Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 112

Search results for: Road financing

112 Planning of Road Infrastructure Financing: Computational Finance Viewpoint

Authors: Ornst J., Voracek J., Allouache A., Allouache D.

Abstract:

Lack of resources for road infrastructure financing is a problem that currently affects not only eastern European economies but also many other countries especially in relation to the impact of global financial crisis. In this context, we are talking about the socalled short-investment problem as a result of long-term lack of investment resources. Based on an analysis of road infrastructure financing in the Czech Republic this article points out at weaknesses of current system and proposes a long-term planning methodology supported by system approach. Within this methodology and using created system dynamic model the article predicts the development of short-investment problem in the Country and in reaction on the downward trend of certain sources the article presents various scenarios resulting from the change of the structure of financial sources. In the discussion the article focuses more closely on the possibility of introduction of tax on vehicles instead of taxes with declining revenue streams and estimates its approximate price in relation to reaching various solutions of short-investment in time.

Keywords: Road financing, road infrastructure development, system dynamics

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111 Owner/Managers’ External Financing Used and Preference towards Islamic Banking

Authors: Khalid Hassan Abdesamed, Kalsom Abd Wahab

Abstract:

Economic development and growth are significantly linked to the consistent and sustainable sector of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Banks are the frontrunners in financing and advising SMEs. The main objective of the study is to assess the tendency of SMEs to use the Islamic bank. Model was developed using quantitative method with a hypothetical-deductive testing approach. Model (N = 364) used primary data on the tendency of SMEs to use Islamic banks gathered from questionnaire. It is found by Mann-Whitney test that the tendency to use Islamic bank varies between those firms which consider formal financing with the ones relying on informal financing with the latter tends more to use Islamic bank. This study can serve academic researchers, policy makers, and developing countries as a model of SMEs’ desirability to Islamic banking.

Keywords: Formal financing, informal financing, Islamic bank, SMEs.

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110 Exploring the Role of Private Commercial Banks in Increasing Small and Medium Size Enterprises’ Financial Accessibility in Developing Countries: A Study in Bangladesh

Authors: Khondokar Farid Ahmmed, Robin Bown

Abstract:

It is widely recognized that the formal financing of Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) by Private Commercial Banks (PCBs) is restricted. Due to changing financial market competition, SMEs are now important customers to PCBs in the member countries of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). Various initiatives in enhancing the efficiency of risk assessment of PCBs have failed in increasing financing accessibility in the traditional financing system where information asymmetry is a key constraint. In this circumstance, PCBs need to undertake a holistic approach. Holistic approach refers to methods that attempt to fundamentally change established traditions. To undertake holistic approach, this study intends to find the entire established financing culture between PCBs and SMEs in a new lens beyond the tradition on the basis of two basic questions: “What is the traditional lending culture between PCBs and SMEs” and “What could be potential role of PCBs to develop that culture where focusing on SME financing to PCBs". This study considered formal SME financing in Bangladesh by focusing on SMEs applying for their first loan. Bangladesh is a member country of ADB. The data collection method is semi-structured and we utilized face-to-face interviews with in-depth branch managers, higher officials and owner-managers of SME customers of PCBs and higher officials of SME Foundation and the Bangladesh central bank. Discourse analysis method was used for data analysis on the frame of thematic discussion fully based on participants’ views. The research found that branch managers and loan officers have a high level of power in assessing and financing decision-making. There is a changing attitude in PCB sector in requiring flexible collateral assets. Branch managers (Loan Officers) consider value of business prospect of owner-mangers as complementary of collateral assets. However, the study found the assessment process of business prospect is entirely unstructured and linked with socio-cultural settings that does not support PCBs’ changing manner in terms of collateral requirement. The study redefined and classified collateral assets to include all financing constructs in a structure. The degree of value of the collateral assets determines the degree of business prospects. This study suggested applying an outside classroom-learning paradigm such as “knowledge tour” to enhance the value of the kinds of collateral assets. This is the scope of PCBs in increasing SMEs’ financing eligibility in win-win basis. The findings and proposition could be effective in other ADB member countries and audiences in the field.

Keywords: CCA, financing, information asymmetry, PCA, PCB, financing.

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109 Shariah Views on the Components of Profit Rate in Al-Murabahah Asset Financing in Malaysian Islamic Bank

Authors: M. Pisol B Mat Isa, Asmak Ab Rahman, Hezlina Bt M Hashim, Abd Mutalib B Embong

Abstract:

Al-Murabahah is an Islamic financing facility used in asset financing, the profit rate of the contract is determined by components which are also being used in the conventional banking. Such are cost of fund, overhead cost, risk premium cost and bank-s profit margin. At the same time, the profit rate determined by Islamic banking system also refers to Inter-Bank Offered Rate (LIBOR) in London as a benchmark. This practice has risen arguments among Muslim scholars in term of its validity of the contract; whether the contract maintains the Shariah compliance or not. This paper aims to explore the view of Shariah towards the above components practiced by Islamic Banking in determining the profit rate of al-murabahah asset financing in Malaysia. This is a comparative research which applied the views of Muslim scholars from all major mazahibs in Islamic jurisprudence and examined the practices by Islamic banks in Malaysia for the above components. The study found that the shariah accepts all the components with conditions. The cost of fund is accepted as a portion of al-mudarabah-s profit, the overhead cost is accepted as a cost of product, risk premium cost consist of business risk and mitigation risk are accepted through the concept of alta-awun and bank-s profit margin is accepted as a right of bank after venturing in risky investment.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Islamic finance, al-murabahah and asset financing

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108 Is the Expansion of High-Tech Leaders Possible Within the New EU Members? A Case Study of Ammono S.A. and the High-Tech Financing System in Poland

Authors: Monika Dwilinska

Abstract:

Innovations, especially technological, are considered key-drivers for sustainable economic growth and competitiveness in the globalised world. As such they should also play an important role in the process of economical convergence inside the EU. Unfortunately, the problem of insufficient innovation performance concerns around half of the EU countries. Poland shows that a lack of a consistent high-tech financing system constitutes a serious obstacle for the development of innovative firms. In this article we will evaluate these questions referring to the example of Ammono S.A., a Polish company established to develop and commercialise an original technology for the production of bulk GaN crystals. We will focus on its efforts to accumulate the financial resources necessary at different stages of its development. The purpose of this article is to suggest possible ways to improve the national innovative system, which would make it more competent in generating high-tech leaders.

Keywords: High-tech financing, innovation, national innovative system

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107 Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism

Authors: C. Mallada Fernández

Abstract:

Economic development and globalization of international markets have created a favourable atmosphere for the emergence of new forms of crime such as money laundering or financing of terrorism, which may contribute to destabilized and damage economic systems. In particular, money laundering have acquired great importance since the 11S attacks, what has caused on the one hand, the establishment and development of preventive measures and, on the other hand, a progressive hardening of penal measures. Since then, the regulations imposed to fight against money laundering have been viewed as key components also in the fight against terrorist financing. Terrorism, at the beginning, was a “national” crime connected with internal problems of the State (for instance the RAF in Germany or ETA in Spain) but in the last 20 years has started to be an international problem that is connected with the defence and security of the States. Therefore, the new strategic concept for the defense and security of NATO has a comprehensive list of security threats to the Alliance, such as terrorism, international instability, money laundering or attacks on cyberspace, among others. With this new concept, money laundering and terrorism has become a priority in the national defense.

In this work we will analyze the methods to combat these new threats to the national security. We will study the preventive legislations to combat money laundering and financing of terrorism, the UIF that exchange information between States, and the hawala-Banking.

Keywords: Control of financial flows, money laundering, terrorism, financing of terrorism.

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106 Analysis of Supply Side Factors Affecting Bank Financing of Non-Oil Exports in Nigeria

Authors: Sama’ila Idi Ningi, Abubakar Yusuf Dutse

Abstract:

The banking sector poses a lot of problems in Nigeria in general and the non-oil export sector in particular. The banks' lack effectiveness in handling small, medium or long-term credit risk (lack of training of loan officers, lack of information on borrowers and absence of a reliable credit registry) results in non-oil exporters being burdened with high requirements, such as up to three years of financial statements, enough collateral to cover both the loan principal and interest (including a cash deposit that may be up to 30% of the loans' net present value), and to provide every detail of the international trade transaction in question. The stated problems triggered this research. Consequently, information on bank financing of non-oil exports was collected from 100 respondents from the 20 Deposit Money Banks (DMBs) in Nigeria. The data was analysed by the use of descriptive statistics correlation and regression. It is found that, Nigerian banks are participants in the financing of non-oil exports. Despite their participation, the rate of interest for credit extended to non-oil export is usually high, ranging between 15-20%. Small and medium sized non-oil export businesses lack the credit history for banks to judge them as reputable. Banks also consider the non-oil export sector very risky for investment. The banks actually do grant less credit than the exporters may require and therefore are not properly funded by banks. Banks grant very low volume of foreign currency loan in addition to, unfavorable exchange rate at which Naira is exchanged to the Dollar and other currencies in the country. This makes importation of inputs costly and negatively impacted on the non-oil export performance in Nigeria.

Keywords: Supply Side Factors, Bank Financing, Non-Oil Exports.

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105 Burden Sharing in Combating Terrorist Financing

Authors: M. Bogers, R. Beeres

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This paper contributes to the literature concerning burden sharing. We provide a quantitative expression of the burden sharing behaviour of 174 states in the case of combating terrorist financing and address specific burden sharing issues in this context (i.e., weakest link; no substitutability). We conclude that advanced states have shown more effort to control terrorist financing than developing states. In this particular case, there is an incentive for advanced states to support developing states. Failing to do so will make the total financial system worse off.

Keywords: Burden sharing, combating terrorist financing, weakest link.

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104 Financing - Scheduling Optimization for Construction Projects by using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Hesham Abdel-Khalek, Sherif M. Hafez, Abdel-Hamid M. el-Lakany, Yasser Abuel-Magd

Abstract:

Investment in a constructed facility represents a cost in the short term that returns benefits only over the long term use of the facility. Thus, the costs occur earlier than the benefits, and the owners of facilities must obtain the capital resources to finance the costs of construction. A project cannot proceed without an adequate financing, and the cost of providing an adequate financing can be quite large. For these reasons, the attention to the project finance is an important aspect of project management. Finance is also a concern to the other organizations involved in a project such as the general contractor and material suppliers. Unless an owner immediately and completely covers the costs incurred by each participant, these organizations face financing problems of their own. At a more general level, the project finance is the only one aspect of the general problem of corporate finance. If numerous projects are considered and financed together, then the net cash flow requirements constitute the corporate financing problem for capital investment. Whether project finance is performed at the project or at the corporate level does not alter the basic financing problem .In this paper, we will first consider facility financing from the owner's perspective, with due consideration for its interaction with other organizations involved in a project. Later, we discuss the problems of construction financing which are crucial to the profitability and solvency of construction contractors. The objective of this paper is to present the steps utilized to determine the best combination of minimum project financing. The proposed model considers financing; schedule and maximum net area .The proposed model is called Project Financing and Schedule Integration using Genetic Algorithms "PFSIGA". This model intended to determine more steps (maximum net area) for any project with a subproject. An illustrative example will demonstrate the feature of this technique. The model verification and testing are put into consideration.

Keywords: Project Management, Large-scale ConstructionProjects, Cash flow, Interest, Investment, Loan, Optimization, Scheduling, Financing and Genetic Algorithms.

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103 Empirical Analysis of Private Listed Companies- Debt Financing and Business Performance in Jiangsu Province

Authors: Chengxuan Geng, Haitao E, Yijie Jiang

Abstract:

According to the theory of capital structure, this paper uses principal component analysis and linear regression analysis to study the relationship between the debt characteristics of the private listed companies in Jiangsu Province and their business performance. The results show that the average debt ratio of the 29 private listed companies selected from the sample is lower. And it is found that for the sample whose debt ratio is lower than 80%, its debt ratio is negatively related to corporate performance, while for the sample whose debt ratio is beyond 80%, the relationship of debt financing and enterprise performance shows the different trends. The conclusions reflect the drawbacks may exist that the debt ratio is relatively low and having not take full advantage of debt governance effect of the private listed companies in Jiangsu Province.

Keywords: private listed companies, debt financing, business performance

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102 Effects of Road Disturbance on Plant Biodiversity

Authors: Sheng-Lan Zeng, Ting-Ting Zhang, Yu Gao, Zu-Tao Ouyang, Jia-Kuan Chen, Bo Li, Bin Zhao

Abstract:

Urbanization and related anthropogenic modifications cause extent of habitat fragmentation and directly lead to decline of local biodiversity. Conservation biologists advocate corridor creation as one approach to rescue biodiversity. Here we examine the utility of roads as corridors in preserving plant diversity by investigating roadside vegetation in Yellow River Delta (YRD), China. We examined the spatio-temporal distribution pattern of plant species richness, diversity and composition along roadside. The results suggest that roads, as dispersal conduits, increase occurrence probability of new settlers to a new area, meanwhile, roads accumulate the greater propagule pressure and favourable survival condition during operation phase. As a result, more species, including native and alien plants, non- halophyte and halophyte species, threatened and cosmopolitic species, were found prosperous at roadside. Roadside may be a refuge for more species, and the pattern of vegetation distribution is affected by road age and the distance from road verge.

Keywords: Native and alien species, Plant diversity conservation, Road construction, Road disturbance

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101 Study on the Effect of Road Infrastructure, Socio-Economic and Demographic Features on Road Crashes in Bangladesh

Authors: Shakil M. Rifaat, Md. H. Rahman, Mohammed, Mosabbir Pasha

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Road crashes not only claim lives and inflict injuries but also create economic burden to the society due to loss of productivity. The problem of deaths and injuries as a result of road traffic crashes is now acknowledged to be a global phenomenon with authorities in virtually all countries of the world concerned about the growth in the number of people killed and seriously injured on their roads. However, the road crash scenario of a developing country like Bangladesh is much worse comparing with this of developed countries. For developing proper countermeasures it is necessary to identify the factors affecting crash occurrences. The objectives of the study is to examine the effect of district wise road infrastructure, socioeconomic and demographic features on crash occurrence .The unit of analysis will be taken as individual district which has not been explored much in the past. Reported crash data obtained from Bangladesh Road Transport Authority (BRTA) from the year 2004 to 2010 are utilized to develop negative binomial model. The model result will reveal the effect of road length (both paved and unpaved), road infrastructure and several socio economic characteristics on district level crash frequency in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Demographic, Negative Binomial Model, Road Infrastructure, Socio-economic, Traffic Safety.

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100 Improving the Road Construction Supply Chain by Developing a National Level Performance Measurement System: the Case of Estonia

Authors: Kati Kõrbe Kaare, Ott Koppel

Abstract:

Transport and logistics are the lifeblood of societies. There is a strong correlation between overall growth in economic activity and growth of transport. The movement of people and goods has the potential for creating wealth and prosperity, therefore the state of transportation infrastructure and especially the condition of road networks is often a governmental priority. The design, building and maintenance of national roads constitute a substantial share of government budgets. Taking into account the magnitude and importance of these investments, the expedience, efficiency and sustainability of these projects are of great public interest. This paper provides an overview of supply chain management principles applied to road construction. In addition, road construction performance measurement systems and ICT solutions are discussed. Road construction in Estonia is analyzed. The authors propose the development of a national performance measurement system for road construction.

Keywords: ICT in road construction, key performance indicators, quality performance measurement, road construction supply chain.

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99 Analysis of Road Repairs in Undermined Areas

Authors: Tomáš Seidler, Marek Mihola, Denisa Cihlarova

Abstract:

The article presents analysis results of maps of expected subsidence in undermined areas for road repair management. The analysis was done in the area of Karvina district in the Czech Republic, including undermined areas with ongoing deep mining activities or finished deep mining in years 2003 - 2009. The article discusses the possibilities of local road maintenance authorities to determine areas that will need most repairs in the future with limited data available. Using the expected subsidence maps new map of surface curvature was calculated. Combined with road maps and historical data about repairs the result came for five main categories of undermined areas, proving very simple tool for management.

Keywords: GIS, Map of Subsidence, Road, Undermined Area

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98 Climate Impact-Minimizing Road Infrastructure Layout for Growing Cities

Authors: Stanislovas Buteliauskas, Aušrius Juozapavičius

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City road transport contributes significantly to climate change, and the ongoing world urbanization is only increasing the problem. The paper describes a city planning concept minimizing the number of vehicles on the roads while increasing overall mobility. This becomes possible by utilizing a recently invented two-level road junction with a unique property of serving both as an intersection of uninterrupted traffic and an easily accessible transport hub capable of accumulating private vehicles, and therefore becoming an especially effective park-and-ride solution, and a logistics or business center. Optimized layouts of city road infrastructure, living and work areas, and major roads are presented. The layouts are suitable both for the development of new cities as well as for the expansion of existing ones. Costs of the infrastructure and a positive impact on climate are evaluated in comparison to current city growth patterns.

Keywords: Congestion, city infrastructure, park-and-ride, road junctions.

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97 Road Safety and Accident Prevention in Third World Countries: A Case Study of NH-7 in India

Authors: Siddegowda, Y. A. Sathish, G. Krishnegowda, T. M. Mohan Kumar

Abstract:

Road accidents are a human tragedy. They involve high human suffering and monetary costs in terms of untimely death, injuries and social problems. India had earned the dubious distinction of having more number of fatalities due to road accidents in the world. Road safety is emerging as a major social concern around the world especially in India because of infrastructure project works. A case study was taken on NH – 07 which connects to various major cities and industries. The study shows that major cases of fatalities are due to bus, trucks and high speed vehicles. The main causes of accidents are due to high density, non-restriction of speed, use of mobile phones, lack of board signs on road parking, visibility restriction, improper geometric design, road use characteristics, environmental aspects, social aspects etc. Data analysis and preventive measures are enlightened in this paper.

Keywords: Accidents, environmental aspects, fatalities, geometric design, road user characteristics.

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96 Extracting Road Signs using the Color Information

Authors: Wen-Yen Wu, Tsung-Cheng Hsieh, Ching-Sung Lai

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a method to extract the road signs. Firstly, the grabbed image is converted into the HSV color space to detect the road signs. Secondly, the morphological operations are used to reduce noise. Finally, extract the road sign using the geometric property. The feature extraction of road sign is done by using the color information. The proposed method has been tested for the real situations. From the experimental results, it is seen that the proposed method can extract the road sign features effectively.

Keywords: Color information, image processing, road sign.

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95 The Design of Imaginable Urban Road Landscape

Authors: Wang Zhenzhen, Wang Xu, Hong Liangping

Abstract:

With the rapid development of cities, the way that people commute has changed greatly, meanwhile, people turn to require more on physical and psychological aspects in the contemporary world. However, the current urban road landscape ignores these changes, for example, those road landscape elements are boring, confusing, fragmented and lack of integrity and hierarchy. Under such current situation, in order to shape beautiful, identifiable and unique road landscape, this article concentrates on the target of imaginability. This paper analyzes the main elements of the urban road landscape, the concept of image and its generation mechanism, and then discusses the necessity and connotation of building imaginable urban road landscape as well as the main problems existing in current urban road landscape in terms of imaginability. Finally, this paper proposes how to design imaginable urban road landscape in details based on a specific case.

Keywords: Identifiability, imaginability, road landscape, the image of the city.

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94 Prediction of Road Accidents in Qatar by 2022

Authors: M. Abou-Amouna, A. Radwan, L. Al-kuwari, A. Hammuda, K. Al-Khalifa

Abstract:

There is growing concern over increasing incidences of road accidents and consequent loss of human life in Qatar. In light to the future planned event in Qatar, World Cup 2022; Qatar should put into consideration the future deaths caused by road accidents, and past trends should be considered to give a reasonable picture of what may happen in the future. Qatar roads should be arranged and paved in a way that accommodate high capacity of the population in that time, since then there will be a huge number of visitors from the world. Qatar should also consider the risk issues of road accidents raised in that period, and plan to maintain high level to safety strategies. According to the increase in the number of road accidents in Qatar from 1995 until 2012, an analysis of elements affecting and causing road accidents will be effectively studied. This paper aims to identify and criticize the factors that have high effect on causing road accidents in the state of Qatar, and predict the total number of road accidents in Qatar 2022. Alternative methods are discussed and the most applicable ones according to the previous researches are selected for further studies. The methods that satisfy the existing case in Qatar were the multiple linear regression model (MLR) and artificial neutral network (ANN). Those methods are analyzed and their findings are compared. We conclude that by using MLR the number of accidents in 2022 will become 355,226 accidents, and by using ANN 216,264 accidents. We conclude that MLR gave better results than ANN because the artificial neutral network doesn’t fit data with large range varieties.

Keywords: Road Safety, Prediction, Accident, Model, Qatar.

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93 Development of Road Maintenance Management System Based on WebGIS

Authors: Feng Xiao, Zhou Hongyu, YuCaixia

Abstract:

Based on an analysis of the current research and application of Road maintenance, geographic information system (WebGIS) and ArcGIS Server, the platform overhead construction for Road maintenance development is studied and the key issues are presented, including the organization and design of spatial data on the basis of the geodatabase technology, middleware technology, tiles cache index technology and dynamic segmentation of WebGIS. Road maintenance geographic information platform is put forward through the researching ideas of analysis of the system design. The design and application of WebGIS system are discussed on the basis of a case study of BaNan district of Chongqing highway maintenance management .The feasibility of the theories and methods are validated through the system.

Keywords: WebGIS, Tile, Road maintenance, dynamic segmentation

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92 Fuzzy Approach for Ranking of Motor Vehicles Involved in Road Accidents

Authors: Lazim Abdullah, N orhanadiah Zam

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Increasing number of vehicles and lack of awareness among road users may lead to road accidents. However no specific literature was found to rank vehicles involved in accidents based on fuzzy variables of road users. This paper proposes a ranking of four selected motor vehicles involved in road accidents. Human and non-human factors that normally linked with road accidents are considered for ranking. The imprecision or vagueness inherent in the subjective assessment of the experts has led the application of fuzzy sets theory to deal with ranking problems. Data in form of linguistic variables were collected from three authorised personnel of three Malaysian Government agencies. The Multi Criteria Decision Making, fuzzy TOPSIS was applied in computational procedures. From the analysis, it shows that motorcycles vehicles yielded the highest closeness coefficient at 0.6225. A ranking can be drawn using the magnitude of closeness coefficient. It was indicated that the motorcycles recorded the first rank.

Keywords: Road accidents, decision making, closeness coefficient, fuzzy number

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91 A Methodology for Definition of Road Networks in Rural Areas of Nepal

Authors: J. K. Shrestha, A. Benta, R. B. Lopes, N. Lopes

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This work provides a practical method for the development of rural road networks in rural areas of developing countries. The proposed methodology enables to determine obligatory points in the rural road network maximizing the number of settlements that have access to basic services within a given maximum distance. The proposed methodology is simple and practical, hence, highly applicable to real-world scenarios, as demonstrated in the definition of the road network for the rural areas of Nepal.

Keywords: Minimum spanning tree, nodal points, rural road network.

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90 Comparison of Noise Emissions in the Interior of Passenger Cars

Authors: Martin Kendra, Tomas Skrucany, Jaroslav Masek

Abstract:

The noise is one of the negative elements which affects the human health. This article presents the measurement of emitted noise by road vehicle and its parts during the operation. Measurement was done in the interior of common passenger cars with a digital sound meter. The results compare the noise value in different cars with different body shape, which influences the driver’s health. Transport has considerable ecological effects; many of them are detrimental to environmental sustainability. Roads and traffic exert a variety of direct and mostly detrimental effects on nature.

Keywords: Driver, noise measurement, passenger road vehicle, road transport.

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89 Investigating the Road Maintenance Performance in Developing Countries

Authors: Jamaa Salih, Francis Edum-Fotwe, Andrew Price

Abstract:

One of the most critical aspects of the management of road infrastructure is the type and scale of maintenance systems adopted and the consequences of their inadequacy. The performance of road maintenance systems can be assessed by a number of important indicators such as: cost, safety, environmental impact, and level of complaints by users. A review of practice reveals that insufficient level of expenditure or poor management of the road network often has serious consequences for the economic and social life of a country in terms of vehicle operating costs (VOC), travel time costs, accident costs and environmental impact. Despite an increase in the attention paid by global road agencies to the environmental and the road users’ satisfaction, the overwhelming evidence from the available literature agree on the lack of similar levels of attention for the two factors in many developing countries. While many sources agree that the road maintenance backlog is caused by either the shortage of expenditures or lack of proper management or both, it appears that managing the available assets particularly in the developing countries is the main issue. To address this subject, this paper will concentrate on exposing the various issues related to this field.  

Keywords: Environmental impact, performance indicators, road maintenance, users’ satisfaction.

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88 Definition and Implementation of a Simulation Model for the Physical Layer and the Radio Channel in Dedicated Short Range Communication Systems

Authors: Mounir Frikha, Michael Meincke, Semia Barouni

Abstract:

This paper proposes a vehicle-to-vehicle propagation model implemented with SDL. To estimate the channel characteristics for Inter-Vehicle communication, we first define a predicted propagation pathloss between the moving vehicles under three typical scenarios. A Ray-tracing method is used for the simple gamma model performance.

Keywords: Inter-vehicle communication (IVC), propagationmodel, road traffic, road vicinity, pathloss.

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87 Variability of Metal Composition and Concentrations in Road Dust in the Urban Environment

Authors: Sandya Mummullage, Prasanna Egodawatta, Ashantha Goonetilleke, Godwin A. Ayoko

Abstract:

Urban road dust comprises of a range of potentially  toxic metal elements and plays a critical role in degrading urban  receiving water quality. Hence, assessing the metal composition and  concentration in urban road dust is a high priority. This study  investigated the variability of metal composition and concentrations  in road dust in 4 different urban land uses in Gold Coast, Australia.  Samples from 16 road sites were collected and tested for selected 12  metal species. The data set was analyzed using both univariate and  multivariate techniques. Outcomes of the data analysis revealed that  the metal concentrations inroad dust differs considerably within and  between different land uses. Iron, aluminum, magnesium and zinc are  the most abundant in urban land uses. It was also noted that metal  species such as titanium, nickel, copper and zinc have the highest  concentrations in industrial land use. The study outcomes revealed  that soil and traffic related sources as key sources of metals deposited  on road surfaces.

 

Keywords: Metals build-up, Pollutant accumulation, Stormwater quality, Urban road dust.

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86 Estimation of Missing or Incomplete Data in Road Performance Measurement Systems

Authors: Kristjan Kuhi, Kati K. Kaare, Ott Koppel

Abstract:

Modern management in most fields is performance based; both planning and implementation of maintenance and operational activities are driven by appropriately defined performance indicators. Continuous real-time data collection for management is becoming feasible due to technological advancements. Outdated and insufficient input data may result in incorrect decisions. When using deterministic models the uncertainty of the object state is not visible thus applying the deterministic models are more likely to give false diagnosis. Constructing structured probabilistic models of the performance indicators taking into consideration the surrounding indicator environment enables to estimate the trustworthiness of the indicator values. It also assists to fill gaps in data to improve the quality of the performance analysis and management decisions. In this paper authors discuss the application of probabilistic graphical models in the road performance measurement and propose a high-level conceptual model that enables analyzing and predicting more precisely future pavement deterioration based on road utilization.

Keywords: Probabilistic graphical models, performance indicators, road performance management, data collection

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85 Cost of Road Traffic Accidents in Egypt

Authors: Mohamed A. Ismail, Samar M. M. Abdelmageed

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is to estimate the cost of road traffic accidents in Egypt. The Human Capital (HC) approach, specifically the Gross-Loss-of-Output methodology, is adopted for estimation. Moreover, cost values obtained by previous national literature are updated using the inflation rates. The results indicate an estimated cost of road traffic accidents in Egypt of approximately 10 billion Egyptian Pounds (about $US 1.8 billion) for the year 2008. In addition, it is expected that this cost will rise in 2009 to 11.8 billion Egyptian Pounds (about $US 2.1 billion).

Keywords: Cost, Gross-Loss-of-Output, Human CapitalApproach, Road Traffic Accidents.

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84 Roundabout Optimal Entry and Circulating Flow Induced by Road Hump

Authors: Amir Hossein Pakshir, A. Hossein Pour, N. Jahandar, Ali Paydar

Abstract:

Roundabout work on the principle of circulation and entry flows, where the maximum entry flow rates depend largely on circulating flow bearing in mind that entry flows must give away to circulating flows. Where an existing roundabout has a road hump installed at the entry arm, it can be hypothesized that the kinematics of vehicles may prevent the entry arm from achieving optimum performance. Road humps are traffic calming devices placed across road width solely as speed reduction mechanism. They are the preferred traffic calming option in Malaysia and often used on single and dual carriageway local routes. The speed limit on local routes is 30mph (50 km/hr). Road humps in their various forms achieved the biggest mean speed reduction (based on a mean speed before traffic calming of 30mph) of up to 10mph or 16 km/hr according to the UK Department of Transport. The underlying aim of reduced speed should be to achieve a 'safe' distribution of speeds which reflects the function of the road and the impacts on the local community. Constraining safe distribution of speeds may lead to poor drivers timing and delayed reflex reaction that can probably cause accident. Previous studies on road hump impact have focused mainly on speed reduction, traffic volume, noise and vibrations, discomfort and delay from the use of road humps. The paper is aimed at optimal entry and circulating flow induced by road humps. Results show that roundabout entry and circulating flow perform better in circumstances where there is no road hump at entrance.

Keywords: Road hump, Roundabout, Speed Reduction

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83 Segmentation of Korean Words on Korean Road Signs

Authors: Lae-Jeong Park, Kyusoo Chung, Jungho Moon

Abstract:

This paper introduces an effective method of segmenting Korean text (place names in Korean) from a Korean road sign image. A Korean advanced directional road sign is composed of several types of visual information such as arrows, place names in Korean and English, and route numbers. Automatic classification of the visual information and extraction of Korean place names from the road sign images make it possible to avoid a lot of manual inputs to a database system for management of road signs nationwide. We propose a series of problem-specific heuristics that correctly segments Korean place names, which is the most crucial information, from the other information by leaving out non-text information effectively. The experimental results with a dataset of 368 road sign images show 96% of the detection rate per Korean place name and 84% per road sign image.

Keywords: Segmentation, road signs, characters, classification.

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