Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 91

Search results for: Weld

91 Design Parameters Selection and Optimization of Weld Zone Development in Resistance Spot Welding

Authors: Norasiah Muhammad, Yupiter HP Manurung

Abstract:

This paper investigates the development of weld zone in Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) which focuses on weld nugget and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). The effects of four factors namely weld current, weld time, electrode force and hold time were studied using a general 24 factorial design augmented by five centre points. The results of the analysis showed that all selected factors except hold time exhibit significant effect on weld nugget radius and HAZ size. Optimization of the welding parameters (weld current, weld time and electrode force) to normalize weld nugget and to minimize HAZ size was then conducted using Central Composite Design (CCD) in Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and the optimum parameters were determined. A regression model for radius of weld nugget and HAZ size was developed and its adequacy was evaluated. The experimental results obtained under optimum operating conditions were then compared with the predicted values and were found to agree satisfactorily with each other

Keywords: Factorial design, Optimization, Resistance Spot Welding (RSW), Response Surface Methodology (RSM).

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90 Image Thresholding for Weld Defect Extraction in Industrial Radiographic Testing

Authors: Nafaâ Nacereddine, Latifa Hamami, Djemel Ziou

Abstract:

In non destructive testing by radiography, a perfect knowledge of the weld defect shape is an essential step to appreciate the quality of the weld and make decision on its acceptability or rejection. Because of the complex nature of the considered images, and in order that the detected defect region represents the most accurately possible the real defect, the choice of thresholding methods must be done judiciously. In this paper, performance criteria are used to conduct a comparative study of thresholding methods based on gray level histogram, 2-D histogram and locally adaptive approach for weld defect extraction in radiographic images.

Keywords: 1D and 2D histogram, locally adaptive approach, performance criteria, radiographic image, thresholding, weld defect.

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89 An Implicit Region-Based Deformable Model with Local Segmentation Applied to Weld Defects Extraction

Authors: Y. Boutiche, N. Ramou, M. Ben Gharsallah

Abstract:

This paper is devoted to present and discuss a model that allows a local segmentation by using statistical information of a given image. It is based on Chan-Vese model, curve evolution, partial differential equations and binary level sets method. The proposed model uses the piecewise constant approximation of Chan-Vese model to compute Signed Pressure Force (SPF) function, this one attracts the curve to the true object(s)-s boundaries. The implemented model is used to extract weld defects from weld radiographic images in the aim to calculate the perimeter and surfaces of those weld defects; encouraged resultants are obtained on synthetic and real radiographic images.

Keywords: Active contour, Chan-Vese Model, local segmentation, weld radiographic images.

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88 Effect of Welding Processes on Tensile Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Joints

Authors: Chaitanya Sharma, Vikas Upadhyay, A. Tripathi

Abstract:

Friction stir welding and tungsten inert gas welding techniques were employed to weld armor grade aluminum alloy to investigate the effect of welding processes on tensile behavior of weld joints. Tensile tests, Vicker microhardness tests and optical microscopy were performed on developed weld joints and base metal. Welding process influenced tensile behavior and microstructure of weld joints. Friction stir welded joints showed tensile behavior better than tungsten inert gas weld joints.

Keywords: Friction stir welding, microstructure, tensile properties and fracture locations.

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87 Effect of Heat Input on the Weld Metal Toughness of Chromium-Molybdenum Steel

Authors: M. S. Kaiser

Abstract:

An attempt has been made to determine the strength and impact properties of Cr-Mo steel weld and base materials by varying the current during manual metal arc welding. Toughness over a temperature range from -32 to 100°C of base, heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld zones at three current settings are made. It is observed that the deterioration in notch toughness at any zone with the temperature decreases. The values of notch toughness for all zones at -32°C are almost same for any current settings. The values of notch toughness at HAZ area are higher than that of weld area due to the coarsening of ferrite grain of HAZ occurs with higher heat input. From microhardness and microstructure result, it can be concluded that large inclusion content in weld deposit is the cause of lower notch toughness value.

Keywords: Chromium-Molybdenum steel, post-weld heat treatment, heat affected zone, microstructure.

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86 Non-Parametric Histogram-Based Thresholding Methods for Weld Defect Detection in Radiography

Authors: N. Nacereddine, L. Hamami, M. Tridi, N. Oucief

Abstract:

In non destructive testing by radiography, a perfect knowledge of the weld defect shape is an essential step to appreciate the quality of the weld and make decision on its acceptability or rejection. Because of the complex nature of the considered images, and in order that the detected defect region represents the most accurately possible the real defect, the choice of thresholding methods must be done judiciously. In this paper, performance criteria are used to conduct a comparative study of four non parametric histogram thresholding methods for automatic extraction of weld defect in radiographic images.

Keywords: Radiographic images, non parametric methods, histogram thresholding, performance criteria.

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85 Effect of Inhibitors on Weld Corrosion under Sweet Conditions Using Flow Channel

Authors: Khaled Alawadhi, Abdulkareem Aloraier, Suraj Joshi, Jalal Alsarraf

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to compare the effectiveness and electrochemical behavior of typical oilfield corrosion inhibitors with previous oilfield corrosion inhibitors under the same electrochemical techniques to control preferential weld corrosion of X65 pipeline steel in artificial seawater saturated with carbon dioxide at a pressure of one bar. A secondary aim is to investigate the conditions under which current reversal takes place. A flow channel apparatus was used in the laboratory to simulate the actual condition that occurs in marine pipelines. Different samples from the parent metal, the weld metal and the heat affected zone in the pipeline steel were galvanically coupled. The galvanic currents flowing between the weld regions were recorded using zero-resistance ammeters and tested under static and flowing conditions in both inhibited and uninhibited media. The results show that a current reversal took place when 30ppm of both green oilfield inhibitors were present, resulting in accelerated weld corrosion.

Keywords: Carbon dioxide, carbon steel, current reversal, inhibitor, weld corrosion.

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84 An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Press Force and Weld Line Displacement of Tailor Welded Blanks in Conventional and Rubber Pad Sheet Metal Forming

Authors: Amir Ansari, Ehsan Shahrjerdi, Ehsan Amini

Abstract:

To investigate the behavior of sheet metals during forming tailor welded blanks (TWB) of various thickness made via Co2 Laser welding are under consideration. These blanks are formed used two different forming methods of rubber as well as the conventional punch and die methods. The main research objective is the effects of using a rubber die instead of a solid one the displacement of the weld line and the press force needed for forming. Specimens with thicknesses of 0.5, 0.6, 0.8 and 1mm are subjected to Erichsen two dimensional tests and the resulted force for each case are compared. This is followed by a theoretical and numerical study of press force and weld line displacement. It is concluded that using rubber pad forming (RPF) causes a reduction in weld line displacement and an increase in the press force.

Keywords: Rubber pad forming, Tailor welded blank, Thickness ratio, Weld line displacement.

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83 Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of TIG Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints

Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Navjotinder Singh, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh Kang

Abstract:

Aluminium and its alloys have excellent corrosion resistant properties, ease of fabrication and high specific strength to weight ratio. In this investigation an attempt has been made to study the effect of different post weld heat treatment methods on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of TIG welded joints of the commercial aluminium alloy. Three different methods of post weld heat treatments are solution heat treatment, artificial ageing and combination of solution heat treatment and artificial aging are given to TIG welded aluminium joints. Mechanical and metallurgical properties of As welded joints of the aluminium alloys and post weld heat treated joints of the aluminium alloys were examined.

Keywords: Aluminium Alloys, Post weld Heat Treatment, TIG welding.

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82 Stabilizer Fillet Weld Strength under Multiaxial Loading (Effect of Force, Size and Residual Stress)

Authors: Iman Hadipour, Javad Marzbanrad

Abstract:

In this paper, the strength of a stabilizer is determined when the static and fatigue multiaxial loading are applied. Stabilizer is a part of suspension system in the heavy truck for stabilizing the cabin against the vibration of the road which composes of a thin-walled tube joined to a forge component by fillet weld. The component is loaded by non proportional random sequence of torsion and bending. Residual stress of welding process is considered here for static loading. This static loading with road irregularities are applied in this study as fatigue case that can affected in the fillet welded area of this part. The stresses in the welded structure are calculated using FEA. In addition, the fatigue with multi axial loading in the fillet weld is also investigated and the critical zone of the stabilizer is specified and presented by graphs. Residual stresses that have been resulted by the thermal forces are considered in FEA. Force increasing is the element of finding the critical point of the component.

Keywords: Fillet weld, fatigue, weld toe crack, weld root crack, S-N curve, multiaxial load, residual stress, combined force.

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81 Microstructure and Mechanical Behaviuor of Rotary Friction Welded Titanium Alloys

Authors: M. Avinash, G. V. K. Chaitanya, Dhananjay Kumar Giri, Sarala Upadhya, B. K. Muralidhara

Abstract:

Ti-6Al-4V alloy has demonstrated a high strength to weight ratio as well as good properties at high temperature. The successful application of the alloy in some important areas depends on suitable joining techniques. Friction welding has many advantageous features to be chosen for joining Titanium alloys. The present work investigates the feasibility of producing similar metal joints of this Titanium alloy by rotary friction welding method. The joints are produced at three different speeds and the performances of the welded joints are evaluated by conducting microstructure studies, Vickers Hardness and tensile tests at the joints. It is found that the weld joints produced are sound and the ductile fractures in the tensile weld specimens occur at locations away from the welded joints. It is also found that a rotational speed of 1500 RPM can produce a very good weld, with other parameters kept constant.

Keywords: Rotary friction weld, rotational speed, Ti-6Al-4V, weld structures.

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80 Process Parameter Optimization in Resistance Spot Welding of Dissimilar Thickness Materials

Authors: Pradeep M., N. S. Mahesh, Raja Hussain

Abstract:

Resistance spot welding (RSW) has been used widely to join sheet metals. It has been a challenge to get required weld quality in spot welding of dissimilar thickness materials. Weld parameters are not generally available in standards for thickness beyond 4mm. This paper presents the welding process design and parameter optimization of RSW used in joining of low carbon steel sheet of thickness 0.8 mm and metal strips of cross section 10 x 5mm for electrical motor applications. Taguchi quality design was adopted for weld current and time optimization using L9 orthogonal array. Optimum process parameters (current- 3.5kA and time- 10 cycles) were obtained from the Taguchi analysis and shear test results. Confirmation experiment result revealed that the weld quality was within acceptable interval. Further, numerical simulation of RSW process was carried out with selected weld parameters to quantify the temperature at faying surface and check for formation of appropriate nugget. The nugget geometry measured after peel test and predicted from numerical validation method were similar and in accordance with the standards.

Keywords: Resistance spot welding, dissimilar thickness, weld parameters, Taguchi method, numerical modeling.

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79 Effect of Vibration Amplitude and Welding Force on Weld Strength of Ultrasonic Metal Welding

Authors: Ziad. Sh. Al Sarraf

Abstract:

Ultrasonic metal welding has been the subject of ongoing research and development, most recently concentrating on metal joining in miniature devices, for example to allow solder-free wire bonding. As well as at the small scale, there are also opportunities to research the joining of thicker sheet metals and to widen the range of similar and dissimilar materials that can be successfully joined using this technology. This study presents the design, characterisation and test of a lateral-drive ultrasonic metal spot welding device. The ultrasonic metal spot welding horn is modelled using finite element analysis (FEA) and its vibration behaviour is characterised experimentally to ensure ultrasonic energy is delivered effectively to the weld coupon. The welding stack and fixtures are then designed and mounted on a test machine to allow a series of experiments to be conducted for various welding and ultrasonic parameters. Weld strength is subsequently analysed using tensile-shear tests. The results show how the weld strength is particularly sensitive to the combination of clamping force and ultrasonic vibration amplitude of the welding tip, but there are optimal combinations of these and also limits that must be clearly identified.

Keywords: Ultrasonic welding, vibration amplitude, welding force, weld strength.

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78 Heat Transfer, Fluid Flow, and Metallurgical Transformations in Arc Welding: Application to 16MND5 Steel

Authors: F. Roger, A. Traidia, B. Reynier

Abstract:

Arc welding creates a weld pool to realize continuity between pieces of assembly. The thermal history of the weld is dependent on heat transfer and fluid flow in the weld pool. The metallurgical transformation during welding and cooling are modeled in the literature only at solid state neglecting the fluid flow. In the present paper we associate a heat transfer – fluid flow and metallurgical model for the 16MnD5 steel. The metallurgical transformation model is based on Leblond model for the diffusion kinetics and on the Koistinen-Marburger equation for Marteniste transformation. The predicted thermal history and metallurgical transformations are compared to a simulation without fluid phase. This comparison shows the great importance of the fluid flow modeling.

Keywords: Arc welding, Weld pool, Fluid flow, Metallurgical transformations.

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77 Non-Destructive Evaluation of Launch Tube Welds with Radiography

Authors: Tosapolporn Pornpibunsompop

Abstract:

The non-destructive testing of launch tube weld with radiography was investigated and evaluated with AWS D1.1 standard. The paper started with preparation of launch tube and radiographic inspection. X-Ray inspection then was done and gotten the result. The judgment of inspection results were concluded by certified person and finally, the evaluation with AWS D1.1 standard was conducted as well. The result shown that weld position P1 was not conformed to AWS D1.1 which allowed size of incomplete penetration did not exceed 4 mm. The other welds were corresponded to as mentioned standard. Additionally, the corrective actions for incomplete penetration either provided for future actions.

Keywords: Non-destructive evaluation, Weld, Launch tube, Radiography

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76 Effect of Including Thermal Process on Spot Welded and Weld-Bonded Joints

Authors: Essam A. Al-Bahkali

Abstract:

A three-dimensional finite element modeling for austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 annealed condition sheets of 1.0 mm thickness are developed using ABAQUS® software. This includes spot welded and weld bonded joints models. Both models undergo thermal heat caused by spot welding process and then are subjected to axial load up to the failure point. The properties of elastic and plastic regions, modulus of elasticity, fracture limit, nugget and heat affected zones are determined. Complete loaddisplacement curve for each joining model is obtained and compared with the experiment data and with the finite element models without including the effect of thermal process. In general, the results obtained for both spot welded and weld-bonded joints affected by thermal process showed an excellent agreement with the experimental data.

Keywords: Heat Affected Zone, Spot Welded, Thermal Process, Weld-Bonded.

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75 Contour Estimation in Synthetic and Real Weld Defect Images based on Maximum Likelihood

Authors: M. Tridi, N. Nacereddine, N. Oucief

Abstract:

This paper describes a novel method for automatic estimation of the contours of weld defect in radiography images. Generally, the contour detection is the first operation which we apply in the visual recognition system. Our approach can be described as a region based maximum likelihood formulation of parametric deformable contours. This formulation provides robustness against the poor image quality, and allows simultaneous estimation of the contour parameters together with other parameters of the model. Implementation is performed by a deterministic iterative algorithm with minimal user intervention. Results testify for the very good performance of the approach especially in synthetic weld defect images.

Keywords: Contour, gaussian, likelihood, rayleigh.

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74 Experimental Investigation and Hardness Analysis of Chromoly Steel Multipass Welds Using GMAW

Authors: Ramesh S., Sasiraaju A. S., Sidhaarth K., Sudhan Rajkumar N., Manivel Muralidaran V.

Abstract:

This work presents the result of investigations aimed at determining the hardness of the welded Chromoly (A 4130) steel plate of 2” thickness. Multi pass welding for the thick sections was carried out and analyzed for the Chromoly alloy steel plates. The study of hardness at the weld metal reveals that there is the presence of different micro structure products which yields diverse properties. The welding carried out using GMAW with ER70s-2 electrode. Single V groove design was selected for the butt joint configuration. The presence of hydrogen has been suppressed by selecting low hydrogen electrode. Preheating of the plate prior to welding reduces the cooling rate which also affects the weld metal microstructure. The shielding gas composition used in this analysis is 80% Ar-20% CO2. The experimental analysis gives the detailed study of the hardness of the material.

Keywords: Chromoly, Gas Metal Arc Weld (GMAW), Hardness, Multi pass weld, Shielding gas composition.

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73 Effect of Filler Metal Diameter on Weld Joint of Carbon Steel SA516 Gr 70 and Filler Metal SFA 5.17 in Submerged Arc Welding SAW

Authors: A. Nait Salah, M. Kaddami

Abstract:

This work describes an investigation on the effect of filler metals diameter to weld joint, and low alloy carbon steel A516 Grade 70 is the base metal. Commercially SA516 Grade70 is frequently used for the manufacturing of pressure vessels, boilers and storage tank, etc. In fabrication industry, the hardness of the weld joint is between the important parameters to check, after heat treatment of the weld. Submerged arc welding (SAW) is used with two filler metal diameters, and this solid wire electrode is used for SAW non-alloy and for fine grain steels (SFA 5.17). The different diameters were selected (Ø = 2.4 mm and Ø = 4 mm) to weld two specimens. Both specimens were subjected to the same preparation conditions, heat treatment, macrograph, metallurgy micrograph, and micro-hardness test. Samples show almost similar structure with highest hardness. It is important to indicate that the thickness used in the base metal is 22 mm, and all specifications, preparation and controls were according to the ASME section IX. It was observed that two different filler metal diameters performed on two similar specimens demonstrated that the mechanical property (hardness) increases with decreasing diameter. It means that even the heat treatment has the same effect with the same conditions, the filler metal diameter insures a depth weld penetration and better homogenization. Hence, the SAW welding technique mentioned in the present study is favorable to implicate for the industry using the small filler metal diameter.

Keywords: ASME, base metal, filler metal, micro-hardness test, submerged arc welding.

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72 Process Optimisation for Internal Cylindrical Rough Turning of Nickel Alloy 625 Weld Overlay

Authors: Lydia Chan, Islam Shyha, Dale Dreyer, John Hamilton, Phil Hackney

Abstract:

Nickel-based superalloys are generally known to be difficult to cut due to their strength, low thermal conductivity, and high work hardening tendency. Superalloy such as alloy 625 is often used in the oil and gas industry as a surfacing material to provide wear and corrosion resistance to components. The material is typically applied onto a metallic substrate through weld overlay cladding, an arc welding technique. Cladded surfaces are always rugged and carry a tough skin; this creates further difficulties to the machining process. The present work utilised design of experiment to optimise the internal cylindrical rough turning for weld overlay surfaces. An L27 orthogonal array was used to assess effects of the four selected key process variables: cutting insert, depth of cut, feed rate, and cutting speed. The optimal cutting conditions were determined based on productivity and the level of tool wear.

Keywords: Cylindrical turning, nickel superalloy, turning of overlay, weld overlay.

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71 Effect of Helium-Argon Mixtures on the Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

Authors: A. Traidia, F. Roger, A. Chidley, J. Schroeder, T. Marlaud

Abstract:

A transient finite element model has been developed to study the heat transfer and fluid flow during spot Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) on stainless steel. Temperature field, fluid velocity and electromagnetic fields are computed inside the cathode, arc-plasma and anode using a unified MHD formulation. The developed model is then used to study the influence of different helium-argon gas mixtures on both the energy transferred to the workpiece and the time evolution of the weld pool dimensions. It is found that the addition of helium to argon increases the heat flux density on the weld axis by a factor that can reach 6.5. This induces an increase in the weld pool depth by a factor of 3. It is also found that the addition of only 10% of argon to helium decreases considerably the weld pool depth, which is due to the electrical conductivity of the mixture that increases significantly when argon is added to helium.

Keywords: GTAW, Thermal plasmas, Fluid flow, Marangoni effect, Shielding Gases.

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70 Stresses Distribution in Spot, Bonded, and Weld- Bonded Joints during the Process of Axial Load

Authors: Essam A. Al-Bahkali, Mahir H. Es-saheb, Jonny Herwan

Abstract:

In this study the elastic-plastic stress distribution in weld-bonded joint, fabricated from austenitic stainless steel (AISI 304) sheet of 1.00 mm thickness and Epoxy adhesive Araldite 2011, subjected to axial loading is investigated. This is needed to improve design procedures and welding codes, and saving efforts in the cumbersome experiments and analysis. Therefore, a complete 3-D finite element modelling and analysis of spot welded, bonded and weld-bonded joints under axial loading conditions is carried out. A comprehensive systematic experimental program is conducted to determine many properties and quantities, of the base metals and the adhesive, needed for FE modelling, such like the elastic – plastic properties, modulus of elasticity, fracture limit, the nugget and heat affected zones (HAZ) properties, etc. Consequently, the finite element models developed, for each case, are used to evaluate stresses distributions across the entire joint, in both the elastic and plastic regions. The stress distribution curves are obtained, particularly in the elastic regions and found to be consistent and in excellent agreement with the published data. Furthermore, the stresses distributions are obtained in the weld-bonded joint and display the best results with almost uniform smooth distribution compared to spot and bonded cases. The stress concentration peaks at the edges of the weld-bonded region, are almost eliminated resulting in achieving the strongest joint of all processes.

Keywords: Spot Welded, Weld-Bonded, Load-Displacement curve, Stress distribution

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69 An Experimentally Validated Thermo- Mechanical Finite Element Model for Friction Stir Welding in Carbon Steels

Authors: A. H. Kheireddine, A. A. Khalil, A. H. Ammouri, G. T. Kridli, R. F. Hamade

Abstract:

Solidification cracking and hydrogen cracking are some defects generated in the fusion welding of ultrahigh carbon steels. However, friction stir welding (FSW) of such steels, being a solid-state technique, has been demonstrated to alleviate such problems encountered in traditional welding. FSW include different process parameters that must be carefully defined prior processing. These parameters included but not restricted to: tool feed, tool RPM, tool geometry, tool tilt angle. These parameters form a key factor behind avoiding warm holes and voids behind the tool and in achieving a defect-free weld. More importantly, these parameters directly affect the microstructure of the weld and hence the final mechanical properties of weld. For that, 3D finite element (FE) thermo-mechanical model was developed using DEFORM 3D to simulate FSW of carbon steel. At points of interest in the joint, tracking is done for history of critical state variables such as temperature, stresses, and strain rates. Typical results found include the ability to simulate different weld zones. Simulations predictions were successfully compared to experimental FSW tests. It is believed that such a numerical model can be used to optimize FSW processing parameters to favor desirable defect free weld with better mechanical properties.

Keywords: Carbon Steels, DEFORM 3D, FEM, Friction stir welding.

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68 Temperature Distribution in Friction Stir Welding Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Armansyah, I. P. Almanar, M. Saiful Bahari Shaari, M. Shamil Jaffarullah, Nur’amirah Busu, M. Arif Fadzleen Zainal Abidin, M. Amlie A. Kasim

Abstract:

During welding, the amount of heat present in weld zones determines the quality of weldment produced. Thus, the heat distribution characteristics and its magnitude in weld zones with respect to process variables such as tool pin-shoulder rotational and traveling speed during welding is analyzed using thermal finite element analyses method. For this purpose, transient thermal finite element analyses are performed to model the temperatures distribution and its quantities in weld-zones with respect to process variables such as rotational speed and traveling speed during welding. Commercially available software Altair HyperWork is used to model three-dimensional tool pin-shoulder vs. workpieces and to simulate the friction stir process. The results show that increasing tool rotational speed, at a constant traveling speed, will increase the amount of heat generated in weld-zones. In contrary, increasing traveling speed, at constant tool pin-shoulder rotational speeds, will reduce the amount of heat generated in weld zones.

Keywords: Frictions Stir Welding, Temperature Distribution, Finite Element Method, Altair Hyperwork.

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67 Quantitative Analysis of Weld Defect Images in Industrial Radiography Based Invariant Attributes

Authors: N. Nacereddine, M. Tridi, S. S. Belaïfa, M. Zelmat

Abstract:

For the characterization of the weld defect region in the radiographic image, looking for features which are invariant regarding the geometrical transformations (rotation, translation and scaling) proves to be necessary because the same defect can be seen from several angles according to the orientation and the distance from the welded framework to the radiation source. Thus, panoply of geometrical attributes satisfying the above conditions is proposed and which result from the calculation of the geometrical parameters (surface, perimeter, etc.) on the one hand and the calculation of the different order moments, on the other hand. Because the large range in values of the raw features and taking into account other considerations imposed by some classifiers, the scaling of these values to lie between 0 and 1 is indispensable. The principal component analysis technique is used in order to reduce the number of the attribute variables in the aim to give better performance to the further defect classification.

Keywords: Geometric parameters, invariant attributes, principal component analysis, weld defect image.

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66 Deformation and Crystallization in a 7075-T651 Friction Stir Weld

Authors: C. S. Paglia

Abstract:

The deformation and the crystallization in a 7075-T651 friction stir weld, in particular for regions directly in contact with the mechanical action of the rotating probe, have been investigated by means of optical microscopy. The investigation enabled to identify regions of the weld differently affected by the deformation caused by the welding process. The highly deformed grains in the horizontal direction close to the plate margin were indicative of shear movements along the horizontal plane, while highly deformed grains along the plate margin in the vertical direction were indicative of vertical shear movements of opposite directions, which superimposed the shear movement along the horizontal plane. The vertical shear movements were not homogeneous through the plate thickness. The microstructure indicated that after the probe passes, the grain growth may take place under static conditions. The small grains microstructure of the nugget region, formed after the main dynamic recrystallization process, develops to an equiaxed microstructure. A material transport influenced by the rotating shoulder was also observed from the trailing to the advancing side of the weld.

Keywords: AA7075-T651, friction stir welding, deformation, crystallization.

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65 Creep Constitutive Equation for 2- Materials of Weldment-304L Stainless Steel

Authors: Amir Hossein Daei Sorkhabi, Farid Vakili Tahami

Abstract:

In this paper, creep constitutive equations of base (Parent) and weld materials of the weldment for cold-drawn 304L stainless steel have been obtained experimentally. For this purpose, test samples have been generated from cold drawn bars and weld material according to the ASTM standard. The creep behavior and properties have been examined for these materials by conducting uniaxial creep tests. Constant temperatures and constant load uni-axial creep tests have been carried out at two high temperatures, 680 and 720 oC, subjected to constant loads, which produce initial stresses ranging from 240 to 360 MPa. The experimental data have been used to obtain the creep constitutive parameters using numerical optimization techniques.

Keywords: Creep, Constitutive equation, Cold-drawn 304L stainless steel, Weld, Base material

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64 A New Approach for Predicting and Optimizing Weld Bead Geometry in GMAW

Authors: Farhad Kolahan, Mehdi Heidari

Abstract:

Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) processes is an important joining process widely used in metal fabrication industries. This paper addresses modeling and optimization of this technique using a set of experimental data and regression analysis. The set of experimental data has been used to assess the influence of GMAW process parameters in weld bead geometry. The process variables considered here include voltage (V); wire feed rate (F); torch Angle (A); welding speed (S) and nozzle-to-plate distance (D). The process output characteristics include weld bead height, width and penetration. The Taguchi method and regression modeling are used in order to establish the relationships between input and output parameters. The adequacy of the model is evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. In the next stage, the proposed model is embedded into a Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm to optimize the GMAW process parameters. The objective is to determine a suitable set of process parameters that can produce desired bead geometry, considering the ranges of the process parameters. Computational results prove the effectiveness of the proposed model and optimization procedure.

Keywords: Weld Bead Geometry, GMAW welding, Processparameters Optimization, Modeling, SA algorithm

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63 Studies of Interfacial Microstructure and Mechanical Properties on Dissimilar Sheet Metal Combination Joints Using Laser Beam Welding

Authors: K. Kalaiselvan, A. Elango

Abstract:

Laser beam welding of dissimilar sheet metal combinations such as Ti/Al, SS/Al and Cu/Al are increasingly demanded due to high energy densities with less fusion and heat affected zones. A good weld joint strength involves combinations of dissimilar metals and the formation of solid solution in the weld pool. Many metal pairs suffer from significant intermetallic phase formation during welding which greatly reduces their strength. The three different sheet metal mentioned above is critically reviewed and phase diagram for the combinations are given. The aim of this study is to develop an efficient metal combinations and the influence on their interfacial characteristics. For that the following parameters such as weld geometry, residual distortion, micro hardness, microstructure and mechanical properties are analyzed systematically.

Keywords: Laser Beam Welding (LBW), dissimilar metals, Ti/Al, SS/Al and Cu/Al sheets.

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62 Experimental Estimation of Mixed-Mode Fracture Properties of Steel Weld

Authors: S. R. Hosseini, N. Choupani, A. R. M. Gharabaghi

Abstract:

The modified Arcan fixture was used in order to investigate the mixed mode fracture properties of high strength steel butt weld through experimental and numerical analysis. The fixture consisted of a central section with "butterfly-shaped" specimen that had central crack. The specimens were under pure mode I (opening), pure mode II (shearing) and all in plane mixed mode loading angles starting from 0 to 90 degrees. The geometric calibration factors were calculated with the aid of finite element analysis for various loading mode and different crack length (0.45≤ a/w ≤0.55) and the critical fracture loads obtained experimentally. The critical fracture toughness (KIC & KIIC) estimated with experimental and numerical analysis under mixed mode loading conditions.

Keywords: Arcan specimen, fracture toughness, mixed mode, steel weld.

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