Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 415

Search results for: elliptic curve

415 Proposed Developments of Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm

Authors: Sattar B. Sadkhan, Najlae Falah Hameed

Abstract:

The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) is the elliptic curve analogue of DSA, where it is a digital signature scheme designed to provide a digital signature based on a secret number known only to the signer and also on the actual message being signed. These digital signatures are considered the digital counterparts to handwritten signatures, and are the basis for validating the authenticity of a connection. The security of these schemes results from the infeasibility to compute the signature without the private key. In this paper we introduce a proposed to development the original ECDSA with more complexity.

Keywords: Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm, DSA.

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414 The Number of Rational Points on Elliptic Curves and Circles over Finite Fields

Authors: Betül Gezer, Ahmet Tekcan, Osman Bizim

Abstract:

In elliptic curve theory, number of rational points on elliptic curves and determination of these points is a fairly important problem. Let p be a prime and Fp be a finite field and k ∈ Fp. It is well known that which points the curve y2 = x3 + kx has and the number of rational points of on Fp. Consider the circle family x2 + y2 = r2. It can be interesting to determine common points of these two curve families and to find the number of these common points. In this work we study this problem.

Keywords: Elliptic curves over finite fields, rational points on elliptic curves and circles.

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413 An Attack on the Lucas Based El-Gamal Cryptosystem in the Elliptic Curve Group Over Finite Field Using Greater Common Divisor

Authors: Lee Feng Koo, Tze Jin Wong, Pang Hung Yiu, Nik Mohd Asri Nik Long

Abstract:

Greater common divisor (GCD) attack is an attack that relies on the polynomial structure of the cryptosystem. This attack required two plaintexts differ from a fixed number and encrypted under same modulus. This paper reports a security reaction of Lucas Based El-Gamal Cryptosystem in the Elliptic Curve group over finite field under GCD attack. Lucas Based El-Gamal Cryptosystem in the Elliptic Curve group over finite field was exposed mathematically to the GCD attack using GCD and Dickson polynomial. The result shows that the cryptanalyst is able to get the plaintext without decryption by using GCD attack. Thus, the study concluded that it is highly perilous when two plaintexts have a slight difference from a fixed number in the same Elliptic curve group over finite field.

Keywords: Decryption, encryption, elliptic curve, greater common divisor.

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412 Implementation and Analysis of Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems over Polynomial basis and ONB

Authors: Yong-Je Choi, Moo-Seop Kim, Hang-Rok Lee, Ho-Won Kim

Abstract:

Polynomial bases and normal bases are both used for elliptic curve cryptosystems, but field arithmetic operations such as multiplication, inversion and doubling for each basis are implemented by different methods. In general, it is said that normal bases, especially optimal normal bases (ONB) which are special cases on normal bases, are efficient for the implementation in hardware in comparison with polynomial bases. However there seems to be more examined by implementing and analyzing these systems under similar condition. In this paper, we designed field arithmetic operators for each basis over GF(2233), which field has a polynomial basis recommended by SEC2 and a type-II ONB both, and analyzed these implementation results. And, in addition, we predicted the efficiency of two elliptic curve cryptosystems using these field arithmetic operators.

Keywords: Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem, Crypto Algorithm, Polynomial Basis, Optimal Normal Basis, Security.

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411 Efficient Hardware Implementation of an Elliptic Curve Cryptographic Processor Over GF (2 163)

Authors: Massoud Masoumi, Hosseyn Mahdizadeh

Abstract:

A new and highly efficient architecture for elliptic curve scalar point multiplication which is optimized for a binary field recommended by NIST and is well-suited for elliptic curve cryptographic (ECC) applications is presented. To achieve the maximum architectural and timing improvements we have reorganized and reordered the critical path of the Lopez-Dahab scalar point multiplication architecture such that logic structures are implemented in parallel and operations in the critical path are diverted to noncritical paths. With G=41, the proposed design is capable of performing a field multiplication over the extension field with degree 163 in 11.92 s with the maximum achievable frequency of 251 MHz on Xilinx Virtex-4 (XC4VLX200) while 22% of the chip area is occupied, where G is the digit size of the underlying digit-serial finite field multiplier.

Keywords: Elliptic curve cryptography, FPGA implementation, scalar point multiplication.

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410 Novel Method for Elliptic Curve Multi-Scalar Multiplication

Authors: Raveen R. Goundar, Ken-ichi Shiota, Masahiko Toyonaga

Abstract:

The major building block of most elliptic curve cryptosystems are computation of multi-scalar multiplication. This paper proposes a novel algorithm for simultaneous multi-scalar multiplication, that is by employing addition chains. The previously known methods utilizes double-and-add algorithm with binary representations. In order to accomplish our purpose, an efficient empirical method for finding addition chains for multi-exponents has been proposed.

Keywords: elliptic curve cryptosystems, multi-scalar multiplication, addition chains, Fibonacci sequence.

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409 Improved of Elliptic Curves Cryptography over a Ring

Authors: A. Chillali, A. Tadmori, M. Ziane

Abstract:

In this article we will study the elliptic curve defined over the ring An and we define the mathematical operations of ECC, which provides a high security and advantage for wireless applications compared to other asymmetric key cryptosystem.

Keywords: Elliptic Curves, Finite Ring, Cryptography.

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408 Cryptography Over Elliptic Curve Of The Ring Fq[e], e4 = 0

Authors: Chillali Abdelhakim

Abstract:

Groups where the discrete logarithm problem (DLP) is believed to be intractable have proved to be inestimable building blocks for cryptographic applications. They are at the heart of numerous protocols such as key agreements, public-key cryptosystems, digital signatures, identification schemes, publicly verifiable secret sharings, hash functions and bit commitments. The search for new groups with intractable DLP is therefore of great importance.The goal of this article is to study elliptic curves over the ring Fq[], with Fq a finite field of order q and with the relation n = 0, n ≥ 3. The motivation for this work came from the observation that several practical discrete logarithm-based cryptosystems, such as ElGamal, the Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems . In a first time, we describe these curves defined over a ring. Then, we study the algorithmic properties by proposing effective implementations for representing the elements and the group law. In anther article we study their cryptographic properties, an attack of the elliptic discrete logarithm problem, a new cryptosystem over these curves.

Keywords: Elliptic Curve Over Ring, Discrete Logarithm Problem.

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407 A Study of General Attacks on Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem over Prime Field and Binary Field

Authors: Tun Myat Aung, Ni Ni Hla

Abstract:

This paper begins by describing basic properties of finite field and elliptic curve cryptography over prime field and binary field. Then we discuss the discrete logarithm problem for elliptic curves and its properties. We study the general common attacks on elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem such as the Baby Step, Giant Step method, Pollard’s rho method and Pohlig-Hellman method, and describe in detail experiments of these attacks over prime field and binary field. The paper finishes by describing expected running time of the attacks and suggesting strong elliptic curves that are not susceptible to these attacks.c

Keywords: Discrete logarithm problem, general attacks, elliptic curves, strong curves, prime field, binary field, attack experiments.

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406 Alternative Key Exchange Algorithm Based on Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm Certificate and Usage in Applications

Authors: A. Andreasyan, C. Connors

Abstract:

The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature algorithm-based X509v3 certificates are becoming more popular due to their short public and private key sizes. Moreover, these certificates can be stored in Internet of Things (IoT) devices, with limited resources, using less memory and transmitted in network security protocols, such as Internet Key Exchange (IKE), Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Secure Shell (SSH) with less bandwidth. The proposed method gives another advantage, in that it increases the performance of the above-mentioned protocols in terms of key exchange by saving one scalar multiplication operation.

Keywords: Cryptography, elliptic curve digital signature algorithm, key exchange, network security protocols.

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405 SIP Authentication Scheme using ECDH

Authors: Aytunc Durlanik, Ibrahim Sogukpinar

Abstract:

SIP (Session Initiation Protocol), using HTML based call control messaging which is quite simple and efficient, is being replaced for VoIP networks recently. As for authentication and authorization purposes there are many approaches and considerations for securing SIP to eliminate forgery on the integrity of SIP messages. On the other hand Elliptic Curve Cryptography has significant advantages like smaller key sizes, faster computations on behalf of other Public Key Cryptography (PKC) systems that obtain data transmission more secure and efficient. In this work a new approach is proposed for secure SIP authentication by using a public key exchange mechanism using ECC. Total execution times and memory requirements of proposed scheme have been improved in comparison with non-elliptic approaches by adopting elliptic-based key exchange mechanism.

Keywords: SIP, Elliptic Curve Cryptography, voice over IP.

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404 Implementing Authentication Protocol for Exchanging Encrypted Messages via an Authentication Server Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography with the ElGamal-s Algorithm

Authors: Konstantinos Chalkias, George Filiadis, George Stephanides

Abstract:

In this paper the authors propose a protocol, which uses Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) based on the ElGamal-s algorithm, for sending small amounts of data via an authentication server. The innovation of this approach is that there is no need for a symmetric algorithm or a safe communication channel such as SSL. The reason that ECC has been chosen instead of RSA is that it provides a methodology for obtaining high-speed implementations of authentication protocols and encrypted mail techniques while using fewer bits for the keys. This means that ECC systems require smaller chip size and less power consumption. The proposed protocol has been implemented in Java to analyse its features and vulnerabilities in the real world.

Keywords: Elliptic Curve Cryptography, ElGamal, authentication protocol.

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403 Rational Points on Elliptic Curves 2 3 3y = x + a inF , where p 5(mod 6) is Prime

Authors: Gokhan Soydan, Musa Demirci, Nazli Yildiz Ikikardes, Ismail Naci Cangul

Abstract:

In this work, we consider the rational points on elliptic curves over finite fields Fp where p ≡ 5 (mod 6). We obtain results on the number of points on an elliptic curve y2 ≡ x3 + a3(mod p), where p ≡ 5 (mod 6) is prime. We give some results concerning the sum of the abscissae of these points. A similar case where p ≡ 1 (mod 6) is considered in [5]. The main difference between two cases is that when p ≡ 5 (mod 6), all elements of Fp are cubic residues.

Keywords: Elliptic curves over finite fields, rational points.

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402 Positive Definite Quadratic Forms, Elliptic Curves and Cubic Congruences

Authors: Ahmet Tekcan

Abstract:

Let F(x, y) = ax2 + bxy + cy2 be a positive definite binary quadratic form with discriminant Δ whose base points lie on the line x = -1/m for an integer m ≥ 2, let p be a prime number and let Fp be a finite field. Let EF : y2 = ax3 + bx2 + cx be an elliptic curve over Fp and let CF : ax3 + bx2 + cx ≡ 0(mod p) be the cubic congruence corresponding to F. In this work we consider some properties of positive definite quadratic forms, elliptic curves and cubic congruences.

Keywords: Binary quadratic form, elliptic curves, cubic congruence.

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401 Elliptic Divisibility Sequences over Finite Fields

Authors: Betül Gezer, Ahmet Tekcan, Osman Bizim

Abstract:

In this work, we study elliptic divisibility sequences over finite fields. Morgan Ward in [14], [15] gave arithmetic theory of elliptic divisibility sequences and formulas for elliptic divisibility sequences with rank two over finite field Fp. We study elliptic divisibility sequences with rank three, four and five over a finite field Fp, where p > 3 is a prime and give general terms of these sequences and then we determine elliptic and singular curves associated with these sequences.

Keywords: Elliptic divisibility sequences, singular elliptic divisibilitysequences, elliptic curves, singular curves.

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400 Fingerprint Image Encryption Using a 2D Chaotic Map and Elliptic Curve Cryptography

Authors: D. M. S. Bandara, Yunqi Lei, Ye Luo

Abstract:

Fingerprints are suitable as long-term markers of human identity since they provide detailed and unique individual features which are difficult to alter and durable over life time. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to encrypt and decrypt fingerprint images by using a specially designed Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) procedure based on block ciphers. In addition, to increase the confusing effect of fingerprint encryption, we also utilize a chaotic-behaved method called Arnold Cat Map (ACM) for a 2D scrambling of pixel locations in our method. Experimental results are carried out with various types of efficiency and security analyses. As a result, we demonstrate that the proposed fingerprint encryption/decryption algorithm is advantageous in several different aspects including efficiency, security and flexibility. In particular, using this algorithm, we achieve a margin of about 0.1% in the test of Number of Pixel Changing Rate (NPCR) values comparing to the-state-of-the-art performances.

Keywords: Arnold cat map, biometric encryption, block cipher, elliptic curve cryptography, fingerprint encryption, Koblitz’s Encoding.

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399 The Number of Rational Points on Elliptic Curves y2 = x3 + a3 on Finite Fields

Authors: Musa Demirci, Nazlı Yıldız İkikardeş, Gökhan Soydan, İsmail Naci Cangül

Abstract:

In this work, we consider the rational points on elliptic curves over finite fields Fp. We give results concerning the number of points Np,a on the elliptic curve y2 ≡ x3 +a3(mod p) according to whether a and x are quadratic residues or non-residues. We use two lemmas to prove the main results first of which gives the list of primes for which -1 is a quadratic residue, and the second is a result from [1]. We get the results in the case where p is a prime congruent to 5 modulo 6, while when p is a prime congruent to 1 modulo 6, there seems to be no regularity for Np,a.

Keywords: Elliptic curves over finite fields, rational points, quadratic residue.

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398 A New Design Partially Blind Signature Scheme Based on Two Hard Mathematical Problems

Authors: Nedal Tahat

Abstract:

Recently, many existing partially blind signature scheme based on a single hard problem such as factoring, discrete logarithm, residuosity or elliptic curve discrete logarithm problems. However sooner or later these systems will become broken and vulnerable, if the factoring or discrete logarithms problems are cracked. This paper proposes a secured partially blind signature scheme based on factoring (FAC) problem and elliptic curve discrete logarithms (ECDL) problem. As the proposed scheme is focused on factoring and ECDLP hard problems, it has a solid structure and will totally leave the intruder bemused because it is very unlikely to solve the two hard problems simultaneously. In order to assess the security level of the proposed scheme a performance analysis has been conducted. Results have proved that the proposed scheme effectively deals with the partial blindness, randomization, unlinkability and unforgeability properties. Apart from this we have also investigated the computation cost of the proposed scheme. The new proposed scheme is robust and it is difficult for the malevolent attacks to break our scheme.

Keywords: Cryptography, Partially Blind Signature, Factoring, Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithms.

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397 Cryptanalysis of Chang-Chang-s EC-PAKA Protocol for Wireless Mobile Networks

Authors: Hae-Soon Ahn, Eun-Jun Yoon

Abstract:

With the rapid development of wireless mobile communication, applications for mobile devices must focus on network security. In 2008, Chang-Chang proposed security improvements on the Lu et al.-s elliptic curve authentication key agreement protocol for wireless mobile networks. However, this paper shows that Chang- Chang-s improved protocol is still vulnerable to off-line password guessing attacks unlike their claims.

Keywords: Authentication, key agreement, wireless mobile networks, elliptic curve, password guessing attacks.

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396 On The Elliptic Divisibility Sequences over Finite Fields

Authors: Osman Bizim

Abstract:

In this work we study elliptic divisibility sequences over finite fields. MorganWard in [11, 12] gave arithmetic theory of elliptic divisibility sequences. We study elliptic divisibility sequences, equivalence of these sequences and singular elliptic divisibility sequences over finite fields Fp, p > 3 is a prime.

Keywords: Elliptic divisibility sequences, equivalent sequences, singular sequences.

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395 Solving 94-bit ECDLP with 70 Computers in Parallel

Authors: Shunsuke Miyoshi, Yasuyuki Nogami, Takuya Kusaka, Nariyoshi Yamai

Abstract:

Elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem(ECDLP) is one of problems on which the security of pairing-based cryptography is based. This paper considers Pollard’s rho method to evaluate the security of ECDLP on Barreto-Naehrig(BN) curve that is an efficient pairing-friendly curve. Some techniques are proposed to make the rho method efficient. Especially, the group structure on BN curve, distinguished point method, and Montgomery trick are well-known techniques. This paper applies these techniques and shows its optimization. According to the experimental results for which a large-scale parallel system with MySQL is applied, 94-bit ECDLP was solved about 28 hours by parallelizing 71 computers.

Keywords: Pollard’s rho method, BN curve, Montgomery multiplication.

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394 Experimental and Numerical Study of The Shock-Accelerated Elliptic Heavy Gas Cylinders

Authors: Jing S. Bai, Li Y. Zou, Tao Wang, Kun Liu, Wen B. Huang, Jin H. Liu, Ping Li, Duo W. Tan, CangL. Liu

Abstract:

We studied the evolution of elliptic heavy SF6 gas cylinder surrounded by air when accelerated by a planar Mach 1.25 shock. A multiple dynamics imaging technology has been used to obtain one image of the experimental initial conditions and five images of the time evolution of elliptic cylinder. We compared the width and height of the circular and two kinds of elliptic gas cylinders, and analyzed the vortex strength of the elliptic ones. Simulations are in very good agreement with the experiments, but due to the different initial gas cylinder shapes, a certain difference of the initial density peak and distribution exists between the circular and elliptic gas cylinders, and the latter initial state is more sensitive and more inenarrable.

Keywords: About four key words or phrases in alphabeticalorder, separated by commas.

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393 The Elliptic Curves y2 = x3 - t2x over Fp

Authors: Ahmet Tekcan

Abstract:

Let p be a prime number, Fp be a finite field and t ∈ F*p= Fp- {0}. In this paper we obtain some properties of ellipticcurves Ep,t: y2= y2= x3- t2x over Fp. In the first sectionwe give some notations and preliminaries from elliptic curves. In the second section we consider the rational points (x, y) on Ep,t. Wegive a formula for the number of rational points on Ep,t over Fnp for an integer n ≥ 1. We also give some formulas for the sum of x?andy?coordinates of the points (x, y) on Ep,t. In the third section weconsider the rank of Et: y2= x3- t2x and its 2-isogenous curve Et over Q. We proved that the rank of Etand Etis 2 over Q. In the last section we obtain some formulas for the sums Σt∈F?panp,t for an integer n ≥ 1, where ap,t denote the trace of Frobenius.

Keywords: Elliptic curves over finite fields, rational points onelliptic curves, rank, trace of Frobenius.

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392 The Number of Rational Points on Singular Curvesy 2 = x(x - a)2 over Finite Fields Fp

Authors: Ahmet Tekcan

Abstract:

Let p ≥ 5 be a prime number and let Fp be a finite field. In this work, we determine the number of rational points on singular curves Ea : y2 = x(x - a)2 over Fp for some specific values of a.

Keywords: Singular curve, elliptic curve, rational points.

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391 Finding More Non-Supersingular Elliptic Curves for Pairing-Based Cryptosystems

Authors: Pu Duan, Shi Cui, Choong Wah Chan

Abstract:

Finding suitable non-supersingular elliptic curves for pairing-based cryptosystems becomes an important issue for the modern public-key cryptography after the proposition of id-based encryption scheme and short signature scheme. In previous work different algorithms have been proposed for finding such elliptic curves when embedding degree k ∈ {3, 4, 6} and cofactor h ∈ {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. In this paper a new method is presented to find more non-supersingular elliptic curves for pairing-based cryptosystems with general embedding degree k and large values of cofactor h. In addition, some effective parameters of these non-supersingular elliptic curves are provided in this paper.

Keywords: Family of group order, kth root of unity, non-supersingular elliptic curves polynomial field.

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390 New DES based on Elliptic Curves

Authors: Ghada Abdelmouez M., Fathy S. Helail, Abdellatif A. Elkouny

Abstract:

It is known that symmetric encryption algorithms are fast and easy to implement in hardware. Also elliptic curves have proved to be a good choice for building encryption system. Although most of the symmetric systems have been broken, we can create a hybrid system that has the same properties of the symmetric encryption systems and in the same time, it has the strength of elliptic curves in encryption. As DES algorithm is considered the core of all successive symmetric encryption systems, we modified DES using elliptic curves and built a new DES algorithm that is hard to be broken and will be the core for all other symmetric systems.

Keywords: DES, Elliptic Curves, hybrid system, symmetricencryption.

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389 Performance Analysis of Certificateless Signature for IKE Authentication

Authors: Nazrul M. Ahmad, Asrul H. Yaacob, Ridza Fauzi, Alireza Khorram

Abstract:

Elliptic curve-based certificateless signature is slowly gaining attention due to its ability to retain the efficiency of identity-based signature to eliminate the need of certificate management while it does not suffer from inherent private key escrow problem. Generally, cryptosystem based on elliptic curve offers equivalent security strength at smaller key sizes compared to conventional cryptosystem such as RSA which results in faster computations and efficient use of computing power, bandwidth, and storage. This paper proposes to implement certificateless signature based on bilinear pairing to structure the framework of IKE authentication. In this paper, we perform a comparative analysis of certificateless signature scheme with a well-known RSA scheme and also present the experimental results in the context of signing and verification execution times. By generalizing our observations, we discuss the different trade-offs involved in implementing IKE authentication by using certificateless signature.

Keywords: Certificateless signature, IPSec, RSA signature, IKE authentication.

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388 The Control Vector Scheme for Design of Planar Primitive PH curves

Authors: Ching-Shoei Chiang, Sheng-Hsin Tsai, James Chen

Abstract:

The PH curve can be constructed by given parameters, but the shape of the curve is not so easy to image from the value of the parameters. On the contract, Bézier curve can be constructed by the control polygon, and from the control polygon, we can image the figure of the curve. In this paper, we want to use the hodograph of Bézier curve to construct PH curve by selecting part of the control vectors, and produce other control vectors, so the property of PH curve exists.

Keywords: PH curve, hodograph, Bézier curve.

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387 The Number of Rational Points on Elliptic Curves y2 = x3 + b2 Over Finite Fields

Authors: Betül Gezer, Hacer Özden, Ahmet Tekcan, Osman Bizim

Abstract:

Let p be a prime number, Fpbe a finite field and let Qpdenote the set of quadratic residues in Fp. In the first section we givesome notations and preliminaries from elliptic curves. In the secondsection, we consider some properties of rational points on ellipticcurves Ep,b: y2= x3+ b2 over Fp, where b ∈ F*p. Recall that theorder of Ep,bover Fpis p + 1 if p ≡ 5(mod 6). We generalize thisresult to any field Fnp for an integer n≥ 2. Further we obtain someresults concerning the sum Σ[x]Ep,b(Fp) and Σ[y]Ep,b(Fp), thesum of x- and y- coordinates of all points (x, y) on Ep,b, and alsothe the sum Σ(x,0)Ep,b(Fp), the sum of points (x, 0) on Ep,b.

Keywords: Elliptic curves over finite fields, rational points on elliptic curves.

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386 Comparison of the Distillation Curve Obtained Experimentally with the Curve Extrapolated by a Commercial Simulator

Authors: Lívia B. Meirelles, Erika C. A. N. Chrisman, Flávia B. de Andrade, Lilian C. M. de Oliveira

Abstract:

True Boiling Point distillation (TBP) is one of the most common experimental techniques for the determination of petroleum properties. This curve provides information about the performance of petroleum in terms of its cuts. The experiment is performed in a few days. Techniques are used to determine the properties faster with a software that calculates the distillation curve when a little information about crude oil is known. In order to evaluate the accuracy of distillation curve prediction, eight points of the TBP curve and specific gravity curve (348 K and 523 K) were inserted into the HYSYS Oil Manager, and the extended curve was evaluated up to 748 K. The methods were able to predict the curve with the accuracy of 0.6%-9.2% error (Software X ASTM), 0.2%-5.1% error (Software X Spaltrohr).

Keywords: Distillation curve, petroleum distillation, simulation, true boiling point curve.

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