate remained stable at over 90% when the ratio of carbon dioxide to methane was 1:1. When the reforming results of carbon dioxide and methane were compared after fabricating nickel and iron catalysts using commercial activated carbon as a carrier, the conversion rate was higher in the iron catalyst than in the nickel catalyst and when no catalyst was used. 

Keywords: Microwave, gas reforming, greenhouse gas, microwave receptor, catalyst.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
85 Accelerated Microwave Extraction of Natural Product using the Cryogrinding

Authors: F. Benkaci-Ali, R. Mekaoui, G. Eppe, E. De Pau, J. F. Faucont

Abstract:

Team distillation assisted by microwave extraction (SDAM) considered as accelerated technique extraction is a combination of microwave heating and steam distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure. SDAM has been compared with the same technique coupled with the cryogrinding of seeds (SDAM -CG). Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage for the extraction of essential oil from Cuminum cyminum seeds. The essential oils extracted by these two methods for 5 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) no similar. These methods yield an essential oil with higher amounts of more valuable oxygenated compounds, and allow substantial savings of costs, in terms of time, energy and plant material. SDAM and SDAM-CG is a green technology and appears as a good alternative for the extraction of essential oils from aromatic plants.

Keywords: Steam distillation, microwave extraction, Cuminum cyminum, chromatography, mass spectrometry

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
84 Microwave Dehydration Behavior of Admontite Mineral at 360W

Authors: E. Moroydor Derun, F. T. Senberber, A. S. Kipcak, N. Tugrul, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Dehydration behavior gives a hint about thermal properties of materials. It is important for the usage areas and transportation of minerals. Magnesium borates can be used as additive materials in areas such as in the production of superconducting materials, in the composition of detergents, due to the content of boron in the friction-reducing additives in oils and insulating coating compositions due to their good mechanic and thermal properties. In this study, thermal dehydration behavior of admontite (MgO(B2O3)3.7(H2O)), which is a kind of magnesium borate mineral, is experimented by microwave energy at 360W. Structure of admontite is suitable for the investigation of dehydration behavior by microwave because of its seven moles of crystal water. It is seen that admontite lost its 28.7% of weight at the end of the 120 minutes heating in microwave furnace. 

Keywords: Admontite, dehydration, magnesium borate, microwave.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
83 Design the Bowtie Antenna for the Detection of the Tumor in Microwave Tomography

Authors: Muhammd Hassan Khalil, Xu Jiadong

Abstract:

Early breast cancer detection is an emerging field of research as it can save the women infected by malignant tumors. Microwave breast imaging is based on the electrical property contrast between healthy and malignant tumor. This contrast can be detected by use of microwave energy with an array of antennas that illuminate the breast through coupling medium and by measuring the scattered fields. In this paper, author has been presented the design and simulation results of the bowtie antenna. This bowtie antenna is designed for the detection of breast cancer detection.

Keywords: Breast cancer detection, Microwave Imaging, Tomography.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
82 Magnesium Borate Synthesis by Microwave Method Using MgCl2.6H2O and H3BO3

Authors: A. S. Kipcak, P. Gurses, K. Kunt, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin

Abstract:

There are many kinds of metal borates found not only in nature but also synthesized in the laboratory such as magnesium borates. Due to its excellent properties, as remarkable ceramic materials, they have also application areas in anti-wear and friction reducing additives as well as electro-conductive treating agents. The synthesis of magnesium borate powders can be fulfilled simply with two different methods, hydrothermal and thermal synthesis. Microwave assisted method, also another way of producing magnesium borate, can be classified into thermal synthesis because of using the principles of solid state synthesis. It also contributes producing particles with small size and high purity in nano-size material synthesize. In this study the production of magnesium borates, are aimed using MgCl2.6H2O and H3BO3. The identification of both starting materials and products were made by the equipments of, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). After several synthesis steps magnesium borates were synthesized and characterized by XRD and FT-IR, as well.

Keywords: FT-IR, magnesium borates, microwave method, XRD.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
81 Synthesis of Mg/B Containing Compound in a Modified Microwave Oven

Authors: Gülşah Çelik Gül, Figen Kurtuluş

Abstract:

Magnesium containing boron compounds with hexagonal structure have been drawn much attention due to their superconductive nature. The main target of this work is new modified microwave oven by on our own has an ability about passing through a gas in the oven medium for attainment of oxygen-free compounds such as c-BN.  Mg containing boride was synthesized by modified-microwave method under nitrogen atmosphere using amorphous boron and magnesium source in appropriate molar ratio. Microwave oven with oxygen free environment has been modified to aimed to obtain magnesium boride without oxygen. Characterizations were done by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Mg containing boride, generally named magnesium boride, with amorphous character without oxygen is obtained via designed microwave oven system.

Keywords: Magnesium containing boron compounds, modified microwave synthesis, powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
80 The Effect of the Reaction Time on the Microwave Synthesis of Magnesium Borates from MgCl2.6H2O, MgO and H3BO3

Authors: E. Moroydor Derun, P. Gurses, M. Yildirim, A. S. Kipcak, T. Ibroska, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Due to their strong mechanical and thermal properties magnesium borates have a wide usage area such as ceramic industry, detergent production, friction reducing additive and grease production. In this study, microwave synthesis of magnesium borates from MgCl2.6H2O (Magnesium chloride hexahydrate), MgO (Magnesium oxide) and H3BO3 (Boric acid) for different reaction times is researched. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy are used to find out how the reaction time sways on the products. The superficial properties are investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). According to XRD analysis, the synthesized compounds are 00-041-1407 pdf coded Shabinite (Mg5(BO3)4Cl2(OH)5.4(H2O)) and 01-073-2158 pdf coded Karlite (Mg7(BO3)3(OH,Cl)5).

Keywords: Magnesium borate, microwave synthesis, XRD, SEM.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
79 Optical Characterization of a Microwave Plasma Torch for Hydrogen Production

Authors: Babajide O. Ogungbesan, Rajneesh Kumar, Mohamed Sassi

Abstract:

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a very toxic gas that is produced in very large quantities in the oil and gas industry. It cannot be flared to the atmosphere and Claus process based gas plants are used to recover the sulfur and convert the hydrogen to water. In this paper, we present optical characterization of an atmospheric pressure microwave plasma torch for H2S dissociation into hydrogen and sulfur. The torch is operated at 2.45 GHz with power up to 2 kW. Three different gases can simultaneously be injected in the plasma torch. Visual imaging and optical emission spectroscopy are used to characterize the plasma for varying gas flow rates and microwave power. The plasma length, emission spectra and temperature are presented. The obtained experimental results validate our earlier published simulation results of plasma torch.

Keywords: Atmospheric pressure microwave plasma, gas dissociation, optical emission spectroscopy.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
78 Microwave-Assisted Fabrication of Visible-Light Activated BiOBr-Nanoplate Photocatalyst

Authors: Meichen Lee, Michael K. H. Leung

Abstract:

In recent years, visible-light activated photocatalysis has become a major field of intense researches for the higher efficiency of solar energy utilizations. Many attempts have been made on the modification of wide band gap semiconductors, while more and more efforts emphasize on cost-effective synthesis of visible-light activated catalysts. In this work, BiOBr nanoplates with band gap of visible-light range are synthesized through a promising microwave solvothermal method. The treatment time period and temperature dependent BiOBr nanosheets of various particle sizes are investigated through SEM. BiOBr synthesized under the condition of 160°C for 60 mins shows the most uniform particle sizes around 311 nm and the highest surface-to-volume ratio on account of its smallest average particle sizes compared with others. It exhibits the best photocatalytic behavior among all samples in RhB degradation.

Keywords: Microwave solvothermal process, nanoplates, solar energy, visible-light photocatalysis.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
77 Effects of Microwave Heating on Biogas Production, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Volatile Solids Solubilization of Food Residues

Authors: Ackmez Mudhoo, Pravish Rye Moorateeah, Romeela Mohee

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of the preliminary investigation of microwave (MW) irradiation pretreatments on the anaerobic digestion of food residues using biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays. Low solids systems with a total solids (TS) content ranging from 5.0-10.0% were analyzed. The inoculum to bulk mass of substrates to water ratio was 1:2:2 (mass basis). The experimental conditions for pretreatments were as follows: a control (no MW irradiation), two runs with MW irradiation for 15 and 30 minutes at 320 W, and another two runs with MW irradiation at 528 W for 30 and 60 minutes. The cumulative biogas production were 6.3 L and 8.7 L for 15min/320 W and 30min/320 W MW irradiation conditions, respectively, and 10.5 L and 11.4 L biogas for 30min/528 W and 60min/528 W, respectively, as compared to the control giving 5.8 L biogas. Both an increase in exposure time of irradiation and power of MW had increased the rate and yield of biogas. Singlefactor ANOVA tests (p<0.05) indicated that the variations in VS, TS, COD and cumulative biogas generation were significantly different for the pretreatment conditions. Results from this study indicated that MW irradiation had enhanced the biogas production and degradation of total solids with a significant improvement in VS and COD solubilization.

Keywords: microwave irradiation, pretreatment, anaerobic digestion, food residues.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
76 Microwave Sintering and Its Application on Cemented Carbides

Authors: Rumman Md Raihanuzzaman, Lee Chang Chuan, Zonghan Xie, Reza Ghomashchi

Abstract:

Cemented carbides, owing to their excellent mechanical properties, have been of immense interest in the field of hard materials for the past few decades. A number of processing techniques have been developed to obtain high quality carbide tools, with a wide range of grain size depending on the application and requirements. Microwave sintering is one of the heating processes, which has been used to prepare a wide range of materials including ceramics. A deep understanding of microwave sintering and its contribution towards control of grain growth and on deformation of the resulting carbide materials requires further studies and attention. In addition, the effect of binder materials and their behavior during microwave sintering is another area that requires clear understanding. This review aims to focus on microwave sintering, providing information of how the process works and what type of materials it is best suited for. In addition, a closer look at some microwave sintered Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt samples will be taken and discussed, highlighting some of the key issues and challenges faced in this research area.

Keywords: Cemented carbides, consolidation, microwave sintering, mechanical properties.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
75 Coaxial Helix Antenna for Microwave Coagulation Therapy in Liver Tissue Simulations

Authors: M. Chaichanyut, S. Tungjitkusolmun

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with microwave (MW) ablation for a liver cancer tissue by using helix antenna. The antenna structure supports the propagation of microwave energy at 2.45 GHz. A 1½ turn spiral catheter-based microwave antenna applicator has been developed. We utilize the three-dimensional finite element method (3D FEM) simulation to analyze where the tissue heat flux, lesion pattern and volume destruction during MW ablation. The configurations of helix antenna where Helix air-core antenna and Helix Dielectric-core antenna. The 3D FEMs solutions were based on Maxwell and bio-heat equations. The simulation protocol was power control (10 W, 300s). Our simulation result, both helix antennas have heat flux occurred around the helix antenna and that can be induced the temperature distribution similar (teardrop). The region where the temperature exceeds 50°C the microwave ablation was successful (i.e. complete destruction). The Helix air-core antenna and Helix Dielectric-core antenna, ablation zone or axial ratios (Widest/length) were respectively 0.82 and 0.85; the complete destructions were respectively 4.18 cm3 and 5.64 cm3

Keywords: Liver cancer, Helix antenna, Finite element, Microwave ablation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
74 Numerical Simulation of Heating Characteristics in a Microwave T-Prong Antenna for Cancer Therapy

Authors: M. Chaichanyut, S. Tungjitkusolmun

Abstract:

This research is presented with microwave (MW) ablation by using the T-Prong monopole antennas. In the study, three-dimensional (3D) finite-element methods (FEM) were utilized to analyse: the tissue heat flux, temperature distributions (heating pattern) and volume destruction during MW ablation in liver cancer tissue. The configurations of T-Prong monopole antennas were considered: Three T-prong antenna, Expand T-Prong antenna and Arrow T-Prong antenna. The 3D FEMs solutions were based on Maxwell and bio-heat equations. The microwave power deliveries were 10 W; the duration of ablation in all cases was 300s. Our numerical result, heat flux and the hotspot occurred at the tip of the T-prong antenna for all cases. The temperature distribution pattern of all antennas was teardrop. The Arrow T-Prong antenna can induce the highest temperature within cancer tissue. The microwave ablation was successful when the region where the temperatures exceed 50°C (i.e. complete destruction). The Expand T-Prong antenna could complete destruction the liver cancer tissue was maximized (6.05 cm3). The ablation pattern or axial ratio (Widest/length) of Expand T-Prong antenna and Arrow T-Prong antenna was 1, but the axial ratio of Three T-prong antenna of about 1.15.

Keywords: Liver cancer, T-Prong antenna, Finite element, Microwave ablation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
73 Microwave Imaging by Application of Information Theory Criteria in MUSIC Algorithm

Authors: M. Pourahmadi

Abstract:

The performance of time-reversal MUSIC algorithm will be dramatically degrades in presence of strong noise and multiple scattering (i.e. when scatterers are close to each other). This is due to error in determining the number of scatterers. The present paper provides a new approach to alleviate such a problem using an information theoretic criterion referred as minimum description length (MDL). The merits of the novel approach are confirmed by the numerical examples. The results indicate the time-reversal MUSIC yields accurate estimate of the target locations with considerable noise and multiple scattering in the received signals.

Keywords: Microwave imaging, Time reversal, MUSIC algorithm, Minimum Description Length (MDL).

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
72 Microwave Pretreatment of Seeds to Extract High Quality Vegetable Oil

Authors: S. Azadmard-Damirchi, K. Alirezalu, B. Fathi Achachlouei

Abstract:

Microwave energy is a superior alternative to several other thermal treatments. Extraction techniques are widely employed for the isolation of bioactive compounds and vegetable oils from oil seeds. Among the different and new available techniques, microwave pretreatment of seeds is a simple and desirable method for production of high quality vegetable oils. Microwave pretreatment for oil extraction has many advantages as follow: improving oil extraction yield and quality, direct extraction capability, lower energy consumption, faster processing time and reduced solvent levels compared with conventional methods. It allows also for better retention and availability of desirable nutraceuticals, such as phytosterols and tocopherols, canolol and phenolic compounds in the extracted oil such as rapeseed oil. This can be a new step to produce nutritional vegetable oils with improved shelf life because of high antioxidant content.

Keywords: Microwave pretreatment, vegetable oil extraction, nutraceuticals, oil quality

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
71 Electrostatic and Dielectric Measurements for Hair Building Fibers from DC to Microwave Frequencies

Authors: K. Y. You, Y. L. Then

Abstract:

In recent years, the hair building fiber has become popular, in other words, it is an effective method which helps people who suffer hair loss or sparse hair since the hair building fiber is capable to create a natural look of simulated hair rapidly. In the markets, there are a lot of hair fiber brands that have been designed to formulate an intense bond with hair strands and make the hair appear more voluminous instantly. However, those products have their own set of properties. Thus, in this report, some measurement techniques are proposed to identify those products. Up to five different brands of hair fiber are tested. The electrostatic and dielectric properties of the hair fibers are macroscopically tested using design DC and high frequency microwave techniques. Besides, the hair fibers are microscopically analysis by magnifying the structures of the fiber using scanning electron microscope (SEM). From the SEM photos, the comparison of the uniformly shaped and broken rate of the hair fibers in the different bulk samples can be observed respectively.

Keywords: Hair fiber, electrostatic, dielectric properties, broken rate, microwave techniques.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
70 A Tuning Method for Microwave Filter via Complex Neural Network and Improved Space Mapping

Authors: Shengbiao Wu, Weihua Cao, Min Wu, Can Liu

Abstract:

This paper presents an intelligent tuning method of microwave filter based on complex neural network and improved space mapping. The tuning process consists of two stages: the initial tuning and the fine tuning. At the beginning of the tuning, the return loss of the filter is transferred to the passband via the error of phase. During the fine tuning, the phase shift caused by the transmission line and the higher order mode is removed by the curve fitting. Then, an Cauchy method based on the admittance parameter (Y-parameter) is used to extract the coupling matrix. The influence of the resonant cavity loss is eliminated during the parameter extraction process. By using processed data pairs (the amount of screw variation and the variation of the coupling matrix), a tuning model is established by the complex neural network. In view of the improved space mapping algorithm, the mapping relationship between the actual model and the ideal model is established, and the amplitude and direction of the tuning is constantly updated. Finally, the tuning experiment of the eight order coaxial cavity filter shows that the proposed method has a good effect in tuning time and tuning precision.

Keywords: Microwave filter, scattering parameter (s-parameter), coupling matrix, intelligent tuning.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
69 Microwave Plasma Dry Reforming of Methane at High CO2/CH4 Feed Ratio

Authors: Nabil Majd Alawi, Gia Hung Pham, Ahmed Barifcani

Abstract:

Dry reforming of methane that converts two greenhouses gases (CH4 and CO2) to synthesis gas (a mixture of H2 and CO) was studied in a commercial bench scale microwave (MW) plasma reactor system at atmospheric pressure. The CO2, CH4 and N2 conversions; H2, CO selectivities and yields, and syngas ratio (H2/CO) were investigated in a wide range of total feed flow rate (0.45 – 2.1 L/min), MW power (700 – 1200 watt) and CO2/CH4 molar ratio (2 – 5). At the feed flow rates of CH4, CO2 and N2 of 0.2, 0.4 and 1.5 L/min respectively, and the MWs input power of 700 W, the highest conversions of CH4 and CO2, selectivity and yield of H2, CO and H2/CO ratio of 79.35%, 44.82%, 50.12, 58.42, 39.77%, 32.89%, and 0.86, respectively, were achieved. The results of this work show that the product ratio increases slightly with the increasing total feed flow rate, but it decreases significantly with the increasing MW power and feeds CO2/CH4 ratio.

Keywords: Atmospheric pressure, methane dry reforming, microwave plasma, synthesis gas production.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
68 Transesterification of Jojoba Oil-Wax Using Microwave Technique

Authors: Labiba I. Hussein, Maher Z. Elsabee, Eid A. Ismail, Hala F. Naguib, Hilda A. Aziz, Moataz A. Elsawy

Abstract:

Jojoba oil-wax is extracted from the seeds of the jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis Link Schneider), a perennial shrub that grows in semi desert areas in Egypt and in some parts of the world. The main uses of jojoba oil-wax are in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, but new uses could arise related to the search of new energetic crops. This paper summarizes a process to convert the jojoba oil-wax to biodiesel by transesterification with ethanol and a series of aliphatic alcohols using a more economic and energy saving method in a domestic microwave. The effect of time and power of the microwave on the extent of the transesterification using ethanol and other aliphatic alcohols has been studied. The separation of the alkyl esters from the fatty alcohols rich fraction has been done in a single crystallization step at low temperature (−18°C) from low boiling point petroleum ether. Gas chromatography has been used to follow up the transesterification process. All products have been characterized by spectral analysis.

Keywords: Jojoba oil, transesterification, microwave, gas chromatography jojoba esters, Jojoba alcohol.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
67 Determination of Moisture Content and Liquid Limit of Foundations Soils, using Microwave Radiation, in the Different Locations of Sulaimani Governorate, Kurdistan Region-Iraq

Authors: Heyam Daod

Abstract:

Soils are normally dried in either a convection oven or stove. Laboratory moisture content testing indicated that the typical drying durations for a convection oven were, 24 hours. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and soil drying duration of both, moisture content and liquid limit using microwave radiation. The soils were tested with both, convection and microwave ovens. The convection oven was considered to produce the true values for both, natural moisture content and liquid limit of soils; it was, therefore, used as a basis for comparison for the results of the microwave ovens. The samples used in this study were obtained from different projects of Consulting Engineering Bureau of College of Engineering of Sulaimani University. These samples were collected from different locations and at the different depths and consist mostly of brown and light brown clay and silty clay. A total of 102 samples were prepared. 26 of them were tested for natural moisture determination, while the other 76 were used for liquid limits determination

Keywords: Fine-grained soils, liquid limit, microwave drying,

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
66 Microwave Assisted Solvent-Free Catalytic Transesterification of Glycerol to Glycerol Carbonate

Authors: Wai Keng Teng, Gek Cheng Ngoh, Rozita Yusoff, Mohamed Kheireddine Aroua, Joe Shen Heng

Abstract:

As a by-product of the biodiesel industries, glycerol has been vastly generated which surpasses the market demand. It is imperative to develop an efficient glycerol valorization processes in minimizing the net energy requirement and intensifying the biodiesel production. In this study, base-catalyzed transesterification of glycerol with dimethyl carbonate using microwave irradiation as heating method to produce glycerol carbonate was conducted by varying grades of glycerol, i.e. 70%, 86% and 99% purity, that is obtained from biodiesel plant. Metal oxide catalysts were used with varying operating parameters including reaction time, DMC/glycerol molar ratio, catalyst weight %, temperature and stirring speed. From the study on the effect of different operating parameters it was found that the type of catalyst used has the most significant effect on the transesterification reaction. Amidst the metal oxide catalysts examined, CaO gave the best performance. This study indicates the feasibility of producing glycerol carbonate using different grade of glycerol in both conventional thermal activation and microwave irradiation with CaO as catalyst. Microwave assisted transesterification (MAT) of glycerol into glycerol carbonate has demonstrated itself as an energy efficient route by achieving 94.2% yield of GC at 65°C, 5 minutes reaction time, 1 wt% CaO and DMC/glycerol molar ratio of 2. The advantages of MAT transesterification route has made the direct utilization of bioglycerol from biodiesel production without the need of purification. This has marked a more economical and less-energy intensive glycerol carbonate synthesis route.

Keywords: Biodiesel, glycerol, glycerol carbonate, microwave irradiation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
65 Drying of Papaya (Carica papaya L.) Using a Microwave-vacuum Dryer

Authors: Kraipat Cheenkachorn, Piyawat Jintanatham, Sarun Rattanaprapa

Abstract:

In present work, drying characteristics of fresh papaya (Carica papaya L.) was studied to understand the dehydration process and its behavior. Drying experiments were carried out by a laboratory scaled microwave-vacuum oven. The parameters affecting drying characteristics including operating modes (continuous, pulsed), microwave power (400 and 800 W), and vacuum pressure (20, 30, and 40 cmHg) were investigated. For pulsed mode, two levels of power-off time (60 and 120 s) were used while the power-on time was fixed at 60 s and the vacuum pressure was fixed at 40 cmHg. For both operating modes, the effects of drying conditions on drying time, drying rate, and effective diffusivity were investigated. The results showed high microwave power, high vacuum, and pulsed mode of 60 s-on/60 s-off favored drying rate as shown by the shorten drying time and increased effective diffusivity. The drying characteristics were then described by Page-s model, which showed a good agreement with experimental data.

Keywords: papaya, microwave-vacuum drying, effective diffusivity, Page's model

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
64 Optimization of Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.) Fruit Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Ivana T. Karabegović, Saša S. Stojičević, Dragan T. Veličković, Nada Č. Nikolić, Miodrag L. Lazić

Abstract:

Optimization of a microwave-assisted extraction of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) fruit using methanol was studied. The influence of process parameters (microwave power, plant material-to-solvent ratio and the extraction time) on the extraction efficiency were optimized by using response surface methodology. The predicted maximum yield of extractive substances (41.85 g/100 g fresh plant material) was obtained at microwave power of 600 W and plant material to solvent ratio of 0.2 g/cm3 after 26 minutes of extraction, while a mean value of 40.80±0.41 g/100 g fresh plant material was obtained from laboratory experiments. This proves applicability of the model in predicting optimal extraction conditions with minimal laborious and time consuming. The results indicated that all process parameters were effective on the extraction efficiency, while the most important factor was extraction time. In order to rationalize production the optimal economical condition which gave a large total extract yield with minimal energy and solvent consumption was found.

Keywords: Cherry laurel, Extraction, Multiple regression modeling, Microwave.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
63 Synthesis of Magnesium Borates from the Slurries of Magnesium Wastes by Microwave Energy

Authors: N. Tugrul, F. T. Senberber, A. S. Kipcak E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin

Abstract:

In this research, it is aimed not only microwave synthesis of magnesium borates but also evaluation of magnesium wastes. Synthesis process can be described with the reaction of Mg wastes and boric acid using microwave energy. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) were applied to synthesized minerals. According to XRD results, magnesium borate hydrate mixtures were obtained as mcallisterite (pdf# = 01-070-1902, Mg2(B6O7(OH)6)2.9(H2O)) at higher crystallinity properties was achieved at the mole ratio raw material 1:1. Also, other kinds of magnesium borate hydrates were obtained at lower crystallinity such as admontite (pdf # = 01-076-0540, MgO(B2O3)3.7(H2O)), inderite (pdf # = 01-072-2308, 2MgO.3B2O3.15(H2O)) and magnesium borate hydrates (pdf # = 01-076-0539, MgO(B2O3)3.6(H2O)). FT-IR spectrums indicated that minor changes were seen at the band values of characteristic stretching in each experiment. At the end of experiments it is seen that using microwave energy may contribute positive effects to design of synthesis process such as reducing reaction time and products at higher crystallinity.

Keywords: Magnesium wastes, boric acid, magnesium borate, microwave energy.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
62 Demulsification of Water-in-Oil Emulsions by Microwave Heating Technology

Authors: Abdurahman H. Nour, Rosli M. Yunus, Azhary. H. Nour

Abstract:

The mechanism of microwave heating is essentially that of dielectric heating. After exposing the emulsion to the microwave Electromagnetic (EM) field, molecular rotation and ionic conduction due to the penetration of (EM) into the emulsion are responsible for the internal heating. To determine the capability of microwave technology in demulsification of crude oil emulsions, microwave demulsification method was applied in a 50-50 % and 20- 80 % water-in-oil emulsions with microwave exposure time varied from 20-180 sec. Transient temperature profiles of water-in-oil emulsions inside a cylindrical container were measured. The temperature rise at a given location was almost horizontal (linear). The average rates of temperature increase of 50-50 % and 20-80 % water-in-oil emulsions are 0.351 and 0.437 oC/sec, respectively. The rate of temperature increase of emulsions decreased at higher temperature due to decreasing dielectric loss of water. These results indicate that microwave demulsification of water-in-oil emulsions does not require chemical additions. Microwave has the potential to be used as an alternative way in the demulsification process.

Keywords: Demulsification, temperature profile, emulsion.Microwave heating, dielectric, volume rate.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
61 Classification of State Transition by Using a Microwave Doppler Sensor for Wandering Detection

Authors: K. Shiba, T. Kaburagi, Y. Kurihara

Abstract:

With global aging, people who require care, such as people with dementia (PwD), are increasing within many developed countries. And PwDs may wander and unconsciously set foot outdoors, it may lead serious accidents, such as, traffic accidents. Here, round-the-clock monitoring by caregivers is necessary, which can be a burden for the caregivers. Therefore, an automatic wandering detection system is required when an elderly person wanders outdoors, in which case the detection system transmits a ‘moving’ followed by an ‘absence’ state. In this paper, we focus on the transition from the ‘resting’ to the ‘absence’ state, via the ‘moving’ state as one of the wandering transitions. To capture the transition of the three states, our method based on the hidden Markov model (HMM) is built. Using our method, the restraint where the ‘resting’ state and ‘absence’ state cannot be transmitted to each other is applied. To validate our method, we conducted the experiment with 10 subjects. Our results show that the method can classify three states with 0.92 accuracy.

Keywords: Wander, microwave Doppler sensor, respiratory frequency band, the state transition, hidden Markov model.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
60 The Suitability of Potato Cultivars in Production of Chips and Sticks by Using Microwave-Vacuum Drier

Authors: Solvita Kampuse, Kristaps Siljanis, Tatjana Rakcejeva, Irisa Murniece

Abstract:

The aim of present experiment was to evaluate the influence of cultivar to quality parameters of dried potato chips and sticks produced in microwave-vacuum drier. The potatoes before drying were blanched in oil and water at 180ºC and at 85ºC respectively. The moisture content, crispiness, the colour (CIE L*a*b*), the content of ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and total fat content of dried potato chips and sticks was determined The highest ascorbic acid content, high content of carotenoids, low total fat content, low acrylamide content and good crispiness (low breaking force) especially for sticks was determined in the samples of Gundega cultivar.

Keywords: Potato, chips, sticks, vacuum-microwave, drying, cultivar, blanching.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
59 The Effect of Choke on the Efficiency of Coaxial Antenna for Percutaneous Microwave Coagulation Therapy for Hepatic Tumor

Authors: Surita Maini

Abstract:

There are many perceived advantages of microwave ablation have driven researchers to develop innovative antennas to effectively treat deep-seated, non-resectable hepatic tumors. In this paper a coaxial antenna with a miniaturized sleeve choke has been discussed for microwave interstitial ablation therapy, in order to reduce backward heating effects irrespective of the insertion depth into the tissue. Two dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to simulate and measure the results of miniaturized sleeve choke antenna. This paper emphasizes the importance of factors that can affect simulation accuracy, which include mesh resolution, surface heating and reflection coefficient. Quarter wavelength choke effectiveness has been discussed by comparing it with the unchoked antenna with same dimensions.

Keywords: Microwave ablation, tumor, Finite Element Method, Coaxial slot antenna, Coaxial dipole antenna.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
58 Numerical Analysis of All-Optical Microwave Mixing and Bandpass Filtering in an RoF Link

Authors: S. Khosroabadi, M. R. Salehi

Abstract:

In this paper, all-optical signal processors that perform both microwave mixing and bandpass filtering in a radio-over-fiber (RoF) link are presented. The key device is a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) which performs all-optical microwave mixing. An up-converted microwave signal is obtained and other unwanted frequency components are suppressed at the end of the fiber span.

Keywords: Microwave mixing, bandpass filtering, all-optical, signal processing, MZM.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
57 Microwave Drying System with High-Tech Phase Controller: A Modified Applicator

Authors: A. S. Jambhale, B. V. Barbadekar

Abstract:

Microwave energy can be used for drying purpose. It is unique process. It is distinctly different from conventional drying process. It is advantageous over conventional drying / heating processes. When microwave energy is used for drying purpose, the process can be accelerated with a better control to achieve uniform heating, more conversion efficiency, selective drying and ultimately improved product quality of the output. Also, less floor space and compact system are the added advantages. Existing low power microwave drying system is to be modified with suitable applicator. Appropriate sensors are to be used to measure parameters like moisture, temperature, weight of sample. Suitable high tech controller is to be used to control microwave power continuously from minimum to maximum. Phase - controller, cycle - controller and PWM - controller are some of the advanced power control techniques. It has been proposed to work on turmeric using high-tech phase controller to control the microwave power conveniently. The drying of turmeric with microwave energy employing phase controller gives better results as formulated in this paper and hence new approach of processing turmeric will open future doors of profit making to allied industries and the farmers.

Keywords: Applicator, microwave drying, phase controller.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF